WorldWideScience

Sample records for cauchy problem

  1. Abstract Cauchy problems three approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikova, Irina V

    2001-01-01

    Although the theory of well-posed Cauchy problems is reasonably understood, ill-posed problems-involved in a numerous mathematical models in physics, engineering, and finance- can be approached in a variety of ways. Historically, there have been three major strategies for dealing with such problems: semigroup, abstract distribution, and regularization methods. Semigroup and distribution methods restore well-posedness, in a modern weak sense. Regularization methods provide approximate solutions to ill-posed problems. Although these approaches were extensively developed over the last decades by many researchers, nowhere could one find a comprehensive treatment of all three approaches.Abstract Cauchy Problems: Three Approaches provides an innovative, self-contained account of these methods and, furthermore, demonstrates and studies some of the profound connections between them. The authors discuss the application of different methods not only to the Cauchy problem that is not well-posed in the classical sense, b...

  2. Rational approximatons for solving cauchy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veyis Turut

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, numerical solutions of Cauchy problems are considered by multivariate Padé approximations (MPA. Multivariate Padé approximations (MPA were applied to power series solutions of Cauchy problems that solved by using He’s variational iteration method (VIM. Then, numerical results obtained by using multivariate Padé approximations were compared with the exact solutions of Cauchy problems.

  3. The Cauchy problem for the Pavlov equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, P. G.; Santini, P. M.; Wu, D.

    2015-10-01

    Commutation of multidimensional vector fields leads to integrable nonlinear dispersionless PDEs that arise in various problems of mathematical physics and have been intensively studied in recent literature. This report aims to solve the scattering and inverse scattering problem for integrable dispersionless PDEs, recently introduced just at a formal level, concentrating on the prototypical example of the Pavlov equation, and to justify an existence theorem for global bounded solutions of the associated Cauchy problem with small data. An essential part of this work was made during the visit of the three authors to the Centro Internacional de Ciencias in Cuernavaca, Mexico in November-December 2012.

  4. The Cauchy problem for the Pavlov equation with large data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Derchyi

    2017-08-01

    We prove a local solvability of the Cauchy problem for the Pavlov equation with large initial data by the inverse scattering method. The Pavlov equation arises in studies Einstein-Weyl geometries and dispersionless integrable models. Our theory yields a local solvability of Cauchy problems for a quasi-linear wave equation with a characteristic initial hypersurface.

  5. Anholonomic Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachel, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Lie derivative approach to the Cauchy problem in general relativity is applied to the evolution along an arbitrary timelike vector field for the case where the dynamical degrees of freedom are chosen as the (generally anholonomic) metric of the hypersurface elements orthogonal to the vector field. Generalizations of the shear, rotation, and acceleration are given for a nonunit timelike vector field, and applied to the three-plus-one breakup of the Riemann tensor into components parallel and orthogonal to the vector field, resulting in the anholonomic Gauss--Codazzi equations. A similar breakup of the Einstein field equations results in the form of the constraint and evolution equations for the anholonomic case. The results are applied to the case of a space--time with a timelike Killing vector field (stationary field) to demonstrate their utility. Other possible applications, such as in the numerical integration of the field equations, are mentioned. Definitions are given of three-index shear, rotation, and acceleration tensors, and their use in a two-plus-two decomposition of the Riemann tensor and field equations is indicated

  6. Non-dense domain operator matrices and Cauchy problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalaoui Rhali, S.

    2002-12-01

    In this work, we study Cauchy problems with non-dense domain operator matrices. By assuming that the entries of an unbounded operator matrix are Hille-Yosida operators, we give a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring that the part of this operator matrix generates a semigroup in the closure of its domain. This allows us to prove the well-posedness of the corresponding Cauchy problem. Our results are applied to delay and neutral differential equations. (author)

  7. Invariance of the Cauchy mean-value expression with an application to the problem of representation of Cauchy means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio R. Berrone

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of invariance under transformations (changes of coordinates of the Cauchy mean-value expression is introduced and then used in furnishing a suitable two-variable version of a result by L. Losonczi on equality of many-variable Cauchy means. An assessment of the methods used by Losonczi and Matkowski is made and an alternative way is proposed to solve the problem of representation of two-variable Cauchy means.

  8. Cauchy problem for Laplace equation: An observer based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-01

    A method to solve Cauchy Problem for Laplace equation using state observers is proposed. It is known that this problem is ill-posed. The domain under consideration is simple lipschitz in 2 with a hole. The idea is to recover the solution over whole domain from the observations on outer boundary. Proposed approach adapts one of the space variables as a time variable. The observer developed to solve Cauchy problem for the Laplace\\'s equation is compuationally robust and accurate. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. cauchy problems for semi-linear hyperbolic systems with their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    is given. We apply this solution approached to establish the solution representation for any isentropic fluid flow. KEYWORDS: Hyperbolic Systems, Characteristic curves, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, isentropic fluid. 1.0. INTRODUCTION. Cauchy problems arose naturally from physical phenomena and are of great interest.

  10. Cauchy's problem for field equations with arbitrary spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensch, V.

    1983-01-01

    We discuss Cauchy's problem and Huygens' principle for relativistic higher spin and non-zero mass equations, which are internally consistent in an arbitrary curved space-time. A representation theorem for the solution and conditions for the validity of Huygens' principle are given. The space-times on which these field equations satisfy Huygens' principle are determined explicitly [fr

  11. Applications of elliptic Carleman inequalities to Cauchy and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Choulli, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to studying the stability of both elliptic Cauchy problems and selected inverse problems. Based on elementary Carleman inequalities, it establishes three-ball inequalities, which are the key to deriving logarithmic stability estimates for elliptic Cauchy problems and are also useful in proving stability estimates for certain elliptic inverse problems. The book presents three inverse problems, the first of which consists in determining the surface impedance of an obstacle from the far field pattern. The second problem investigates the detection of corrosion by electric measurement, while the third concerns the determination of an attenuation coefficient from internal data, which is motivated by a problem encountered in biomedical imaging.

  12. Application of homotopy analysis method for solving nonlinear Cauchy problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Gupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by means of the homotopy analysis method (HAM, the solutions of some nonlinear Cauchy problem of parabolic-hyperbolic type are exactly obtained in the form of convergent Taylor series. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter \\hbar that provides a convenient way of controlling the convergent region of series solutions. This analytical method is employed to solve linear examples to obtain the exact solutions. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple.

  13. The Cauchy problem for higher order abstract differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ti-Jun

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is the first systematic exposition of the theory of the Cauchy problem for higher order abstract linear differential equations, which covers all the main aspects of the developed theory. The main results are complete with detailed proofs and established recently, containing the corresponding theorems for first and incomplete second order cases and therefore for operator semigroups and cosine functions. They will find applications in many fields. The special power of treating the higher order problems directly is demonstrated, as well as that of the vector-valued Laplace transforms in dealing with operator differential equations and operator families. The reader is expected to have a knowledge of complex and functional analysis.

  14. Vector-valued Laplace Transforms and Cauchy Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Wolfgang; Hieber, Matthias; Neubrander, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of the theory of vector-valued Laplace transforms, ranging from representation theory to Tauberian theorems. In parallel, the theory of linear Cauchy problems and semigroups of operators is developed completely in the spirit of Laplace transforms. Existence and uniqueness, regularity, approximation and above all asymptotic behaviour of solutions are studied. Diverse applications to partial differential equations are given. The book contains an introduction to the Bochner integral and several appendices on background material. It is addressed to student

  15. Estimates for mild solutions to semilinear Cauchy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresimir Burazin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence (and uniqueness results on mild solutions of the abstract semilinear Cauchy problems in Banach spaces are well known. Following the results of Tartar (2008 and Burazin (2008 in the case of decoupled hyperbolic systems, we give an alternative proof, which enables us to derive an estimate on the mild solution and its time of existence. The nonlinear term in the equation is allowed to be time-dependent. We discuss the optimality of the derived estimate by testing it on three examples: the linear heat equation, the semilinear heat equation that models dynamic deflection of an elastic membrane, and the semilinear Schrodinger equation with time-dependent nonlinearity, that appear in the modelling of numerous physical phenomena.

  16. Continuous Dependence on Modeling in the Cauchy Problem for Nonlinear Elliptic Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    problema di Cauchy per le equazione di tipo ellitico, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl., 46 (1958), pp. 131-153 [18] P. W. Schaefer, On the Cauchy problem for an...Continued) PP 438 PP 448 Fletcher, Jean W. Supply Problems in the Naval Reserve, Cymrot, Donald J., Military Retiremnt and Social Security: A 14 pp

  17. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are also closely

  18. Uniformizable Cauchy spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lowen-Colebunders

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A family C of filters on a set X is uniformizable if there is a uniformity on X such that C is its collection of Cauchy filters. Using the theory of completions and Cauchy continuous maps for Cauchy spaces, we obtain characterizations of uniformizable Cauchy spaces. In particular, given a Cauchy structure C on X we investigate under what conditions the filter u(C=⋂F∈CF×F is a uniformity and C is its collection of Cauchy filters. This problem is treated using Cauchy covering systems.

  19. Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and Riemann–Liouville partial derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima G. Khushtova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Cauchy problem for a parabolic equation with Bessel operator and with Riemann–Liouville partial derivative is considered. The representation of the solution is obtained in terms of integral transform with Wright function in the kernel. It is shown that when this equation becomes the fractional diffusion equation, obtained solution becomes the solution of Cauchy problem for the corresponding equation. The uniqueness of the solution in the class of functions that satisfy the analogue of Tikhonov condition is proved.

  20. General conditions guaranteeing the solvability of the Cauchy problem for functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dilna, N.; Rontó, András

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 4 (2008), s. 435-445 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functional differential equation * Cauchy problem * initial value problem * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  1. The geometric Cauchy problem for surfaces with Lorentzian harmonic Gauss maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The geometric Cauchy problem for a class of surfaces in a pseudo-Riemannian manifold of dimension 3 is to find the surface which contains a given curve with a prescribed tangent bundle along the curve. We consider this problem for constant negative Gauss curvature surfaces (pseudospherical surfaces...

  2. An optimal iterative algorithm to solve Cauchy problem for Laplace equation

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-25

    An optimal mean square error minimizer algorithm is developed to solve severely ill-posed Cauchy problem for Laplace equation on an annulus domain. The mathematical problem is presented as a first order state space-like system and an optimal iterative algorithm is developed that minimizes the mean square error in states. Finite difference discretization schemes are used to discretize first order system. After numerical discretization algorithm equations are derived taking inspiration from Kalman filter however using one of the space variables as a time-like variable. Given Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are used on the Cauchy data boundary and fictitious points are introduced on the unknown solution boundary. The algorithm is run for a number of iterations using the solution of previous iteration as a guess for the next one. The method developed happens to be highly robust to noise in Cauchy data and numerically efficient results are illustrated.

  3. A class of neutral functional differential equations and the abstract Cauchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentil, D.E. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In this paper we establish the basic equivalence between the generalized solutions of a certain class of Neutral Functional Differential Equations and the trajectories of the associated abstract Cauchy problem. These results have applications in several fields including Mathematical Biology, Ecology and Control Theory. (author)

  4. The Cauchy problem for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sande, Hilde

    2008-12-15

    The thesis consists of an introduction and two papers; 1. The solution of the Cauchy problem with large data for a model of a mixture of gases. 2. Front tracking for a model of immiscible gas flow with large data. (AG) refs, figs

  5. Resolution of the Cauchy problem for the Toda lattice with non-stabilized initial data

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, Mikhail

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of the work "On an inverse problem for finite-difference operators of second order". We consider the Cauchy problem for the Toda lattice in the case when the corresponding L-operator is a Jacobi matrix with bounded elements, whose spectrum of multipliciy 2 is separated from its simple spectrum and contains an interval of asolutely continuous spectrum. Using the integral equation of the inverse problem for this matrix, obtained in the previous work, we solve the ...

  6. Congruences of null strings in complex space-times and some Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Rozga, K.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a problem of construction of a local congruence of null strings is equivalent to a natural Cauchy--Kovalevski-like problem, related to an equation for a spinor field k/sub A/ defining the congruence. Initial data are specified on two-dimensional submanifolds. In left-conformally-flat spaces, the solution of that problem exists for arbitrary initial data

  7. An inverse source problem of the Poisson equation with Cauchy data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Chuan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study an inverse source problem of the Poisson equation with Cauchy data. We want to find iterative algorithms to detect the hidden source within a body from measurements on the boundary. Our goal is to reconstruct the location, the size and the shape of the hidden source. This problem is ill-posed, regularization techniques should be employed to obtain the regularized solution. Numerical examples show that our proposed algorithms are valid and effective.

  8. Global existence and decay of solutions of the Cauchy problem in thermoelasticity with second sound

    KAUST Repository

    Kasimov, Aslan R.

    2013-06-04

    We consider the one-dimensional Cauchy problem in non-linear thermoelasticity with second sound, where the heat conduction is modelled by Cattaneo\\'s law. After presenting decay estimates for solutions to the linearized problem, including refined estimates for data in weighted Lebesgue-spaces, we prove a global existence theorem for small data together with improved decay estimates, in particular for derivatives of the solutions. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Global existence for weak solutions of the Cauchy problem in a model of radiation hydrodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 420, č. 1 (2014), s. 464-482 ISSN 0022-247X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/1920; GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Cauchy problem * Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * radiation hydrodynamics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X14004855

  10. Global existence of solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadam, J.M.; Glassey, R.T.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem for time-dependent Hartree equations for N electrons is established. The solution is shown to have a uniformly bounded H 1 (R 3 ) norm and to satisfy an estimate of the form two parallel PSI (t) two parallel/sub H 2 ; less than or equal to c exp(kt). It is shown that ''negative energy'' solutions do not converge uniformly to zero as t → infinity. (U.S.)

  11. Cauchy problem for differential operators with double characteristics non-effectively hyperbolic characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Nishitani, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    Combining geometrical and microlocal tools, this monograph gives detailed proofs of many well/ill-posed results related to the Cauchy problem for differential operators with non-effectively hyperbolic double characteristics. Previously scattered over numerous different publications, the results are presented from the viewpoint that the Hamilton map and the geometry of bicharacteristics completely characterizes the well/ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem. A doubly characteristic point of a differential operator P of order m (i.e. one where Pm = dPm = 0) is effectively hyperbolic if the Hamilton map FPm has real non-zero eigenvalues. When the characteristics are at most double and every double characteristic is effectively hyperbolic, the Cauchy problem for P can be solved for arbitrary lower order terms. If there is a non-effectively hyperbolic characteristic, solvability requires the subprincipal symbol of P to lie between − Pµj and P µj , where iµj are the positive imaginary eigenvalues of FPm ....

  12. Symmetry Reduction and Cauchy Problems for a Class of Fourth-Order Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jina; Zhang Shunli

    2008-01-01

    We exploit higher-order conditional symmetry to reduce initial-value problems for evolution equations to Cauchy problems for systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We classify a class of fourth-order evolution equations which admit certain higher-order generalized conditional symmetries (GCSs) and give some examples to show the main reduction procedure. These reductions cannot be derived within the framework of the standard Lie approach, which hints that the technique presented here is something essential for the dimensional reduction of evolution equations

  13. On Cauchy's problem: I. A variational Steklov Poincaré theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Belgacem, Faker; El Fekih, Henda

    2005-12-01

    In 1923 (Lectures on Cauchy's Problem in Linear PDEs (New York, 1953)), J Hadamard considered a particular example to illustrate the ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem for elliptic partial differential equations, which consists in recovering data on the whole boundary of the domain from partial but over-determined measures. He achieved explicit computations for the Laplace operator, due to the squared shape of the domain, to observe, in fine, that the solution does not depend continuously on the given boundary data. The primary subject of this contribution is to extend the result to general domains by proving that the Cauchy problem has a variational formulation that can be put under a (variational) pseudo-differential equation, set on the boundary where the data are missing, and defined by a compact Steklov-Poincaré-type operator. The construction of this operator is based on the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping, and its compactness is derived from the elliptic regularity theory. Next, using mathematical tools from the linear operator theory and the convex optimization, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the reduced problem which enables us to state that (i) the set of compatible data, for which existence and uniqueness are guaranteed, is dense in the admissible data space; (ii) when the existence fails, due to possible noisy data, the variational problem can be consistently approximated by the least-squares method, that is the incompatibility measure (the deviation indicator or the variational crime made on the Steklov-Poincaré equation) equals zero though all the minimizing sequences blow up.

  14. Existence and uniqueness to the Cauchy problem for linear and semilinear parabolic equations with local conditions⋆

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Gerardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Cauchy problem in ℝd for a class of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations that arises in some stochastic control problems. We assume that the coefficients are unbounded and locally Lipschitz, not necessarily differentiable, with continuous data and local uniform ellipticity. We construct a classical solution by approximation with linear parabolic equations. The linear equations involved can not be solved with the traditional results. Therefore, we construct a classical solution to the linear Cauchy problem under the same hypotheses on the coefficients for the semilinear equation. Our approach is using stochastic differential equations and parabolic differential equations in bounded domains. Finally, we apply the results to a stochastic optimal consumption problem. Nous considérons le problème de Cauchy dans ℝd pour une classe d’équations aux dérivées partielles paraboliques semi linéaires qui se pose dans certains problèmes de contrôle stochastique. Nous supposons que les coefficients ne sont pas bornés et sont localement Lipschitziennes, pas nécessairement différentiables, avec des données continues et ellipticité local uniforme. Nous construisons une solution classique par approximation avec les équations paraboliques linéaires. Les équations linéaires impliquées ne peuvent être résolues avec les résultats traditionnels. Par conséquent, nous construisons une solution classique au problème de Cauchy linéaire sous les mêmes hypothèses sur les coefficients pour l’équation semi-linéaire. Notre approche utilise les équations différentielles stochastiques et les équations différentielles paraboliques dans les domaines bornés. Enfin, nous appliquons les résultats à un problème stochastique de consommation optimale.

  15. The Cauchy problem for the Bogolyubov hierarchy of equations. The BCS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidybida, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    A chain of Bogolyubov's kinetic equations for an infinite quantum system of particles distributed in space with the mean density 1/V and interacting with the BCS model operator is considered as a single abstract equation in some countable normalized space bsup(v) of sequences of integral operators. In this case an unique solution of the Cauchy problem has been obtained at arbitrary initial conditions from bsup(v), stationary solutions of the equation have been derived, and the class of the initial conditions which approach to stationary ones is indicated

  16. Two-point boundary value and Cauchy formulations in an axisymmetrical MHD equilibrium problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasiu, C.V.; Subbotin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present two equilibrium solvers for axisymmetrical toroidal configurations, both based on the expansion in poloidal angle method. The first one has been conceived as a two-point boundary value solver in a system of coordinates with straight field lines, while the second one uses a well-conditioned Cauchy formulation of the problem in a general curvilinear coordinate system. In order to check the capability of our moment methods to describe equilibrium accurately, a comparison of the moment solutions with analytical solutions obtained for a Solov'ev equilibrium has been performed. (author)

  17. On the Cauchy problem for nonlinear Schrödinger equations with rotation

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2011-10-01

    We consider the Cauchy problem for (energy-subcritical) nonlinear Schrödinger equations with sub-quadratic external potentials and an additional angular momentum rotation term. This equation is a well-known model for superuid quantum gases in rotating traps. We prove global existence (in the energy space) for defocusing nonlinearities without any restriction on the rotation frequency, generalizing earlier results given in [11, 12]. Moreover, we find that the rotation term has a considerable in fiuence in proving finite time blow-up in the focusing case.

  18. On existence of weak solutions to a Cauchy problem for one class of conservation laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Kogut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the existence of weak solutions to the Cauchy problem for one classof hyperbolic conservation laws that models a highly re-entrant production system.The output of the factory is described as a function of the work in progress and theposition of the so-called push-pull point (PPP where we separate the beginning ofthe factory employing a push policy from the end of the factory, which uses a pullpolicy. The main question we discuss in this paper is about the optimal choice ofthe input in-ux, push and pull constituents, and the position of PPP.

  19. A Series Solution of the Cauchy Problem for Turing Reaction-diffusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Päivärinta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the series pattern solution of the Cauchy problem for Turing reaction-diffusion model is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. Turing reaction-diffusion model is nonlinear reaction-diffusion system which usually has power-law nonlinearities or may be rewritten in the form of power-law nonlinearities. Using the HAM, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. This technique provides a series of functions which converges rapidly to the exact solution of the problem. The efficiency of the approach will be shown by applying the procedure on two problems. Furthermore, the so-called homotopy-Pade technique (HPT is applied to enlarge the convergence region and rate of solution series given by the HAM.

  20. A dimension decomposition approach based on iterative observer design for an elliptic Cauchy problem

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2015-07-13

    A state observer inspired iterative algorithm is presented to solve boundary estimation problem for Laplace equation using one of the space variables as a time-like variable. Three dimensional domain with two congruent parallel surfaces is considered. Problem is set up in cartesian co-ordinates and Laplace equation is re-written as a first order state equation with state operator matrix A and measurements are provided on the Cauchy data surface with measurement operator C. Conditions for the existence of strongly continuous semigroup generated by A are studied. Observability conditions for pair (C, A) are provided in infinite dimensional setting. In this given setting, special observability result obtained allows to decompose three dimensional problem into a set of independent two dimensional sub-problems over rectangular cross-sections. Numerical simulation results are provided.

  1. A multiple-scale Pascal polynomial for 2D Stokes and inverse Cauchy-Stokes problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chein-Shan; Young, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The polynomial expansion method is a useful tool for solving both the direct and inverse Stokes problems, which together with the pointwise collocation technique is easy to derive the algebraic equations for satisfying the Stokes differential equations and the specified boundary conditions. In this paper we propose two novel numerical algorithms, based on a third-first order system and a third-third order system, to solve the direct and the inverse Cauchy problems in Stokes flows by developing a multiple-scale Pascal polynomial method, of which the scales are determined a priori by the collocation points. To assess the performance through numerical experiments, we find that the multiple-scale Pascal polynomial expansion method (MSPEM) is accurate and stable against large noise.

  2. Mutational analysis a joint framework for Cauchy problems in and beyond vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations play a central role in science and have been extended to evolution equations in Banach spaces. For many applications, however, it is difficult to specify a suitable normed vector space. Shapes without a priori restrictions, for example, do not have an obvious linear structure. This book generalizes ordinary differential equations beyond the borders of vector spaces with a focus on the well-posed Cauchy problem in finite time intervals. Here are some of the examples: - Feedback evolutions of compact subsets of the Euclidean space - Birth-and-growth processes of random sets (not necessarily convex) - Semilinear evolution equations - Nonlocal parabolic differential equations - Nonlinear transport equations for Radon measures - A structured population model - Stochastic differential equations with nonlocal sample dependence and how they can be coupled in systems immediately - due to the joint framework of Mutational Analysis. Finally, the book offers new tools for modelling.

  3. Exponential dichotomy of nonautonomous periodic systems in terms of the boundedness of certain periodic Cauchy problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaou Lassoued

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We prove that a family of $q$-periodic continuous matrix valued function ${A(t}_{tin mathbb{R}}$ has an exponential dichotomy with a projector $P$ if and only if $int_0^t e^{imu s}U(t,sPds$ is bounded uniformly with respect to the parameter $mu$ and the solution of the Cauchy operator Problem $$displaylines{ dot{Y}(t=-Y(tA(t+ e^{i mu t}(I-P ,quad tgeq s cr Y(s=0, }$$ has a limit in $mathcal{L}(mathbb{C}^n$ as s tends to $-infty$ which is bounded uniformly with respect to the parameter $mu$. Here, ${ U(t,s: t, sinmathbb{R}}$ is the evolution family generated by ${A(t}_{tin mathbb{R}}$, $mu$ is a real number and q is a fixed positive number.

  4. Time-asymptotic behaviour of a solution of the Cauchy initial-value problem for a conservation law with non-linear divergent viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasnikov, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    We study the time-asymptotic behaviour of a solution of the Cauchy initial-value problem for a conservation law with non-linear divergent viscosity. We shall prove that, when a bounded measurable initial function has limits at +/-infinity, a solution of the cauchy initial-value problem converges

  5. Uniqueness of solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a system of first order partial functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Netka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with weak solutions of a generalized Cauchy problem for a nonlinear system of first order differential functional equations. A theorem on the uniqueness of a solution is proved. Nonlinear estimates of the Perron type are assumed. A method of integral functional inequalities is used.

  6. The Cauchy problem for non-linear Klein-Gordon equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.C.H.; Taflin, E.

    1993-01-01

    We consider in R n+1 , n≥2, the non-linear Klein-Gordon equation. We prove for such an equation that there is neighbourhood of zero in a Hilbert space of initial conditions for which the Cauchy problem has global solutions and on which there is asymptotic completeness. The inverse of the wave operator linearizes the non-linear equation. If, moreover, the equation is manifestly Poincare covariant then the non-linear representation of the Poincare-Lie algebra, associated with the non-linear Klein-Gordon equation is integrated to a non-linear representation of the Poincare group on an invariant neighbourhood of zero in the Hilbert space. This representation is linearized by the inverse of the wave operator. The Hilbert space is, in both cases, the closure of the space of the differentiable vectors for the linear representation of the Poincare group, associated with the Klein-Gordon equation, with respect to a norm defined by the representation of the enveloping algebra. (orig.)

  7. Large time behavior of solutions for a Cauchy problem on a nonlinear conservation law with large initial data in the whole space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyu; Li, Lang; Fang, Shaomei

    2018-03-01

    We consider the Cauchy problem on a nonlinear conversation law with large initial data. By Green's function methods, energy methods, Fourier analysis, frequency decomposition, pseudo-differential operators, we obtain the global existence and the optimal decay estimate of $t$.

  8. A non-local theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    1999-01-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws on the space of symmetric second-order matrices. The right-hand side of this system contains the functional calculus operator f-bar(U) generated in the general case only by a continuous scalar function f(u). For these systems we define and describe the set of singular entropies, introduce the concept of generalized entropy solutions of the corresponding Cauchy problem, and investigate the properties of generalized entropy solutions. We define the class of strong generalized entropy solutions, in which the Cauchy problem has precisely one solution. We suggest a condition on the initial data under which any generalized entropy solution is strong, which implies its uniqueness. Under this condition we establish that the 'vanishing viscosity' method converges. An example shows that in the general case there can be more than one generalized entropy solution

  9. Convergence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for the Replicator Equation in Spatial Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Tabata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-value problem for the replicator equation of the N-region Core-Periphery model in spatial economics. The main result shows that if workers are sufficiently agglomerated in a region at the initial time, then the initial-value problem has a unique global solution that converges to the equilibrium solution expressed by full agglomeration in that region.

  10. On analytic continuability of the missing Cauchy datum for Helmholtz boundary problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    We relate the domains of analytic continuation of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data for Helmholtz problems in two or more independent variables. The domains are related à priori, locally and explicitly in terms of complex polyrectangular neighbourhoods of planar pieces of the boundary. To this ......We relate the domains of analytic continuation of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data for Helmholtz problems in two or more independent variables. The domains are related à priori, locally and explicitly in terms of complex polyrectangular neighbourhoods of planar pieces of the boundary...

  11. Abstract differential inequalities and the Cauchy problem for infinite-dimensional linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rontó, Andrei; Šremr, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2005, č. 3 (2005), s. 235-250 ISSN 1025-5834 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functional differential equations in Banach spaces * initial value problem * solid wedge Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2004

  12. Life Span of Positive Solutions for the Cauchy Problem for the Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960's, the blow-up phenomena for the Fujita type parabolic equation have been investigated by many researchers. In this survey paper, we discuss various results on the life span of positive solutions for several superlinear parabolic problems. In the last section, we introduce a recent result by the author.

  13. On Global Solutions for the Cauchy Problem of a Boussinesq-Type Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Taskesen, Hatice; Polat, Necat; Ertaş, Abdulkadir

    2012-01-01

    We will give conditions which will guarantee the existence of global weak solutions of the Boussinesq-type equation with power-type nonlinearity $\\gamma {|u|}^{p}$ and supercritical initial energy. By defining new functionals and using potential well method, we readdressed the initial value problem of the Boussinesq-type equation for the supercritical initial energy case.

  14. Decay properties of solutions toward a multiwave pattern to the Cauchy problem for the scalar conservation law with degenerate flux and viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Natsumi

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we study the precise decay rate in time to solutions of the Cauchy problem for the one-dimensional conservation law with the Ostwald-de Waele type viscosity (p-Laplacian type degenerate viscosity) ∂t u +∂x (f (u)) = μ∂x (|∂x u | p - 1∂x u) where the far field states are prescribed. Especially, we deal with the case when the flux function is convex or concave but linearly degenerate on some interval. When the corresponding Riemann problem admits a multiwave pattern which consists of the rarefaction waves and the contact discontinuity, it has already been proved by Yoshida that the solution to the Cauchy problem tends toward the linear combination of the rarefaction waves and contact wave for the Ostwald-de Waele type viscosity as time goes to infinity. We investigate the decay rate in time of the solution toward the multiwave pattern. Furthermore, we investigate the decay rate in time of the solution for the derivative. The proof is given by L1, L2-energy and time-weighted Lq-energy methods under the use of the precise asymptotic properties of the interactions between the nonlinear waves.

  15. The inverse spectral transform for the Dunajski hierarchy and some of its reductions: I. Cauchy problem and longtime behavior of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, G; Santini, P M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply the formal inverse spectral transform for integrable dispersionless partial differential equations (PDEs) arising from the commutation condition of pairs of one-parameter families of vector fields, recently developed by S V Manakov and one of the authors, to one distinguished class of equations, the so-called Dunajski hierarchy. We concentrate, for concreteness, (i) on the system of PDEs characterizing a general anti-self-dual conformal structure in neutral signature, (ii) on its first commuting flow, and (iii) on some of their basic and novel reductions. We formally solve their Cauchy problem and we use it to construct the longtime behavior of solutions, showing, in particular, that unlike the case of soliton PDEs, different dispersionless PDEs belonging to the same hierarchy of commuting flows evolve in time in very different ways, exhibiting either a smooth dynamics or a gradient catastrophe at finite time. (paper)

  16. A Carleman estimate and the balancing principle in the quasi-reversibility method for solving the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hui; Pereverzev, Sergei V; Klibanov, Michael V

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-reversibility method of solving the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation in a bounded domain Ω is considered. With the help of the Carleman estimation technique improved error and stability bounds in a subdomain Ω σ is a subset of Ω are obtained. This paves the way for the use of the balancing principle for an a posteriori choice of the regularization parameter ε in the quasi-reversibility method. As an adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy, the balancing principle does not require a priori knowledge of either the solution smoothness or a constant K appearing in the stability bound estimation. Nevertheless, this principle allows an a posteriori parameter choice that up to a controllable constant achieves the best accuracy guaranteed by the Carleman estimate

  17. Cauchy cluster process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an instance of the well-know Neyman–Scott cluster process model with clusters having a long tail behaviour. In our model the offspring points are distributed around the parent points according to a circular Cauchy distribution. Using a modified Cramér-von Misses test...... statistic and the simulated pointwise envelopes it is shown that this model fits better than the Thomas process to the frequently analyzed long-leaf pine data-set....

  18. Geometric Cauchy problems for spacelike and timelike CMC surfaces in R2,1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2012-01-01

    We discuss recent work of the author and collaborators on generalizations of Björling’s classical problem to the case of constant non-zero mean curvature surfaces in 2+1-dimensional spacetime. The aim is to give an overview, and to point out the similarities and differences between the two cases ...

  19. Solvability conditions of the Cauchy problem for two-dimensional systems of linear functional differential equations with monotone operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šremr, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 3 (2007), s. 263-295 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/04/P183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : system of functional differential equations with monotone operators * initial value problem * unique solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Singular and degenerate cauchy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, R.W

    1976-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  1. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  2. Variational approach for restoring blurred images with cauchy noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciacchitano, Federica; Dong, Yiqiu; Zeng, Tieyong

    2015-01-01

    model, we add a quadratic penalty term, which guarantees the uniqueness of the solution. Due to the convexity of our model, the primal dual algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method for simultaneously deblurring...... and denoising images corrupted by Cauchy noise. Comparison with other existing and well-known methods is provided as well....

  3. Construction of the Cauchy problem for solution of the integral equation of transport in a sphere with a central absorbing region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the integral equation for neutron transport in a homogeneous isotropically-scattering sphere with an absolutely black central part an initial value problem has been formulated which permits the construction of a numerical scheme to find the neutron flux density

  4. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  5. Cauchy's stress theory in a modern light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenemann, Falk H

    2014-01-01

    The 180 year old stress theory by Cauchy is found to be insufficient to serve as a basis for a modern understanding of material behaviour. Six reasons are discussed in detail: (1) Cauchy's theory, following Euler, considers forces interacting with planes. This is in contrast to Newton's mechanics which considers forces interacting with radius vectors. (2) Bonds in solids have never been taken into account. (3) Cauchy's stress theory does not meet the minimum conditions for vector spaces because it does not have a metric. It is not a field theory, and not in the Euclidean space. (4) Cauchy's theory contains a hidden boundary condition that makes it less than general. (5) The current theory of stress is found to be at variance with the theory of potentials. (6) The theory is conceptually incompatible with thermodynamics for physical and geometrical reasons. (paper)

  6. BMOA Characterization with Families of Cauchy Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Abu Muhanna

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove a number of results on Cauchy transforms of generalized type given by Borel measures supported on the class of analytic functions mapping the unit disc into the unit desk.

  7. The origins of Cauchy's rigorous calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabiner, Judith V

    2005-01-01

    This text examines the reinterpretation of calculus by Augustin-Louis Cauchy and his peers in the 19th century. These intellectuals created a collection of well-defined theorems about limits, continuity, series, derivatives, and integrals. 1981 edition.

  8. The reals as rational Cauchy filters

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ittay

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed and elementary construction of the real numbers from the rational numbers a la Bourbaki. The real numbers are defined to be the set of all minimal Cauchy filters in $\\mathbb{Q}$ (where the Cauchy condition is defined in terms of the absolute value function on $\\mathbb{Q}$) and are proven directly, without employing any of the techniques of uniform spaces, to form a complete ordered field. The construction can be seen as a variant of Bachmann's construction by means of ne...

  9. Notes on Hilbert and Cauchy Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 432, č. 1 (2010), s. 351-356 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Hilbert matrix * Cauchy matrix * combined matrix * AT-property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2010

  10. Inversion of gravity and gravity gradiometry data for density contrast surfaces using Cauchy-type integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhdanov, Michael; Cai, Hongzhu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method of modeling and inversion of potential field data generated by a density contrast surface. Our method is based on 3D Cauchy-type integral representation of the potential fields. Traditionally, potential fields are calculated using volume integrals of the domains occupied...... by anomalous masses subdivided into prismatic cells. This discretization is computationally expensive, especially in a 3D case. The Cauchy-type integral technique makes it possible to represent the gravity field and its gradients as surface integrals. This is especially significant in the solution of problems...

  11. The Southampton Cauchy-characteristic matching project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Inverno, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Southampton Numerical Relativity Group have set up a long term project concerned with investigating Cauchy-characteristic matching (CCM) codes in numerical relativity. The CCM approach has two distinct features. Firstly, it dispenses with an outer boundary condition and replaces this with matching conditions at an interface residing in the vacuum between the Cauchy and characteristic regions. A successful CCM code leads to a transparent interface and so avoids the spurious reflections which plague most codes employing outer boundary conditions. Secondly, by employing a compactified coordinate, it proves possible to generate global solutions. This means that gravitational waves can be identified unambiguously at future null infinity. To date, cylindrical codes have been developed which have been checked against the exact solutions of Weber-Wheeler, Safier-Stark-Piran and Xanthopoulos. In addition, a cylindrical code has been constructed for investigating dynamic cosmic strings. Recently a master vacuum axi-symmetric CCM code has been completed which consists of four independent modules comprising an interior Cauchy code, an exterior characteristic code together with injection and extraction codes. The main goal of this work is to construct a 3 dimensional code possessing the characteristic, injection and extraction modules which can be attached to an interior code based on a finite grid. Such a code should lead to the construction of more accurate templates which are needed in the search for gravitational waves. (author)

  12. ϕ-statistically quasi Cauchy sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Let P denote the space whose elements are finite sets of distinct positive integers. Given any element σ of P, we denote by p(σ the sequence {pn(σ} such that pn(σ=1 for n ∈ σ and pn(σ=0 otherwise. Further Ps={σ∈P:∑n=1∞pn(σ≤s}, i.e. Ps is the set of those σ whose support has cardinality at most s. Let (ϕn be a non-decreasing sequence of positive integers such that nϕn+1≤(n+1ϕn for all n∈N and the class of all sequences (ϕn is denoted by Φ. Let E⊆N. The number δϕ(E=lims→∞1ϕs|{k∈σ,σ∈Ps:k∈E}| is said to be the ϕ-density of E. A sequence (xn of points in R is ϕ-statistically convergent (or Sϕ-convergent to a real number ℓ for every ε > 0 if the set {n∈N:|xn−ℓ|≥ɛ} has ϕ-density zero. We introduce ϕ-statistically ward continuity of a real function. A real function is ϕ-statistically ward continuous if it preserves ϕ-statistically quasi Cauchy sequences where a sequence (xn is called to be ϕ-statistically quasi Cauchy (or Sϕ-quasi Cauchy when (Δxn=(xn+1−xn is ϕ-statistically convergent to 0. i.e. a sequence (xn of points in R is called ϕ-statistically quasi Cauchy (or Sϕ-quasi Cauchy for every ε > 0 if {n∈N:|xn+1−xn|≥ɛ} has ϕ-density zero. Also we introduce the concept of ϕ-statistically ward compactness and obtain results related to ϕ-statistically ward continuity, ϕ-statistically ward compactness, statistically ward continuity, ward continuity, ward compactness, ordinary compactness, uniform continuity, ordinary continuity, δ-ward continuity, and slowly oscillating continuity.

  13. Stability of Functional Inequalities with Cauchy-Jensen Additive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Cho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the functional inequalities associated with Cauchy-Jensen additive mappings. As a result, we obtain that if a mapping satisfies the functional inequalities with perturbation which satisfies certain conditions, then there exists a Cauchy-Jensen additive mapping near the mapping.

  14. Generation of teletraffic of generalized Cauchy type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming

    2010-01-01

    Generation of long-range-dependent (LRD) traffic is crucial for networking, e.g. simulating the Internet. In this respect, it is necessary to generate an LRD traffic series according to a given correlation structure that may well reflect the statistics of real traffic. Recent research on traffic modeling exhibits that the LRD traffic is well modeled by the generalized Cauchy (GC) process indexed by two parameters that separately characterize the self-similarity (SS), which is a local property described by the fractal dimension D, and long-range dependence (LRD), which is a global property measured by the Hurst parameter H. This paper gives a computational method to generate the LRD traffic based on the correlation form of the GC process in both the unifractal and multifractal cases. It may nevertheless be used as a way to flexibly simulate the realizations that reflect the fractal phenomena of traffic for both short-term lags and long-term ones.

  15. Application of geometric algebra to electromagnetic scattering the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac technique

    CERN Document Server

    Seagar, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the Clifford-Cauchy-Dirac (CCD) technique for solving problems involving the scattering of electromagnetic radiation from materials of all kinds. It allows anyone who is interested to master techniques that lead to simpler and more efficient solutions to problems of electromagnetic scattering than are currently in use. The technique is formulated in terms of the Cauchy kernel, single integrals, Clifford algebra and a whole-field approach. This is in contrast to many conventional techniques that are formulated in terms of Green's functions, double integrals, vector calculus and the combined field integral equation (CFIE). Whereas these conventional techniques lead to an implementation using the method of moments (MoM), the CCD technique is implemented as alternating projections onto convex sets in a Banach space. The ultimate outcome is an integral formulation that lends itself to a more direct and efficient solution than conventionally is the case, and applies without exception to all types...

  16. The Log-convexity of the poly-cauchy numbers | Komatsu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2013, Komatsu introduced the poly-Cauchy numbers, which generalize. Cauchy numbers. Several generalizations of poly-Cauchy numbers have been con- sidered since then. One particular type of generalizations is that of multiparameter- poly-Cauchy numbers. In this paper, we study the log-convexity of the ...

  17. Abstract Description of Internet Traffic of Generalized Cauchy Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    . Therefore, there is a limitation for fGn to accurately model traffic. Recently, the generalized Cauchy (GC process was introduced to model traffic with the flexibility to separately measure the fractal dimension DGC and the Hurst parameter HGC of traffic. However, there is a fundamental problem whether or not there exists the generality that the GC model is more conformable with real traffic than single parameter models, such as fGn, irrelevant of traffic traces used in experimental verification. The solution to that problem remains unknown but is desired for model evaluation in traffic theory or for model selection against specific issues, such as queuing analysis relating to the autocorrelation function (ACF of arrival traffic. The key contribution of this paper is our solution to that fundamental problem (see Theorem 3.17 with the following features in analysis. (i Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the fGn type. (ii Set-valued analysis of the traffic of the GC type. (iii Revealing the generality previously mentioned by comparing metrics of the traffic of the fGn type to that of the GC type.

  18. A Simple Proof of Cauchy's Surface Area Formula

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukerman, Emmanuel; Veomett, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We give a short and simple proof of Cauchy's surface area formula, which states that the average area of a projection of a convex body is equal to its surface area up to a multiplicative constant in the dimension.

  19. A note on non-compact Cauchy surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do-Hyung

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that if a spacetime has a non-compact Cauchy surface Σ, then its causal structure is completely determined by the class of compact subsets of Σ of the forms J - (p) intersection Σ and J + (p) intersection Σ. Since the causal structure determines its metric structure up to a conformal factor, this implies that the sets J - (p) intersection Σ and J + (p) intersection Σ determine the conformal structure of a globally hyperbolic spacetime. In this way, we can encode the conformal structure of the spacetime into its Cauchy surface and we get another method for reconstructing spacetime. (comments, replies and notes)

  20. Cauchy Noise Removal by Nonconvex ADMM with Convergence Gaurantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Jin-Jin; Dong, Yiqiu; Huang, Ting-Zhu

    for restoring images degraded by blur and Cauchy noise. Due to the nonconvexity and nonsmoothness, there exist computational and theoretical challenges. In this paper, adapting recent results, we develop an alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM) in spite of the challenges. The convergence...

  1. Cauchy Tetrahedron Argument Applied to Higher Contact Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Isola, F.; Madeo, A.; Seppecher, P.

    2016-03-01

    Second gradient theories are nowadays used in many studies in order to describe in detail some transition layers which may occur in micro-structured materials and in which physical properties are sharply varying. Sometimes higher order theories are also evoked. Up to now these models have not been based on a construction of stresses similar to the one due to Cauchy, which has been applied only for simple materials. It has been widely recognized that the fundamental assumption by Cauchy that the traction depends only on the normal of the dividing surface cannot be maintained for higher gradient theories. However, this observation did not urge any author, to our knowledge, to revisit the Cauchy construction in order to adapt it to a more general conceptual framework. This is what we do in this paper for a continuum of grade N (also called N-th gradient continuum). Our construction is very similar to the one due to Cauchy; based on the tetrahedron argument, it does not introduce any argument of a different nature. In particular, we avoid invoking the principle of virtual work. As one should expect, the balance assumption and the regularity hypotheses have to be adapted to the new framework and tensorial computations become more complex.

  2. RELIABLE COGNITIVE DIMENSIONAL DOCUMENT RANKING BY WEIGHTED STANDARD CAUCHY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Florence Vijila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Categorization of cognitively uniform and consistent documents such as University question papers are in demand by e-learners. Literature indicates that Standard Cauchy distribution and the derived values are extensively used for checking uniformity and consistency of documents. The paper attempts to apply this technique for categorizing question papers according to four selective cognitive dimensions. For this purpose cognitive dimensional keyword sets of these four categories (also termed as portrayal concepts are assumed and an automatic procedure is developed to quantify these dimensions in question papers. The categorization is relatively accurate when checked with manual methods. Hence simple and well established term frequency / inverse document frequency ‘tf/ IDF’ technique is considered for automating the categorization process. After the documents categorization, standard Cauchy formula is applied to rank order the documents that have the least differences among Cauchy value, (according to Cauchy theorem so as obtain consistent and uniform documents in an order or ranked. For the purpose of experiments and social survey, seven question papers (documents have been designed with various consistencies. To validate this proposed technique social survey is administered on selective samples of e-learners of Tamil Nadu, India. Results are encouraging and conclusions drawn out of the experiments will be useful to researchers of concept mining and categorizing documents according to concepts. Findings have also contributed utility value to e-learning system designers.

  3. Unit Root Testing in Heteroscedastic Panels Using the Cauchy Estimator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Hanck, Christoph

    The Cauchy estimator of an autoregressive root uses the sign of the first lag as instrumental variable. The resulting IV t-type statistic follows a standard normal limiting distribution under a unit root case even under unconditional heteroscedasticity, if the series to be tested has no

  4. Toeplitz operators on higher Cauchy-Riemann spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav; Zhang, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 22 (2017), s. 1081-1116 ISSN 1431-0643 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Toeplitz operator * Hankel operator * Cauchy-Riemann operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.800, year: 2016 https://www.math.uni-bielefeld.de/documenta/vol-22/32.html

  5. Poly-Cauchy and Peters mixed-type polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae San; Kim, Taekyun

    2013-01-01

    The Peters polynomials are a generalization of Boole polynomials. In this paper, we consider Peters and poly-Cauchy mixed type polynomials and investigate the properties of those polynomials which are derived from umbral calculus. Finally, we give various identities of those polynomials associated with special polynomials.

  6. On a nonlocal Cauchy problem for differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Sficas

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions for semilinear differential inclusions, with nonlocal conditions. We rely on a fixed-point theorem for contraction multivalued maps due to Covitz and Nadler andon the Schaefer's fixed-point theorem combined with lower semicontinuous multivalued operators with decomposable values.

  7. Cauchy problems for semi-linear hyperbolic systems with their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Lectures on Cauchy's problem in linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hadamard, Jacques

    1952-01-01

    Would well repay study by most theoretical physicists."" - Physics Today""An overwhelming influence on subsequent work on the wave equation."" - Science Progress""One of the classical treatises on hyperbolic equations."" - Royal Naval Scientific ServiceDelivered at Columbia University and the Universities of Rome and Zürich, these lectures represent a pioneering investigation. Jacques Hadamard based his research on prior studies by Riemann, Kirchhoff, and Volterra. He extended and improved Volterra's work, applying its theories relating to spherical and cylindrical waves to all normal hyperbol

  9. Modeling and Inversion of Magnetic Anomalies Caused by Sediment–Basement Interface Using Three-Dimensional Cauchy-Type Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Zhdanov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new method for the modeling and inversion of magnetic anomalies caused by crystalline basements. The method is based on the 3-D Cauchy-type integral representation of the magnetic field. Traditional methods use volume integrals over the domains occupied by anomalous...... is particularly significant in solving problems of the modeling and inversion of magnetic data for the depth to the basement. In this letter, a novel method is proposed, which only requires discretizing the magnetic contrast surface for modeling and inversion. We demonstrate the method using several synthetic...... susceptibility and on the prismatic representation of the volumes with an anomalous susceptibility distribution. Such discretization is computationally expensive, particularly in 3-D cases. The technique of Cauchy-type integrals makes it possible to represent the magnetic field as surface integrals, which...

  10. Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extension theorem in fractional Clifford analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the fractional Cauchy-Kovalevskaya extension (FCK-extension) theorem for fractional monogenic functions defined on R^d. Based on this extension principle, fractional Fueter polynomials, forming a basis of the space of fractional spherical monogenics, i.e. fractional homogeneous polynomials, are introduced. We studied the connection between the FCK-extension of functions of the form x^\\alpha P_l and the classical Gegenbauer polynomials. Finally we present two examp...

  11. Estimation and Control for Linear Systems with Additive Cauchy Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., second edition, 1994. [14] M. Idan and J. L. Speyer. Multivariate Cauchy Estimator with Scalar Measurement and Process...1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., second ed., 1994, ch. 16. [6] E. E. Kuruoglu, W. J. Fitzgerald, and P. J. W. Rayner, Near optimal detection of...the AIAA and was 13 awarded the AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award, AIAA Dryden Lectureship in Research, Air Force Exceptional Civilian

  12. Cauchy inequality and uncertainty relations for mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirokov, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Cauchy inequality (CI) relates scalar products of two vectors and their norms. I point out other similar inequalities (SI). Starting with CI Schroedinger derived his uncertainty relation (UR). By using SI other various UR can be obtained. It is shown that they follow from the Schroedinger UR. Two generalizations of CI are obtained for mixed states described by density matrices. Using them two generalizations of UR for mixed states are derived. Both differ from the UR generalization known from the literature. The discussion of these generalizations is given

  13. Hybrid particle swarm optimization with Cauchy distribution for solving reentrant flexible flow shop with blocking constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatnugrob Sangsawang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a problem of the two-stage flexible flow shop with reentrant and blocking constraints in Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing. This problem can be formulated as a deterministic FFS|stage=2,rcrc, block|Cmax problem. In this study, adaptive Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization with Cauchy distribution (HPSO was developed to solve the problem. The objective of this research is to find the sequences in order to minimize the makespan. To show their performances, computational experiments were performed on a number of test problems and the results are reported. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms give better solutions than the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO for all test problems. Additionally, the relative improvement (RI of the makespan solutions obtained by the proposed algorithms with respect to those of the current practice is performed in order to measure the quality of the makespan solutions generated by the proposed algorithms. The RI results show that the HPSO algorithm can improve the makespan solution by averages of 14.78%.

  14. Modeling amplitude SAR image with the Cauchy-Rayleigh mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiangqiang; Du, Qingyu; Yao, Yinwei; Huang, Huang

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel mixture model of the SAR amplitude image, which is proposed as an approximation to the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model. The limitation of the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model in SAR image application is discussed. We also present an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm based parameter estimation method for the Cauchy-Rayleigh mixture. We test the new model on some simulated data in order to confirm that is appropriate to the heavy-tailed Rayleigh model. The performance is evaluated by some statistic values (cumulative square errors (CSE) 0.99 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (K-S) the performance of the proposed mixture model is tested on some real SAR images and compared with other models, including the heavy-tailed Rayleigh and Nakagami mixture models. The result indicates that the proposed model can be an optional statistical model for amplitude SAR images.

  15. Heat and work distributions for mixed Gauss–Cauchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuśmierz, Łukasz; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze energetics of a non-Gaussian process described by a stochastic differential equation of the Langevin type. The process represents a paradigmatic model of a nonequilibrium system subject to thermal fluctuations and additional external noise, with both sources of perturbations considered as additive and statistically independent forcings. We define thermodynamic quantities for trajectories of the process and analyze contributions to mechanical work and heat. As a working example we consider a particle subjected to a drag force and two statistically independent Lévy white noises with stability indices α = 2 and α = 1. The fluctuations of dissipated energy (heat) and distribution of work performed by the force acting on the system are addressed by examining contributions of Cauchy fluctuations (α = 1) to either bath or external force acting on the system. (paper)

  16. Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers with Stirling-Carlitz numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Hajime; Komatsu, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the Cauchy-Carlitz number was defined as the counterpart of the Bernoulli-Carlitz number. Both numbers can be expressed explicitly in terms of so-called Stirling-Carlitz numbers. In this paper, we study the second analogue of Stirling-Carlitz numbers and give some general formulae, including Bernoulli and Cauchy numbers in formal power series with complex coefficients, and Bernoulli-Carlitz and Cauchy-Carlitz numbers in function fields. We also give some applications of Hasse-Teichm...

  17. Multichannel sparse deconvolution of seismic data with shearlet-Cauchy constrained inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengming; Wang, Deli; Wang, Tong; Feng, Fei; Wang, Yonggang

    2017-10-01

    Multiscale and multidirectional transforms were introduced to represent non-spiky reflectivity instead of assuming spiky reflectivity in the deconvolution problem. The study found that an alternative sparse shearlet coefficient can be used to accurately represent the non-spiky reflectivity and solve the problem in a multichannel way. Such non-spiky reflectivity can help in avoiding the loss of weak reflection events, which is likely to occur in conventional methods due to over sparse constraints on spiky reflectivity. Moreover, compared to single-trace deconvolution methods, the multichannel method can enhance the continuity of reflection events and suppress high-frequency noise in the deconvolved data. Seismic inversion is usually considered an ill-conditioned problem because even very low-level noise can cause large errors in results, and normally requires the regularization of deconvolution operators. In this study, we propose the multichannel sparse deconvolution of seismic data with shearlet-Cauchy constrained inversion. Firstly, a stable method enabling accurate reflectivity estimation was developed based on maximum a posteriori estimation in Bayesian statistics. Then sparse shearlet coefficients are used to represent non-spiky reflectivity. According to the different distributions of noise and signal in the shearlet domain, thresholding methods can be used to suppress noise and increase the noise resistance of the proposed method. A comparison of synthetic data with field seismic data demonstrated the validity of the proposed method.

  18. Cauchy-perturbative matching reexamined: Tests in spherical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, Burkhard; Pazos, Enrique; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    During the last few years progress has been made on several fronts making it possible to revisit Cauchy-perturbative matching (CPM) in numerical relativity in a more robust and accurate way. This paper is the first in a series where we plan to analyze CPM in the light of these new results. One of the new developments is an understanding of how to impose constraint-preserving boundary conditions (CPBC); though most of the related research has been driven by outer boundaries, one can use them for matching interface boundaries as well. Another front is related to numerically stable evolutions using multiple patches, which in the context of CPM allows the matching to be performed on a spherical surface, thus avoiding interpolations between Cartesian and spherical grids. One way of achieving stability for such schemes of arbitrary high order is through the use of penalty techniques and discrete derivatives satisfying summation by parts (SBP). Recently, new, very efficient and high-order accurate derivatives satisfying SBP and associated dissipation operators have been constructed. Here we start by testing all these techniques applied to CPM in a setting that is simple enough to study all the ingredients in great detail: Einstein's equations in spherical symmetry, describing a black hole coupled to a massless scalar field. We show that with the techniques described above, the errors introduced by Cauchy-perturbative matching are very small, and that very long-term and accurate CPM evolutions can be achieved. Our tests include the accretion and ring-down phase of a Schwarzschild black hole with CPM, where we find that the discrete evolution introduces, with a low spatial resolution of Δr=M/10, an error of 0.3% after an evolution time of 1,000,000M. For a black hole of solar mass, this corresponds to approximately 5s, and is therefore at the lower end of timescales discussed e.g. in the collapsar model of gamma-ray burst engines

  19. Second order elasticity at hypersonic frequencies of reactive polyurethanes as seen by generalized Cauchy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, M; Vergnat, C; Müller, U; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Possart, W; Alnot, P; Krüger, J K

    2009-01-21

    The non-equilibrium process of polymerization of reactive polymers can be accompanied by transition phenomena like gelation or the chemical glass transition. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties at hypersonic frequencies-including the generalized Cauchy relation-to these transition phenomena is studied for three different polyurethanes using Brillouin spectroscopy. As for epoxies, the generalized Cauchy relation surprisingly holds true for the non-equilibrium polymerization process and for the temperature dependence of polyurethanes. Neither the sol-gel transition nor the chemical and thermal glass transitions are visible in the representation of the generalized Cauchy relation. Taking into account the new results and combining them with general considerations about the elastic properties of the isotropic state, an improved physical foundation of the generalized Cauchy relation is proposed.

  20. Cauchy's almost forgotten Lagrangian formulation of the Euler equation for 3D incompressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Uriel; Villone, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Two prized papers, one by Augustin Cauchy in 1815, presented to the French Academy and the other by Hermann Hankel in 1861, presented to Göttingen University, contain major discoveries on vorticity dynamics whose impact is now quickly increasing. Cauchy found a Lagrangian formulation of 3D ideal incompressible flow in terms of three invariants that generalize to three dimensions the now well-known law of conservation of vorticity along fluid particle trajectories for two-dimensional flow. This has very recently been used to prove analyticity in time of fluid particle trajectories for 3D incompressible Euler flow and can be extended to compressible flow, in particular to cosmological dark matter. Hankel showed that Cauchy's formulation gives a very simple Lagrangian derivation of the Helmholtz vorticity-flux invariants and, in the middle of the proof, derived an intermediate result which is the conservation of the circulation of the velocity around a closed contour moving with the fluid. This circulation theorem was to be rediscovered independently by William Thomson (Kelvin) in 1869. Cauchy's invariants were only occasionally cited in the 19th century - besides Hankel, foremost by George Stokes and Maurice Lévy - and even less so in the 20th until they were rediscovered via Emmy Noether's theorem in the late 1960, but reattributed to Cauchy only at the end of the 20th century by Russian scientists.

  1. Modeling Seismic Wave Propagation Using Time-Dependent Cauchy-Navier Splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, P.

    2005-12-01

    Our intention is the modeling of seismic wave propagation from displacement measurements by seismographs at the Earth's surface. The elastic behaviour of the Earth is usually described by the Cauchy-Navier equation. A system of fundamental solutions for the Fourier transformed Cauchy-Navier equation are the Hansen vectors L, M and N. We apply an inverse Fourier transform to obtain an orthonormal function system depending on time and space. By means of this system we construct certain splines, which are then used for interpolating the given data. Compared to polynomial interpolation, splines have the advantage that they minimize some curvature measure and are, therefore, smoother. First, we test this method on a synthetic wave function. Afterwards, we apply it to realistic earthquake data. (P. Kammann, Modelling Seismic Wave Propagation Using Time-Dependent Cauchy-Navier Splines, Diploma Thesis, Geomathematics Group, Department of Mathematics, University of Kaiserslautern, 2005)

  2. On a covariant 2+2 formulation of the initial value problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.

    1980-03-01

    The initial value problems in general relativity are considered from a geometrical standpoint with especial reference to the development of a covariant 2+2 formalism in which space-time is foliated by space-like 2-surfaces under the headings; the Cauchy problem in general relativity, the covariant 3+1 formulation of the Cauchy problem, characteristic and mixed initial value problems, on locally imbedding a family of null hypersurfaces, the 2+2 formalism, the 2+2 formulation of the Cauchy problem, the 2+2 formulation of the characteristic and mixed initial value problems, and a covariant Lagrangian 2+2 formulation. (U.K.)

  3. Fibonacci-regularization method for solving Cauchy integral equations of the first kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed to solve the first kind Cauchy integral equation over a finite interval. For this purpose, the regularization method is considered. Then, the collocation method with Fibonacci base function is applied to solve the obtained second kind singular integral equation. Also, the error estimate of the proposed scheme is discussed. Finally, some sample Cauchy integral equations stem from the theory of airfoils in fluid mechanics are presented and solved to illustrate the importance and applicability of the given algorithm. The tables in the examples show the efficiency of the method.

  4. Thermo-coupled Surface Cauchy-Born Theory: An Engineering Finite Element Approach to Modeling of Nanowire Thermomechanical Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esfahania, M. Nasr; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, J. Henri

    2016-01-01

    on Surface Cauchy-Born theory is developed, where surface energy is accounted for in the prediction of the thermomechanical response. This is achieved by using a temperature-dependent interatomic potential in the standard Cauchy-Born theory with a surface energy contribution. Simultaneous calculation...

  5. The Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality and the Induced Metrics on Real Vector Spaces Mainly on the Real Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasinghe, W.

    2005-01-01

    It is very well known that the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality is an important property shared by all inner product spaces and the inner product induces a norm on the space. A proof of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for real inner product spaces exists, which does not employ the homogeneous property of the inner product. However, it is shown that a real…

  6. Adaptive grid based multi-objective Cauchy differential evolution for stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch with wind power uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Lei, Xiaohui; Wang, Chao; Yue, Dong; Xie, Xiangpeng

    2017-01-01

    Since wind power is integrated into the thermal power operation system, dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED) has become a new challenge due to its uncertain characteristics. This paper proposes an adaptive grid based multi-objective Cauchy differential evolution (AGB-MOCDE) for solving stochastic DEED with wind power uncertainty. To properly deal with wind power uncertainty, some scenarios are generated to simulate those possible situations by dividing the uncertainty domain into different intervals, the probability of each interval can be calculated using the cumulative distribution function, and a stochastic DEED model can be formulated under different scenarios. For enhancing the optimization efficiency, Cauchy mutation operation is utilized to improve differential evolution by adjusting the population diversity during the population evolution process, and an adaptive grid is constructed for retaining diversity distribution of Pareto front. With consideration of large number of generated scenarios, the reduction mechanism is carried out to decrease the scenarios number with covariance relationships, which can greatly decrease the computational complexity. Moreover, the constraint-handling technique is also utilized to deal with the system load balance while considering transmission loss among thermal units and wind farms, all the constraint limits can be satisfied under the permitted accuracy. After the proposed method is simulated on three test systems, the obtained results reveal that in comparison with other alternatives, the proposed AGB-MOCDE can optimize the DEED problem while handling all constraint limits, and the optimal scheme of stochastic DEED can decrease the conservation of interval optimization, which can provide a more valuable optimal scheme for real-world applications.

  7. Common Misconceptions about the Dynamical Theory of Crystal Lattices: Cauchy Relations, Lattice Potentials and Infinite Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcoro, Luis; Etxebarria, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    The requirement of rotational invariance for lattice potential energies is investigated. Starting from this condition, it is shown that the Cauchy relations for the elastic constants are fulfilled if the lattice potential is built from pair interactions or when the first-neighbour approximation is adopted. This is seldom recognized in widely used…

  8. Inner cauchy horizon of axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter in einstein-maxwell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorg, Marcus; Hennig, Jörg

    2009-06-05

    We study the interior electrovacuum region of axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter and find that there exists always a regular inner Cauchy horizon inside the black hole, provided the angular momentum J and charge Q of the black hole do not vanish simultaneously. In particular, we derive an explicit relation for the metric on the Cauchy horizon in terms of that on the event horizon. Moreover, our analysis reveals the remarkable universal relation (8piJ);{2}+(4piQ;{2});{2}=A;{+}A;{-}, where A+ and A- denote the areas of event and Cauchy horizon, respectively.

  9. Data-Driven Robust RVFLNs Modeling of a Blast Furnace Iron-Making Process Using Cauchy Distribution Weighted M-Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ping; Lv, Youbin; Wang, Hong; Chai, Tianyou

    2017-09-01

    Optimal operation of a practical blast furnace (BF) ironmaking process depends largely on a good measurement of molten iron quality (MIQ) indices. However, measuring the MIQ online is not feasible using the available techniques. In this paper, a novel data-driven robust modeling is proposed for online estimation of MIQ using improved random vector functional-link networks (RVFLNs). Since the output weights of traditional RVFLNs are obtained by the least squares approach, a robustness problem may occur when the training dataset is contaminated with outliers. This affects the modeling accuracy of RVFLNs. To solve this problem, a Cauchy distribution weighted M-estimation based robust RFVLNs is proposed. Since the weights of different outlier data are properly determined by the Cauchy distribution, their corresponding contribution on modeling can be properly distinguished. Thus robust and better modeling results can be achieved. Moreover, given that the BF is a complex nonlinear system with numerous coupling variables, the data-driven canonical correlation analysis is employed to identify the most influential components from multitudinous factors that affect the MIQ indices to reduce the model dimension. Finally, experiments using industrial data and comparative studies have demonstrated that the obtained model produces a better modeling and estimating accuracy and stronger robustness than other modeling methods.

  10. The Evaluation of the Error Term in Some Gauss-Type Formulae for the Approximation of Cauchy Principal Value Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. V.

    2008-01-01

    A method is derived for the numerical evaluation of the error term arising in some Gauss-type formulae modified so as to approximate Cauchy Principal Value integrals. The method uses Chebyshev polynomials of the first kind. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Cauchy Noise Removal by Nonconvex ADMM with Convergence Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Jin Jin; Dong, Yiqiu; Huang, Ting Zhu

    2017-01-01

    this problem. Theoretically, we establish the convergence of our method to a stationary point. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is competitive with other methods in visual and quantitative measures. In particular, our method achieves higher PSNRs for 0.5 dB on average....

  12. Codomains for the Cauchy-Riemann and Laplace operators in ℝ2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Edgar S. Moyo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A codomain for a nonzero constant-coefficient linear partial differential operator P(∂ with fundamental solution E is a space of distributions T for which it is possible to define the convolution E*T and thus solving the equation P(∂S=T. We identify codomains for the Cauchy-Riemann operator in ℝ2 and Laplace operator in ℝ2 . The convolution is understood in the sense of the S′-convolution.

  13. Responses of first-order dynamical systems to Matérn, Cauchy, and Dagum excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Lihua; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Porcu, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The responses of dynamical systems under random forcings is a well-understood area of research. The main tool in this area, as it has evolved over a century, falls under the heading of stochastic differential equations. Most works in the literature are related to random forcings with a known parametric spectral density. This paper considers a new framework: the Cauchy and Dagum covariance functions indexing the random forcings, do not have a closed form for the associa...

  14. Conversion of engineering stresses to Cauchy stresses in tensile and compression tests of thermoplastic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schümann Kerstin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic polymers exhibit non-isochoric behaviour during tensile and compression testing as well as particular deformations like local necking (tension or buckling (compression. A method for the determination of Cauchy stresses from tensile and compression tests is presented, that considers the actual deformations of the test specimens. The exact geometry of the specimens in the respective present configuration is determined in photographs, which are taken continuously throughout the test. The engineering stresses at several time points are converted into Cauchy stresses using newly developed formulas in consideration of the actual specimen geometry. For validation finite element analyses of the tensile and compression tests are performed using the identified stress-strain curves. The numerical results show good agreement with the experiments for the tested polymers. Thus a method for conversion of engineering to Cauchy stresses in tensile and compression tests could be established considering the non-isochoric deformation in plasticity. With this method “true” stress-strain curves as input for finite element material models can be identified for arbitrary materials.

  15. Spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction of strain, news and gravitational radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handmer, Casey J; Szilágyi, Béla; Winicour, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach for the Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) of gravitational radiation strain, news function, and the flux of the energy–momentum, supermomentum and angular momentum associated with the Bondi–Metzner–Sachs asymptotic symmetries. In CCE, a characteristic evolution code takes numerical data on an inner worldtube supplied by a Cauchy evolution code, and propagates it outwards to obtain the space–time metric in a neighborhood of null infinity. The metric is first determined in a scrambled form in terms of coordinates determined by the Cauchy formalism. In prior treatments, the waveform is first extracted from this metric and then transformed into an asymptotic inertial coordinate system. This procedure provides the physically proper description of the waveform and the radiated energy but it does not generalize to determine the flux of angular momentum or supermomentum. Here we formulate and implement a new approach which transforms the full metric into an asymptotic inertial frame and provides a uniform treatment of all the radiation fluxes associated with the asymptotic symmetries. Computations are performed and calibrated using the spectral Einstein code. (paper)

  16. A generalization of Schauder's theorem and its application to Cauchy-Kovalevskaya problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Zubelevich

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the classical majorant functions method to a PDE system which right hand side is a mapping of one functional space to another. This extension is based on some generalization of the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  17. Cauchy problem as a two-surface based ‘geometrodynamics’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional spacetimes foliated by a two-parameter family of homologous two-surfaces are considered in Einstein's theory of gravity. By combining a 1 + (1 + 2) decomposition, the canonical form of the spacetime metric and a suitable specification of the conformal structure of the foliating two-surfaces, a gauge fixing is introduced. It is shown that, in terms of the chosen geometrically distinguished variables, the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian and momentum constraints can be recast into the form of a parabolic equation and a first order symmetric hyperbolic system, respectively. Initial data to this system can be given on one of the two-surfaces foliating the three-dimensional initial data surface. The 1 + 3 reduced Einstein's equations are also determined. By combining the 1 + 3 momentum constraint with the reduced system of the secondary 1 + 2 decomposition, a mixed hyperbolic-hyperbolic system is formed. It is shown that solutions to this mixed hyperbolic-hyperbolic system are also solutions to the full set of Einstein's equations provided that the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian constraint is solved on the initial data surface {{Σ }0} and the 1 + 2 Hamiltonian and momentum type expressions vanish on a world-tube yielded by the Lie transport of one of the two-surfaces foliating {{Σ }0} along the time evolution vector field. Whenever the foliating two-surfaces are compact without boundary in the spacetime and a regular origin exists on the time-slices—this is the location where the foliating two-surfaces smoothly reduce to a point—it suffices to guarantee that the 1 + 3 Hamiltonian constraint holds on the initial data surface. A short discussion on the use of the geometrically distinguished variables in identifying the degrees of freedom of gravity are also included. Dedicated to Zoltán Cseke on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  18. Global smooth solution of the Cauchy problem for a model of a radiative flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-36 ISSN 0391-173X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier - Stokes -Fourier system * radiative equilibrium Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2015 http://annaliscienze.sns.it/index.php?page=Article&id=332

  19. Global smooth solution of the Cauchy problem for a model of a radiative flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ducomet, B.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-36 ISSN 0391-173X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * radiative equilibrium Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.891, year: 2015 http://annaliscienze.sns.it/index.php?page=Article&id=332

  20. Violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in collective Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumovskij, A.S.; Tran Quang

    1988-01-01

    The violation of Cauchy-Schwarz (C-S) inequality for correlations between spectrum components of the Reyleigh line and between components of the Stokes line in the collective Raman scattering is discussed. It is shown that the violation of the C-S inequailty occurs only in the Rayleigh line, moreover, for the sidebands of the Rayleigh line the violation of the C-S inequality takes place for a large number of atoms, which means that this quantum effect has the macroscopic nature. 20 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Stability of the Cauchy Additive Functional Equation on Tangle Space and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce real tangle and its operations, as a generalization of rational tangle and its operations, to enumerating tangles by using the calculus of continued fraction and moreover we study the analytical structure of tangles, knots, and links by using new operations between real tangles which need not have the topological structure. As applications of the analytical structure, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the Cauchy additive functional equation fx⊕y=fx⊕fy in tangle space which is a set of real tangles with analytic structure and describe the DNA recombination as the action of some enzymes on tangle space.

  2. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Combined with Grenade Explosion Method and Cauchy Operator for Global Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is a popular swarm intelligence technique inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. However, ABC is good at exploration but poor at exploitation and its convergence speed is also an issue in some cases. To improve the performance of ABC, a novel ABC combined with grenade explosion method (GEM and Cauchy operator, namely, ABCGC, is proposed. GEM is embedded in the onlooker bees’ phase to enhance the exploitation ability and accelerate convergence of ABCGC; meanwhile, Cauchy operator is introduced into the scout bees’ phase to help ABCGC escape from local optimum and further enhance its exploration ability. Two sets of well-known benchmark functions are used to validate the better performance of ABCGC. The experiments confirm that ABCGC is significantly superior to ABC and other competitors; particularly it converges to the global optimum faster in most cases. These results suggest that ABCGC usually achieves a good balance between exploitation and exploration and can effectively serve as an alternative for global optimization.

  3. Numerical identification procedure between a micro-Cauchy model and a macro-second gradient model for planar pantographic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    In order to design the microstructure of metamaterials showing high toughness in extension (property to be shared with muscles), it has been recently proposed (Dell'Isola et al. in Z Angew Math Phys 66(6):3473-3498, 2015) to consider pantographic structures. It is possible to model such structures at a suitably small length scale (resolving in detail the interconnecting pivots/cylinders) using a standard Cauchy first gradient theory. However, the computational costs for such modelling choice are not allowing for the study of more complex mechanical systems including for instance many pantographic substructures. The microscopic model considered here is a quadratic isotropic Saint-Venant first gradient continuum including geometric nonlinearities and characterized by two Lamé parameters. The introduced macroscopic two-dimensional model for pantographic sheets is characterized by a deformation energy quadratic both in the first and second gradient of placement. However, as underlined in Dell'Isola et al. (Proc R Soc Lond A 472(2185):20150790, 2016), it is needed that the second gradient stiffness depends on the first gradient of placement if large deformations and large displacements configurations must be described. The numerical identification procedure presented in this paper consists in fitting the macro-constitutive parameters using several numerical simulations performed with the micro-model. The parameters obtained by the best fit identification in few deformation problems fit very well also in many others, showing that the reduced proposed model is suitable to get an effective model at relevantly lower computational effort. The presented numerical evidences suggest that a rigorous mathematical homogenization result most likely holds.

  4. Fixed Points and Hyers-Ulam-Rassias Stability of Cauchy-Jensen Functional Equations in Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of homomorphisms in real Banach algebras and of generalized derivations on real Banach algebras for the following Cauchy-Jensen functional equations: , , which were introduced and investigated by Baak (2006. The concept of Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability originated from Th. M. Rassias' stability theorem that appeared in his paper (1978.

  5. Cauchy et le cours d'analyse de l'Ecole polytechnique

    OpenAIRE

    Gilain, Christian

    2011-01-01

    L’importance du cours de Cauchy à l’Ecole polytechnique est universellement reconnue ; ce cours a joué un rôle capital dans la constitution de l’analyse mathématique classique. Son contenu a été rapidement et largement diffusé grâce à cinq livres publiés à l’époque : Cours d’analyse de l’Ecole royale polytechnique, 1ère partie : Analyse algébrique (1821) ; Résumés des leçons données à l’Ecole royale polytechnique sur le calcul infinitésimal, tome premier (1823) ; Leçons sur les application...

  6. Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.

  7. The limit space of a Cauchy sequence of globally hyperbolic spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noldus, Johan

    2004-01-01

    In this second paper, I construct a limit space of a Cauchy sequence of globally hyperbolic spacetimes. In section 2, I work gradually towards a construction of the limit space. I prove that the limit space is unique up to isometry. I also show that, in general, the limit space has quite complicated causal behaviour. This work prepares the final paper in which I shall study in more detail properties of the limit space and the moduli space of (compact) globally hyperbolic spacetimes (cobordisms). As a fait divers, I give in this paper a suitable definition of dimension of a Lorentz space in agreement with the one given by Gromov in the Riemannian case. The difference in philosophy between Lorentzian and Riemannian geometry is one of relativism versus absolutism. In the latter every point distinguishes itself while in the former in general two elements get distinguished by a third, different, one

  8. Generalized Cauchy model of sea level fluctuations with long-range dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jia-Yue

    2017-10-01

    This article suggests the contributions with two highlights. One is to propose a novel model of sea level fluctuations (sea level for short), which is called the generalized Cauchy (GC) process. It provides a new outlook for the description of local and global behaviors of sea level from a view of fractal in that the fractal dimension D that measures the local behavior of sea level and the Hurst parameter H which characterizes the global behavior of sea level are independent of each other. The other is to show that sea level appears multi-fractal in both spatial and time. Such a meaning of multi-fractal is new in the sense that a pair of fractal parameters (D, H) of sea level is varying with measurement sites and time. This research exhibits that the ranges of D and H of sea level, in general, are 1 ≤ D sea level, we shall show that H > 0 . 96 for all data records at all measurement sites, implying that strong LRD may be a general phenomenon of sea level. On the other side, regarding with the local behavior, we will reveal that there appears D = 1 or D ≈ 1 for data records at a few stations and at some time, but D > 0 . 96 at most stations and at most time, meaning that sea level may appear highly local irregularity more frequently than weak local one.

  9. Goursat problem for the Yang-Mills-Vlasov system in temporal gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dossa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the characteristic Cauchy problem for the Yang-Mills-Vlasov (YMV system in temporal gauge, where the initial data are specified on two intersecting smooth characteristic hypersurfaces of Minkowski spacetime $(mathbb{R}^{4},eta $. Under a $mathcal{C}^{infty }$ hypothesis on the data, we solve the initial constraint problem and the evolution problem. Local in time existence and uniqueness results are established thanks to a suitable combination of the method of characteristics, Leray's Theory of hyperbolic systems and techniques developed by Choquet-Bruhat for ordinary spatial Cauchy problems related to (YMV systems.

  10. Integrable lattices and their sublattices: From the discrete Moutard (discrete Cauchy-Riemann) 4-point equation to the self-adjoint 5-point scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doliwa, A.; Grinevich, P.; Nieszporski, M.; Santini, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the sublattice approach, a procedure to generate, from a given integrable lattice, a sublattice which inherits its integrability features. We consider, as illustrative example of this approach, the discrete Moutard 4-point equation and its sublattice, the self-adjoint 5-point scheme on the star of the square lattice, which are relevant in the theory of the integrable discrete geometries and in the theory of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions (in this last context, the discrete Moutard equation is called discrete Cauchy-Riemann equation). Therefore an integrable, at one energy, discretization of elliptic two-dimensional operators is considered. We use the sublattice point of view to derive, from the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the discrete Moutard equation, the Darboux transformations and superposition formulas of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. We also construct, from algebro-geometric solutions of the discrete Moutard equation, algebro-geometric solutions of the self-adjoint 5-point scheme. In particular, we show that the corresponding restrictions on the finite-gap data are of the same type as those for the fixed energy problem for the two-dimensional Schroedinger operator. We finally use these solutions to construct explicit examples of discrete holomorphic and harmonic functions, as well as examples of quadrilateral surfaces in R 3

  11. On an inverse problem for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, Helge; Priuli, Fabio Simone; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    2014-01-01

    We study in what sense one can determine the flux functions k = k(x) and f = f(u), k piecewise constant, in the scalar hyperbolic conservation law u t + (k(x)f(u)) x = 0 by observing the solution u(t, ·) of the Cauchy problem with suitable piecewise constant initial data u| t=0 = u o . (paper)

  12. Data completion problems solved as Nash games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbal, A; Kallel, M

    2012-01-01

    The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.

  13. Multipoint Singular Boundary-Value Problem for Systems of Nonlinear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Šmarda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A singular Cauchy-Nicoletti problem for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is considered. With the aid of combination of Ważewski's topological method and Schauder's principle, the theorem concerning the existence of a solution of this problem (having the graph in a prescribed domain is proved.

  14. J.-L. Lions' problem concerning maximal regularity of equations governed by non-autonomous forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackler, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    An old problem due to J.-L. Lions going back to the 1960s asks whether the abstract Cauchy problem associated to non-autonomous forms has maximal regularity if the time dependence is merely assumed to be continuous or even measurable. We give a negative answer to this question and discuss the minimal regularity needed for positive results.

  15. Asymptotic behavior of the solution to the Cauchy problem for the Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III

    KAUST Repository

    Rahali, Radouane

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the decay property of a Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity of type III in the whole space where the heat conduction is given by the Green and Naghdi theory. Surprisingly, we show that the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the heat conduction of Green and Naghdi\\'s theory slows down the decay of the solution. In fact we show that the L-2-norm of the solution decays like (1 + t)(-1/8), while in the case of the coupling of the Timoshenko system with the Fourier or Cattaneo heat conduction, the decay rate is of the form (1 + t)(-1/4) [25]. We point out that the decay rate of (1 + t)(-1/8) has been obtained provided that the initial data are in L-1 (R) boolean AND H-s (R); (s >= 2). If the wave speeds of the fi rst two equations are di ff erent, then the decay rate of the solution is of regularity-loss type, that is in this case the previous decay rate can be obtained only under an additional regularity assumption on the initial data. In addition, by restricting the initial data to be in H-s (R) boolean AND L-1,L-gamma (R) with gamma is an element of [0; 1], we can derive faster decay estimates with the decay rate improvement by a factor of t(-gamma/4).

  16. Wellposedness and decay rates for the Cauchy problem of the Moore-Gibson-Thompson equation arising in high intensity ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Pellicer, Marta; Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Moore--Gibson--Thompson equation in $\\mathbb{R}^N$, which is a third order in time equation that arises in viscous thermally relaxing fluids and also in viscoelastic materials (then under the name of \\emph{standard linear viscoelastic} model). First, we use some Lyapunov functionals in the Fourier space to show that, under certain assumptions on some parameters in the equation, an energy norm related with the solution decays with a rate $(1+t)^{-N/4}$. But this doe...

  17. A combined spectrophotometric and morphometric study of the lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhler, Christian; Lena, Raffaello; Lazzarotti, Paolo; Phillips, Jim; Wirths, Michael; Pujic, Zac; Geologic Lunar Research (GLR) Group

    2006-08-01

    In this study we examine the spectral and morphometric properties of the four important lunar mare dome fields near Cauchy, Arago, Hortensius, and Milichius. We utilize Clementine UV-vis multispectral data to examine the soil composition of the mare domes while employing telescopic CCD imagery to compute digital elevation maps in order to determine their morphometric properties, especially flank slope, height, and edifice volume. After reviewing previous attempts to determine topographic data for lunar domes, we propose an image-based 3D reconstruction approach which is based on a combination of photoclinometry and shape from shading. Accordingly, we devise a classification scheme for lunar mare domes which is based on a principal component analysis of the determined spectral and morphometric features. For the effusive mare domes of the examined fields we establish four classes, two of which are further divided into two subclasses, respectively, where each class represents distinct combinations of spectral and morphometric dome properties. As a general trend, shallow and steep domes formed out of low-TiO 2 basalts are observed in the Hortensius and Milichius dome fields, while the domes near Cauchy and Arago that consist of high-TiO 2 basalts are all very shallow. The intrusive domes of our data set cover a wide continuous range of spectral and morphometric quantities, generally characterized by larger diameters and shallower flank slopes than effusive domes. A comparison to effusive and intrusive mare domes in other lunar regions, highland domes, and lunar cones has shown that the examined four mare dome fields display such a richness in spectral properties and 3D dome shape that the established representation remains valid in a more global context. Furthermore, we estimate the physical parameters of dome formation for the examined domes based on a rheologic model. Each class of effusive domes defined in terms of spectral and morphometric properties is

  18. Cauchy horizon stability in a collapsing spherical dust cloud: II. Energy bounds for test fields and odd-parity gravitational perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Néstor; Sarbach, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the Cauchy horizon associated with a globally naked, shell-focussing singularity arising from the complete gravitational collapse of a spherical dust cloud. In a previous work, we have studied the dynamics of spherical test scalar fields on such a background. In particular, we proved that such fields cannot develop any divergences which propagate along the Cauchy horizon. In the present work, we extend our analysis to the more general case of test fields without symmetries and to linearized gravitational perturbations with odd parity. To this purpose, we first consider test fields possessing a divergence-free stress-energy tensor satisfying the dominant energy condition, and we prove that a suitable energy norm is uniformly bounded in the domain of dependence of the initial slice. In particular, this result implies that free-falling observers co-moving with the dust particles measure a finite energy of the field, even as they cross the Cauchy horizon at points lying arbitrarily close to the central singularity. Next, for the case of Klein–Gordon fields, we derive point-wise bounds from our energy estimates which imply that the scalar field cannot diverge at the Cauchy horizon, except possibly at the central singular point. Finally, we analyze the behaviour of odd-parity, linear gravitational and dust perturbations of the collapsing spacetime. Similarly to the scalar field case, we prove that the relevant gauge-invariant combinations of the metric perturbations stay bounded away from the central singularity, implying that no divergences can propagate in the vacuum region. Our results are in accordance with previous numerical studies and analytic work in the self-similar case.

  19. A multiscale Cauchy-Born meshfree model for deformability of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. W.; Ademiloye, A. S.; Liew, K. M.

    In normal physiological and healthy conditions, red blood cells (RBCs) deform readily as they pass through the microcapillaries and the spleen, however, upon invasion by the malaria parasite, the host RBC membrane begins to lose their deformability. In spite of the progress in understanding malaria pathogenesis, the primary mechanism responsible for the loss of deformability remains unclear. In this paper, we examine the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection and maturation on the deformability of parasitized or infected red blood cells (iRBCs) by means of a three-dimensional (3D) multiscale red blood cell (RBC) framework. This multiscale framework is developed based on the Cauchy-Born rule and the meshfree IMLS-Ritz method. The atomistic scale strain energy density function of the RBC membrane was computed using a selected representative cell based on the membrane spectrin network. The results obtained from our numerical simulations affirm that the presence of malaria infection significantly increases the rigidity of RBC membrane. It was observed that in the trophozoite and schizont infection stages, biconcave cell geometry leads to better prediction than nearly spherical geometry in comparison with experimental studies. Furthermore, we confirm that increase in temperature also results to increased stiffening of the cell membrane. Lastly, the observed decrease in the deformability of iRBC membrane may be primarily due to the structural remodeling and changes in the microstructure of the membrane rather than the change in cell shape.

  20. Survey and new results on boundary-value problems of singular fractional differential equations with impulse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Firstly we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions of Cauchy problems of linear fractional differential equations (LFDEs with two variable coefficients involving Caputo fractional derivative, Riemann-Liouville derivative, Caputo type Hadamard derivative and Riemann-Liouville type Hadamard fractional derivatives with order q in [n-1,n by using the iterative method.

  1. Validity of the Cauchy-Born rule applied to discrete cellular-scale models of biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Davit, Y.

    2013-04-30

    The development of new models of biological tissues that consider cells in a discrete manner is becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to continuum methods based on partial differential equations, although formal relationships between the discrete and continuum frameworks remain to be established. For crystal mechanics, the discrete-to-continuum bridge is often made by assuming that local atom displacements can be mapped homogeneously from the mesoscale deformation gradient, an assumption known as the Cauchy-Born rule (CBR). Although the CBR does not hold exactly for noncrystalline materials, it may still be used as a first-order approximation for analytic calculations of effective stresses or strain energies. In this work, our goal is to investigate numerically the applicability of the CBR to two-dimensional cellular-scale models by assessing the mechanical behavior of model biological tissues, including crystalline (honeycomb) and noncrystalline reference states. The numerical procedure involves applying an affine deformation to the boundary cells and computing the quasistatic position of internal cells. The position of internal cells is then compared with the prediction of the CBR and an average deviation is calculated in the strain domain. For center-based cell models, we show that the CBR holds exactly when the deformation gradient is relatively small and the reference stress-free configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. We show further that the CBR may be used approximately when the reference state is perturbed from the honeycomb configuration. By contrast, for vertex-based cell models, a similar analysis reveals that the CBR does not provide a good representation of the tissue mechanics, even when the reference configuration is defined by a honeycomb lattice. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for concurrent discrete and continuous modeling, adaptation of atom-to-continuum techniques to biological

  2. Existence results for boundary problems for uniformly elliptic and parabolic fully nonlinear equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Crandall

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available We study existence of continuous weak (viscosity solutions of Dirichlet and Cauchy-Dirichlet problems for fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic and parabolic equations. Two types of results are obtained in contexts where uniqueness of solutions fails or is unknown. For equations with merely measurable coefficients we prove solvability of the problem, while in the continuous case we construct maximal and minimal solutions. Necessary barriers on external cones are also constructed.

  3. The concept of the urine test and specific reaction of the urine in various diseases according to Enrico Cauchi - member of the medical council of Malta (1933).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Visconti, Luca; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Savica, Vincenzo; Santoro, Domenico; Buemi, Michele; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The Study of urine from the outset has always aroused the interest of scientists and physicians all over the world, from ancient Greeks and Romans to Hindus , Hulcos in Mexico, Australian native etc. The urine in such case was considered not only as a waste product but also as a therapeutic product. In the late XIX century scientific knowledge had already identified the function of substances that favor the increase of urinary output, and physicians over the centuries have always tried to analyze urine in various ways. In Cauchis work in 1933 all chemistry and pathophysiological knowledge of the time was condensed. Cauchi signed the preface as Member of the medical council of Malta. He was a medical doctor of the early20thcentury, He wrote about the physiopathology of urine ranging from chemical and physical behavior, to the analysis of sediments and the special reactions of the urine in various pathologies. In particular Cauchi emphasizes the main diseases of the time combines the behavior of the reaction of urine as a diagnostic and prognostic instrument, stressing the importance of the urine test and describing the method used for analysis at the time. The analyses of the text in the issue seems to belong to archaic medicine, and it is difficult to think today, that what was presented as very up-to-date- science at that time, took place only 80 years ago. Reading the full original text with today experience we are led to consider the increasing importance that scientific community gave in the past, and still gives to urine test.

  4. A novel technique based on the homotopy analysis method to solve the first kind Cauchy integral equations arising in the theory of airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new efficient and applicable method in order to solve the first kind Cauchy integral equation is presented. For this purpose, this integral equation is converted to the second kind, then the homotopy analysis method is applied to solve the obtained integral equation. Also, the convergence of the proposed method is proved. Several applicable examples are presented which are appeared in the theory of airfoils in fluid mechanics. By plotting the $\\hbar$-curves, we show the convergence region of the examples and the tables of absolute errors for different values of $\\hbar$ and $x$ are tabulated.

  5. On Continuation of Solutions to Boundary Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modern investigation of the real-analytic continuability of solutions to boundary problems involves elements of complex and microlocal analysis, as well as the theory of pseudodifferential operators. Apart from its purely mathematical interest, this investigation can lead to significant improvement...... of numerical methods used in, e.g., acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In this talk, I shall take as the starting point the desire to improve one such numerical method, namely the so-called Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS). The latter is a promising numerical scheme, with the potential of replacing...... the traditional boundary layer formulations in the numerical solution of scattering problems. To address the convergence issues inherent to the MAS, I shall introduce a relevant general real-analytic continuation problem and describe how it can be reformulated in terms of an analytic Cauchy problem in the complex...

  6. Maximum Principles and Boundary Value Problems for First-Order Neutral Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domoshnitsky Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain the maximum principles for the first-order neutral functional differential equation where , and are linear continuous operators, and are positive operators, is the space of continuous functions, and is the space of essentially bounded functions defined on . New tests on positivity of the Cauchy function and its derivative are proposed. Results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for various boundary value problems are obtained on the basis of the maximum principles.

  7. The inverse scattering transform in the form of a Riemann-Hilbert problem for the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shepelsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cauchy problem for the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH equation \\[u_t-\\alpha^2 u_{xxt}+2\\omega u_x +3uu_x+\\gamma u_{xxx}=\\alpha^2 (2u_x u_{xx} + uu_{xxx}\\] with zero boundary conditions (as \\(|x|\\to\\infty\\ is treated by the Riemann-Hilbert approach to the inverse scattering transform method. The approach allows us to give a representation of the solution to the Cauchy problem, which can be efficiently used for further studying the properties of the solution, particularly, in studying its long-time behavior. Using the proposed formalism, smooth solitons as well as non-smooth cuspon solutions are presented.

  8. Multidimensional integral representations problems of analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Kytmanov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to integral representations for holomorphic functions in several complex variables, such as Bochner-Martinelli, Cauchy-Fantappiè, Koppelman, multidimensional logarithmic residue etc., and their boundary properties. The applications considered are problems of analytic continuation of functions from the boundary of a bounded domain in C^n. In contrast to the well-known Hartogs-Bochner theorem, this book investigates functions with the one-dimensional property of holomorphic extension along complex lines, and includes the problems of receiving multidimensional boundary analogs of the Morera theorem.   This book is a valuable resource for specialists in complex analysis, theoretical physics, as well as graduate and postgraduate students with an understanding of standard university courses in complex, real and functional analysis, as well as algebra and geometry.

  9. De Lacroix a Cauchy: La fundamentación del cálculo infinitesimal en José Mariano Vallejo (1807-1832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausejo, Elena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the foundations of infinitesimal calculus in the work of José Mariano Vallejo (1779-1846, the most influential mathematician in Spanish during the first half of the 19th century. For this purpose, the analytical foundations of his three main works related to infinitesimal calculus are considered: Memoria sobre la curvatura de las líneas en sus diferentes puntos, sobre el radio de curvatura y sobre las evolutas (1807, and the two editions (1813 and 1832 of the volume of his Tratado Elemental de Matemáticas devoted to calculus. The study shows the evolutionary dynamics of Vallejo’s thought, following the European leading references in the development of mathematical analysis in his time, and how Vallejo combines the successive influence of Lagrange, Lacroix, and Cauchy, according to criteria of educational adequacy and mathematical rigor. In particular, the influences and discrepancies on infinitesimal calculus between Vallejo’s Treatise (1813 and Lacroix’ Traité élémentaire de calcul différentiel et de calcul intégral (1802 are determined, as well as the scope of the introduction of Cauchy’s ideas, that were published for the first time in Spain in the second edition of the volume on infinitesimal calculus of Vallejo’s Treatise (1832.Este artículo estudia los aspectos relativos a la fundamentación del cálculo infinitesimal en la obra de José Mariano Vallejo (1779-1846, el matemático de mayor difusión en lengua española de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Para ello, se consideran los fundamentos analíticos de su Memoria sobre la curvatura de las líneas en sus diferentes puntos, sobre el radio de curvatura y sobre las evolutas (1807 y de las dos ediciones (1813 y 1832 del volumen de su Tratado Elemental de Matemáticas dedicado al cálculo infinitesimal. El estudio muestra la dinámica evolutiva del pensamiento de Vallejo al ritmo de las referencias europeas —especialmente francesas– que encabezan el

  10. The method of non-local transformations: Applications to blow-up problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanin, A. D.; Shingareva, I. K.

    2017-12-01

    The method for numerical integration of Cauchy problems for ODEs with blow-up solutions is described. It is based on introducing a new non-local variable that reduces a single nth-order ODE to a system of first-order coupled ODEs. This method leads to problems whose solutions are presented in parametric form and do not have blowing-up singular points; therefore the standard fixed-step numerical methods can be applied. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated with two test problems. It is shown that the first Painlevé equation with suitable initial conditions have non-monotonic blow-up solutions.

  11. The postulations á la D’Alembert and á la Cauchy for higher gradient continuum theories are equivalent: a review of existing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppecher, P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to found continuum mechanics, two different postulations have been used. The first, introduced by Lagrange and Piola, starts by postulating how the work expended by internal interactions in a body depends on the virtual velocity field and its gradients. Then, by using the divergence theorem, a representation theorem is found for the volume and contact interactions which can be exerted at the boundary of the considered body. This method assumes an a priori notion of internal work, regards stress tensors as dual of virtual displacements and their gradients, deduces the concept of contact interactions and produces their representation in terms of stresses using integration by parts. The second method, conceived by Cauchy and based on the celebrated tetrahedron argument, starts by postulating the type of contact interactions which can be exerted on the boundary of every (suitably) regular part of a body. Then it proceeds by proving the existence of stress tensors from a balance-type postulate. In this paper, we review some relevant literature on the subject, discussing how the two postulations can be reconciled in the case of higher gradient theories. Finally, we underline the importance of the concept of contact surface, edge and wedge s-order forces. PMID:26730215

  12. Singular integral equations boundary problems of function theory and their application to mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muskhelishvili, N I

    2011-01-01

    Singular integral equations play important roles in physics and theoretical mechanics, particularly in the areas of elasticity, aerodynamics, and unsteady aerofoil theory. They are highly effective in solving boundary problems occurring in the theory of functions of a complex variable, potential theory, the theory of elasticity, and the theory of fluid mechanics.This high-level treatment by a noted mathematician considers one-dimensional singular integral equations involving Cauchy principal values. Its coverage includes such topics as the Hölder condition, Hilbert and Riemann-Hilbert problem

  13. The basis property of eigenfunctions in the problem of a nonhomogeneous damped string

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Rzepnicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The equation which describes the small vibrations of a nonhomogeneous damped string can be rewritten as an abstract Cauchy problem for the densely defined closed operator \\(i A\\. We prove that the set of root vectors of the operator \\(A\\ forms a basis of subspaces in a certain Hilbert space \\(H\\. Furthermore, we give the rate of convergence for the decomposition with respect to this basis. In the second main result we show that with additional assumptions the set of root vectors of the operator \\(A\\ is a Riesz basis for \\(H\\.

  14. Blow up of solutions to ordinary differential equations arising in nonlinear dispersive problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Dimova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We study a new class of ordinary differential equations with blow up solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finite blow up time are proved. Based on the new differential equation, a revised version of the concavity method of Levine is proposed. As an application we investigate the non-existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem of Klein-Gordon, and to the double dispersive equations. We obtain necessary and sufficient condition for finite time blow up with arbitrary positive energy. A very general sufficient condition for blow up is also given.

  15. Iterative Method to Solve a Data Completion Problem for Biharmonic Equation for Rectangular Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajani Chakir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we are interested in a class of problems of great importance in many areas of industry and engineering. It is the invese problem for the biharmonic equation. It consists to complete the missing data on the inaccessible part from the measured data on the accessible part of the boundary. To solve this ill-posed problem, we opted for the alternative iterative method developed by Kozlov, Mazya and Fomin which is a convergent method for the elliptical Cauchy problems in general. The numerical implementation of the iterative algorithm is based on the application of the boundary element method (BEM for a sequence of mixed well-posed direct problems. Numerical results are performed for a square domain showing the effectiveness of the algorithm by BEM to produce accurate and stable numerical results.

  16. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXTREMAL PROBLEMS IN ARBITRARY DOMAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhin Mikhail Vasilevich

    2012-10-01

    The author considers the problems concerning where B is either a unit sphere in the (D space or one of the classes , p>1. He shows the possibility of the results concerning the characteristic of extreme functions, their uniqueness, the possilble presentation of the functions from the classes and with the use of the Cauchy-Stieltjes integrals in the component of the D\\ suppµ set and the boundary behavior of an extreme function from the (D class. One should note that the given mathematical system can be implemented for making decisions in the field of construction engineering and structural analysis, it can provide research assistants and engineers with the background necessary for developing sound solutions and rational proposals.

  17. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  18. Urination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  19. Problems in problem analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....

  20. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  1. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  2. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  3. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  4. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  5. Fixed energy potentials through an auxiliary inverse eigenvalue problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pálmai, Tamás; Apagyi, Barnabás

    2012-01-01

    An inverse scattering method based on an auxiliary inverse Sturm–Liouville problem recently proposed by Horváth and Apagyi (2008 Mod. Phys. Lett. B 22 2137) is examined in various aspects and developed further to (re)construct spherically symmetric fixed energy potentials of compact support realized in the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The method is generalized to obtain a family of inverse procedures characterized by two parameters originating, respectively, from the Liouville transformation and the solution of the inverse Sturm–Liouville problem. Both parameters affect the bound states arising in the auxiliary inverse spectral problem and one of them enables us to reduce their number which is assessed by a simple method. Various solution techniques of the underlying moment problem are proposed including the exact Cauchy matrix inversion method, usage of spurious bound state and assessment of the number of bound states. Examples include (re)productions of potentials from phase shifts known theoretically or derived from scattering experiments. (paper)

  6. Solution of 3D inverse scattering problems by combined inverse equivalent current and finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Emre; Eibert, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    An approach combining boundary integral and finite element methods is introduced for the solution of three-dimensional inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problems. Based on the equivalence principle, unknown equivalent electric and magnetic surface current densities on a closed surface are utilized to decompose the inverse medium problem into two parts: a linear radiation problem and a nonlinear cavity problem. The first problem is formulated by a boundary integral equation, the computational burden of which is reduced by employing the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Reconstructed Cauchy data on the surface allows the utilization of the Lorentz reciprocity and the Poynting's theorems. Exploiting these theorems, the noise level and an initial guess are estimated for the cavity problem. Moreover, it is possible to determine whether the material is lossy or not. In the second problem, the estimated surface currents form inhomogeneous boundary conditions of the cavity problem. The cavity problem is formulated by the finite element technique and solved iteratively by the Gauss–Newton method to reconstruct the properties of the object. Regularization for both the first and the second problems is achieved by a Krylov subspace method. The proposed method is tested against both synthetic and experimental data and promising reconstruction results are obtained

  7. Problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shane

    2014-06-01

    Problem gambling is an increasingly common problem in Australia. General practitioners (GPs) have an important role in ensuring that problem gambling is detected and treated. We review the clinical issues associated with the detection and treatment of problem gambling. At any one time 1% of the adult Australian population satisfy the clinical criteria for problem gambling; a further 4% are at a significant risk. Problem gambling frequently presents with other serious mental health conditions. There are several guidelines from the National Health and Medical Research Council and Australian Medical Association that recommend GP involvement in screening for problem gambling. Simple one-item tools are available for that purpose. GP screening and referral for problem gambling addresses the currently very low rates of treatment. Effective and durable psychological treatments are available for the treatment of problem gambling including cognitive behaviour therapy and motivational interviewing.

  8. A tutorial on inverse problems for anomalous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, anomalous diffusion processes in which the mean squares variance grows slower or faster than that in a Gaussian process have found many applications. At a macroscopic level, these processes are adequately described by fractional differential equations, which involves fractional derivatives in time or/and space. The fractional derivatives describe either history mechanism or long range interactions of particle motions at a microscopic level. The new physics can change dramatically the behavior of the forward problems. For example, the solution operator of the time fractional diffusion diffusion equation has only limited smoothing property, whereas the solution for the space fractional diffusion equation may contain weak singularity. Naturally one expects that the new physics will impact related inverse problems in terms of uniqueness, stability, and degree of ill-posedness. The last aspect is especially important from a practical point of view, i.e., stably reconstructing the quantities of interest. In this paper, we employ a formal analytic and numerical way, especially the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function and singular value decomposition, to examine the degree of ill-posedness of several ‘classical’ inverse problems for fractional differential equations involving a Djrbashian-Caputo fractional derivative in either time or space, which represent the fractional analogues of that for classical integral order differential equations. We discuss four inverse problems, i.e., backward fractional diffusion, sideways problem, inverse source problem and inverse potential problem for time fractional diffusion, and inverse Sturm-Liouville problem, Cauchy problem, backward fractional diffusion and sideways problem for space fractional diffusion. It is found that contrary to the wide belief, the influence of anomalous diffusion on the degree of ill-posedness is not definitive: it can either significantly improve or worsen the conditioning of

  9. Childbirth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mother, baby, or both. Possible complications include Preterm (premature) labor, when labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as breech, in which ...

  10. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  11. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  12. Multi-choice stochastic transportation problem involving general form of distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quddoos, Abdul; Ull Hasan, Md Gulzar; Khalid, Mohammad Masood

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have presented studies of multi-choice stochastic transportation problem (MCSTP) where availability and demand parameters follow a particular probability distribution (such as exponential, weibull, cauchy or extreme value). In this paper an MCSTP is considered where availability and demand parameters follow general form of distribution and a generalized equivalent deterministic model (GMCSTP) of MCSTP is obtained. It is also shown that all previous models obtained by different authors can be deduced with the help of GMCSTP. MCSTP with pareto, power function or burr-XII distributions are also considered and equivalent deterministic models are obtained. To illustrate the proposed model two numerical examples are presented and solved using LINGO 13.0 software package.

  13. Nonlinear problems in fluid dynamics and inverse scattering: Nonlinear waves and inverse scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablowitz, Mark J.

    1994-12-01

    Research investigations involving the fundamental understanding and applications of nonlinear wave motion and related studies of inverse scattering and numerical computation have been carried out and a number of significant results have been obtained. A class of nonlinear wave equations which can be solved by the inverse scattering transform (IST) have been studied, including the Kadaomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, the Davey-Stewartson equation, and the 2+1 Toda system. The solutions obtained by IST correspond to the Cauchy initial value problem with decaying initial data. We have also solved two important systems via the IST method: a 'Volterra' system in 2+1 dimensions and a new one dimensional nonlinear equation which we refer to as the Toda differential-delay equation. Research in computational chaos in moderate to long time numerical simulations continues.

  14. Solving the Quantum Many-Body Problem via Correlations Measured with a Momentum Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, S. S.; Khakimov, R. I.; Lewis-Swan, R. J.; Truscott, A. G.; Kheruntsyan, K. V.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum many-body theory, all physical observables are described in terms of correlation functions between particle creation or annihilation operators. Measurement of such correlation functions can therefore be regarded as an operational solution to the quantum many-body problem. Here, we demonstrate this paradigm by measuring multiparticle momentum correlations up to third order between ultracold helium atoms in an s -wave scattering halo of colliding Bose-Einstein condensates, using a quantum many-body momentum microscope. Our measurements allow us to extract a key building block of all higher-order correlations in this system—the pairing field amplitude. In addition, we demonstrate a record violation of the classical Cauchy-Schwarz inequality for correlated atom pairs and triples. Measuring multiparticle momentum correlations could provide new insights into effects such as unconventional superconductivity and many-body localization.

  15. Inverse problem for the equation with n-times integrated semigroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovsky, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    We consider an abstract differential equation of the first order with unbounded linear operator u‧(t) = Au(t) + f(t) in a Banach space X. For this equation the Cauchy problem is studied with initial data u(0) = x at t = 0. We assume that the operator A generates an n-times integrated semigroup V(t). The inverse problem to determine the nonhomogeneous member is considered under the assumption that this term has the following representation f(t) = p, where p is an unknown element of the space X. This problem belongs to the class of inverse problems. Inverse problems for abstract differential equations was discussed initially with this inhomogeneous structure member but for equations with an operator generating a C 0-semigroup. An additional condition u(T) = y is specified for the determination of the unknown p, where y is a given element of the space X. Thus we get the two-point problem, which had not been considered previously for integrated semigroups. The question of existence and uniqueness of the classical solution of the inverse problem is studied. Sufficient conditions of correct solvability of the inverse problem are obtained. Explicit formula to determine the unknown element in the differential equation is given.

  16. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  17. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also cause foot problems. The Most Common Types of Foot Problems In older adults, the foot complaints encountered ... people include: Arch pain . From fallen arches (flat feet), or abnormally high arches. Tarsal tunnel syndrome . A type of pinched nerve disorder. Achilles tendonitis . Inflammation of ...

  18. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during your menstrual cycle Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Problem periods Getting enough sleep Looking and feeling your best Fighting germs Your sexuality What are STDs and STIs? Seeing the doctor Quizzes Links to more information on girls' bodies girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home ... Problem periods It’s common to have ...

  19. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  20. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  1. Tongue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women have ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory medicines ...

  2. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... specialize in the care of people with kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? ...

  3. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Start OverDiagnosisThese thickened areas are likely to be CORNS. If they appear to have small granules in ... these problems. Self CareUse an over-the-counter corn or wart remover. Remove the dead skin after ...

  4. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  5. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  6. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted

  7. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-07-21

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted.

  8. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  9. Solving the time-evolution problem in 2 + 1 gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelbroeck, Henri

    We propose a new formulation of 2 + 1 gravity, with a finite number of observables. The initial surface is represented as a (non-planar) polygon in Minkowski space, with edges that are identified in pairs - any surface which rests on the polygon and is continuous at the identified edges can be thought of as the "initial surface". The time-evolution problem is set in the constrained hamiltonian formalism. As the polygon evolves in time, it carves a polygonal cylinder in Minkowski space, with walls that are identified in pairs. Closed timelike geodesics appear in most solutions with non-trivial topology; they are related to Cauchy horizons in Taub-Nut universes. The total mass (which in the static case is just 2π times the Euler number) is computed for various time-dependent solutions. A sphere with N moving particles has a "total mass" (sum of deficit angles)/less than 4π. Conversely, for particles on a plane the total mass (deficit angle at ∞) increases with velocity. A sphere with g ⩾ 1 evolving handles can accommodate a total stationary mass up to 2π, and no less than -2π(4g - 3). For a disk with g ⩾ 1 wormholes, the bounds are -2π(4g - 1) and -2π; consequently there are no "geons" in 2 + 1 dimensions.

  10. Approximation in generalized Hardy classes and resolution of inverse problems for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Y.

    2011-11-01

    This thesis concerns both the theoretical and constructive resolution of inverse problems for isotropic diffusion equation in planar domains, simply and doubly connected. From partial Cauchy boundary data (potential, flux), we look for those quantities on the remaining part of the boundary, where no information is available, as well as inside the domain. The proposed approach proceeds by considering solutions to the diffusion equation as real parts of complex valued solutions to some conjugated Beltrami equation. These particular generalized analytic functions allow to introduce Hardy classes, where the inverse problem is stated as a best constrained approximation issue (bounded extrema problem), and thereby is regularized. Hence, existence and smoothness properties, together with density results of traces on the boundary, ensure well-posedness. An application is studied, to a free boundary problem for a magnetically confined plasma in the tokamak Tore Supra (CEA Cadarache France). The resolution of the approximation problem on a suitable basis of functions (toroidal harmonics) leads to a qualification criterion for the estimated plasma boundary. A descent algorithm makes it decrease, and refines the estimations. The method does not require any integration of the solution in the overall domain. It furnishes very accurate numerical results, and could be extended to other devices, like JET or ITER. (author)

  11. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have BPH, you may need to wake up often to urinate when you sleep. If you can’t urinate at all, you should get medical help right away. Your doctor will know if you have a prostate problem based on ...

  12. [Transversal problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Mendoza, A; Solano Reina, E

    1990-04-01

    In this worn we introduce the alterations of the occlusion in the horizontal level or transversal problems, in which lateral crossed bites appear, either with or without a deviation of the medium line, underlying its differential diagnostic and guide lines treatment through several different clinic cases.

  13. Dewey's Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that Dewey tried to solve social problems related to the growth of industrialism, increasing economic inequality, and political inequality. Argues that Dewey aspired to create a counterculture to correct the human and social devastation of industrial capitalism through a curriculum and instruction that rooted academic learning in…

  14. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  15. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Problems and Causes Heart Murmurs and Valve Disease "Innocent" Heart Murmur Problem: Valve Stenosis - Problem: Aortic Valve Stenosis - Problem: Mitral Valve Stenosis - Problem: Tricuspid Valve Stenosis - Problem: Pulmonary Valve Stenosis Problem: Mitral ...

  16. Analytic Solution to Shell Boundary – Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Vinogradov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Object of research is to find analytical solution to the shell boundary – value problems, i.e. to consider the solution for a class of problems concerning the mechanics of hoop closed shells strain.The objective of work is to create an analytical method to define a stress – strain state of shells under non-axisymmetric loading. Thus, a main goal is to derive the formulas – solutions of the linear ordinary differential equations with variable continuous coefficients.The partial derivative differential equations of mechanics of shells strain by Fourier's method of variables division are reduced to the system of the differential equations with ordinary derivatives. The paper presents the obtained formulas to define solutions of the uniform differential equations and received on their basis formulas to define a particular solution depending on a type of the right parts of the differential equations.The analytical algorithm of the solution of a boundary task uses an approach to transfer the boundary conditions to the randomly chosen point of an interval of changing independent variable through the solution of the canonical matrix ordinary differential equation with the subsequent solution of system of algebraic equations for compatibility of boundary conditions at this point. Efficiency of algorithm is based on the fact that the solution of the ordinary differential equations is defined as the values of Cauchy – Krylova functions, which meet initial arbitrary conditions.The results of researches presented in work are useful to experts in the field of calculus mathematics, dealing with solution of systems of linear ordinary differential equations and creation of effective analytical computing methods to solve shell boundary – value problems.

  17. The global existence problem in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, L

    2000-01-01

    We survey some known facts and open questions concerning the global properties of 3+1 dimensional space--times containing a compact Cauchy surface. We consider space--times with an $\\ell$--dimensional Lie algebra of space--like Killing fields. For each $\\ell \\leq 3$, we give some basic results and conjectures on global existence and cosmic censorship. For the case of the 3+1 dimensional Einstein equations without symmetries, a new small data global existence result is announced.

  18. FUNDAMENTAL MATRIX OF LINEAR CONTINUOUS SYSTEM IN THE PROBLEM OF ESTIMATING ITS TRANSPORT DELAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dudarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of quantitative estimation for transport delay of linear continuous systems. The main result is received by means of fundamental matrix of linear differential equations solutions specified in the normal Cauchy form for the cases of SISO and MIMO systems. Fundamental matrix has the dual property. It means that the weight function of the system can be formed as a free motion of systems. Last one is generated by the vector of initial system conditions, which coincides with the matrix input of the system being researched. Thus, using the properties of the system- solving for fundamental matrix has given the possibility to solve the problem of estimating transport linear continuous system delay without the use of derivation procedure in hardware environment and without formation of exogenous Dirac delta function. The paper is illustrated by examples. The obtained results make it possible to solve the problem of modeling the pure delay links using consecutive chain of aperiodic links of the first order with the equal time constants. Modeling results have proved the correctness of obtained computations. Knowledge of transport delay can be used when configuring multi- component technological complexes and in the diagnosis of their possible functional degeneration.

  19. Use of Lanczos vectors in fluid/structure interaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeans, R.; Mathews, I.C.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of any numerical computational technique used for the solution of structural acoustics problems in the exterior infinite domain should be of accuracy with rapid convergence, robustness, and computational efficiency. A computer program has been developed to achieve each of these three goals. Accuracy and robustness in the numerical representation of the integral equations used to represent the infinite fluid was attained through the use of boundary element implementations of the surface Helmholtz integral equations. The computational efficiency was resolved through the use of Lanczos vectors to model the deformation characteristics of the structure. The authors have developed collocation and variational techniques to overcome the difficulties previously encountered in the numerical implementation of the hypersingular integral operator. The Cauchy singularity present in the integral formulation is made numerically amenable through the use of tangential derivatives in both the collocation and variational techniques. The variational approach has the advantage that the resulting added fluid mass term is symmetric and combines efficiently with a finite element approximation of the structural elastic response. Several different strategies making use of the Lanczos vectors have been investigated. The first involved the use of Lanczos vectors solely to characterize the structural response. This reduced form of the structural dynamical matrix was then substituted back into a Burton and Miller formulation of the acoustic problem. The second strategy investigated involved forming the complex Lanzcos vectors of the dynamical matrix formed from the addition of a symmetrical added fluid matrix to the structural mass matrix. The size of resultant matrix equation set solved at each frequency for this strategy is determined by the number of Lanczos vectors used. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  20. A boundary value problem for a third order hyperbolic equation with degeneration of order inside the domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzanna Kh. Makaova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the boundary value problem for a degenerating third order equation of hyperbolic type in a mixed domain. The equation under consideration in the positive part of the domain coincides with the Hallaire equation, which is a pseudoparabolic type equation. Moreover, in the negative part of the domain it coincides with a degenerating hyperbolic equation of the first kind, the particular case of the Bitsadze–Lykov equation. The existence and uniqueness theorem for the solution is proved. The uniqueness of the solution to the problem is proved with the Tricomi method. Using the functional relationships of the positive and negative parts of the domain on the degeneration line, we arrive at the convolution type Volterra integral equation of the 2nd kind with respect to the desired solution by a derivative trace. With the Laplace transform method, we obtain the solution of the integral equation in its explicit form. At last, the solution to the problem under study is written out explicitly as the solution of the second boundary-value problem in the positive part of the domain for the Hallaire equation and as the solution to the Cauchy problem in the negative part of the domain for a degenerate hyperbolic equation of the first kind.

  1. Genital Problems in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  2. An inverse problem for a nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui An Ton

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the dependence on the control q of the interval of definition of the solution u of the Cauchy problem ιu′+Δ u=−λ|u| 2u−ιqu in ℝ 2×(0,T,u(x,0=ω in ℝ 2, and we prove a version of Fibich's conjecture. Feedback laws for an inverse problem of the above equation with experimental data, measured on a portion of the boundary of an open, bounded subset of ℝ 2 are established.

  3. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  4. Adaptive Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    1) problem solving architecture; (2) problem representation ; (3) heuristics and control knowledge ; and (4) algorithms. In the area of problem... language which humans use to describe problems/domains and SAS+ is a standard problem representation input language used by many planners. Given a...implemented a system, MSP, that given a specific problem, automatically generates, evaluates, and assembles different combinations of representations and

  5. [A new method of identifying a systems based on the minimal quadratic discrepancy criterion for biophysics problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukhov, A V; Karnaukhova, E V

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of biophysical systems are described by nonlinear dynamic models mathematically presented as a set of ordinary differential equations in the Cauchy explicit form: [formula: see text] Fij(X1(t),..,XN(t),t), (i = 1,...,N, j = 1,...,M), where Fij (X1(t), ..., XN(t), t) is a set of basis functions satisfying the Lipschitz condition. We investigate the problem of evaluation of model constants aij (the system identification) using experimental data about the time dependence of the dynamic parameters of the system Xi(t). A new method of system identification for the class of similar nonlinear dynamic models is proposed. It is shown that the problem of identifying an initial nonlinear model can be reduced to the solution of a system of linear equations for the matrix of the dynamic model constants [aj]i. It is proposed to determine the set of dynamic model constants aij using the criterion of minimal quadratic discrepancy for the time dependence of the set of dynamic parameters Xi(t). An important special case of the nonlinear model, the quadratic model, is considered. Test problems of identification using this method are presented for two nonlinear systems: the Van der Pol type multiparametric nonlinear oscillator and the strange attractor of Ressler, a widely known example of dynamic systems showing the stochastic behavior.

  6. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  7. Menstrual Problems (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Menstrual Problems KidsHealth / For Parents / Menstrual Problems What's in ... like irregular periods or premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Common Menstrual Problems Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) It's common for women ...

  8. Health Problems in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems. You may have problems because of a health condition you had before you got pregnant. You ... being pregnant with more than one baby, a health problem in a previous pregnancy, substance abuse during ...

  9. Problems in differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, J L

    2013-01-01

    More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition.

  10. Performance Contracting: Problem Definition and Problem Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharis, James K.; And Others

    This skill laboratory provides a technique for problem definition and alternative methods to gather pertinent data that surrounds a given situation. Seven skills are discussed including Kaufman's tri-level needs assessment model, intergroup building, organizational slice, force field analysis, brainstorming, problem definition, and conflict…

  11. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  12. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  13. X-Ray Diffractometry of Thin Layers - Possibilities and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zucha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficieney of two deconvolution methods used in X-ray powder diffraction analysis is compared for thin films of Pd and Pt. The first method is the classical Stokes method and the second one is method of indirect deconvolution. But calculated integral breadth of Gauss and Cauchy components of Voigt function which describe the physical broadening are different. The analysis of the all found pheromones show that the method of indirect deconvolution gives more accurate results.

  14. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  15. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000066.htm Traveling with breathing problems To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most ...

  16. Challenging problems in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Over 300 unusual problems, ranging from easy to difficult, involving equations and inequalities, Diophantine equations, number theory, quadratic equations, logarithms, more. Detailed solutions, as well as brief answers, for all problems are provided.

  17. Social Problems in Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the current social problems in Macau—inequalities, problems in urban housing, traffic and transportation, air pollution, crime and deviant behaviour, and education. It does not focus on one social problem in detail; rather, it attempts to offer a broad picture of the issues from a sociological perspective. To help solve these problems, it seems that Macau has to build a stronger civil society and continue to democratise its political system. How Macau deals with these pr...

  18. The triangle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, Christoph; Hanzálek, Zdeněk; Konrad, Christian; Seddik, Yasmina; Sitters, R.A.; Vásquez, Óscar C.; Woeginger, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel scheduling problem, where jobs occupy a triangular shape on the time line. This problem is motivated by scheduling jobs with different criticality levels. A measure is introduced, namely the binary tree ratio. It is shown that the Greedy algorithm solves the problem to

  19. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  20. The problem of simultaneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, G.

    Drake's formula for the possible number of independent civilizations in the Galaxy is discussed in the light of several new hypotheses (e.g., Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis). Emphasis is placed on ways to overcome the time problem, i.e., the problem of how to communicate with civilizations that may arise in the future. Electronic, nucleonic, and bionic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  1. Classifying IS Project Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The literature contains many lists of IS project problems, often in the form of risk factors. The problems sometimes appear unordered and overlapping, which reduces their usefulness to practitioners as well as theoreticians. This paper proposes a list of criteria for formulating project problems...

  2. Problems for Computer Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Ronald; And Others

    This booklet contains some 80 problems in mathematics suitable for computer solution. The problems range from very simple to complex. Problems have been included from most mathematic disciplines, including number theory, analytical geometry, probability and statistics, trigonometry, equations, and sequence and limits. For the most part these…

  3. Assessment Problems in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.

    The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…

  4. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  5. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  6. Genital Problems in Infants (Female)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  7. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?...

  8. Creativity for Problem Solvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes specially related to problem solving. Central publications related to the theme are briefly reviewed. Creative tools and approaches suitable to support problem solving are also presented. Finally......, the paper outlines the author’s experiences using creative tools and approaches to: Facilitation of problem solving processes, strategy development in organisations, design of optimisation systems for large scale and complex logistic systems, and creative design of software optimisation for complex non...

  9. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  10. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  11. Art as metontological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Saša Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  12. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  13. Shielding benchmark problems, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shun-ichi; Sasamoto, Nobuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Shin, Kazuo; Tada, Keiko.

    1980-02-01

    Shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Assessment of Shielding Experiments in the Research Committee on Shielding Design in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Shielding Laboratory in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Fourteen shielding benchmark problems are presented newly in addition to twenty-one problems proposed already, for evaluating the calculational algorithm and accuracy of computer codes based on discrete ordinates method and Monte Carlo method and for evaluating the nuclear data used in codes. The present benchmark problems are principally for investigating the backscattering and the streaming of neutrons and gamma rays in two- and three-dimensional configurations. (author)

  14. Problems in baryon spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstick, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.

  15. Convex Congestion Network Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quant, M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes convex congestion network problems.It is shown that for network problems with convex congestion costs, an algorithm based on a shortest path algorithm, can be used to find an optimal network for any coalition. Furthermore an easy way of determining if a given network is optimal

  16. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  17. The Birthday Problem Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines variations on the classic problem that asks for the fewest number of people so that the probability of two people having the same birthday is at least one-half. Extends the problem to consider the probability of a bridge player having the same hand in a lifetime. (MDH)

  18. Problems in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Iosif Ilich; Geilikman, B T

    2006-01-01

    This challenging book contains a comprehensive collection of problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of varying degrees of difficulty. It features answers and completely worked-out solutions to each problem. Geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students, it provides an ideal adjunct to any textbook in quantum mechanics.

  19. The Problems of Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…

  20. Problem Solving and Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    formed. The Understand program ( Rayes & Sisnon, 1974) is i computer simulation of the problem understanding process for puzzle-like problems like the...current in a wire connected to a battery and a metal rod, depending on the temperature differential of the bar , the internal resistance of the battery, and

  1. GREECE--SELECTED PROBLEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS

    A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…

  2. Fractional location problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Barros (Ana); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); J.A.S. Gromicho (Joaquim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze some variants of the classical uncapacitated facility location problem with a ratio as an objective function. Using basic concepts and results of fractional programming, we identify a class of one-level fractional location problems which can be solved in

  3. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    The problems posed by the low flux of neutrinos from the sun detected by Davis and coworkers are reviewed. Several proposals have been advanced to resolve these problems and the more reasonable (in the author's opinion) are presented. Recent claims that the neutrino may have finite mass are also considered. (orig.)

  4. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  5. Managing Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James D.

    Schools need to meet unique problems through the development of special classroom management techniques. Factors which contribute to classroom problems include lack of supervision at home, broken homes, economic deprivation, and a desire for peer attention. The educational atmosphere should encourage creativity for both the student and the…

  6. The solar neutrino problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solar neutrino problem, the longstanding disagreement between the measured and predicted neutrino flux from the Sun, has moved from being a curiosity of solar physics to a research problem that now commands the attention of a large number of physicists who have at their disposal impressive experimental ...

  7. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  8. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  9. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  10. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  11. The moment problem

    CERN Document Server

    Schmüdgen, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...

  12. The Guderley problem revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kamm, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bolstad, John H [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.

  13. Solved problems in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents calculated solutions to problems in fundamental and applied electrochemistry. It uses industrial data to illustrate scientific concepts and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. It is subdivided into three parts. The first uses modern basic concepts, the second studies the scientific basis for electrode and electrolyte thermodynamics (including E-pH diagrams and the minimum energy involved in transformations) and the kinetics of rate processes (including the energy lost in heat and in parasite reactions). The third part treats larger problems in electrolysis and power generation, as well as in corrosion and its prevention. Each chapter includes three sections: the presentation of useful principles; some twenty problems with their solutions; and, a set of unsolved problems

  14. An imperfect bifurcation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloux, J.

    The problem considered in the present investigation involves the motion of a beam rotating around an axis at constant angular velocity. It is assumed that the beam, in its rest position, does not coincide exactly with the axis. This case leads to an imperfect bifurcation problem. The current investigation has the objective to provide a numerical approximation regarding the conditions in the considered situation. A finite difference scheme is discussed, taking into account the classical two-points boundary value problem. Attention is given to the relations concerning perfect and imperfect bifurcations, a theorem with respect to the existence of solutions for the considered problem, and the proof of this theorem. The physical problem considered involves a satellite with an antenna.

  15. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  16. Soliton solutions for ABS lattice equations: I. Cauchy matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhoff, Frank; Atkinson, James; Hietarinta, Jarmo

    2009-10-01

    In recent years there have been new insights into the integrability of quadrilateral lattice equations, i.e. partial difference equations which are the natural discrete analogues of integrable partial differential equations in 1+1 dimensions. In the scalar (i.e. single-field) case, there now exist classification results by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS) leading to some new examples in addition to the lattice equations 'of KdV type' that were known since the late 1970s and early 1980s. In this paper, we review the construction of soliton solutions for the KdV-type lattice equations and use those results to construct N-soliton solutions for all lattice equations in the ABS list except for the elliptic case of Q4, which is left to a separate treatment.

  17. Hermitean Cauchy Integral Decomposition of Continuous Functions on Hypersurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brackx Fred

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider Hölder continuous circulant matrix functions defined on the Ahlfors-David regular boundary of a domain in . The main goal is to study under which conditions such a function can be decomposed as , where the components are extendable to two-sided -monogenic functions in the interior and the exterior of , respectively. -monogenicity is a concept from the framework of Hermitean Clifford analysis, a higher dimensional function theory centered around the simultaneous null solutions of two first-order vector-valued differential operators, called Hermitean Dirac operators. -monogenic functions then are the null solutions of a matrix Dirac operator, having these Hermitean Dirac operators as its entries; such functions have been crucial for the development of function theoretic results in the Hermitean Clifford context.

  18. Sleep problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, R H; Bauchner, H

    1993-04-01

    Sleep, like eating and toileting, is an individual physical requirement that changes with time as the child matures. Although much about a child's sleep is biologically determined, extrinsic factors, usually through the parents, also mold the child's sleep behavior. Normal sleep for a child is restful to the child and not excessively disruptive to others. Sleep problems interfere with the quality of the child's sleep and frustrate or frighten caretakers. Several sleep problems have their origins in normal sleep behavior from an earlier age. Some, the parasomnias, are caused by self-limited biologic diatheses. Many sleep problems have psychosocial triggers. Sleep disorders only rarely are a primary medical problem that is adequately treated with medication (e.g., narcolepsy). Good history-taking, often accompanied by diary-keeping, will usually identify the problem--the first step in effective treatment. Treatment of a sleep disorder in the pediatrician's office can start with educating caretakers about normative sleep for the age of the child and providing information regarding the cause and natural course of the problem. Treatment also may involve behavioral or psychological intervention or both, but medication is generally not indicated. When needed for short-term treatment, mild sedatives such as antihistamines are used most often. More serious sleep or behavioral problems should be acknowledged by the primary care pediatrician, followed by referral to an appropriate specialist. Inquiry into a child's sleep habits at each well-child visit, coupled with appropriate anticipatory guidance, could make an important contribution to the child and family by preventing problems with sleep and identifying sleep problems early in their evolution. Pediatricians and parents can work together to help children develop good sleep habits that fulfill the child's evolving sleep requirements within the context of the family's needs and expectations.

  19. Extension problem for generalized multi-monogenic functions in Clifford analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Quyet Thang.

    1992-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to extend some properties of multi-monogenic functions, which is a generalization of monogenic functions in higher dimensions, for a class of functions satisfying Vekua-type generalized Cauchy-Riemann equations in Clifford Analysis. It is proved that the Hartogs theorem is valid for these functions. (author). 7 refs

  20. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  1. The Linear Ordering Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Marti, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of solving the hard optimization problems that abound in the real world, existing methods often encounter great difficulties. Important applications in business, engineering or economics cannot be tackled by the techniques that have formed the predominant focus of academic research throughout the past three decades. Exact and heuristic approaches are dramatically changing our ability to solve problems of practical significance and are extending the frontier of problems that can be handled effectively. This monograph details state-of-the-art optimization methods, both e

  2. Astronauts' menu problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  3. Problems in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D

    1973-01-01

    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  4. The Problem of Heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)

  5. Problems of research politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1977-01-01

    The development in the FRG is portrayed. Illustrated by a particular example, the problems of basic research and of the scientists are presented looking back, looking at the present, and into the future. (WB) [de

  6. Gait or Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait or Walking Problems the basic facts multiple sclerosis Many people with MS will experience difficulty with walking, which is also called ambulation. The term “gait” refers more specifically to the manner or pattern ...

  7. Mouth Problems and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth (periodontitis), canker sores, oral warts, fever blisters, oral candidiasis (thrush), hairy leukoplakia (which causes a rough, white patch on the tongue), and dental caries. Read More Publications Cover image Mouth Problems + HIV Publication files Download Language English PDF — ...

  8. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  9. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...

  10. Sleep Problems and ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep problems and their associations with quality of life (QOL, school attendance, and family impacts in children with ADHD were determined in a study at Royal Children's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  11. Women and sexual problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illnesses can cause problems with sex. Illnesses like cancer, bladder or bowel diseases, arthritis, and headaches may cause ... used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed ...

  12. Pelvic Support Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems may find that increasing the amount of fiber in their diets prevents constipation and straining during bowel movements. Sometimes a medication that softens stools is prescribed. If a woman is overweight or obese, weight loss can help improve her ...

  13. Challenging problems in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Collection of nearly 200 unusual problems dealing with congruence and parallelism, the Pythagorean theorem, circles, area relationships, Ptolemy and the cyclic quadrilateral, collinearity and concurrency and more. Arranged in order of difficulty. Detailed solutions.

  14. Open problems in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Jr, John Forbes

    2016-01-01

    The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer sc...

  15. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  16. The Elder Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Elder

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an autobiographical and biographical historical account of the genesis, evolution and resolution of the Elder Problem. It begins with John W. Elder and his autobiographical story leading to his groundbreaking work on natural convection at Cambridge in the 1960’s. His seminal work published in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967 became the basis for the modern benchmark of variable density flow simulators that we know today as “The Elder Problem”. There have been well known and major challenges with the Elder Problem model benchmark—notably the multiple solutions that were ultimately uncovered using different numerical models. Most recently, it has been shown that the multiple solutions are indeed physically realistic bifurcation solutions to the Elder Problem and not numerically spurious artefacts. The quandary of the Elder Problem has now been solved—a major scientific breakthrough for fluid mechanics and for numerical modelling. This paper—records, reflections, reminiscences, stories and anecdotes—is an historical autobiographical and biographical memoir. It is the personal story of the Elder Problem told by some of the key scientists who established and solved the Elder Problem. 2017 marks the 50 year anniversary of the classical work by John W. Elder published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics in 1967. This set the stage for this scientific story over some five decades. This paper is a celebration and commemoration of the life and times of John W. Elder, the problem named in his honour, and some of the key scientists who worked on, and ultimately solved, it.

  17. The Steiner tree problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, FK; Winter, P

    1992-01-01

    The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

  18. Solving Environmental Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    dispersed. Hence, firms need to collaborate. We shed new light on collaborative search strategies led by firms in general and for solving environmental problems in particular. Both topics are largely absent in the extant open innovation literature. Using data from the European Seventh Framework Program...... for Research and Technological Development (FP7), our results indicate that the problem-solving potential of a search strategy increases with the diversity of existing knowledge of the partners in a consortium and with the experience of the partners involved. Moreover, we identify a substantial negative effect......Recent innovation and strategy research emphasizes the importance of firm’s search for external knowledge to improve innovation performance. We focus on such search strategies within the domain of sustainable innovation in which problems are inherently complex and the relevant knowledge is widely...

  19. Computational problems in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Valeri

    2014-01-01

    This book provides readers with modern computational techniques for solving variety of problems from electrical, mechanical, civil and chemical engineering. Mathematical methods are presented in a unified manner, so they can be applied consistently to problems in applied electromagnetics, strength of materials, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, environmental engineering, biomedical engineering, signal processing, automatic control and more.   • Features contributions from distinguished researchers on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics; • Presents actual results and innovative methods that provide numerical solutions, while minimizing computing times; • Includes new and advanced methods and modern variations of known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.  

  20. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...... to work system innovation and discusses how Appreciative Inquiry, Problem Solving, and the combination ‘Appreciative Problem Solving’ can be used to optimize continuous work system innovation.These findings add to the theoretical foundation of the emerging field of Strength-based Lean....

  1. Problem Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Graaff, Erik; Guerra, Aida

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is an innovative method to organize the learning process in such a way that the students actively engage in finding answers by themselves. During the past 40 years PBL has evolved and diversified resulting in a multitude in variations in models and practices. However......, the key principles remain the same everywhere. Graaff & Kolmos (2003) identify the main PBL principles as follows: 1. Problem orientation 2. Project organization through teams or group work 3. Participant-directed 4. Experiental learning 5. Activity-based learning 6. Interdisciplinary learning and 7...... in Engineering Education. In answer to the requests for visits the Aalborg Centre for Problem Based Learning in Engineering Science and Sustainability under the auspices of UNESCO (UCPBL) a two days programme for visitors is offered two times a year. The workshop is an introduction workshop to the Aalborg PBL...

  2. Solved problems in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar Bloise, Félix; Bayón Rojo, Ana; Gascón Latasa, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental concepts of electromagnetism through problems with a brief theoretical introduction at the beginning of each chapter. The present book has a strong  didactic character. It explains all the mathematical steps and the theoretical concepts connected with the development of the problem. It guides the reader to understand the employed procedures to learn to solve the exercises independently. The exercises are structured in a similar way: The chapters begin with easy problems increasing progressively in the level of difficulty. This book is written for students of physics and engineering in the framework of the new European Plans of Study for Bachelor and Master and also for tutors and lecturers. .

  3. Atomic policies: history, problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, Cesare Giuseppe.

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of problems follow from the development of nuclear technology: its use in (diversion to) armaments, and its dangers for the population. Both arise as social phenomena: technology can be diverted to military aims; and installations require specific measures in order not to expose human life to danger. The diffusion of this technology required a series of tentative solutions for such problems. Its history constitutes our first part. The second part aims at understanding the dynamics, which led to the diffusion of such a technology in the capitalist world. The concept of subsumption (especially of its realization) is suited to interpret the meanings of the social interests, which led content ro this diffusion. Subsumption is found between labor and capital, but also between society and state. At both levels, it shows that there was some social meaning in the diffusion of nuclear technology notwithstanding its problems. 590 refs

  4. Translating a wicked problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tietjen, Anne; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2016-01-01

    In a time of increasing globalisation and urbanisation, shrinking peripheral rural areas have become a truly wicked planning problem in many European countries. Although a problem can be easily perceived and measured by various indicators, the precise definition of the problem is problematic. Based......, place-based and project-oriented process directed at concrete physical outcomes. We frame strategic planning as a translation process where the interaction between human and non-human actors translates a unique, complex and contested situation into an innovated situation. We find that local physical......-understandings, increased social capital, and follow-up projects initiated beyond the actual planning process. We conclude that local physical projects, when conceived in a collaborative and strategic manner, can contribute to sustainable adaptation to rural shrinkage....

  5. Sleep problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Katrina; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-12-01

    Childhood sleep problems are common, and frequently reduce the wellbeing and functioning of both child and family. The majority of childhood sleep problems are behavioural in origin. This article outlines the aetiology and features of sleep difficulties in children, from infants to teenagers, and provides a corresponding 'toolkit' of evidence-based behavioural management strategies. Childhood behavioural sleep problems manifest across age groups as various forms of difficulty initiating and/or maintaining sleep. These difficulties are often amenable to home-based behavioural interventions, which can be taught to parents and, de-pending on their developmental stage, the child or adolescent. Sustaining the intervention for sufficient sleep duration can be challenging for families. Community health practitioners play a central role in tailoring the explanation of management strategies to families and children or adolescents. Sleep diaries and education materials from evidence-based websites can assist the practitioner and family in achieving successful diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  7. Integrating Multimedia and Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron P.

    1997-11-01

    Although expert problem solvers typically use pictorial representations when solving problems, novices tend to proceed from the given problem statement to a mathematical solution without first developing a visual representation of the problem. For this reason, multimedia may be an effective tool to enhance students' success at solving problems. However, merely presenting a video of motion described in a problem is not necessarily the most effective method as was found in a recent study of students' responses on Web-based homework questions. Rather, multimedia-focused problems, where data relevant to solving the problem is embedded in a video or animation, may be the best use of multimedia in problem solving. Examples of multimedia-enhanced problems and multimedia-focused problems will be demonstrated, and their differences from "traditional" problems will be highlighted. Recommendations on the use of multimedia with problem solving and preliminary data on students' success at solving these problems will be discussed.

  8. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  9. Problems in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogan, V.I; Gersch, Harold

    1963-01-01

    Written by a pair of distinguished Soviet mathematicians, this compilation presents 160 lucidly expressed problems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics plus completely worked-out solutions. Some were drawn from the authors' courses at the Moscow Institute of Engineering, but most were prepared especially for this book. A high-level supplement rather than a primary text, it constitutes a masterful complement to advanced undergraduate and graduate texts and courses in quantum mechanics.The mathematics employed in the proofs of the problems-asymptotic expansions of functions, Green's functions, u

  10. The Problem Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2015-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is becoming increasingly popular in design educations, but how is it taught and practiced? This paper presents a case study of a three-day workshop that has the purpose of introducing PBL to design students. A theoretical background on PBL and problems in design is es...... is established and is backing up the case study. The study shows that design engineering and architectural students without experience in PBL in general finds the approach to be beneficial when working on a design challenge in a student team....

  11. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games....

  12. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  13. Calculus problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Ideal for self-instruction as well as for classroom use, this text helps students improve their understanding and problem-solving skills in analysis, analytic geometry, and higher algebra. More than 1,200 problems appear in the text, with concise explanations of the basic notions and theorems to be used in their solution. Many are followed by complete answers; solutions for the others appear at the end of the book. Topics include sequences, functions of a single variable, limit of a function, differential calculus for functions of a single variable, fundamental theorems and applications of dif

  14. Quantization for brachistochrone problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, M. B.; Unal, N.

    2003-08-01

    The brachistochrone curve corresponds to the minimization of the time functional. In this paper we discuss the dynamics of a massive particle, which moves classically on the brachistochrone curve under the potential V=- mgy. We derive the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian of the particle and show that this problem corresponds to the particle in an infinite wall with a harmonic oscillator potential and the solutions of Schrödinger’s equation are confluent hypergeometric functions. We also discuss the periodic potential problem for the brachistochrones and obtain the band structure of Kronig-Penney model for the particle with positive energy in a certain limit.

  15. The inverse brachistochrone problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Raul; Gomez, Sandra; Marquina, Vivianne

    2004-03-01

    Ever since Johan Bernoulli^1 challenge the mathematicians of his time with the problem of finding the least time trajectory (brachistochrone) of a body moving in the uniform gravitational field between two points not in the same vertical line, many papers have been published relating different facets of this problem. In this work we use simplified forms of Euler equations to find the expression that defines the brachistochrone associated with an arbitrary potential energy function and also the expression that determines the potential energy function for which an arbitrary curve would be a brachistochrone, ^1J. Bernoulli. Problema novum ad cujus solutionem mathematice invitantur. Acta Eruditorum Lipsiae, June 1696.

  16. Advanced calculus problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of advanced calculus currently av

  17. Problems over Information Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  18. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  19. Catastrophes control problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of catastrophe control is discussed. Catastrophe control aims to withdraw responsible engineering constructions out of the catastrophe. The mathematical framework of catastrophes control systems is constructed. It determines the principles of systems filling by the concrete physical contents and, simultaneously, permits to employ modern control methods for the synthesis of optimal withdrawal strategy for protected objects

  20. The Secretary Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider now the probability that a particular selection strategy gets the right candidate. If we can get these probabilities for all the possible strategies (a large set, no doubt!) then possibly we may get hold of the strategy with the highest probability and declare that as the 'best' strategy. 1 For obvious reasons this problem is ...

  1. LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS IN PASHTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAVARRIS-AGUILAR, O.L.; PENZL, HERBERT

    PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING SUITABLE DICTIONARIES OF PASHTO WERE REPORTED. PASHTO WAS DESCRIBED AS A MEMBER OF THE IRANIAN BRANCH OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFGHANISTAN AND IN NORTHEASTERN PAKISTAN. FIVE TOPICS DEALING WITH THE PASHTO LANGUAGE WERE DISCUSSED--(1) STATISTICS, (2) WRITTEN CORPUS AND LEXICAL STUDIES, (3)…

  2. The Bycatch Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. The Bycatch Problem - Effects of Commercial Fisheries on Non-Target Species in India. Aaron Savio Lobo. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 60-70 ...

  3. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A hip problem in infants is known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). It is when the ball of the ... later in life? Resources International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) International Hip Dysplasia Institute, Hip-Healthy Swaddling ...

  4. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General ... Author Affiliations. Rajat Tandon1. Department of Mathematics, University of Hyderabad, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046, India ...

  5. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 6. The Class Number Problem - Binary Quadratic Forms. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue ... Author Affiliations. Rajat Tandon1. Department of Mathematics, University of Hyderabad, Central University P.O. Hyderabad 500 046. India ...

  6. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  7. Metacognitions in problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Annika; Fernie, Bruce A; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2011-03-01

    Problem gambling is heterogeneous in nature, ranging in severity from occasional but problematic gambling episodes, to extreme, impulsive and pervasive gambling behaviour. Problem gambling may be accompanied by a sense of impaired control and can give rise to financial, interpersonal, legal and vocational costs for the sufferer, their families and society. This study investigated the relationship among metacognitions, anxiety, depression and gambling in a sample of problem gamblers. A total of 91 individuals attending gambling treatment services completed a battery of self-report instruments that consisted of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS). Correlation analyses showed that anxiety, depression and metacognitions were positively and significantly correlated with both gambling consequences and behaviour. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that two metacognitive constructs (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) predicted gambling behaviour independently of anxiety and depression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that metacognitions play a role in problem gambling.

  8. Human Population Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  9. The Birthday Problem Explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a classroom problem of probability as follows: How many people do you need in a group to ensure that the probability of at least two of them having the same birthday is greater than one-half? Answer: 23. The probability principles needed are simple enough to be accessible to advanced high school students. (PVD)

  10. Problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Sofie; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Loyens, S. M. M., Kirschner, P. A., & Paas, F. (2011). Problem-based learning. In S. Graham (Editor-in-Chief), A. Bus, S. Major, & L. Swanson (Associate Editors), APA educational psychology handbook: Vol. 3. Application to learning and teaching (pp. 403-425). Washington, DC: American Psychological

  11. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 28-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Solving Problems through Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.

    2015-01-01

    Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…

  13. Unfolding a Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Sarah Currier, a math specialist at Elizabeth Hall International School in Minnesota, describes how she used origami in a deliberate manner to teach content. She shares how she uses paper folding to teach mathematical concepts, reinforce vocabulary, and as a problem-solving model. She also offers ideas for using origami in other…

  14. The Three Colour Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    problem. This merely states a fact that any six-year old armed with crayons has long suspected - it is possible to colour any map in the family atlas with only four colours so that no two neighbouring regions have the same colour. Mathematicians have this habit of being precise, and they define a map to be a partition of some ...

  15. Problems in photoradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the most interesting photoradiation effects observed in recent years and directs attention to problems whose solution has a bearing on progress in photoradiation chemistry, and which also are significant for divisions of modern physical chemistry such as the kinetics and mechanisms of elementary processes in solid organic materials, the radiation resistance of organic materials, and aging in polymers

  16. Free discontinuity problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pratelli, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a series of lectures on three of the best known examples of free discontinuity problems: the Mumford-Shah model for image segmentation, a variational model for the epitaxial growth of thin films, and the sharp interface limit of the Ohta-Kawasaki model for pattern formation in dyblock copolymers.

  17. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Class Number Problem. 2. An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon received his PhD from Yale. University, USA. After an initial period as a visiting post-doctoral fellow at. TIFR, he joined the faculty of the North. Eastern Hill University, where he taught for a few years. For about two decades now, he ...

  18. Filter and Passband Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. T.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with achieving precision in photometric measurements of stars are examined. The thermal stabilization of glass and interference filters and the determination of correct analytic representations of bandwidth effects in data reduction are particularly discussed. Spectral sampling requirements are also addressed.

  19. Children Solve Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bono, Edward

    A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…

  20. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eigenvalue problems arising in engineering systems is dominated by perturbation methods. These methods work ... eigenvalues are presented and their limitations in the context of engineering dynamic systems have been ...... ment of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (eds) K S Jagadish, R N Iyengar.

  1. A Geometric Dissection Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 7. A Geometric Dissection Problem. M N Deshpande. Think It Over Volume 7 Issue 7 July 2002 pp 91-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/07/0091-0091. Author Affiliations.

  2. Environmental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  3. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The description of real-life engineering structural systems is associated with some amount of uncertainty in specifying material properties, geometric parameters, boundary conditions and applied loads. In the context of structural dynamics it is necessary to consider random eigenvalue problems in order to account for these ...

  4. A model for routing problem in quay management problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirour, Mourad; Oughalime, Ahmed; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Omar, Khairuddin

    2014-06-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), like Vehicle Routing Problem, is one of those optimization problems that interests many researchers in the last decades. The Quay Management Problem is a specific problem which could be presented as a QAP which involves a double assignment of customers and products toward loading positions using lifting trucks. This study focuses on the routing problem while delivering the customers' demands. In this problem, lifting trucks will route around the storage sections to collect the products then deliver to the customers who are assigned to specific loading positions. The objective of minimizing the residence time for each customer is sought. This paper presents the problem and the proposed model.

  5. Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Breathing Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem As ... However, aging sometimes brings on other more serious breathing problems including incapacitating shortness of breath, chest discomfort, ...

  6. How to solve mathematical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Wickelgren, Wayne A

    1995-01-01

    Seven problem-solving techniques include inference, classification of action sequences, subgoals, contradiction, working backward, relations between problems, and mathematical representation. Also, problems from mathematics, science, and engineering with complete solutions.

  7. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  8. Buffon's Coin Problem and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiter, Kady

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of Buffon's coin problem and related problems with the aid of an applet. The problems are accessible at a variety of grade levels and facilitate making connections between geometry and probability.

  9. Eldercare at Home: Mobility Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Mobility Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem The ... with a person’s ability to move around, or mobility. Mobility problems may be unsteadiness while walking, difficulty ...

  10. Thermodynamic problems on HCPWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mie

    1986-01-01

    A HCPWR design uses the high compact lattice core of 1 to 2 mm fuel rod pitch in order to decrease the water volume fraction to fuel. But such high compactness is considered to cause the decrease of coolant flow rate due to the increase of core pressure loss. And the high compactness also affects the DNB phenomena itself which is directly related to the output performance. Moreover, the coolability of the reactor core is considered to be affected at an accident. It is one of the most important problems for realizing a HCPWR plant whether or not we can design a reactor that preserves the output performance under the consideration of such thermodynamic affections. The thermodynamic affections caused by high compactness are arranged in this report, and the further research problems on HCPWR are also considered on presently available knowledge. (author)

  11. 2-Sensor Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Segal

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ad-hoc networks of sensor nodes are in general semi-permanently deployed. However, the topology of such networks continuously changes over time, due to the power of some sensors wearing out to new sensors being inserted into the network, or even due to designers moving sensors around during a network re-design phase (for example, in response to a change in the requirements of the network. In this paper, we address the problem of covering a given path by a limited number of sensors — in our case to two, and show its relation to the well-studied matrix multiplication problem.

  12. Problems of judiciary trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic of the article is problem of trust in judiciary as a most important part of legal system. For all empirical researches so far have shown very law degree of this trust many authors were searching for the causes of this phenomenon. Among multifold causes some are special worth while to be mentioned here: historical inheritance, political pressures, delaying of judiciary decisions, respect of the laws, transferring of responsibility from political power to the judiciary, public comments of judiciary decisions, media pressures, efficiency of judiciary and police. Among inner factors author pays attention to competency of judges, modes of penal policy, modes of judges’ entitlement, problems of communication, involvement into criminal and corruptional affairs, etc.

  13. FBST for Cointegration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, M.; Pereira, C. A. B.; Stern, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    In order to estimate causal relations, the time series econometrics has to be aware of spurious correlation, a problem first mentioned by Yule [21]. To solve the problem, one can work with differenced series or use multivariate models like VAR or VEC models. In this case, the analysed series are going to present a long run relation i.e. a cointegration relation. Even though the Bayesian literature about inference on VAR/VEC models is quite advanced, Bauwens et al. [2] highlight that "the topic of selecting the cointegrating rank has not yet given very useful and convincing results." This paper presents the Full Bayesian Significance Test applied to cointegration rank selection tests in multivariate (VAR/VEC) time series models and shows how to implement it using available in the literature and simulated data sets. A standard non-informative prior is assumed.

  14. – environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Łebkowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Adhesives are substances that increase the surface adhesion of bonded items. Unfortunately, they also emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs which negatively impact upon human and animal health. VOCs have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties and can cause migraines, irritation to the eyes, nasal passages, mouth, and lungs, and respiratory problems. Wastewater from adhesive production is characterized by high levels of pollutants and contains high concentrations of compounds including formaldehyde that are toxic to water biocenoses. Moreover, its purification causes many problems and requires the application of specific methods. This review presents data concerning the toxicity and ecotoxicity of selected adhesives components. VOC emission rates from adhesives and wooden construction elements with adhesives are also discussed and assessed. Current knowledge on the treatment methods for wastewater containing adhesive components is reviewed. Finally, the treatment and disposal methods for solid wooden waste containing adhesives are also analyzed and discussed.

  15. The grasshopper problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulko, Olga; Kent, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We introduce and physically motivate the following problem in geometric combinatorics, originally inspired by analysing Bell inequalities. A grasshopper lands at a random point on a planar lawn of area 1. It then jumps once, a fixed distance d, in a random direction. What shape should the lawn be to maximize the chance that the grasshopper remains on the lawn after jumping? We show that, perhaps surprisingly, a disc-shaped lawn is not optimal for any d>0. We investigate further by introducing a spin model whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a discrete version of the grasshopper problem. Simulated annealing and parallel tempering searches are consistent with the hypothesis that, for d<π-1/2, the optimal lawn resembles a cogwheel with n cogs, where the integer n is close to π (arcsin⁡(√{π }d / 2 )) -1. We find transitions to other shapes for d ≳π-1 / 2.

  16. Problems of licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Heřman, Karel

    2009-01-01

    This work concerns with possibilities of licensing. There are mentioned advantages and disadvantages of particular models. Further on, the prediction of future situation in the IT market, new techniques, trends and reasons of these changes are introduced. Work addresses to both types of software -- proprietary software and Open Source software. Next part of work deals with software piracy and problems, which are connected with it. In second part of the work are theoretical knowledge converted...

  17. Problems in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinescu, Florin; Spiers, JA

    1971-01-01

    International Series in Natural Philosophy, Volume 30: Problems in Quantum Mechanics focuses on the processes, principles, reactions, and methodologies involved in quantum mechanics. The publication first elaborates on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, simple quantum systems, and mean values and uncertainty relations. Discussions focus on mean values of dynamical variables, uncertainty relations, eigenfunctions and the energy spectrum, motion in a central field, matrix representation of vectors and operators, Hubert spaces, and operators in Hilbert space. The text then takes a l

  18. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyin, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The collection comprises the materials of working meeting 'The Development of Technologies of the 'Ukrytie' Radioactive Waste Management', held on May 20-21, 1997 in Chernobyl. The results of research work of the experts of Ukraine and other countries directed on solving problems, concerning removal of fuel containing materials and other radioactive waste from destroyed Unit 4 of Chernobyl NPP are given. The data on waste quantities, their location and classification, strategy of waste management and some technologies are described

  19. The inhomogeneous Suslov problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Naranjo, Luis C., E-mail: luis@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Departamento de Matemáticas y Mecánica, IIMAS-UNAM, Apdo Postal 20-726, Mexico City 01000 (Mexico); Maciejewski, Andrzej J., E-mail: andrzej.j.maciejewski@gmail.com [J. Kepler Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland); Marrero, Juan C., E-mail: jcmarrero@ull.edu.es [ULL-CSIC, Geometría Diferencial y Mecánica Geométrica, Departamento de Matemática Fundamental, Facultad de Matemáticas, Universidad de la Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Przybylska, Maria, E-mail: M.Przybylska@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, University of Zielona Góra, Licealna 9, 65-417 Zielona Góra (Poland)

    2014-06-27

    We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. We show that if the direction along which the Suslov constraint is enforced is perpendicular to a principal axis of inertia of the body, then the reduced equations are integrable and, in the generic case, possess a smooth invariant measure. Interestingly, in this generic case, the first integral that permits integration is transcendental and the density of the invariant measure depends on the angular velocities. We also study the Painlevé property of the solutions. - Highlights: • We consider the Suslov problem of nonholonomic rigid body motion with inhomogeneous constraints. • We study the problem in detail for a particular choice of the parameters that has a clear physical interpretation. • We show that the equations of motion possess an invariant measure whose density depends on the velocity variables. • We show that the reduced system is integrable due to the existence of a transcendental first integral. • We study the Painlevé property of the solutions.

  20. Problems in particle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Wilczek, Frank

    1994-10-01

    This report is a progress report on the work of two principal investigators in the broad area of particle physics theory, covering their personal work, that of their coworkers, and their proposed work for the future. One author has worked in the past on various topics in field theory and particle physics, among them current algebras, the physics of neutrino induced reactions, quantum electrodynamics (including strong magnetic field processes), the theory of the axial-vector current anomaly, topics in quantum gravity, and nonlinear models for quark confinement. While much of his work has been analytical, all of the projects listed above (except for the work on gravity) had phases which required considerable computer work as well. Over the next several years, he proposes to continue or initiate research on the following problems: (1) acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field and gauge theories, and more generally, new research in computational neuroscience and pattern recognition; (2) construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory, and their application to composite models of quarks and leptons, and to the problem of unifying quantum theories of matter with general relativity. One author has worked on problems in exotic quantum statistics and its applications to condensed matter systems. His work has also continued on the quantum theory of black holes. This has evolved toward understanding properties of quantum field theory and string theory in incomplete regions of flat space.

  1. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  2. A further problem of the hard problem of consciousness | Gbenga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Justifying this assertion is identified as the further problem of the hard problem of consciousness. This shows that assertions about phenomenal properties of mental experiences are wholly epistemological. Hence, the problem of explaining phenomenal properties of a mental state is not a metaphysical problem, and what is ...

  3. Characteristics of Problems in Problem-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on characteristics of problems in Problem-based Learning (PBL). Problems initiate the students’ learning process in PBL. Several studies have shown that the quality of problems has a positive influence on students’ academic achievement and interest. In addition, the

  4. Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairing, Jackson Pasini

    2017-01-01

    Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…

  5. Obstacle problems in mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J-F

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.

  6. Space Power Engineering Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    Development of space power engineering in the first half of XXI century shall be aimed at preventing the forthcoming energy crisis and ecological catastrophes. The problem can be solved through using solar energy being perpetual, endless, and ecologically safe. As of now, issues on the development and employment of solar power stations and its beaming to the ground stations in the SHF band are put on the agenda. The most pressing problem is to develop orbital solar reflectors to illuminate towns in the polar regions, agricultural regions, and areas of processing sea products. Space-based technologies can be used to deal with typhoons, green house effects, and "ozone holes". Recently, large, frameless film structures formed by centrifugal forces offer the promise of structures for orbital power plants, reflectors, and solar sails. A big success is achieved in the development of power generating solar array elements of amorphous silicon. These innovations would make the development of orbital solar power plants dozens of times cheaper. Such solar arrays shall be used in the nearest future on heavy communication satellites and the Earth remote sensing platforms for generation of 140-160 kW at a specific power beyond 300 W/kg. The cargo traffic needed to develop and maintain the orbital power plants and reflector systems could be equipped with solar sails as the future low thrust propulsion. In 2000, the mankind witnessed an unexpected beginning of energy crisis along with strong hydro- meteorological events (typhoons, floods) that shocked the USA, the Western Europe, England, Japan, and other countries. The total damage is estimated as 90 billions of dollars. The mankind is approaching a boundary beyond which its further existence would depend on how people would learn to control weather and use ecologically safe power sources. Space technology base on the research potential accumulated in the previous century could serve for the solution of this problem.

  7. The world food problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Argument continues in the world press as to the urgency of the food problem. Some economists in equating world food production statistics with population figures have convinced themselves there is more than enough food per capita and, accordingly, no problem. Looking in greater depth than these gross averages, however, we find that there is indeed a prospective problem, and of such a nature and magnitude as to tax all of mankind's talents and resources in its resolution. It is true that certain of the developed countries of the world in the last generation acquired agricultural production capabilities that notably exceeded the resident population's capacity to consume. 'Surplus' in these areas became an ugly word during this period of a generally favorable weather cycle, and restrictions on the amount of and that could be devoted to graincrops were imposed to curb this tremendous capacity. A fickle Mother Nature, however, has turned things around during the early 1970's by one or another of her many vacillations in the form of local drought, excess moisture, shortened growing season, or other means, in some of the major producing areas. Inconsequence, the food grain surpluses are now gone and the world is looking at a three to four week reserve at any given moment. The cost of food products available from exporting countries has doubled and trebled in price during the past two years. The potential for famine exceeds in magnitude anything the world has ever known. It is against this background that the World Food Conference will be held in Rome during November of this year. (author)

  8. Problems of political corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work speaks about general problems of political corruption in the world and in Serbia. The author tries to define the phenomenon of political corruption and pays special attention to financing political parties. Ćirić gives the overview of international documents about financing political parties and gives us the overview of MP's salaries in some western countries. At the end it is analyzed the question of trading MP's mandate, as a matter of fact who is the owner of the mandate of one representative - that representative, or his/her political party. That also could be the origin of different manipulations and corruption.

  9. The nanostructure problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction techniques are making progress in tackling the difficult problem of solving the structures of nanoparticles and nanoscale materials. The great gift of x-ray crystallography has made us almost complacent in our ability to locate the three-dimensional coordinates of atoms in a crystal with a precision of around 10 -4 nm. However, the powerful methods of crystallography break down for structures in which order only extends over a few nanometers. In fact, as we near the one hundred year mark since the birth of crystallography, we face a resilient frontier in condensed matter physics: our inability to routinely and robustly determine the structure of complex nanostructured and amorphous materials. Knowing the structure and arrangement of atoms in a solid is so fundamental to understanding its properties that the topic routinely occupies the early chapters of every solid-state physics textbook. Yet what has become clear with the emergence of nanotechnology is that diffraction data alone may not be enough to uniquely solve the structure of nanomaterials. As part of a growing effort to incorporate the results of other techniques to constrain x-ray refinements - a method called 'complex modeling' which is a simple but elegant approach for combining information from spectroscopy with diffraction data to solve the structure of several amorphous and nanostructured materials. Crystallography just works, so we rarely question how and why this is so, yet understanding the physics of diffraction can be very helpful as we consider the nanostructure problem. The relationship between the electron density distribution in three dimensions (i.e., the crystal structure) and an x-ray diffraction pattern is well established: the measured intensity distribution in reciprocal space is the square of the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function of the electron density distribution ρ(r). The fact that we get the autocorrelation function (rather than just the density

  10. Radiological waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter offers a description of the system of radioactive waste treatment as presented in the Belene NPP technical project and goes beyond the scope of the project evaluation in the account of the radioactive waste treatment, storage and disposal of other sources including the industry, science and the medicine of Bulgaria. The necessity for a developed legislative basis and an accepted policy regarding the radioactive waste management in the country is stressed upon. There is an elaboration on the problem of the construction of a new radioactive waste depository, the capacities of the existing disposal site being used up. 17 refs., 7 tabs. (R.Ts.)

  11. Elementary topology problem textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Viro, O Ya; Netsvetaev, N Yu; Kharlamov, V M

    2008-01-01

    This textbook on elementary topology contains a detailed introduction to general topology and an introduction to algebraic topology via its most classical and elementary segment centered at the notions of fundamental group and covering space. The book is tailored for the reader who is determined to work actively. The proofs of theorems are separated from their formulations and are gathered at the end of each chapter. This makes the book look like a pure problem book and encourages the reader to think through each formulation. A reader who prefers a more traditional style can either find the pr

  12. Pizza Race Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Keyue

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a problem in which two players share a previously sliced pizza and try to eat as much amount of pizza as they can. It takes time to eat each piece of pizza and both players eat pizza at the same rate. One is allowed to take a next piece only after the person has finished eating the piece on hand. Also, after the first piece is taken, one can only take a piece which is adjacent to already-taken piece. This paper shows that, in this real time setting, the starting player c...

  13. The confinement problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, E.

    1985-01-01

    Confinement of quarks is sometimes taken as some kind of dogma in the contemporary theory of strong interactions - quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD). Scientists should not be content with that. What is meant by ''permanent confinement'' should be formulated more precisely to see whether the theory has this property or not. The author looks at some possible interpretations of ''confinement'' and their shortcomings and then turns to the most widely used rather pragmatic definition based on the somewhat unphysical notion of infinitely heavy external sources. He describes what is known about the problem and tries to bring into focus some aspects that are insufficiently understood in his opinion

  14. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  15. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types....... In addition to our project two other projects are made where an optimal solution to the container stowage problem also is tried to be found, but by using constraint programming and local search instead respectively. We will therefore in the end compare these three methods and the achieved results on fastness...

  16. Problems in Cybersemiotic Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2014-01-01

    on the basis of the evolutionary semiotics paradigm of C.S. Peirce . Semiotics underlines realism more, but is also relational in its whole project. In Cybersemiotics the autopoietic model in integrated in the Peircean framework which is of a far greater scope than autopoiesis. Thus in Cybersemiotic we have...... Uexküll’s cybernetic-behavioral model, which has the problem of being placed in a Platonic, static worldview. The Umwelt of an animal is a construction limited of its functional realism of survival. It is connected to the species. 2. Ture von Uexküll and Søren Brier both realized that Maturana and Varela...

  17. Problem Based Learning Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2018-01-01

    “How do two online learning designs affect student engagement in the PBL online modules?” The empirical data were collected and analyzed using a netnographic approach. The study finds that concepts such as self-directed learning and active involvement may be perceived very differently from the students......Problem- and project- based learning (PBL) was originally developed for collaboration between physically present students and teachers, but political decisions at many universities also require that collaboration, dialogues, and other PBL activities take place online. Teachers design learning...

  18. The Birthday-Lunch Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Three responses from teachers to a problem originally presented in the January-February 1996 issue are shared. The problem concerns sharing a fraction of a meal's price between six diners. Each response reflects a different approach to the problem and to using the problem with a class of students. (AIM)

  19. Problem Solving in the Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackling, Noel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…

  20. Dimensions of problem based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2013-01-01

    The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning such...

  1. Design Problems for Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Are there different kinds of design problems? Jonassen (2011) argued that problems vary in terms of structuredness, complexity, and context. On the structuredness and complexity continua, design problems tend to be the most ill-structured and complex. Brown and Chandrasekaran suggest that design problems may vary along a continuum from…

  2. Problem situations in management activity

    OpenAIRE

    N.A. DUBINKO

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary methodological and theoretical approaches to the problem situations in management activity. Revealed and analyzed the types of problem situations managers dealing with in their activity. Rank correlation of problem situations shows distinctions depending on management work experience. Revealed gender distinctions in the managers' ideas of management problems.

  3. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  4. Urban Environmental Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situma, F.D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid urbanization and resultant heavy concentration of population in urban centres have led to many urban areas failing to provide the necessary infrastructure and amenities as the demands placed on them have overwhelmed their financial and institutional capacities. In many urban areas, the capacity for resource mobilization and delivery of social services has either broken down completely or tethers on breaking point. Although in 1986 the GoK launched a new strategy for the balanced development of rural and urban areas aimed at avoiding excessive concentration of population in urban areas, the fruits of this strategy are yet to be realized. As a result, developments in urban areas have been unsustainable and environmentally unsound. The general quality of the environment has deteriorated so much so that urgent policy intervention is required. Appropriate environmental management measures and practices are needed to address the current trend of spiralling environmental problems in the context of the existing legal and institutional frameworks and makes some proposals for reform to address these problems in order to make urban areas environmentally

  5. The Schroedinger problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, N.C.A.; Krause, D.; French, S.

    1992-01-01

    Schroedinger introduced discussions about the inconsistency between the classical conception of particles as individual entities and the way in which modern physics treats such particles. In particular, it is noted that quantal particles apparently appear to lack individuality, and that certain suppositions of quantum theory imply that permutations of 'identical' particles are not regarded as observable, hence implying that they must be taken as 'non-individuals' of some kind. An overview is presented in this paper of some results obtained by the authors in the field of non-reflexive logics, which have some bearings on these problems and which can perhaps provide an adequate mathematical tool for dealing with some of the fundamental features of elementary particles, such as for instance the fact that identity apparently lacks sense with respect to them, that particle permutations are not regarded as observable and that a collection of these entities cannot be considered as a set in the sense of the usual theories of sets. The main objective of the paper is to show that the nature of elementary particles can be described in terms of certain non-classical logics, despite the problems regarding their individuality. (authors). 28 refs

  6. The Password Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, Elizabeth [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Passwords are an ubiquitous, established part of the Internet today, but they are also a huge security headache. Single sign-on, OAuth, and password managers are some of the solutions to this problem. OAuth is a new, popular method that allows people to use large, common authentication providers for many web applications. However, it comes at the expense of some privacy: OAuth makes users easy to track across websites, applications, and devices. Password managers put the power in the hands of the users, but this vulnerability survey reveals that you have to be extremely careful which program you choose. All in all, password managers are the solution of choice for home users and small organizations, but large companies will probably want to invest in their own SSO solutions.

  7. Environmental mercury problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Itri, F.M.

    1972-01-01

    The urgent need to eliminate or greatly reduce the discharge of mercury into the environment is paramount to the health and well being of man. That all forms of mercury are hazardous is widely recognized, but what is more devastating to our society is that all forms of mercury appear to have the potential to be converted in to highly toxic monomethylmercury, or dimethylmercury. This paper examined the historical uses of mercury, the background concentrations of mercury, the analytical methods for the determination of mercury, the contamination of the food chain by mercury, the biological methylation of mercury, the decontamination and restoration of mercury polluted areas, the epidemiology and toxicology of mercury, and the chronology of the world's mercury poisoning problem.

  8. Problems in particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.; Wilczek, F.

    1992-11-01

    Members of the Institute have worked on a number of problems including the following: acceleration algorithms for the Monte Carlo analysis of lattice field, and gauge and spin theories, based on changes of variables specific to lattices of dimension 2 ell ; construction of quaternionic generalizations of complex quantum mechanics and field theory; wave functions for paired Hall states; black hole quantum mechanics; generalized target-space duality in curved string backgrounds; gauge symnmetry algebra of the N = 2 string; two-dimensional quantum gravity and associated string theories; organizing principles from which the signal processing of neural networks in the retina and cortex can be deduced; integrable systems of KdV type; and a theory for Kondo insulators

  9. The global warming problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this chapter, a discussion is presented of the global warming problem and activities contributing to the formation of acid rain, urban smog and to the depletion of the ozone layer. Globally, about two-thirds of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions arise from fossil-fuel burning; the rest arise primarily from deforestation. Chlorofluorocarbons are the second largest contributor to global warming, accounting for about 20% of the total. The third largest contributor is methane, followed by ozone and nitrous oxide. A study of current activities in the US that contribute to global warming shows the following: electric power plants account for about 33% of carbon dioxide emissions; motor vehicles, planes and ships (31%); industrial plants (24%); commercial and residential buildings (11%)

  10. Problems in Protein Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Peter

    1966-01-01

    Outline of the steps in protein synthesis. Nature of the genetic code. The use of synthetic oligo- and polynucleotides in deciphering the code. Structure of the code: relatedness of synonym codons. The wobble hypothesis. Chain initiation and N-formyl-methionine. Chain termination and nonsense codons. Mistakes in translation: ambiguity in vitro. Suppressor mutations resulting in ambiguity. Limitations in the universality of the code. Attempts to determine the particular codons used by a species. Mechanisms of suppression, caused by (a) abnormal aminoacyl-tRNA, (b) ribosomal malfunction. Effect of streptomycin. The problem of "reading" a nucleic acid template. Different ribosomal mutants and DNA polymerase mutants might cause different mistakes. The possibility of involvement of allosteric proteins in template reading. PMID:5338560

  11. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Esema

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem-Based Learning (PBL, adalah model pembelajaran yang awalnya dikembangkan di dunia pendidikan medis, namun kini telah digunakan secara luas di berbagai jenjang dan bidang pendidikan. Basis teortits dari PBL adalah kolaborativisme dan konstruktivisme. Kemitraan, keterbukaan dan kejujuran, rasa hormat, dan kepercayaan menjadi nilai-nilai yang mendasari dan sekaligus menjadi prasyarat bagi keberhasilan PBL Sintaks PBL meliputi: pengenalan dan pemahaman konsep dasar, eksplorasi fakta dan informasi relevan secara mandiri, bertukar pemahaman dalam kelompok/kelas, kesimpulan dan evaluasi. Beberapa riset mengenai PBL baik di luar maupun di dalam negeri yang dipaparkan dan dibandingkan dalam tulisan ini menunjukkan data tentang efektifitas PBL dalam kegiatan pembelajaran.

  12. The solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatsepin, G.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of missing solar neutrinos is reviewed and discussed. The experiments of the 70s show a solar neutrino flux to be 4 times lower than the flux predicted by the standard model of the Sun. The three possible origins of this contradiction are analysed: the cross sections of nuclear reactions going on in the internal region of the Sun must be remeasured; the unknown properties of neutrino, like neutrino oscillation or decay, must be investigated theoretically and experimentally; or the standard model of the Sun must be changed, e.g. by a periodically pulsating star model or by a model describing periodic admixtures of He-3 to the central region of the Sun. Some new models and newly proposed experiments are described. The importance of new electronic detection methods of neutrinos is underlined. (D.Gy.)

  13. Problems of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbyin, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This collection comprises the materials of the VI International Conference 'Shelter' Object', 15 years: today and future'. The topics of this issue's works cover the results of 15-year operation of the Shelter Object and investigations of conditions of its nuclear-, radiation- and general technical safety, procedures of monitoring of fuel-containing material conditions, building structures, problems of object's conversion into an ecologically safe system, preparation of technologies for radwaste (RW) management, working out of procedures using the remotely controlled facilities for diagnostics, prospecting of complicated in access Shelter Object premises, RW retrieval and management, etc. A very important role play the works aimed at the upgrade of radiation safety, protection of public and environment

  14. A stochastic control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Margulies

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a specific stochastic differential equation depending on a parameter and obtain a representation of its probability density function in terms of Jacobi Functions. The equation arose in a control problem with a quadratic performance criteria. The quadratic performance is used to eliminate the control in the standard Hamilton-Jacobi variational technique. The resulting stochastic differential equation has a noise amplitude which complicates the solution. We then solve Kolmogorov's partial differential equation for the probability density function by using Jacobi Functions. A particular value of the parameter makes the solution a Martingale and in this case we prove that the solution goes to zero almost surely as time tends to infinity.

  15. The problem of Millenarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik af Edholm

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The myth of the recurrence of the golden age after a period of accelerating miseries ("messianic woes" in the near future is of course not peculiar to the chiliasm of the European later middle ages. On the contrary, it belongs to the basic eschatological themes of millenarism in general. These themes are found also in Hindu tradition. To determine those general characteristics of traditional Hindu society which can contribute to an explanation of the relative unimportance of peasant rebellions and the lack of chiliastic mass movements, is not a problem to be solved within the field of the history of religions. For example, the egalitarian message of the bhakti saints, disputing the hierarchy, did not preclude that the salvationist sects did adapt to the caste system. The religious movements contributed to and gave ideological form to adjustments within the existing social structure. Obviously there was little need for millenarism in this process.

  16. [Sleep problems in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in patients with dementia. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are caused by the disturbance of sleep-wake regulation in the central nervous system, disturbed input into the sensory organs, and decreased social activities. Diurnal change of serum melatonin level in Alzheimer's disease showed decreased amplitude and shifted peak secretion. Age related sleep disturbances and sleep disorders due to the neurodegeneration including REM sleep behavior disorder also increase in dementia. Identifying and treating underlying sleep disorders along with therapeutic approach to circadian mechanism is effective. Treatment of circadian abnormality in dementia require light therapy and increased daytime activity. Use of oral melatonin is also effective for the improvement of nocturnal sleep. Treatment of sleep problems in dementia also contribute to the better management of dementia.

  17. Wicked Problem Solvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2016-06-01

    Companies today increasingly rely on teams that span many industries for radical innovation, especially to solve "wicked problems." So leaders have to understand how to promote collaboration when roles are uncertain, goals are shifting, expertise and organizational cultures are varied, and participants have clashing or even antagonistic perspectives. HBS professor Amy Edmondson has studied more than a dozen cross-industry innovation projects, among them the creation of a new city, a mango supply-chain transformation, and the design and construction of leading-edge buildings. She has identified the leadership practices that make successful cross-industry teams work: fostering an adaptable vision, promoting psychological safety, enabling knowledge sharing, and encouraging collaborative innovation. Though these practices are broadly familiar, their application within cross-industry teams calls for unique leadership approaches that combine flexibility, open-mindedness, humility, and fierce resolve.

  18. PROBLEMS OF HOMOSEXUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Norman

    1957-01-01

    Moral, religious and legal attitudes in attempts to control sexual behavior have interfered with a clear view of the medical and psychological aspects of homosexuality. This phenomenon is probably much less destructive of social aspects of our society and culture than is generally believed, since it is actually more widespread than is generally acknowledged. Homosexuality probably has hormonal and undoubtedly social and psychological factors, the latter of which are the only ones which can be worked with successfully in our present state of knowledge. A general practitioner's task is to aid those who wish and need help with this problem in finding psychiatric treatment in the same way that persons with any other emotional disturbance are referred. This should be carried out without bias just as with any other emotional disturbance. PMID:13426813

  19. Problem Teologis Ideologi Komunisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Yakub Mubaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the communism had affected the history of this world. This ideology had succeeded influencing a third of the world in less than one century after Karl Marx’s death and it had caused some revolutionary movements at some countries of the world. It is interesting to say that even what Marx had predicted about the history of human being in the future was not surely proven, but his ideas have been affecting people. But, the communism has serious problems related to the theological matter for sure. It could make people becoming atheist. Moreover, it could create the people hate their religion, but they could become religion’s antagonists. Marx’s hatred toward religions was expressed by the words: “Religion is the opium of the masses”. Then Lenin, another figure of the communism, did a discrimination to religious people, as well as, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong who prohibited all kinds of religious activities during their lifetime. Long time ago, thousands of Indonesian Moslems were becoming victims of a communist party in Indonesia (PKI. Nowadays, the communism doctrine begins to appear and affect some youths of Indonesia. Perhaps, it does because they have been frustrated and being disappointed by the socio-political condition which is controlled by modern capitalists. But, they have to be aware that the communism is not a solution. In fact, it is surely dangerous. It could ruin religions’ concepts. Hence, this article would try to explain some theological problems of the communism ideology.

  20. The worldwide "wildfire" problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A Malcolm; Stephens, Scott L; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2013-03-01

    The worldwide "wildfire" problem is headlined by the loss of human lives and homes, but it applies generally to any adverse effects of unplanned fires, as events or regimes, on a wide range of environmental, social, and economic assets. The problem is complex and contingent, requiring continual attention to the changing circumstances of stakeholders, landscapes, and ecosystems; it occurs at a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Minimizing adverse outcomes involves controlling fires and fire regimes, increasing the resistance of assets to fires, locating or relocating assets away from the path of fires, and, as a probability of adverse impacts often remains, assisting recovery in the short-term while promoting the adaptation of societies in the long-term. There are short- and long-term aspects to each aspect of minimization. Controlling fires and fire regimes may involve fire suppression and fuel treatments such as prescribed burning or non-fire treatments but also addresses issues associated with unwanted fire starts like arson. Increasing the resistance of assets can mean addressing the design and construction materials of a house or the use of personal protective equipment. Locating or relocating assets can mean leaving an area about to be impacted by fire or choosing a suitable place to live; it can also mean the planning of land use. Assisting recovery and promoting adaptation can involve insuring assets and sharing responsibility for preparedness for an event. There is no single, simple, solution. Perverse outcomes can occur. The number of minimizing techniques used, and the breadth and depth of their application, depends on the geographic mix of asset types. Premises for policy consideration are presented.

  1. International safeguards problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.; Curtis, H.B.

    1977-01-01

    To recognize the limitations of safeguards as a barrier to nuclear proliferation is not to deny their essential role in the effort to contain that problem. Without a safeguards system, international nuclear commerce and development would not, indeed could not, be what they are today. The problems evoked in the discussion of the spread of sensitive nuclear technology underscore the importance of ensuring that activities do not outpace our ability to control them. To sustain a global nuclear economy requires a readiness to live within the constraints that such an economy requires. Enhanced safeguards and strengthened national commitments to facilitate their application are key elements of those constraints. So also may be a prepardness by many nations to forego explicitly national control over all facets of the nuclear fuel cycle while still sharing fully and equally in the benefits of the peaceful atom. The challenge of the coming years will be to craft mechanisms and institutions enabling the continued growth of peaceful nuclear activity without further impairing international security. The constraints that such an outcome entails are not limited to nations lacking sophisticated nuclear technology; they apply to the most advanced nuclear nations as well--partly through adherence to the safeguards system that these countries call upon others to adopt, and partly through greater willingness to entertain solutions that may involve greater international involvement in, and control over, their own peaceful nuclear productive activities. With time, the relative incompatibility of nuclear energy with full national sovereignty, and the far-sighted wisdom of the Baruch Plan, are becoming increasingly clear. 1 table, 10 references

  2. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    costs significantly. For packing problems in general are given a set of items and one of more containers. The items must be placed within the container such that some objective is optimized and the items do not overlap. Items and container may be rectangular or irregular (e.g. polygons and polyhedra...... methods. Two important problem variants are the knapsack packing problem and the strip-packing problem. In the knapsack packing problem, each item is given a profit value, and the problem asks for the subset with maximal profit that can be placed within one container. The strip-packing problem asks...... for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...

  3. Computer Problem-Solving Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth

    2005-09-01

    Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

  4. Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, S P

    2013-01-01

    Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of

  5. Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

    2011-01-01

    This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

  6. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to ...

  7. The Magnet Fiducialization Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    Magnets in accelerator beamlines have, for the most part, been made with ferromagnetic poles and traditionally these pole surfaces have been used as the references for external alignment aids, tooling balls, CERN sockets and so on. This practice assumes that the magnetic field is well-defined by the poles (which fails in the presence of saturation). It also fails in the case of superconducting magnets, which have no tangible poles. Other difficulties are well-known to those working in the field: the poles of an iron dipole magnet are never perfectly flat, or perfectly parallel. Where, then, is the magnetic mid-plane? The corresponding problem for iron quadrupoles, sextupoles etc, is that there is no unique inscribed circle that is tangent to more than three of these poles. The magnetic axis is then difficult to define. The greater the precision that is sought in the alignment, the more apparent these problems become. The answer, I believe, is to use magnetic field measurements to establish the references. Most magnets undergo some magnetic measurement before use--they certainly should--and so the opportunity is there to combine fiducialization with magnetic field definition. A substantial part of the Final Focus Test Beam program at SLAC will address this problem. Meanwhile I would like to use the work of some other SLAC colleagues to illustrate one approach. As part of the installation of the new SLD detector at the Linear Collider, a pair of superconducting triplet quadrupoles will be added as the final focusing elements before the detector. Fiducials (tooling balls) on the outside of the cryostats are referenced to the magnetic axis of the quads in a set-up as shown in Fig. 1. The probe P is a small rotating coil in a warm-bore insert in the quadrupole. Its center of rotation, X p , Y p , can be found by a transit focused on an illuminated target attached to the coil, (see Fig. 2). Analysis of the dipole component of the coil output in a local PC gives the

  8. Fibromyalgia and sexual problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarpellini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to describe the recent literature concerning sexual dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. To this end, we used the common online databases PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to June 2012 and searched for the key words fibromyalgia (FM and sexual dysfunction. All the studies examined underlined that FM is strictly associated with sexual dysfunction in women. The major findings observed were related to a decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased experience of orgasm, and in some studies an increase in genital pain. The psychological aspects, together with the stress related to the constant presence of chronic widespread pain, fatigue and sleep disturbances, are certainly a major factor that adversely affects the sexuality of the patient with FM. Moreover, the drugs most commonly used in these cases may interfere negatively on the sexuality and sexual function of these patients. Therefore, the therapeutic intervention should be targeted and the side effects should be weighed up against the positive effects. It is of the utmost importance to recognise the problem of sexuality and sexual dysfunction in a more complex form of its expression and undertake a multidisciplinary therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of FM patients’ life.

  9. Problems in Cybersemiotic Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2014-01-01

    ’s constructivist biology came closer to a modern version of Jacob von Uexküll’s. Maturana’s model is a relational model. Cognition and communication aims to conserve a viable relation between living system and environment. It is as such not an objective modeling. 3. This model is reinterpreted in biosemiotics......Going from an empirical to an informational paradigm of cognition and communication, does not really help us to analyze, how the living systems manage to make a meaningful interpretation of environment that is useful for their survival and procreation. Other models are needed. 1. There is von...... Uexküll’s cybernetic-behavioral model, which has the problem of being placed in a Platonic, static worldview. The Umwelt of an animal is a construction limited of its functional realism of survival. It is connected to the species. 2. Ture von Uexküll and Søren Brier both realized that Maturana and Varela...

  10. [Problems of contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, H

    1979-01-13

    Light bleeding is frequent in women who just started to wear an intrauterine device. If the bleeding does not disappear after a couple of months following the insertion, it may reveal several problems: the IUD may be stuck in the cervix; much more rarely, the bleeding indicates the beginning of an infection. If the bleeding persists outside the menstrual period for a few months after the insertion, this may indicate a real intolerance. If this intermenstrual bleeding appears at a certain time after the insertion of the intrauterine device, either there is a calcareous deposit, or the device has shifted, or there is an infection. In this last case, a thorough gynecological examination may reveal a light case of endometritis when the uterus is tender under pressure. The disorder should disappear after a few days of antibiotherapy. The IUD may not have to be removed, provided the physician performs an ulterior gynecological check-up. Bleeding between periods may also reveal an organic pathology such as a small fibroma, a polyp or endometriosis. Therefore, if there is no logical explanation for intermenstrual bleeding, one must perform a hysterography, which may be done without removing the intrauterine device.

  11. [Induced abortion, epidemiological problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasević, M

    1995-01-01

    A large number of induced abortions exist in central Serbia, in spite of the fact that modern science made new methods and devices for the birth control available, which are more acceptable both from the medical and personal point of view. This fact shows contradictory situation and opens several questions. The crucial being: why do wome rely on abortion and do not use modern contraception? In research done in 1991--it refers to Belgrade and it includes four hundred women--confirmed was the accepted hypothesis that the extension of induced abortion developed from the discordance between comprehension of the need of birth control and the way it should be accomplished. The main causes of the discordance are insufficient knowledge about modern contraception, phychological barriers, insufficient cultural level (general, health, sex) of the population and lack of institutionalized contemporary concept fof family planning. Duration of prevalence of induced abortions indicates that underlying causes of frequency are numerous and stable over time. Considering this, and the slowness of any spontaneous change, it may be expected that the problem of abortions will be present in the years to come. However, duration of abortion prevalence will depend, to a large extent, on the ability and willingness of the State to cope with this issue.

  12. Big projects, big problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeide, B

    1994-11-01

    Our environmental concerns prompt launching large monitoring programs. Examining the history and accomplishments of similar endeavors is the best way to avoid errors. One lesson taught by the oldest and largest survey of national renewable resources in the United States, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, is that the program itself is not capable of learning from its errors. Among other problems that beset big programs are unrealistic promises. It is not possible to inventory "every animal and plant species in the United States and their habitats" as the newly created National Biological Survey vows to do. Even if it were possible, this would hardly help to attain the ultimate goal of the Survey, survival of all species. In his request to fund the Survey, Secretary of the Interior, Bruce Babbitt, compared the conflict between economic development and environmental integrity with train wrecks. This metaphor is as brilliant as it is deceitful. Its brilliance, attested by the success with the press and legislature, is in a vivid and blithe image suggesting that, given sufficient information, the conflict could be averted. After all, railroad accidents are rare and avoidable exceptions. This hopeful situation cannot be honestly compared with the plight of our environment. The crucial piece of information - that there is no spare track for economic development - is readily available. Our population and economic growth take place in the same space that has already been fully occupied by other species. To be trustworthy, monitoring programs should face the reality that development necessitates environmental degradation.

  13. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Analyzing and Solving Productivity Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, David S.; Johnson, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    The authors discuss ways to define a company's position on productivity, and explain productivity concepts. They describe a problem cause/solution set matrix with which to identify accurately the most probable cause of productivity problems. (SK)

  15. Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at Home: Memory Problems Caregiving How Tos Understanding the Problem In ... do by themselves." These activities, especially those involving music, can be especially therapeutic. Encourage regular routines. Important ...

  16. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  17. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  18. On the graph turnpike problem

    KAUST Repository

    Feder, Tomás

    2009-06-01

    Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.

  19. Hull properties in location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances.......Some properties of the solution set for single and multifacility continuous location problems with lp distances are given. A set reduction algorithm is developed for problems in k-dimensional space having rectangular distances....

  20. Problem Solving Ability Of Students Mathematics In Problem Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiana Siregar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study were to determine the increasing of students’ problem solving ability and self confidence after the implementation of problem based learning and to see the interaction between gender and learning to increas problem solving ability and students’ self confidence. The method kuantitaif with the design of this research was quasi-experimental with factorial design is 22. There were 73 students as the sample of this study containing 36 students in grade VIII-5 and 37 students in grade VIII-6. The instruments of this students were test of problem solving and self confidence scale. The data were analyzed by applying two way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The result showed that (1 The increasing of students’ problem solving ability taught by using problem based learning was higher than that taught by using conventional learning (2 There was no interaction between gender and learning with increasing of students’ problem solving ability.

  1. Reducing the generalised Sudoku problem to the Hamiltonian cycle problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haythorpe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The generalised Sudoku problem with N symbols is known to be NP-complete, and hence is equivalent to any other NP-complete problem, even for the standard restricted version where N is a perfect square. In particular, generalised Sudoku is equivalent to the, classical, Hamiltonian cycle problem. A constructive algorithm is given that reduces generalised Sudoku to the Hamiltonian cycle problem, where the resultant instance of Hamiltonian cycle problem is sparse, and has O(N3 vertices. The Hamiltonian cycle problem instance so constructed is a directed graph, and so a (known conversion to undirected Hamiltonian cycle problem is also provided so that it can be submitted to the best heuristics. A simple algorithm for obtaining the valid Sudoku solution from the Hamiltonian cycle is provided. Techniques to reduce the size of the resultant graph are also discussed.

  2. Les superpolynomes symetriques dans les problemes a plusieurs corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Patrick

    S'inspirant de la supersymetrie, on construit dans cette these une nouvelle generalisation de la theorie des fonctions symetriques. Une theorie physique est supersymetrique si: (1) elle contient des bosons (particules de spin entier) et des fermions (particules de spin demi-entier); (2) elle reste inchangee suite a une transformation des bosons en fermions et vice versa. Les fonctions symetriques dans le superespace (superfonctions symetriques) incorporent a la fois des variables commutatives (bosoniques) et anticommutatives (fermioniques). Ces dernieres engendrent une algebre de Grassmann. Une superfonction symetrique est invariante sous l'echange simultane des variables bosoniques et fermioniques (action diagonale du groupe symetrique); elle se caracterise par une superpartition, i.e., une juxtaposition appropriee de partitions usuelles d'entiers non negatifs. On utilise deux approches dans l'elaboration de la theorie des superfonctions symetriques: l'une provient de la combinatoire et l'autre, de la physique. Suivant la premiere approche, on obtient l'extension des elements standards de la theorie des fonctions symetriques fonctions monomiales, fonctions symetriques elementaires, fonctions completement symetriques, series de puissances, fonctions generatrices et formules de Cauchy. On demontre egalement qu'il existe une extension naturelle, a un parametre, du produit scalaire combinatoire defini par l'orthogonalite des series de puissances dans le superespace. La seconde approche consiste a resoudre des problemes a N corps de la mecanique quantique supersymetrique. On etudie les extensions supersymetriques des modeles Calogero-Moser-Sutherland (CMS), lesquels decrivent l'evolution de particules dont le potentiel d'inter action est proportionnel a l'inverse du carre de la distance separant les particules. Deux modeles supersymetriques CMS sont resolus: trigonometrique (sur un cercle) et rationnel (sur une ligne) avec confinement harmonique. Leurs fonctions d

  3. Framework of synchromodal transportation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juncker, M.A.M. de; Huizing, D.; Vecchyo, M.R.O. del; Phillipson, F.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem statements and solution methods in mathematical synchromodal transportation problems depend greatly on a set of model choices for which no rule of thumb exists. In this paper, a framework is introduced with which the model choices in synchromodal transportation problems can be classified,

  4. Problem gambling and social work

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2017-01-01

    This presentation summarises research on problem gambling and gambling related harm which is of relevance to social work practice. Issues in relation to adults with care and support needs are highlighted, methods of identifying and screening for gambling problems summarised, and information on ways of helping and signposting problem gamblers to helping agencies presented.

  5. Collaborative problem structuring using MARVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, G.A.; Scheepstal, P.G.M. van; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Logtens, T.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    When faced with wicked and messy problems, practitioners can rely on a variety of problem structuring methods (PSMs). Although previous efforts have been made to combine such methods with simulation, currently, few exist that integrate a simulation capability within problem structuring. Our

  6. Hierarchy problem and BSM physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... The 'hierarchy problem' plagues the Standard Model of particle physics. The source of this problem is our inability to answer the following question: Why is the Higgs mass so much below the GUT or Planck scale? A brief description about how 'supersymmetry' and 'composite Higgs' address this problem is ...

  7. Problems of group dynamics in problem based learning sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of Problem Based Learning (PBL) in medical education are often emphasized. However, there is another side of the coin. This study was conducted to find out frequency of PBL group problems in our setup and the influence of these problems on students' learning. We also compared the perception of students and tutors as regard to frequency and level of hindrance caused by these problems in PBL sessions. This cross sectional study was conducted at Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad. 100 students of 3rd year MBBS of 2011 and their 17 PBL tutors were asked to fill a questionnaire. They were asked to rank the factors according to frequency (perceived frequency) and according to the level of hindrance to learning these factors are causing. All data was entered and analysed using SPSS-12. Students ranked "Dominant student" as the most important problem and. "Psychosocial factors" as the least important problem. Tutors ranked "Quiet student" as the-most important problem and "Personality clash" as the least important factor. Student's ranked "Dominant student" as the problem causes most hindrance and "Quiet student" as the problem causing least hindrance. Tutors ranked "Lack of commitment" as the problem causing most hindrance and "Personality clash" as the problem causing least hindrance. There was good agreement between the students and the tutors on all the factors regarding important problem except "Lateness, absenteeism" (p = 0.04) and "Personality clash" (p = 0.001). Similarly there was good agreement between the students and the tutors on all the factors regarding hindrance except "Lack of commitment" (p = 0.015) and "Personality clash" (p = 0.023). The present study showed that from both students' and tutors' perspectives, the ranking of most important problems that can disturb PBL session function and the level of hindrance they cause were statistically similar for majority of the problems.

  8. Medical-biological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains data on operational and emergency staff of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant who were exposed to radiation as a consequence of the reactor accident, the size of the doses received and consequences for health. 203 persons were found to have acute radiation sickness. Of the 22 patients suffering from an extremely severe degree of acute radiation sickness, 19 died. Of the 23 patients with severe bone marrow syndrome, 7 died. For the majority of patients, clinical recovery occurred toward the end of the second month following the accident. The main harmful factor for all victims was the relatively uniform gamma- and beta-radiation effect in a dosage exceeding 1 Gy and, in the case of 35 people exceeding 4 Gy. Radiation damage to wide areas of the skin was one of the main factors contributing to the overall severe condition of the patients, and was a determining factor in the main fatal complications. A preliminary evaluation of the use of some biochemical and immunological tests in the event of accidental exposure to radiation and the methods of treatment and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness are presented. Another part of the report contains data on the doses from radiation exposure to the population of the town of Pripyat' until the time of evacuation and to the population in the 30 km zone around Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and radiation consequences of the accident for the population of different regions in the European part of the USSR, especially the problems related to the contamination of food products. The last part of the report gives some data on the organization of medical examinations of the population from the region around the Chernobyl' plant and on the long-term programmes for the medical and biological monitoring of the population and personnel

  9. A rainbow inverse problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvez V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  10. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  11. Problem Prioritization in Usability Evaluation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2006-01-01

    problems, emphasizing that to be effective severity assessments must be reliable, valid, and sufficiently persuasive to justify the cost of fixing problems. For the usability inspections, evaluators' ratings of problem impact and persistence were weakly correlated with the number of evaluators reporting...... a problem, indicating that different evaluators represent different subgroups of users or alternatively that evaluator-made severity assessments are of questionable reliability. To call designers' attention to the severe problems, the halving of the severity sum is proposed as a means of visualizing...

  12. About an Optimal Visiting Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagagiolo, Fabio, E-mail: bagagiol@science.unitn.it; Benetton, Michela [Unversita di Trento, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous 'Traveling Salesman Problem' and brings all its computational difficulties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We introduce some 'external' variables, one per target, which keep in memory whether the corresponding target is already visited or not, and we transform the visiting problem in a suitable Mayer problem. This fact allows us to overcome the lacking of the Dynamic Programming Principle for the originary problem. The external variables evolve with a hysteresis law and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation turns out to be discontinuous.

  13. KM: Problems and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, J.

    2016-01-01

    : 1) providing the unique and exciting opportunity to work as part of a large, multinational, multidisciplinary effort; 2) assuring that research is practical and targeted to solve real-world problems will to help enable emerging scientists and engineers capture state-of-the-art know how; 3) providing diversity of experiences that can be tailored to the personal trajectory of individuals; 4) creating a network of future technical leaders which will be an asset for the international community. (author).

  14. Problem Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  15. The Association between Attention Problems and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: The Mediating Role of Peer Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Vania T.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Mehrotra, Kala; Sung, Min; Lim, Choon Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of attention problems in children warrants concern, as it is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. There lies a need to understand possible factors that may mediate this link so that interventions may be targeted to alleviate these mediators and interrupt the link between attention problems and…

  16. What is a problem?: On problem-oriented interdisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan C

    2011-06-01

    Among others, the term "problem" plays a major role in the various attempts to characterize interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, as used synonymously in this paper. Interdisciplinarity (ID) is regarded as "problem solving among science, technology and society" and as "problem orientation beyond disciplinary constraints" (cf. Frodeman et al.: The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010). The point of departure of this paper is that the discourse and practice of ID have problems with the "problem". The objective here is to shed some light on the vague notion of "problem" in order to advocate a specific type of interdisciplinarity: problem-oriented interdisciplinarity. The outline is as follows: Taking an ex negativo approach, I will show what problem-oriented ID does not mean. Using references to well-established distinctions in philosophy of science, I will show three other types of ID that should not be placed under the umbrella term "problem-oriented ID": object-oriented ID ("ontology"), theory-oriented ID (epistemology), and method-oriented ID (methodology). Different philosophical thought traditions can be related to these distinguishable meanings. I will then clarify the notion of "problem" by looking at three systematic elements: an undesired (initial) state, a desired (goal) state, and the barriers in getting from the one to the other. These three elements include three related kinds of knowledge: systems, target, and transformation knowledge. This paper elaborates further methodological and epistemological elements of problem-oriented ID. It concludes by stressing that problem-oriented ID is the most needed as well as the most challenging type of ID.

  17. Problems of Small Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    shell case design SC is very high. But if the particle can penetrate the shell, then the opposite side is possible breakaway material of construction and the resulting fragments can cause serious damage to equipment and communications satellites.Height SD placed unevenly. The maximum amount of it is concentrated in the most exploited heights: geostationary orbits, sun-synchronous orbit and low orbit. Fragments of SD "live" in OKP different times. At low altitudes (200 ... 400 km - from a few weeks to a year, on the sun-synchronous orbit for decades and geostationary hundreds of years.At present, the space-facing two problems: first how to protect spacecraft from damage to the small debris and clean as the second TFC from the existing SD there and take measures to eliminate clogging OKP new launches of spacecraft.

  18. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  19. About an Optimal Visiting Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagagiolo, Fabio; Benetton, Michela

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous “Traveling Salesman Problem” and brings all its computational difficulties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton–Jacobi equation. We introduce some “external” variables, one per target, which keep in memory whether the corresponding target is already visited or not, and we transform the visiting problem in a suitable Mayer problem. This fact allows us to overcome the lacking of the Dynamic Programming Principle for the originary problem. The external variables evolve with a hysteresis law and the Hamilton–Jacobi equation turns out to be discontinuous

  20. Diabetes and Sexual and Urologic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Troublesome bladder symptoms and changes ... early onset of these sexual and urologic problems. Diabetes and Sexual Problems Both men and women with ...

  1. Elimination Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infants and Children Chest Pain, Acute Chest Pain, Chronic Cold and Flu Cough Diarrhea Ear Problems Elimination Problems Elimination Problems in Infants and Children Eye Problems Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants ...

  2. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  3. Modelling of a collage problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Ait Moussa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the behavior of elastic adherents connected with an adhesive. We use the $Gamma$-convergence method to approximate the problem modelling the assemblage with density energies assumed to be quasiconvex. In particular for the adhesive problem, we assume periodic density energy and some growth conditions with respect to the spherical and deviational components of the gradient. We obtain a problem depending on small parameters linked to the thickness and the stiffness of the adhesive.

  4. Aerodynamic Problems of Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong Chol Chou

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available The airflow along the surface of a launch vehicle together with vase flow of clustered nozzles cause problems which may affect the stability or efficiency of the entire vehicle. The problem may occur when the vehicle is on the launching pad or even during flight. As for such problems, local steady-state loads, overall steady-state loads, buffet, ground wind loads, base heating and rocket-nozzle hinge moments are examined here specifically.

  5. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  6. Problem solving and problem strategies in the teaching and learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perennial poor performance recorded annually in both internal and external examinations in Mathematics has been a great concern for the Mathematics Educators in Nigeria. This paper discusses problem-solving and influence of problem-solving strategies on students' performance in mathematics. The concept of ...

  7. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  8. Eldercare at Home: Communication Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page Related Topics Advance Directives Caregiver Health Cataracts Dementia Glaucoma Guardianship Hearing Loss Managing Multiple Health Problems Nutrition Prevention Stroke Join our e-newsletter! Resources Eldercare at ...

  9. Solving complex fisheries management problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petter Johnsen, Jahn; Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2011-01-01

    A crucial issue for the new EU common fisheries policy is how to solve the discard problem. Through a study of the institutional set up and the arrangements for solving the discard problem in Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Norway, the article identifies the discard problem as related to ...... to both natural, other material and to cultural conditions. Hence, solving the discard problem requires not only technical and regulatory instruments, but also arenas and structures that allow and facilitate processes of cultural change....

  10. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C

    1996-01-01

    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  11. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  12. Numerical methods problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, MK

    2004-01-01

    About the Book: Is an outline series containing brief text of numerical solution of transcendental and polynomial equations, system of linear algebraic equations and eigenvalue problems, interpolation and approximation, differentiation and integration, ordinary differential equations and complete solutions to about 300 problems. Most of these problems are given as unsolved problems in the authors earlier book. User friendly Turbo Pascal programs for commonly used numerical methods are given in the Appendix. This book can be used as a text/help book both by teachers and students. Contents:

  13. Problem solving through recreational mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Averbach, Bonnie

    1999-01-01

    Historically, many of the most important mathematical concepts arose from problems that were recreational in origin. This book takes advantage of that fact, using recreational mathematics - problems, puzzles and games - to teach students how to think critically. Encouraging active participation rather than just observation, the book focuses less on mathematical results than on how these results can be applied to thinking about problems and solving them. Each chapter contains a diverse array of problems in such areas as logic, number and graph theory, two-player games of strategy, solitaire ga

  14. Problem posing reflections and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the editors' collaborative teaching at Harvard in the late 1960s, they produced a ground-breaking work -- The Art Of Problem Posing -- which related problem posing strategies to the already popular activity of problem solving. It took the concept of problem posing and created strategies for engaging in that activity as a central theme in mathematics education. Based in part upon that work and also upon a number of articles by its authors, other members of the mathematics education community began to apply and expand upon their ideas. This collection of thirty readings is a tes

  15. A university course timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Phala

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a university course timetabling problem. The problem as experienced at Unibo is formulated in such a way that simple heuristics can be used to achieve the objective of finding either an 'optimal' or a feasible practical solution. the problem is divided into three phases, namely grouping of courses into course groups, allocation of lecture rooms to courses within groups, and finally, scheduling of periods to course groups. Heuristic algorithms are proposed to solve this problem. The computerised algorithms which have been integrated into Unibo's Student Management System are fully implemented.

  16. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  17. Using Logical Problems in ESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrity, Terry

    1983-01-01

    A course in scientific English for science researchers and advanced civil engineering students in Belgium has a central problem--the heterogeneous nature of the group and lack of common research experience around which to build a curriculum. An attempt to overcome this difficulty by using two logical problems for discussion is presented. (MSE)

  18. Quantitative Reasoning in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Ho, Siew Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ajay Ramful and Siew Yin Ho explain the meaning of quantitative reasoning, describing how it is used in the to solve mathematical problems. They also describe a diagrammatic approach to represent relationships among quantities and provide examples of problems and their solutions.

  19. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  20. A Problem on Optimal Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechlarova, Katarina

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical optimization problems are not typical in the classical curriculum of mathematics. In this paper we show how several generalizations of an easy problem on optimal transportation were solved by gifted secondary school pupils in a correspondence mathematical seminar, how they can be used in university courses of linear programming and…

  1. The PPP: Problem Panel Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Russell K.

    The Problem Panel Project is an instructor-developed, one-semester course in contemporary problems. Based on the inquiry approach, the course is structured for independent research and group work and requires no traditionally-structured daily lesson plans. The course is divided into six procedural points. First, students decide which contemporary…

  2. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  3. Problem-Oriented Project Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Bitsch; Pedersen, Nils Kaare

    This book is meant to support problem-oriented learning activities. Problem-orientation concerns the reasoning about lack of knowledge, while project work includes the ethnomethods that are practiced when collectives produce scientific knowledge. This book reflects particular methods related...

  4. Problems of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ120 WOMEN’S HEALTH Problems of the Digestive System • What are some common digestive problems? • What is ... of hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

  5. School Discipline: Problems Effecting Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Andrew J.; Wiley, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Failure to solve school discipline problems is attributed to four factors: school district priorities, unclear problem dimensions, inadequate teacher training, and flaws in teacher/ administrator applied psychology. Psychological approaches that provide systems to control student behavior are described, including biophysical, interactionist, and…

  6. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, V G

    1994-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  7. Coping with persistent environmental problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varjopuro, Riku; Andrulewicz, Eugeniusz; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1) decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a polic...

  8. Vaccination and the prevention problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Angus

    2004-11-01

    This paper seeks to critically review a traditional objection to preventive medicine (which I call here the 'prevention problem'). The prevention problem is a concern about the supposedly inequitable distribution of benefits and risks of harm resulting from preventive medicine's focus on population-based interventions. This objection is potentially applicable to preventive vaccination programmes and could be used to argue that such programmes are unethical. I explore the structure of the prevention problem by focusing upon two different types of vaccination (therapeutic vaccination and preventive vaccination). I argue that the 'prevention problem' cannot be fairly applied to the case of preventive vaccination because such programmes do not just focus upon benefits at the level of populations (as is claimed by the prevention problem). Most such preventive vaccination programmes explicitly seek to create and maintain herd protection. I argue that herd protection is an important public good which is a benefit shared by all individuals in the relevant population. This fact can then be used to block the 'prevention problem' argument in relation to preventive vaccination programmes. I conclude by suggesting that whilst the future development and use of therapeutic vaccines does raise some interesting ethical issues, any ethical objections to prophylactic vaccination on the basis of the 'prevention problem' will not be overcome through the substitution of therapeutic vaccines for preventive vaccines; indeed, the 'prevention problem' fails on its own terms in relation to preventive vaccination programmes.

  9. On the Chern Yamabe Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angella, Daniele; Calamai, Simone; Spotti, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    We undertake the study of an analogue of the Yamabe problem for complex manifolds. More precisely, for any conformal Hermitian structure on a compact complex manifold, we are concerned in the existence of metrics with constant Chern scalar curvature. In this note, we set the problem and we provid...

  10. Traveling Salesman Problem with Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ungureanu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is a generic name that includes diverse practical models. Motivated by applications, a new model of TSP is examined – a synthesis of classical TSP and classical Transportation Problem. Algorithms based on Integer Programming cutting-plane methods and Branch and Bound Techniques are obvious.

  11. Combinatorial reasoning to solve problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; Hof, Frits; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This study reports combinatorial reasoning to solve problems. We observed the mathematical thinking of students aged 14-16. We study the variation of the students’ solution strategies in the context of emergent modelling. The results show that the students are tempted to begin the problem solving

  12. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  13. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  14. Methods of solving nonstandard problems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorieva, Ellina

    2015-01-01

    This book, written by an accomplished female mathematician, is the second to explore nonstandard mathematical problems – those that are not directly solved by standard mathematical methods but instead rely on insight and the synthesis of a variety of mathematical ideas.   It promotes mental activity as well as greater mathematical skills, and is an ideal resource for successful preparation for the mathematics Olympiad. Numerous strategies and techniques are presented that can be used to solve intriguing and challenging problems of the type often found in competitions.  The author uses a friendly, non-intimidating approach to emphasize connections between different fields of mathematics and often proposes several different ways to attack the same problem.  Topics covered include functions and their properties, polynomials, trigonometric and transcendental equations and inequalities, optimization, differential equations, nonlinear systems, and word problems.   Over 360 problems are included with hints, ...

  15. The three-body problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Z E; Quarles, B

    2014-06-01

    The three-body problem, which describes three masses interacting through Newtonian gravity without any restrictions imposed on the initial positions and velocities of these masses, has attracted the attention of many scientists for more than 300 years. In this paper, we present a review of the three-body problem in the context of both historical and modern developments. We describe the general and restricted (circular and elliptic) three-body problems, different analytical and numerical methods of finding solutions, methods for performing stability analysis and searching for periodic orbits and resonances. We apply the results to some interesting problems of celestial mechanics. We also provide a brief presentation of the general and restricted relativistic three-body problems, and discuss their astronomical applications.

  16. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...

  17. Solving applied mathematical problems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, Dingyu

    2008-01-01

    Computer Mathematics Language-An Overview. Fundamentals of MATLAB Programming. Calculus Problems. MATLAB Computations of Linear Algebra Problems. Integral Transforms and Complex Variable Functions. Solutions to Nonlinear Equations and Optimization Problems. MATLAB Solutions to Differential Equation Problems. Solving Interpolations and Approximations Problems. Solving Probability and Mathematical Statistics Problems. Nontraditional Solution Methods for Mathematical Problems.

  18. Problem Solving Reasoning and Problem Based Instruction in Geometry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, F.; Budiyono, B.; Slamet, I.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to analyze the comparison Problem Solving Reasoning (PSR) and Problem Based Instruction (PBI) on problem solving and mathematical communication abilities viewed from Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). Learning was given to grade 8th junior high school students. This research uses quasi experimental method, and then with descriptive analysis. Data were analyzed using two-ways multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with different cells. The result of data analysis were learning model gives different effect, level of SRL gives the same effect, and there is no interaction between the learning model with the SRL on the problem solving and mathematical communication abilities. The t-test statistic was used to find out more effective learning model. Based on the test, regardless of the level of SRL, PSR is more effective than PBI for problemsolving ability. The result of descriptive analysis was PSR had the advantage in creating learning that optimizing the ability of learners in reasoning to solve a mathematical problem. Consequently, the PSR is the right learning model to be applied in the classroom to improve problem solving ability of learners.

  19. Youth employment problems in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Mičule, Madara

    2014-01-01

    Unemployment to which young people are also subjected, is one of the main economical problems nowadays. The issue is actual also for Latvian youth. Therefore the theme of the Bachelor’s work is „Youth unemployment problems in Latvia”. The aim of the Bachelor’s work is to find out the current situation in the unemployment sphere, young people’s employment in Latvia as well as to work out solutions which could be used to solve the problem. The unemployment term, its types, causes and ef...

  20. The Soccer-Ball Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    The idea that Lorentz-symmetry in momentum space could be modified but still remain observer-independent has received quite some attention in the recent years. This modified Lorentz-symmetry, which has been argued to arise in Loop Quantum Gravity, is being used as a phenomenological model to test possibly observable effects of quantum gravity. The most pressing problem in these models is the treatment of multi-particle states, known as the 'soccer-ball problem'. This article briefly reviews the problem and the status of existing solution attempts.

  1. Customer-centered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Q B

    1999-11-01

    If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again.

  2. Problems of multiphase fluid filtration

    CERN Document Server

    Konovalov, AN

    1994-01-01

    This book deals with a spectrum of problems related to the mathematical modeling of multiphase filtration. Emphasis is placed on an inseparable triad: model - algorithm - computer code. An analysis of new and traditional filtration problems from the point of view of both their numerical implementation and the reproduction of one or another technological characteristics of the processes under consideration is given. The basic principles which underlie the construction of efficient numerical methods taking into account the filtration problems are discussed: non-evolutionary nature, degeneration,

  3. Problem Based Learning and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Løkke, Søren; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a style of active learning based on problem solving. PBL aims at providing university students with flexible knowledge, capacity to self-learning, and skills in problem solving and collaboration. In this context, the present study explores the advantages...... University (AAU), Denmark, and focuses on the teaching of Life Cycle Assessment as a method for sustainability assessment. The objective is providing recommendations for future LCA teaching and learning. PBL activites performed at AAU were evaluated critically to detemine to what extent they addressed...

  4. Developmental Problems and Dental Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, William C., Jr.; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety-five subjects (mean age 55 months) with mental retardation, learning disabilities, and/or minimal brain dysfunction and 47 control subjects (mean age 46 months) were compared to determine the relationship between developmental problems and dental morphology. (Author)

  5. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  6. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  7. Problems in Recording the Electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John G.

    The unwanted signals that arise in electrocardiography are discussed. A technical background of electrocardiography is given, along with teaching techniques that educate students of medical instrumentation to solve the problems caused by these signals. (MJH)

  8. Ingenious mathematical problems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Louis A

    2013-01-01

    Collection of 100 of the best submissions to a math puzzle column features problems in engineering situations, logic, number theory, and geometry. Most solutions include details of several different methods.

  9. Direct channel problems and phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutkosky, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena

  10. Bladder Control Problems in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be affected than Hispanic/Latina, African American, or Asian American women UI is not a disease. UI ... a UTI, a kidney problem, or diabetes. Urine culture. A health care professional performs a urine culture ...

  11. Fathers and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKlyen, M; Biernbaum, M A; Speltz, M L; Greenberg, M T

    1998-03-01

    Fathers have seldom been the focus of research investigating the causes and correlates of early behavior problems. Two studies examined fathers of preschool boys with and without clinic-referred behavior problems. Six domains of risk were examined: life stress, social support, psychological symptoms, parenting attitudes, positive involvement, and harsh discipline. Clinic fathers differed from fathers of matched comparison boys with respect to all of these except social support, but only harsh discipline contributed uniquely to clinic status. These domains correctly classified 81% of the boys. Within the clinic group, teacher-rated problem severity 1 year later was predicted by fathers' life stress, psychological symptoms, and positive involvement, indicating that different factors may account for initial clinic status versus stability of problems. Mothers' self-report data better predicted clinic group membership, whereas fathers' data better predicted Year 2 outcomes for clinic boys.

  12. Learning problems in neurofibromatosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, S B; Adams, W V

    1989-08-01

    Learning problems in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) are probably the most frequent characteristics after those that define the disorder. They are not secondary to the physical problems. A recent survey that compared children who have NF with their siblings revealed a 37% greater incidence of learning disabilities in the children with NF. Intelligence quotient (IQ) data from several studies indicate that almost all patients with NF have a normal IQ, but there is a progression from low normal to normal as these patients reach adulthood. The most common psychoeducational problems include visual-perceptual-motor delay, spelling and arithmetic disabilities, and a cluster of weaknesses related to cortical organization, similar to those seen in children with attention-deficit disorders. A type of learning disability unique to patients with NF has not been identified, and the diagnosis and treatment of the learning problems are generally the same as for children without NF.

  13. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  14. Mathematical problems of electromagnetoelastic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vishnevskii

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There are studied nonlinear mathematical problems of the interactionof electromagnetic fields with deformable media. The models are based on combination of the Lam and Maxwell systems coupled through so-called seismomagnetic effect. Several direct and associated with them inverse problems are studied. Then speaking about the inverse problems, electromagnetic and elastic characteristics of a medium are the subject of reconstruction. The values of physical fields are connected through electromagnetoelastic interactions. We consider the processes which are observed when elastic waves propagate in an elastic electroconducting medium. Variations of the seismic and electromagnetic fields in this case are called electro-magnetoelastic waves. There are described di®erent statements of mathematical model of the electromagnetoelastic interactions. Then the theoretical results of the analytical solution are discussed for various nonlinear direct and inverse problems for the equations of electromagnetoelasticity.

  15. Who matters in coordination problems?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sákovics, J.; Steiner, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 7 (2012), s. 3439-3461 ISSN 0002-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : coordination problem s * heterogeneous agents Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.792, year: 2012

  16. COPD and other health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000701.htm COPD and other health problems To use the sharing ... diabetes, and high blood pressure. Staying Healthy With COPD Work closely with your doctor to keep COPD ...

  17. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  18. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  19. Attentional biases in problem and non-problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Nigro, Giovanna; Griffiths, Mark D; Cosenza, Marina; D'Olimpio, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    From a cognitive perspective, attentional biases are deemed as factors responsible in the onset and development of gambling disorder. However, knowledge relating to attentional processes in gambling is scarce and studies to date have reported contrasting results. Moreover, no study has ever examined which component and what type of bias are involved in attentional bias in gambling. In the present study, 108 Italian participants, equally divided into problem and non-problem gamblers, were administered a modified Posner Task, an attentional paradigm in which - through the manipulation of stimuli presentation time - it is possible to measure both initial orienting and maintenance of attention. In addition to the experimental task, participants completed self-report measures involving (i) craving (Gambling Craving Scale), (ii) depression, anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale) and (iii) emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). Analyses revealed facilitation in detecting gambling-related stimuli at the encoding level in problem gamblers but not in non-problem gamblers. Compared to non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers also reported higher levels of craving, emotional dysregulation, and negative mood states. Furthermore, all measures correlated with the gambling severity. The use of indirect measure of attentional bias could be less accurate compared to direct measures. The facilitation in detecting gambling-related stimuli in problem gamblers and the correlation between subjective craving and facilitation bias suggests that attentional bias could not be due to a conditioning process but that motivational factors such as craving could induce addicted-related seeking-behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The problem of Newton dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman Roldan, R.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of the teaching of Newton's principles of dynamics at High School level is addressed. Some usages, reasoning and wording, are pointed as the responsible for the deficient results which are revealed in the background of the first year University students in Physics. A methodology based on simplifying the common vocabulary is proposed in order to provide to the students with a clearer view of the dynamic problems. Some typical examples are shown which illustrate the proposal. (Author)

  1. Example Problems in LES Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    memorandum is the evaporation and subsequent combustion of liquid fuel droplets. Kerosene, a complex hydrogen mixture, is explored from the standpoint of...AFRL-RW-EG-TP-2016-002 Example Problems in LES Combustion Douglas V. Nance Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Example Problem in LES Combustion 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  2. Wicksell's Problem in Local Stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thórisdóttir, Ólöf; Kiderlen, Markus

    Wicksell's classical corpuscle problem deals with the retrieval of the size distribution of spherical particles from planar sections. We discuss the problem in a local stereology framework. Each particle is assumed to contain a reference point and the individual particle is sampled...... and particle parameters, unfolding of the arising integral equations, uniqueness issues and domain of attraction relations are discussed. We illustrate the approach by reconstructing from simulated data using numerical unfolding algorithms....

  3. Leadership as a Design Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1975, U, 264-280. Bennis, W. G. Leadership theory and administrative behavior: The problem of authority...Administrative Science Quarterly, 1959, 4, 259-301^ Calder, B. J. An attribution theory of leadership . In B. Staw & G, Salancik (Eds.), New directions...REPORT NUMBER TR #1 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Sublllle) LEADERSHIP AS A DESIGN PROBLEM 5

  4. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  5. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATIVE CONTENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kushnir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The tasks of integrative content requires the use of knowledge and skills on various themes both one discipline and different disciplines. Mostly in the classroom (or in homework the tasks on the properties absorption of different concepts using different theories are considered. Thus knowledge within only one discipline is formed, knowledge of the narrow sense (one subject. Such knowledge is "prescriptional", we call it idealized. After all, it is far from models of the real professional problems and problems of life in general, in order to solve them it is necessary to apply knowledge and skills acquired in different themes of the same objects,life experience. Practical formation of integrative knowledge requires statement of the educational problems before the subjects of studying, the problems within the "narrow objectivity" can not be resolved at all, or such kind of solving is too difficult to solve, for example, the nature and the context of solving problems (scientific approaches to solving problems, creating mathematical models, methods for solving such models, means of solving, application of methods, analysis of the models solution and the right choice, the inspection of solutions, etc. will sink in the conglomeration of technical operations. The problems with integrative content are usually more complicated than the problems of "narrow objectivity." In our problems the index of such difficulty is the essence of educational content, which is disclosed in the previous paragraph. The problems solution proposed in this article requires knowledge of the structural geometry (circle construction, touching two or three laps: with analytic geometry (method of coordinates on the plane; the distance between two points on the coordinate plane; algebra (system drawing irrational equations, method for solving such system, the solution of the system, analysis of the results and the right choose of the desired solution for found criterion, testing

  6. Aging and skilled problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charness, N

    1981-03-01

    Information-processing models of problem solving too often are based on restrictive age ranges. On the other hand, gerontologists have investigated few problem-solving tasks and have rarely generated explicit models. As this article demonstrates, both fields can benefit by closer collaboration. One major issue in gerontology is whether aging is associated with irreversible decrement or developmental plasticity. If both processes occur, then an appropriate strategy for investigating aging is to equate age groups for molar problem-solving performance and search for differences in the underlying components. This strategy was adopted to examine the relation of age and skill to problem solving in chess. Chess players were selected to vary widely in age and skill such that these variables were uncorrelated. Problem-solving and memory tasks were administered. Skill level was the only significant predictor for accuracy in both a choose-a-move task and a speeded end-game evaluation task. Age (negatively) and skill (positively) jointly determined performance in an unexpected recall task. Efficient chunking in recall was positively related to skill, though negatively related to age. Recognition confidence, though not accuracy, was negatively related to age. Thus despite age-related declines in encoding and retrieval of information, older players match the problem-solving performance of equivalently skilled younger players. Apparently, they can search the problem space more efficiently, as evidenced by taking less time to select an equally good move. Models of chess skill that stress that role of encoding efficiency, as indexed by chunking in recall, need to be modified to account for performance over the life span.

  7. Existence results for trifunction equilibrium problems and fixed point problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Nihar Kumar; Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Sahu, Nabin Kumar

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we establish the existence and uniqueness solutions of trifunction equilibrium problems using the generalized relaxed α -monotonicity in Banach spaces. By using the generalized f-projection operator, a hybrid iteration scheme is presented to find a common element of the solutions of a system of trifunction equilibrium problems and the set of fixed points of an infinite family of quasi-φ -nonexpansive mappings. Moreover, the strong convergence of our new proposed iterative method under generalized relaxed α -monotonicity is considered.

  8. On Anisotropy, Objectivity and Invariancy in finite thermo–mechanical deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huetink, Han

    2006-01-01

    In elastic–plastic finite deformation problems constitutive relations are commonly formulated in terms the Cauchy stress as a function of the elastic finger tensor and an objective rate of the Cauchy stress as a function of the rate of deformation tensor. For isotropic materials models this is

  9. Interpersonal problems in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Armin; Zeeck, Almut; Barrett, Marna S

    2010-11-01

    Eating disorders are often chronic in nature and lead to a number of problems among which interpersonal issues are suggested to be central. Although research has shown that individuals with disturbed patterns of eating consistently report problems in social interactions, this study is unique in assessing a range of interpersonal problems among patients with all types of eating disorders before and after intensive hospital-based treatment. A total of 208 patients receiving a primary diagnosis of restrictive anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or anorexia nervosa of the binge/purging-subtype were included in the study. Eating pathology, symptom severity, and interpersonal patterns were examined before and after treatment. Patients with eating disorders exhibited a generally nonassertive, submissive interpersonal style, with anorexic patients of the binge/purging-subtype reporting more difficulties with social inhibition and nonaffiliation. These patterns were found to change over the course of treatment with interpersonal problems at intake predictive of greater binge severity at discharge. Furthermore, issues of dominance and social avoidance predicted outcome for specific subgroups of patients. Results underscore the importance of interpersonal problems in eating disorders and suggest that interpersonal patterns remain a focus of treatment and future research. © 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, I

    2016-01-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method. (paper)

  11. High intensity heat pulse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalamanchili, R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of finite-difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations is common in both design and research and development because of the advance of computers. The numerical methods for the unsteady heat diffusion equation received most attention not only because of heat transfer problems but also happened to be the basis for any study of parabolic partial differential equations. It is common to test the heat equation first even the methods developed for complex nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations arising in fluid mechanics or convective heat transfer. It is concluded that the finite-element method is conservative in both stability and monoscillation characteristics than the finite-difference method but not as conservative as the method of weighted-residuals. Since the finite-element is unique because of Gurtin's variational principle and numerous finite-differences can be constructed, it is found that some finite-difference schemes are better than the finite-element scheme in accuracy also. Therefore, further attention is focused here on finite-difference schemes only. Various physical problems are considered in the field of heat transfer. These include: numerous problems in steady and unsteady heat conduction; heat pulse problems, such as, plasma torch; problems arising from machining operations, such as, abrasive cut-off and surface grinding. (Auth.)

  12. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  13. Solving Optimization Problems with Dynamic Geometry Software: The Airport Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, José

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how the author's students (in-service and pre-service secondary mathematics teachers) enrolled in college geometry courses use the Geometers' Sketchpad (GSP) to gain insight to formulate, confirm, test, and refine conjectures to solve the classical airport problem for triangles. The students are then provided with strategic…

  14. The Problem with Theory Is the Problem with Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, George

    When composition educators talk about either "theory" or "practice," they are not referring to a monolithic and unified field, but instead to any number of competing, ideologically charged metacommentaries. The "problem with practice" refers to its own socially complex and temporally diffuse nature. Applications of…

  15. OPEN PROBLEM: Some problems in differential geometry and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S. K.

    2008-09-01

    This does not attempt to be a systematic overview or to present a comprehensive list of problems. We outline some questions in three different areas which seem interesting to the author. Experts will learn little that is new; our goal is to give some picture of the fields for non-specialists.

  16. Food irradiation - Problems and promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    It has been stated that food irradiation represents the most significant discovery in food processing since Nicholas Appert invented canning in 1810. Certainly it is a process with great future potential; it is attractive because it works without heating the product, it is effective within sealed containers as well as for bulk usage, and it does not leave chemical residues on the treated food. Of course, no one process can be expected to solve all problems relating to preservation of food. Ionizing radiation can be used effectively to solve many of these problems, but the process is no panacea to cure the world's food problems. Unfortunately, early ill-founded claims about irradiation led to expectations which have proved beyond the reasonable capabilities of the process. Nevertheless, the number of foods that have been successfully treated, and the broad range of effects that can be achieved by radiation processing is impressive. (author)

  17. Bernoulli Variational Problem and Beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2013-12-17

    The question of \\'cutting the tail\\' of the solution of an elliptic equation arises naturally in several contexts and leads to a singular perturbation problem under the form of a strong cut-off. We consider both the PDE with a drift and the symmetric case where a variational problem can be stated. It is known that, in both cases, the same critical scale arises for the size of the singular perturbation. More interesting is that in both cases another critical parameter (of order one) arises that decides when the limiting behaviour is non-degenerate. We study both theoretically and numerically the values of this critical parameter and, in the symmetric case, ask if the variational solution leads to the same value as for the maximal solution of the PDE. Finally we propose a weak formulation of the limiting Bernoulli problem which incorporates both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Dealing with the problem countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The test of America's policies to prevent nuclear proliferation is the so-called problem countries, those states that pose the greatest risk of ''going nuclear.'' Most visible - and the source of greatest concern - are those countries which have developed or appear to be in the process of developing nuclear weapons capabilities. In addition to Pakistan, near-nuclear countries of note include India, Israel, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea, and Taiwan. Several other countries, including Iraq, Iran, Libya, and Brazil, seem to pose proliferation risks in the longer term. More problematic are countries, such as Mexico, that, although they seem to represent little or no proliferation risk themselves, pose difficult problems by challenging restrictions in nuclear export policy. The author examines US policy toward some of the problem countries, paying particular attention to Pakistan. The constants in US policy and the few changes wrought by the Reagan administration are noted throughout

  19. Axisymmetric finite deformation membrane problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.W.

    1980-12-12

    Many biomechanic problems involve the analysis of finite deformation axisymmetric membranes. This paper presents the general formulation for solving a class of axisymmetric membrane problems. The material nonlinearity, as well as the geometric nonlinearity, is considered. Two methods are presented to solve these problems. The first method is solving a set of differential equilibrium equations. The governing equations are reduced to three first-order ordinary-differential equations with explicit derivatives. The second method is the Ritz method where a general potential energy functional valid for all axisymmetric deformed positions is presented. The geometric admissible functions that govern the deformed configuration are written in terms of a series with unknown coefficients. These unknown coefficients are determined by the minimum potential energy principle that of all geometric admissible deformed configurations, the equilibrium configuration minimizes the potential energy. Some examples are presented. A comparison between these two methods is mentioned.

  20. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.