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Sample records for caucasus

  1. Colloquium on Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  2. Caucasus Geopolitics: Modern Trends Conflicts and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies major trends of Caucasus geopolitical situation development in terms of modern global politics, indicates major parties, settling conflicts in the region and their immediate interests in the Caucasus.

  3. Colloquium on Caucasus; Colloque sur le Caucase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  4. New GMP Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, N.; Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.

    2014-12-01

    The Caucasus is a region of numerous natural hazards and ensuing disasters. Analysis of the losses due to past disasters indicates those most catastrophic in the region have historically been due to strong earthquakes. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Thus, many peak ground acceleration attenuation relations have been developed by different authors. However, a few attenuation relations were developed for Caucasus region: Ambraseys et al. (1996,2005) which were based on entire European region and they were not focused locally on Caucasus Region, Smit et.al.(2000) that was based on a small amount of acceleration data that really is not enough. Since 2003 construction of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started with the help of number of International organizations, Projects and Private companies. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. Also site ground conditions are considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Thus, this parameter is emphasized in the present study. Here it must be mentioned that in previous model which only one was done for Caucasus Region (Smit et. al., 2000) local conditions were not considered. Thus, it is an advantage of models from this study.

  5. Concerts of earthquakes and transverse dislocations in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzian, S. A.

    1992-02-01

    The geologic-geophysical phenomenon of simultaneous fairly strong tremors or "concerts" of earthquakes in the territory of the Caucasus is considered. The tectonic interpretation of the phenomenon is proposed from the viewpoint of simultaneous activity of different parts of a seismogenic fault or the system of correlated disjunctive dislocations and especially, the transverse dislocations in the Caucasus.

  6. State building and conflict resolution in the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hille

    2010-01-01

    State building processes in the Caucasus are influenced by the culture of the Caucasus, and previous experiences with state building after World War I. The conflicts which erupted at the time have influenced territorial claims. The role of foreign powers as Russia, the United States, Turkey, Germany

  7. GLOBALIZATION MYTH AND TRADITIONAL CULTURE IN GEORGIA AND THE CAUCASUS

    OpenAIRE

    Yakobishvili-piralishvili, Lela

    2008-01-01

    The geocultural orientation of the Caucasus, and Georgia as its part, is growing more and more important in the age of globalization. This process has already offered Caucasian geoculture new possibilities; the Caucasus has been given the chance of becoming the only cultural transit region where many different cultures meet. Cultural diffusion will not be its only function: it stands a good chance of becoming a topos of the dialogue of cultures. As part of the topos of the Georgian geoculture...

  8. The Eurasian Otter in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgadze G.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Mustelidae are to be found in the south Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia: Lutra lutra, Martes martes, Martes foina, Meles meles, Mustela vison, Mustela nivalis and Vormela peregusna. The rarest of these species are the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and the marbled polecat (Vormela peregusna. The Eurasian otter, one of most endangered species of the south caucasian fauna, is still suffering under the influence of poaching, habitat loss, disturbance and pollution. No fundamental research has been undertaken on otters in any of the south Caucasian countries and, therefore, data provided in the literature are scarce. Further, no DNA analysis has been undertaken in this part of the world and, therefore, the actual number of subspecies is not clear.

  9. Oak ecosystem succession of the Northern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2014-05-01

    English oak (Quercus robur L.) along with its well-known good properties has a high sanitary-hygienic and curative potential. Its volatile metabolites (VM) influence bacteriostatically Staphylococcus aureus 209r, oppressing it in vitro by 85% compared with the control, and Escherichia coli by 45%. There is the least amount of epiphytic microorganisms on the leaves of Q. robur L. compared with some tree species [1]. In addition, VM of Q. robur L. have direct milieu (hypotensive) effects on the organism under its canopy, lowering blood pressure by 20-25 mm Hg [2]. A.P. Kazankin (1993) [4] calculated the prehistoric formula of forest species composition of Caucasian Mineral Waters region (Northern Caucasus): 6Qr3Crp1Fr which was based on the theory of calcium-magnesium absorption complex. According to the theory, underground mineral water, soil, forest litter and the leaves of ground vegetation of the area have the same ratio of the cations Ca and Mg - calcium-magnesium index [3]. Hence oldgrowth in the region consisted of oak (Qr) by 60%, hornbeam (Carpinus-Crp) by 30% and ash (Fraxinus-Fr) only by 10%. Currently, the formula of the forests of the region has been changed by man: 5Fr3Crp2Qr. The proportion of oak forests has decreased to 20%, the proportion of ash has increased by 50%, but the proportion of hornbeam hasn't changed. So it is relevant to restore oak forests of the region in the former ratio to other forest-forming species - ash and hornbeam. Taking into consideration the change of economic formation of society in Russia, it is extremely important to restore natural seed oak forests. Therein the luminance of surface areal is a limiting factor. We have calculated that the natural recovery of oak forests is possible providing observation of optimal moisture standards and soil fertility in combination with solar light within 10-24% from the light of open space. Measures for promotion of oak natural regeneration in mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus

  10. [FLEAS (SIPHONAPTERA) OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN THE GREAT CAUCASUS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, B K

    2015-01-01

    There are 116 species of fleas in the territory of the Great Caucasus. 21 species are parasites of birds, others are the fleas of mammals. Among 41 genera of Caucasus' fauna only Caenopsylla, Phaenopsylla and Araeopsylla are absent in the Great Caucasus. There are 11 endemic species. Fleas of 66 species are distributed along all mountain system. Parasites of some birds and carnivorous mammals, insectivores and rodents live from lowlands till highlands. Some species are living at the forest altitudinal belt, others prefer the foothills and the mid-height areas; they are absent atthe highlands. Their hosts may live at all longitudinal belts; the distribution of other species is limited to lowlands in accordance with distribution of their main hosts. PMID:26827488

  11. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  12. THE OSSETS IN THE SOUTHERN CAUCASUS: NATIVES OR NEWCOMERS?

    OpenAIRE

    Bubenok, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the formation of the Ossetian ethnos in the Southern Caucasus. The author attempts to analyze the different approaches to this issue, particularly those relating to the ethnogenesis and identification of the Ossets, and to coordinate these processes with possible ways to settle the South Osset-Georgian ethnopolitical conflict.

  13. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  14. Seismic hazard assessment for the Caucasus test area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Trifonov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The GSHAP CAUCAS test area was established under the INTAS Ct.94-1644 (Test Area for sismic Hazard Assessment in the Caucasus and NATO ARW Ct.95-1521 (Historical and Prehistorical Earthquakes in the Caucasus, with the initial support of IASPEI, UNESCO and ILP. The high tectonic interest and seismicity rate of the whole area, the availability of abundant multi-disciplinary data and the long established tradition in hazard assessment provide a unique opportunity to test different methodologies in a common test area and attempt to establish some consensus in the scientific community. Starting from the same input data (historical and instrumental seismic catalogue, lineament and homogeneous seismic source models six independent approaches to seismic hazard assessment have been used, ranging from pure historical deterministic to seismotectonic probabilistic and areal assessment methodologies. The results are here compared.

  15. CZARIST NATIONAL-COLONIAL POLICY IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASUS

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Zakhida

    2007-01-01

    The author uses a vast amount of factual material to reveal the essence of czarist Russia’s colonial imperial policy toward the Muslims of the Caucasus, and Northern Azerbaijan in particular, when the area was finally conquered in the early 19th century. This discriminatory policy was acutely felt in all spheres of life; the Azeris, in particular, were deprived of many political, civil, and religious rights. Russia’s reforms in the area deprived Northern Azerbaijan of its previous administrat...

  16. THE AUGUST CRISIS IN THE CAUCASUS AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Skakov, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Until the summer of 2008 the situation in the Caucasus was determined by the balance of power and parity between the main actors-America and Russia; there were other actors as well-the European Union, Turkey, and Iran. It was Georgia that wanted to defrost the situation in order to change the format of the peacekeeping operation and join NATO. Control over the breakaway regions and the status of the region's leader were its final aims. The United States and the EU (NATO) would not have object...

  17. Russia’s backyard – unresolved conflicts in the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnleitner Dominik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus played a prominent role in the Russian foreign policy for a long time, which has not changed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Beginning with four general hypothesis about Russia’s interests in its “near abroad” the essays gives an insights in the current status and developments in the relations between Russia and its southern neighbors Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. A special focus is on the frozen conflicts in South Ossetia and Naghorno-Karabakh and Russia’s role in these conflicts.

  18. ISLAM IN THE CAUCASUS AND ITS IMPACT ON CONFLICT POTENTIAL IN THE REGION AND IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmet A. Yarlykanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam in the Caucasus cannot be described in black and white colors as official and non-official, traditional and non-traditional Islam. Islam is now playing a more distinctive role in the social and political life of the republics in the North Caucasus. However, its role in the conflicts cannot be explained by Islam itself which plays the role of disguise for the real reasons of the conflicts. The article examines strengthening of Islam on the Caucasus, as well as its globalization, and politization and the rise of jihadism. It analyses complex relations among its many different forms and schools.

  19. Geological framework and thorium resources exploration condition of Georgia (The Caucasus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caucasus represents a Phanerozoic collisional orogeny, that formed along the Eurasian North continental margin, extends over 1200 km from the Caspian to Black Sea. Georgian republic is situated in the central part of Caucasus Region. Here are marked 3 ore occurrences of thorium : 1-in the Greater Caucasus (Th concentrations vary between 51 g/t - 3882 g/t); 2- in the Dzirula massif (Th concentrations vary between 117 g/t -266 g/t); 3- in Vakijvari orefield (Th concentrations vary between 185 g/t - 428 g/t). Based on these data thorium ore occurrences found in Georgia should be treated as prospective resources. (author)

  20. Geoethnopolitical Aspect of the Caucasus Development in terms of Sochi Preparation for Winter Olympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Petrova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with geopolitical problems within the Caucasus Region in terms of modern regional processes, indicates major features of the region and their impact on Sochi preparation for Winter Olympic Games.

  1. Interpreting lineaments in the southern slope of the greater Caucasus (within the Azerbaijan SSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagov, B.A.; Aliyev, A.S.; Mikailov, A.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Faults and block morphostructures of the southern slope of the greater Caucasus are revealed by interpreting space photographs. A plan of lineaments is compiled. Interpretation signs of the most important faults are described.

  2. Historical Review of the Formation of Geopolitical and Ethnic Space of the North Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope O. Blejсh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article said that the North Caucasus was one of the centers of early civilization, as it was settled by nomads since ancient times, thanks in no small measure contributed to the very favorable natural and geographical conditions of the region. It was here that establish trade, political, military and cultural contacts between the near Eastern countries and Eastern Europe and the North Caucasus because the region gradually formed as a multiethnic region. It consisted of three language families: the Caucasian, Turkic and Indo-European (Ural-Altaic. The article describes the history of the formation of ethnic resettlement in the Caucasus and considered their ethnographic map. It is proved that at the beginning of the XVIII century ended with the formation of the ethnic composition of the population of the North Caucasus, which has survived unchanged to this day.

  3. BARLEY LEAF RUST (PUCCINIA HORDEI OTTH. PATHOGEN IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS: SPREAD AND RASE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilova A. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spread of barley dwarf rust pathogen has been studied in five agro-climatic zones of North Caucasus in 2012-2013. The race composition of the North Caucasian pathogen population was identified

  4. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism e...

  5. The aftershock processes of strong earthquakes in the Western Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. V.; Gabsatarova, I. P.

    2015-05-01

    The aftershock processes of the four strong earthquakes that occurred in the Western Caucasus from 1991 to June 2013 are considered. The main shocks of these earthquakes include the first Racha earthquake (April 29, 1991, Ms = 6.9); second Racha earthquake (June 15, 1991, Ms = 6.2); Oni earthquake (September 7, 2009, Ms = 5.8); and East Black Sea earthquake (December 23, 2012, Ms = 5.6). Based on the simulations with the LPL relaxation model and the ETAS model of triggered seismicity, the differences in the properties of the aftershock processes and the characteristics of the fault zones accommodating the main shocks are revealed. The nonrelaxation character of the aftershocks from the East Black Sea earthquake is established. It is hypothesized and validated that this is a result of the violation of the fluid-dynamic equilibrium in the fault zone due to the destruction of the gas hydrate layer by the main shock and strong aftershocks.

  6. Seismic structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Caucasus based on regional earthquake tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Irina; Koulakov, Ivan; Amanatashvili, Iason; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2016-04-01

    We present a new seismic model of the crust beneath the Caucasus based on tomographic inversion of P and S arrival times from earthquakes occurred in the region recorded by regional seismic networks in the Caucasian republics. The resulting P and S velocity models clearly delineate major tectonic units of the study area. A high velocity anomaly in Transcaucasian separating the Great and Lesser Caucasus possibly represents a rigid crustal block corresponding to the remnant oceanic lithosphere of Tethys. Another high-velocity pattern coincides with the southern edge of the Scythian Plate. Strongly deformed areas of Great and Lesser Caucasus are mostly associated with low-velocity patterns representing thickened felsic part of the crust and strong fracturing of rocks. Most Cenozoic volcanic centers of Caucasus match to the low-velocity seismic anomalies in the crust. For example, the Kazbegi volcano group is located above an elongated low-velocity anomaly squeezed between high-velocity segments of Transcaucasian and Scythian Plate. We propose that mantle part of the Arabian and Eurasian Plates has been delaminated due to the continental collision in the Caucasus region. As a result, overheated asthenosphere appeared nearly the bottom of the crust and facilitated melting of the crustal material that caused the origin of recent volcanism in Great and Lesser Caucasus.

  7. Decoupling of modern shortening rates, climate, and topography in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Adam M.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rossi, Matthew W.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains and their associated foreland basins contain similar rock types, experience a similar two-fold, along-strike variation in mean annual precipitation, and were affected by extreme base-level drops of the neighboring Caspian Sea. However, the two Caucasus ranges are characterized by decidedly different tectonic regimes and rates of deformation that are subject to moderate (less than an order of magnitude) gradients in climate, and thus allow for a unique opportunity to isolate the effects of climate and tectonics in the evolution of topography within active orogens. There is an apparent disconnect between modern climate, shortening rates, and topography of both the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus which exhibit remarkably similar topography along-strike despite the gradients in forcing. By combining multiple datasets, we examine plausible causes for this disconnect by presenting a detailed analysis of the topography of both ranges utilizing established relationships between catchment-mean erosion rates and topography (local relief, hillslope gradients, and channel steepness) and combining it with a synthesis of previously published low-temperature thermochronologic data. Modern climate of the Caucasus region is assessed through an analysis of remotely-sensed data (TRMM and MODIS) and historical streamflow data. Because along-strike variation in either erosional efficiency or thickness of accreted material fail to explain our observations, we suggest that the topography of both the western Lesser and Greater Caucasus are partially supported by different geodynamic forces. In the western Lesser Caucasus, high relief portions of the landscape likely reflect uplift related to ongoing mantle lithosphere delamination beneath the neighboring East Anatolian Plateau. In the Greater Caucasus, maintenance of high topography in the western portion of the range despite extremely low (<2-4 mm/y) modern convergence rates may be related

  8. 76 FR 30987 - In the Matter of the Designation of Caucasus Emirate aka Imarat Kavkaz aka Imirat Kavkaz aka...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Designation of Caucasus Emirate aka Imarat Kavkaz aka Imirat Kavkaz aka Islamic Emirate of... Imarat Kavkaz, also known as Imirat Kavkaz, also known as Islamic Emirate of the Caucasus, poses...

  9. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  10. Tectonics, recent geodynamics and seismicity of Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, Fuad; Kangarli, Talat; Rahimov, Fuad; Murtuzov, Zaur; Aliyev, Ziya

    2016-04-01

    Transition area of the Eastern Caucasus - Caspian Megadepression corresponds to a periclinal submergence zone of the mountain folded structure of the Greater Caucasus under Pliocene-Holocenic sedimentary complex of Caspian megabasin. Being a part of Alpine-Himalayan folded belt, Greater Caucasus has formed during alpine stage of tectogenesis under geodynamic conditions of convergent interactions between Northern and Southern Caucasus continental microplates. This process has been accompanied by pseudosubduction of the first plate under the second with formation of allochtonous accretion prism above underthrust zone. Modern folding and napping structure of the orogeny has formed as a result of the horizontal movements of different phases and subphases of alpine tectogenesis, that are presented represented by Late Cimmerian - Wallachian tectonic phases within Azerbaijan territory. Limited by meridional fault-slip zones, Caspian megadepression present itself as a young structure that layered on sublatitudinal convergent zone and developed during Late Miocene (10 million years ago) as a flexure zone between two indenters which actively move northward provoking their separation from the African continent and Arabian plate in the west and secession from Central Iranian plate of the Lut block in the east. The acting movement of Arabian plate to the north results in accumulation of the horizontal stress at the current stage of tectogenesis. Current process reveals itself both in the fragmentation of Southern and Northern Caucasus continental microplates into various-size blocks along the general and anti-Caucasus trended faults, and in consideration horizontal and vertical movements within the convergence zone. All these factors define the complexity of geodynamic condition revealed here, in which seismic activity of a transition zone become apparent. There exist the seismic zones here that are confined both to a convergence line and to the fault zones that confine Caspian

  11. The bees of the genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) of the Caucasus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2016-01-01

    Information about bees of the genus Colletes in the Caucasus region is summarized. Two new species are described from Azerbaijan: Colletes jovel Kuhlmann & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. and C. longimala Kuhlmann & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. Nine species are newly recorded from Caucasus: C. asiaticus Kuhlmann 1999, C. brevigena Noskiewicz 1936, C. cariniger Pérez 1903, C. glaber Warncke 1978, C. idoneus Cockerell 1922, C. inexpectatus Noskiewicz 1936, C. meyeri Noskiewicz 1936, C. schwarzi Kuhlmann 2002, and C. wahrmani Noskiewicz 1959. A total of 50 species are currently known from this area. PMID:27615937

  12. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  13. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both a

  14. Could Baltic experiences be applicable to the countries of South Caucasus? / Kristian Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Taani kaitseministri Kristian Fischeri ettekanne Taani ja Balti riikide vahelisest kaitsealasest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  15. Genetic diversity in walnut (Juglans regia) from the caucasus nation of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of genetic structure and differentiation using 12 microsatellite loci of six walnut populations, three each from the Greater Caucasus and the Talysh, revealed a moderate range of variation. The observed number of alleles ranged from 2 to 11 alleles with a mean of 5.6 alleles per locus. The ...

  16. Immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus Region: Differential Drug Use, Infectious Disease, and Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Rawson, Richard A.; Hasson, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined drug use patterns, HIV/AIDS, and related outcomes among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus mountain region in Israel who reported heroin use. A total of 253 FSU heroin users were interviewed from 2002 to 2007 as part of a large drug use surveillance study in Israel. Individuals were…

  17. AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN GERMANY’S ECONOMIC STRATEGY IN 1942-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarov A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explores shift of emphasis in the Third Reich policy in the North Caucasus when agricultural resources of the region became the main object of economic exploitation and one of the most important source of Germany's food supply. Firstly the author shows the place the North Caucasus had in agriculture of the Soviet Union on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. Despite a relatively small area and population, the region played an important role in the production of wheat, corn, sunflower, meat and other products. It is emphasized that the region was of special interest to Germany primarily for its oil fields which allowed solving the fuel problems. But with the failure of Hitler’s "oil plans" the agricultural products became the most important revenue source for the German economy in the North Caucasus in 1942-1943. The author shows that for stable agricultural exploitation the occupation regime not only refused the collective farms’ accelerated elimination but also adapted them to harvesting crops and saving huge livestock. Using the pro-Nazi newspapers and archival documents, the author reveals the occupier’s methodology of action and propaganda by local supporters of the regime for a timely crops harvest. In conclusion, the results of agrarian policy of Germany in the North Caucasus are shown. This article is intended for specialists in the field of history and economics as well as a wide range of readers

  18. INVENTORY AND PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE GREAT CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinskaya S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of floristic inventory within four floristic areas are underlined, namely for Western Ciscaucasia, Western Caucasus, Northwest, and the Western Transcaucasia. The issue questions towards taxonomy, species protection, devastation in ecosystems, and adventizion of vegetation are considered.

  19. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  20. Lithospheric Velocity Structure of the Anatolain plateau-Caucasus-Caspian Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, R; Mellors, R J; Sandvol, E; Pasyanos, M; Hauk, T; Yetirmishli, G; Teoman, U; Turkelli, N; Godoladze, T; Javakishvirli, Z

    2009-04-15

    Anatolian Plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 29 new broadband seismic stations in the region, a unified velocity structure is developed using teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Love and Rayleigh surface waves dispersion curves have been derived from event-based analysis and ambient-noise correlation. We jointly inverted the receiver functions with the surface wave dispersion curves to determine absolute shear wave velocity and important discontinuities such as sedimentary layer, Moho, lithospheric-asthenospheric boundary. We combined these new station results with Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment results (29 stations). Caspian Sea and Kura basin underlained by one of the thickest sediments in the world. Therefore, short-period surface waves are observed to be very slow. The strong crustal multiples in receiver functions and the slow velocities in upper crust indicate the presence of thick sedimentary unit (up to 20 km). Crustal thickness varies from 34 to 52 km in the region. The thickest crust is in Lesser Caucasus and the thinnest is in the Arabian Plate. The lithospheric mantle in the Greater Caucasus and the Kura depression is faster than the Anatolian Plateau and Lesser Caucasus. This possibly indicates the presence of cold lithosphere. The lower crust is slowest in the northeastern part of the Anatolian Plateau where Holocene volcanoes are located.

  1. Ethno-territorial conflict and coexistence in the Caucasus, Central Asia and Fereydan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Rezvani

    2013-01-01

    Babak Rezvani studied ethno-territorial conflicts and peaceful coexistence between ethnic groups in (post-) Soviet Central Asia, the Caucasus and Fereydan (in Iran), all of which are ethnically, linguistically and religiously heterogeneous. The demographic dominance of titular groups in their autono

  2. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  3. Ecology and pathology of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the deciduous forests of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridnya, M.V.; Cherpakov, V.V.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1996-01-01

    Chestnut-dominated forests of the Caucasus Mountain area of Russia are very similar to former chestnut-dominated forests in eastern North America. The distribution, pathology, and reproductive status of European chestnut (Castanea sativa) in the Caucasus are described and compared to that of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chestnut forests are distributed continuously along the southern slope of the Caucasus mountains near the Black Sea, and are found in isolated populations on the north side of the Caucasus, at elevations ranging from 200 to 1300 meters. Chestnut blight was apparently introduced into the region after 1880 and continues to destroy chestnut forests today. Chestnut in the Caucasus is also infected by several other fungal and bacterial parasites and the joint infection of blight and bacteria may be especially dangerous for chestnut trees. Chestnut-dominated forests comprise only a few percent of total forest cover in the Caucasus Biosphere Preserve, and usually occur in mountain valleys or coves with deep brown soil. The age structure and reproductive status of chestnut in the Caucasus was investigated on six study plots in the Caucasus Biosphere Forest Preserve near the upper altitudinal limit of chestnut. Although chestnut is at least 70 percent of the overstory on these sites, there are very few trees less than 50 years old, and very few recent seedlings on any of the plots. Most large chestnut trees appear to have originated as basal spouts from previously established stems. Although chestnut seed production appears adequate, we suspect that competition with shrubs and other tree seedlings, and predation by herbivores and rodents, now prevent the establishment and survival of chestnut seedlings in the Biosphere Preserve.

  4. Mass balance and surface velocity reconstructions of two reference Caucasus glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Morozova, Polina; Popovnin, Victor; Rybak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Total glacial volume of the Greater Caucasus exceeds 40 cubic km and its area exceeds 1 thousand square km. During the 20th century, mountain glaciers at the Greater Caucasus were continuously degrading. According to various estimates, their area reduced more than one-third and their volume almost by half. The process of degradation was accompanied by growing population and economical development on surrounding territories. In the 21st century under proceeding global warming, a tendency of shrinking of area and volume of glaciation is obviously expected to continue. Working out of strategy of sustainable economic development of the region is the main motivation for elaboration of predictions of glaciers' evolution in the changing environment. Growing demand of fresh water is the basic challenge for the local economy, and efficient planning of water resources is impossible without knowing future state of glaciation. Therefore our research aims at obtaining accurate evaluation of probable future change of the most prominent mountain glaciers of the Greater Caucasus in forthcoming decades and at studying impacts of changing characteristics of glaciation on the run-off in the area. Initially, we focus on two so-called reference glaciers - Marukh (Western Caucasus) and Djankuat (Central Caucasus). Intensive field observations on both of them have been conducted during the last half of the century and essential amount of detailed relevant information has been collected on their geometry change and on mass balance. Besides, meteorological measurements were episodically carried out directly on the glaciers providing enough data for correlation of the local weather conditions with the data from the closest meteorological stations. That is why studying of response of Marukh and Djankuat on the environmental change can be accurately verified, which is crucial for understanding mechanisms driving evolution of large glaciated area in the Caucasus. As the instrument of research

  5. Seismological and Geodynamic Monitoring Network in the "javakheti" Test Zone in the Southern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Karakhanyan, A.; Durgaryan, R.; Basilaia, G.; Sokhadze, G.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Javakheti Highland located in the border region between Armenia and Georgia (sharing a border with Turkey) is an area in the Southern Caucasus of young Holocene-Quaternary volcanism and a region with convergence of a number of active faults. Issues related to the geometry, kinematics and slip-rate of these faults and assessment of their seismic hazard remain unclear in part due to the fragmentary nature of the studies carried out soley within the borders of each of the countries as opposed to region wide. In the frame of the ISTC A-1418 Project "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" the Javakheti Highland was selected as a trans-border test-zone. This designation allowed for the expansion and upgrading of the seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks under the auspices of several international projects (ISTC CSP-053 Project "Development of Communication System for seismic hazard situations in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia", NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response") as well as through joint research programs with the National Taiwan University and Institute of Earth Sciences (IES, Taiwan), Universite Montpellier II (France) and Ecole et Observatoire des Sciences de la Terre-Université de Strasbourg (France). Studies of geodynamic processes, and seismicity of the region and their interaction have been carried out utilizing the newly established seismological and geodynamic monitoring networks and have served as a basis for the study of the geologic and tectonic structure . Upgrading and expansion of seismological and geodynamic networks required urgent solutions to the following tasks: Introduction of efficient online systems for information acquisition, accumulation and transmission (including sattelite systems) from permanent and temporary installed stations, Adoption of international standards for organization and management of databases in GIS

  6. NOTES ON PALAEARCTIC XANTHOLININI. VI. NEW SPECIES AND NEW RECORDS FROM CAUCASUS (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae (*

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    Arnaldo Bordoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available (* 223° contribution on the knowledge of the Staphylinidae.Leptacinus khachikovi n. sp., Gyrohypnus khachikovi n. sp., Xantholinus biseriatus n. sp., Xantholinus circassicus n. sp., Xantholinus daghestanicus n. sp. are described from South European Territory of Russia. New records are listed for the named regions: Gauropterus notabilis Kirshenblat, 1951 (Daghestan, Xantholinus fortepunctatus Motschulsky, 1860 (Russian Caucasus, X. audrasi Coiffait, 1956 and Hypnogyra angularis (Ganglbauer, 1895 (South European Territory of Russia. Neotype of Xantholinus maykopensis Coiffait, 1966 is designated.

  7. Agroecological evaluation of soils suitable for viniculture on the southeastern macroslope of the Great Caucasus (Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, G. Sh.; Yusifova, M. M.

    2013-08-01

    Data on the agroecological evaluation of soils suitable for viniculture on the southeastern macroslope of the Great Caucasus in Azerbaijan are discussed. The quality of major soil types and subtypes has been assessed on the basis of special scales developed for the particular soil properties. The agroecological classes of soils have been specified, and the limiting and favorable ecological factors for winegrowing have been determined. On this basis, the areas with best ecological conditions for the development of viniculture have been outlined.

  8. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

    OpenAIRE

    SEVDA BABAYEVA; ZEYNAL AKPAROV; ADI DAMANIA

    2014-01-01

    The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC) region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant asso...

  9. THE ISLAMIST MOVEMENT IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS: TRENDS, POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS, AND HOW TO OPPOSE IT

    OpenAIRE

    Dobaev, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Unfolding in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the religious revival that involved all the traditional confessions, including Islam, existing in Russia spread to the Northern Caucasus. In fact, it added a political dimension to the local forms of Islam and, by the same token, made it more radical. Centrifugal factors caused disunity in North Caucasian Islam on the institutional level when seven independent spiritual administrations replaced the single Spiritual Administration of the North Cauca...

  10. The healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century: the development features

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani; Rashad A. Kurbanov; Teymur E. Zulfugarzade

    2016-01-01

    The article based on the archival material deals with the healthcare system in the Caucasus at the beginning of the XX century. In writing this article, the authors made use of reports from national archives of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia), the archival department of administration of Sochi (Sochi, Russian Federation). There is given the statistics from the works of Russian and foreign authors, and also reference literature. The authors‘ use of the principles of objectivity, historicism, ...

  11. Mountainous terrain and violent conflict in the post-Soviet Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, F. D. W.; Linke, A. M.; Holland, E.; O'Loughlin, J.

    2015-12-01

    What are the connections between mountainous terrain and violent conflict in the post-Soviet Caucasus? Political science and international relations research often use simplistic metrics to characterize terrain and its relation to conflict. We examine linkages between environmental conditions and conflict using fine-resolution spatially disaggregated data for violent events occurring in five wars in the broader Caucasus region: between the Russian state and separatists in Chechnya and the neighboring republics (1999-2002); the Russian state and Islamists in the North Caucasus (2002-2015); between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Nagorno-Karabakh (1990-2015); and between Georgia and separatists in South Ossetia (1991-2008) and Abkhazia (1992-2008). For environmental conditions, we consider land use, elevation, and slope to identify profiles of violence intensity within each of the five cases. Data include forest cover derived from Landsat imagery, slope data calculated from a digital elevation model, and land cover derived from MODIS imagery. The Landsat imagery provide consistent 30 meter information on percent forest cover across the multiple study regions. We use GIS (buffers around conflict points) to create categorical summary statistics. The "operational costs of context" vary dramatically across regions within the study area and by the actor who initiates subsets of violent events. Our empirical focus is on Russia's south and the neighboring countries of the South Caucasus but we leverage comparisons between the five wars to generalize outward to other world regions and to contribute to research on conflict propensity in regions of rugged and mountainous terrain.

  12. Religiosity and Trust in Religious Institutions: Tales from the South Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Robia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The paper examines the determinants of trust in religious institutions in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia—three countries with low levels of religiosity as measured by attendance, prayer and fasting, yet high levels of trust in religious institutions. The analysis employs individual-level survey data from the Caucasus Research Resource Centers’ (CRRC) 2007 Data Initiative and uses OLS regression to show that while religious practices do not determine trust in religious instituti...

  13. INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION OF ABKHAZIA AND SOUTH OSSETIA:A (DE)STABILIZING FACTOR IN THE CAUCASUS

    OpenAIRE

    Amelina, Yana

    2012-01-01

    The August 2008 war and recognition, on 26 August, 2008, of the independence of the Republic of Abkhazia and the Republic of South Ossetia by the Russian Federation and, later, by several other countries created a new situation in the Greater Caucasus, which many of the regional and world geopolitical players have found unpalatable. Their active efforts to change the new reality run up against the recognition of independence of these two states, which Russia cannot revoke without losing its i...

  14. GLOBALIZATION OF MUSLIM CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE CAUCASUS: ISLAMIC CALL AND JIHAD

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbanov, Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Today most researchers of North Caucasian religious-political reality are viewing the role of the international factor in the region's Islamic revival exclusively from the narrow perspective of its financing by the worldwide terrorist international aimed at destabilizing the situation in the Caucasus. However, the circumstances that have brought the problems relating to the North Caucasian Islamic revival to the international level are much more complicated and multifaceted. Let us begin with...

  15. Data Archived for Events in the Caucasus for the CauSINCollaboration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoladze, T; Hunt, D; Aliyev, F; Arakelyan, A; Kalafat, D; Javakhishvil, Z; Panahi, B; Arzumanyan, V; Hutchings, L J; Vergino, E

    2007-08-17

    The Causin project is a joint effort between the countries in the Caucasus region to develop a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. To that end, we have compiled a database of all available network data in the region. The information contained in the database is from four countries: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey and from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). Table 1 lists the networks from which data were obtained. Figure 1 shows the locations of stations, and Figure 2 shows ray paths for event locations of the archived data. An ongoing effort in the region is the Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) is an international scientific project enabling the countries and scientists of the region to: better understand the seismicity of the greater Caucasus; develop new monitoring networks to support the scientific understanding; provide access to seismic data from local networks in the participating countries; and develop a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment for the region enabling the governments in the region to better mitigate the damaging effects from large earthquakes. In parallel with this effort, training has been conducted on modern techniques for probabilistic hazards assessment. CauSIN is also an ongoing effort to promote cooperation in the geosciences between Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, European Union and the United States. The DOE supports the American team from New England Research, Inc. (NER), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston College, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  16. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea; Le Caucase et les enjeux petroliers de la Mer Caspienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalillosoltan, N. [Universite de Franche Comte, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Faculte de Droit de Besancon, 25 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  17. Bondi Cave and the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition in western Georgia (south Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleurdeau, David; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Pinhasi, Ron; Yeshurun, Reuven; Higham, Tom; Agapishvili, Tamar; Bokeria, Maka; Muskhelishvili, Alexander; Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Nomade, Sébastien; Poupeau, Gérard; Bocherens, Hervé; Frouin, Marine; Genty, Dominique; Pierre, Monique; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Lordkipanidze, David; Tushabramishvili, Nikoloz

    2016-08-01

    The late Pleistocene expansion of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) into Eurasia and the concurrent demise of the Neanderthals appears to be a complex and regionally variable process. The southern Caucasus region, with its rich cave-sites, has recently provided important results regarding this process. In this paper we report on the results of fieldwork in Bondi Cave, Western Georgia, providing a new radiocarbon chronology, stratigraphic observations, analyses of lithic technology and provenance, faunal and floral remains as well as paleoenvironmental data. The cave includes Middle Palaeolithic (ca, 45,000 ka cal. BP) cultural horizons and a long Upper Palaeolithic sequence (ca. 40,000-27,000 cal. BP from layer V to IV). A modern human tooth was found in layer Vb. We estimate its age at 39,000-35,800 Cal BP (95.4%), based on the Bayesian age model we built. If the context of the tooth is reliable, as we think it is, this would make it the oldest morphologically modern human in the Caucasus. Upper Palaeolithic hunting of tur and bison, as well as the collection of various plants including flax is attested. Mobile Upper Palaeolithic foragers inhabited the cave in generally cold and dry periods, but a mosaic of environments, including forests and meadows, was nonetheless available to them. The archaeological sequence of Bondi and adjacent sites indicates a substantial time gap between the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic occupations, thus disproving Neanderthal-AMH interaction in this area and lending support to a replacement scenario in the southern Caucasus, assuming of course that the Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) is related to the arrival of AMHs.

  18. Renewed Circassian Mobilization in the North Caucasus 20-years after the Fall of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Funch Hansen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The renewed ethnic mobilization among Cirsassians in the North Caucasus region in Russia that has unfolded since the latter half of the 2000s is illustrated by the establishment of new civil society organizations and a substantially increased number of internet-based initiatives. All of this reflects a new and increased form of agency and unity among the Circassians in which youth activism has played a key role. It also illustrates how Circassian civil society actors and cyber-activists have not only been able to establish a counter-public sphere or develop a new space for action, but also increasingly have been able to move key issues from Circassian spheres into the wider public sphere of mainstream Russian media and politics. The upcoming 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, in particular, has functioned as a lever in this process, which has also resulted in increasing support among Circassians for calls for recognition of the nineteenth century forced expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from the Caucasus as an act of genocide. In this manner, a mega-event such as the Sochi Olympics has contributed to generating a more radical or politicized understanding or framing of the Causasian exodus that, since the fall of the Soviet Union, has generally been known "as our national tragedy". The million-strong and geographically dispersed Circassian diaspora have undergone a similar civil society and internet-based mobilization since the mid-2000s, which includes increased transnational communication, coordination, and cooperation-and increasingly also includes Circassian actors in the North Caucasus.

  19. Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan

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    Harpending Henry C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near the junction of three major continents, the Caucasus region has been an important thoroughfare for human migration. While the Caucasus Mountains have diverted human traffic to the few lowland regions that provide a gateway from north to south between the Caspian and Black Seas, highland populations have been isolated by their remote geographic location and their practice of patrilocal endogamy. We investigate how these cultural and historical differences between highland and lowland populations have affected patterns of genetic diversity. We test 1 whether the highland practice of patrilocal endogamy has generated sex-specific population relationships, and 2 whether the history of migration and military conquest associated with the lowland populations has left Central Asian genes in the Caucasus, by comparing genetic diversity and pairwise population relationships between Daghestani populations and reference populations throughout Europe and Asia for autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers. Results We found that the highland Daghestani populations had contrasting histories for the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome data sets. Y-chromosomal haplogroup diversity was reduced among highland Daghestani populations when compared to other populations and to highland Daghestani mitochondrial DNA haplogroup diversity. Lowland Daghestani populations showed Turkish and Central Asian affinities for both mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data sets. Autosomal population histories are strongly correlated to the pattern observed for the mitochondrial DNA data set, while the correlation between the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome distance matrices was weak and not significant. Conclusion The reduced Y-chromosomal diversity exhibited by highland Daghestani populations is consistent with genetic drift caused by patrilocal endogamy. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal phylogeographic comparisons indicate a common Near Eastern

  20. The New 2-M RCC Telescope in the Northern Caucasus for Modern Astronomical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarady, V. K.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.

    A new 2-m Ritchey-Chretien-Coude (RCC) telescope in the Northern Caucasus (the Kabardin-Balkar Republic, Russian Federation) is nearing being put into operation. It has been developed by the National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) which seems to be one of the best sites for astronomical ground observations in terms of its astroclimate. This paper describes the present status of the telescope, its instrumentation and outlines the scientific problems that can be solved using the telescope.

  1. THE RISKS OF POLITICIZATION OF ISLAMIC IDENTITY IN CONTEMPORARY RUSSIA (ON MATERIALS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said-Hamzat Mahmudovich NUNUEV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the article is the politicization of Islamic identity in post-Soviet Russia. The problem is in competitive and conflict type of interaction of religious identity with Russian civil, regional, ethnic, political identities. The purpose of the article is to identify the risks of politicization of Islamic identity in contemporary Russia (on materials of the North Caucasian republics. The article determines the causes of the politicization of Islamic identity, highlights the factors of territorial unevenness of the politicization of Islam in the North-East and NorthWest Caucasus. The novelty of the work is manifested in the systematization and comparative analysis of the results of opinion polls on the religiosity in all the republics of the North Caucasus. Based on the instrumentalist methodology, the article sets parameters of Islamic identity, which are subject to purposeful design by religious elites and associations. It is concluded that the leading causes for politicization of Islam in the macro-region are: delegitimation of the secular political order, the weakening of the state secular institutions and their regulatory functions, uncertainty of goal-setting development, lack of regulatory abilities of secular norms that entail archaization of the regional community, facilitate geopolitical pressure of foreign countries, international organizations and the spread of religious radicalism. The article notes the growing influence of Islamic identity, which becomes the basis of group solidarity and mobilization, political positioning. Instability creates grounds for extremist religious groups. The most tolerant interaction of religious and civic identities is noted in Stavropol region and the republics of the North-West Caucasus, and among the middle and older generations of respondents. More intolerant interaction of civil and religious identities is noted in the North-East Caucasus, as well as among young people. This can be

  2. The post-cold war decade in the Caucasus: the wars in Chechnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, its origins, development and international repercussions within the context of the Russian Federation and the more general context of the Caucasus, which since the end of the cold war has experienced the appearance of new conflicts and the re-emergence of old ones, largely as a result of the economic and strategic value given to the region due both to the region’s lying on the most direct route between the Caspian and Black Seas and well as to its natural gas and petroleum reserves.

  3. Thermal history, exhumation, uplift, and long-term landscape evolution of the Eastern Great and Northern Lesser Caucasus, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilger, Tatiana; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Mosar, Jon

    2015-04-01

    The Caucasus orogen (Great and Lesser Caucasus) is the highest mountain range between Asia and Europe, whose growth takes place since the beginning of the Cenozoic (Mosar et al. 2010). The orogen has evolved as a result of the active north directed convergence of the Arabian plate (Nikishin et al. 2001). The Great Caucasus (GC) represents a doubly verging fold-and-thrust belt, with a per-and a retro wedge actively propagating into the foreland sedimentary basins to the south and to the north (Sholpo 1993). Thermochronometric techniques (fission-track, (U-Th-Sm)/He, each on apatite and zircon) are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of the upper crust, the subsidence, as well as the rock and surface uplift of the Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus and to connect them with the thrust kinematics of the GC. Samples were taken along different transects in Eastern GC and Northern Lesser Caucasus in Azerbaijan. Most samples of Eastern GC are Lower Jurassic age sandstones (deep marine and slope facies). Several sedimentary rock samples of Cretaceous, Miocene, Pliocene and Quaternary age were taken from the outcrops in the Kura basin and along rivers in the Eastern GC. Samples of the Lesser Caucasus are igneous and sedimentary origin and have Lower Jurassic to Holocene age. The first AFT-data in the Eastern Great Caucasus were investigated. All researched samples show recessed AF-ages. Most dated sedimentary samples have several populations of apatite minerals. Apatite minerals have low U-concentration (up to 10 ppm). Most dated samples taken in Aalenian sandstone have very young AFT-ages (up to 10 Ma). Some samples show Oligocene AF-ages of 23-28Ma. The preliminary data confirm orogeny in the Eastern Great Caucasus since Oligocene and propagation of orogeny since middle Miocene (Mosar et al. 2010). References Mosar, J., Kangarli, T., Bochud, M., Glasmacher, U.A., Rast, A., Brunet, M.-F. & Sosson, M. 2010. Cenozoic-Recent tectonics and uplift in the Greater

  4. THE TECTONOPHYSICAL RESEARCHES OF THE SEMISAMSKAYA ANTICLINE (NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS FOLD AND THRUST BELT

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    A. V. Marinin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Structural paragenetic and cataclastic analysis methods were applied to study tectonic fracturing within one of the folds of the southern wing of the North-Western Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt. The object of the study was the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 1 and 2 comprising the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogenic layered terrigenic-carbonate sediments that contain various well-developed geological indicators of palaeostresses (Fig. 3, 5, 7, and 9.In the folded structure under study, a paragenesis is revealed which is associated with the effect of sub-horizontal minimum compression (deviator extension stresses of the north-western orientation (NW 320° and traced by detached normal fault systems striking in the north-eastern direction (Fig. 6, 8, 10, 11, and 17. Upthrust-overthrust systems of the north-western strike (NW–SE, which are of importance for the whole folded structure of the North-Western Caucasus, are mainly manifested in the wings of the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 6, 12, and 13.The overall field of stresses related to formation of the folded structure is significantly variable as evidenced by the pattern of local parameters of the paleostress field, which are calculated by the cataclastic analysis method (Figure 15, 16, and 17.It is established that the geodynamic regime within the anticline is considerably variable by types (Fig. 18. Areas with horizontal extension in the axial part of the fold are replaced by areas of horizontal compression at its wings (Fig. 19.  

  5. Censorship and Printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries

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    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of censorship and printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries. The special attention is given to censorship during the First Russian revolution (1905-1907 years. Among the materials are the archival documents from the national archives of Georgia, as well as materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals and legislation dedicated to this issue. The scientific publications are important too. The authors come to the conclusion that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries in the Caucasus, as in the whole of the territory of the Russian Empire, there was a sharp rise of printing and publishing periodicals – magazines. With the growth of revolutionary events there was a need in the institute of censorship to control over the printed word. Especially the role of this institution was high during the First Russian revolution. Despite the small number of states and different problems, the censorship has contributed to the stabilization of the political and crime situation in the territory of the Caucasian viceroyalty.

  6. How the EU can contribute to security and stability in South Caucasus? / Harri Kämäräinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kämäräinen, Harri

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" käsitleb Euroopa Liidu eesmärke ja programme Lõuna-Kaukaasias, mille täitmist koordineerib Euroopa Liidu eriesindaja, suursaadik Heikki Talvitie

  7. Structural problems and prospects of innovative development of economies of countries of the South Caucasus

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    A.A. Egiazarian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is justification of prospects of further innovative development of economies of three countries of the South Caucasus. The results of the analysis. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the South Caucasus countries have found their place in the capitalist world economy as peripheral states. However, all three states in the region have their own economic structural features and differences, both in terms of their current situation and prospects in terms of economic development. In this paper, key features and prospects of economic development are analyzed and identified. In terms of economic prospects the opportunities and challenges of participation in the South Caucasus countries and the Eurasian Customs Unions are discussesed. In the last years the South Caucasian countries showed rather high rates of economic growth, but the level of economic development of their economy is low. Economic systems of those countries are characterized with a number of structural imbalances and problems. In Azerbaijan economic growth was provided at the expense of increase of oil’s production and export. In Georgia and Armenia economic growth was provided at the expense of external financing that stimulated consumer demand, growth in building sector and in sectors of services. Nowadays economies of the South Caucasian countries have been practically exhausted opportunities of extensive growth. In Azerbaijan the oil boom will come to the end soon. In Armenia and Georgia quite high shortage level of the current account remains and both countries have rather big external debt. In the conditions of world economy growth deterioration, especially in Russia, volumes of foreign trade and streams of money transfers will be reduce. It will negatively affect the prospects of their economic growth. All countries of the region need some new markets and strategic investments. The Customs Union represents an attempt to make

  8. [Spatial structure of natural foci of hantavirus on the territory of Northwestern Caucasus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulova, N M; Khliap, L A; Varshavskiĭ, A A; Dzagurova, T K; Iunicheva, Iu V; Riabova, T E; Baskevich, M I; Vasilenko, L E; Tkachenko, E A

    2013-01-01

    For the period from 2001 to 2011 zoological and epizootological studies in more than 100 points of Northwestern Caucasus including territories of Krasnodar Region and Republic of Adygea were carried out. 8723 specimens of small mammals represented by 20 rodent species and 7 insectivorous species were captured and examined. Organs and blood from 5057 specimens of creatures were studied for hantavirus infection. The presence of natural foci of circulation of 2 species of hantavirus--Dobrava/Belgrade and Tula--was established. Sochi viruses and presumably Kurkin with main natural hosts--Caucasian wood and field mice belong to the first species. Tula and Adler viruses with the main host--Microtus genus vole belong to the second species. Quantitative characteristics of infection of small mammals of various species during different seasons and years on the examined territories were obtained, that allowed to create a map of allocation of foci of hantavirus circulation that differ by structure. PMID:24605654

  9. Genetic diversity for drought tolerance in lentils from Central Asia and the Caucasus: CACLentil

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    SEVDA BABAYEVA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drought tolerance of 96 lentil accessions collected from Central Asia and Caucasus (CAC region was analysed through two sets of field experiment conditions: irrigated and rain-fed. Several yield components of these accessions were evaluated and compared by means of statistical analyses. Analysis of variance revealed significant variation among the genotypes between and within the two experimental conditions. Based on regression analysis, seed and pod number per plant had significant associations with seed yield per plant. Cluster analyses based on drought tolerance index (DTI grouped accessions into five subgroups with different numbers of accessions in each group. Three groups out of five were characterized by high DTI values and high yields were observed in both, under irrigated and rainfed conditions. This collective group of genotypes demonstrated valuable germplasm traits under stress and may therefore serve as source of useful genes in breeding lentils for drought tolerance.

  10. Megalandslide in the Northern Caucasus foredeep (Uspenskoye, Russia): geomorphology, possible mechanism and age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, T.; Hradecký, J.; Šilhán, K..; Strom, A. L.; Smolková, V.; Zerkal, O.

    2012-04-01

    Although worldwide datasets reveal that majority of giant landslides have occurred within the steepest portion of the Earth's landsurface, recent observations have brought evidence that some of the largest landslides originated in the low-relief landscapes and moved upon very gently inclined slip surfaces. Extremely large landslide with volume ~2.8 km3 was detected on the right bank of the Kuban river in the Northern Caucasus foredeep (Russian Federation). Megalandslide with gently inclined (soil and loess-like deposits overlying landslide body suggest possible formation of the Uspenskoye megalandslide between ~18-35 ka BP. Inferring trigger of the major megalandslide movement remains rather speculative, but we prefer palaeoseismic hypothesis in connection with rupture of some Late Quaternary fault in the vicinity of landslide area. Area of megalandslide is recently subject of intensive denudation marked by activity of numerous shallow landslides, gully erosion and dynamic aggradation (>2 m during last ~300 years) of material within valley floors.

  11. A megalandslide in the Northern Caucasus foredeep (Uspenskoye, Russia): Geomorphology, possible mechanism and age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Šilhán, Karel; Hradecký, Jan; Strom, Alexander; Smolková, Veronika; Zerkal, Oleg

    2012-12-01

    An extremely large landslide, ~ 2.8 km3 in volume and 32 km2 in area, has been detected on the right bank of the Kuban River in the Northern Caucasus foredeep (Russian Federation). The megalandslide has a very gently inclined slip surface (soil and loess overlying the landslide body suggest possible formation of the megalandslide between ~ 13 and 35 ka BP. Although the trigger of the megalandslide is difficult to establish, we hypothesise that during the slightly moister interval of the Last Glacial, it may have been triggered by an earthquake associated with the rupture of the Late Quaternary Kazminskiy Fault nearby. Fragmented and weakened material from the megalandslide has recently been subjected to intensive denudation by numerous shallow landslides, gully erosion and subsequent aggradation of material on valley floors.

  12. THE HALOPHILICITY OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SALINE SOILS OF SOUTH CAUCASUS

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    Kvesitadze E.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the isolation, purification, determination of taxonomical characteristics and application in soil improvement and other biotechnological processes halophilic microscopic fungi strains isolated from saline soils of Eastern Georgia (middle part of South Caucasus, where their existence is maximally supposed. In all soilclimatic zones the dominate forms of spread fungi are genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, followed by Trichoderma and Mucor. Other genera are met less intensively. The genera Aspergillus is widely spread in chestnut soils and in chernozem, in green forest soils the genera Penicillium is prevailing. The salinity of soil, lake or any other objects from which the isolation of microscopic fungi is performed greatly determines halophilisity of isolated strains. Finally, the collection of halophilic microscopic fungi has been created accounting 96 isolates of extreme halophiles, halophiles and week halophiles.

  13. M9 Tohoku earthquake hydro- and seismic response in the Caucasus and North Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, Tamaz L.; Shengelia, Ia; Zhukova, Natalya; Matcharashvili, Teimuraz; Melikadze, George; Kobzev, Genady

    2016-06-01

    Presently, there are a lot of observations on the significant impact of strong remote earthquakes on underground water and local seismicity. Teleseismic wave trains of strong earthquakes give rise to several hydraulic effects in boreholes, namely permanent water level changes and water level oscillations, which closely mimic the seismograms (hydroseismograms). Clear identical anomalies in the deep borehole water levels have been observed on a large part of the territory of Georgia during passing of the S and Love-Rayleigh teleseismic waves (including also multiple surface Rayleigh waves) of the 2011 Tohoku M9 earthquake. The analysis carried out in order to find dynamically triggered events (non-volcanic tremors) of the Tohoku earthquake by the accepted methodology has not revealed a clear tremor signature in the test area: the Caucasus and North Turkey. The possible mechanisms of some seismic signals of unknown origin observed during passage of teleseismic waves of Tohoku earthquake are discussed.

  14. Dendroclimatic Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Irik Valley, Mount Elbrus (Greater Caucasus

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    Iulian Horia HOLOBÂCĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier retreat in Greater Caucasus after 1980. For the same period a significant summer temperature warming trend and little or no change in precipitation variation have been observed. In this paper we seek to find similar past climatic conditions using a dendroclimatic reconstruction of summer temperatures from upper treeline sites after the Little Ice Age (LIA. Dendroclimatological sampling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris has been made in Irik Valley, near Elbrus glacier, and a tree-ring width (TRW chronology has been used to reconstruct May – August (MJJA temperatures back to 1830. Three warm periods were identified in the MJJA temperatures reconstructed data (1830 - 1900, but we cannot appreciate if they had the same intensity as the recent warm period

  15. Analysis of the lactic acid bacteria microflora in traditional Caucasus cow's milk cheeses

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    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 157 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from three hand-made cheeses taken from different households in the region of the Caucasus Mountains. The cheeses were manufactured from cow's milk without the addition of a starter culture. The isolates of LAB were characterized by subjecting them to phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results of identification of LAB indicate that the examined cheeses contained 10 species, viz., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. The strains within the species L. plantarum, L. arizonensis, L. paraplantarum, L. farciminis, and L. pseudomesenteroides showed good proteolytic activity.

  16. Investigation of the temporal fluctuations of the 1960–2010 seismicity of Caucasus

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    L. Telesca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-clustering behaviour of the seismicity of the Caucasus spanning from 1960 to 2010 was investigated. The analysis was performed on the whole and aftershock-depleted catalogues by means of the method of Allan Factor, which permits the identification and quantification of time-clustering in point processes. The whole sequence is featured by two scaling regimes with the scaling exponent at intermediate timescales lower than that at high timescales, and a crossover that could be probably linked with aftershock time activiation. The aftershock-depleted sequence is characterized by higher time-clustering degree and the presence of a periodicity probably correlated with the cyclic earth surface load variations on regional and local scales, e.g. with snow melting in Caucasian mountains and large Enguri dam operations. The obtained results were corroborated by the application of two surrogate methods: the random shuffling and the generation of Poissonian sequences.

  17. FORMATION OF SOCIAL AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR REVIVAL OF TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    R. A. Khachidogov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the legal establishment of the government in the field of Islamic education in the North Caucasus region. It is noted that the establishment of the Russian state did not bring any significant changes in the everyday life of Muslims of the North Caucasus. For the first time on "foreigners" of the state-level education has been fixed 26 March 1870 "Rules", which talked about the struggle "with a tribal organization and Mohammedan civilization, aimed at the Russification of early Muslims and their coalescence with the Russian people." The next step came Nov. 20, 1874 with the approval of the State Supreme Council, which introduced the system of Islamic education in the school accountability department. So finally implement a project of Russification of the Muslim community, which was the most negative factor hindering the mental development of children who are accustomed to speak the mother tongue. Even in 1838, in the report the Minister of War Chernyshev commander of a separate Caucasian Corps, General Golovin wrote that "it is necessary, wherever possible, to establish Muslim schools for the education of the clergy, through which you can act on the minds of the people." Caucasian leaders were in no hurry to close Muslim schools, trying to use them as centers of education spread. During the Caucasian War, the Russian government is trying to pursue such a policy among the Muslims, which would cause the sympathy not only among the common people, but also among the educated elite of the Muslim community in order to drag her to his side. December 18, 1848 Nicholas I approved the "Regulations on the Caucasian school district and the school district, his subordinate", in which the military gymnasium in Ekaterinodar started teacher "Mohammedan law." In 1853 Muslim students of military schools of the empire received an official entitled to exemption from the training sessions in the days of religious feasts and fasts.

  18. The influence of carbonates in parent rocks on the biological properties of mountain soils of the Northwest Caucasus region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, K. Sh.; Kutrovskii, M. A.; Dadenko, E. V.; Vezdeneeva, L. S.; Kolesnikov, S. I.; Val'kov, V. F.

    2012-03-01

    The biological activity of different subtypes of soddy-calcareous soils (rendzinas) of the Northwest Caucasus region was studied. In the Novorossiisk-Abrau-Dyurso region (dry subtropics), typical soddy-calcareous soils with the high content of carbonates predominate; in the more humid conditions of the Lagonaki Plateau (Republic of Adygeya), leached soddy-calcareous soils carbonate-free down to the parent rock are spread. The number of microarthropods, the populations of fungi and bacteria, and the enzyme activity (catalase, dehydrogenase, and invertase) testify that the biological activity of these soils significantly differs. In the typical soddy-calcareous soils of the dry subtropics, the content of carbonates does not affect the characteristics mentioned; in the more humid conditions of the West Caucasus region, the presence of carbonates in the parent rocks intensifies the biological activity of the soddy-calcareous soils.

  19. Return migration to the Caucasus: the Adyge-Abkhaz diaspora(s), transnationalism and life after return

    OpenAIRE

    Erciyes, Jade Cemre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the dual transnationalism of ancestral return migrants, that is to say people “returning” to the territory where their ancestors had once migrated from. Dispersed from their homeland in the second half of the 19th century, the Adyge-Abkhaz diaspora has been involved in a variety of transnational practices in relation to their homeland in the Caucasus; and some, with considerable effort, have been settling there especially in the last two decades. The transnational inv...

  20. CHARACTER AND FORMS OF INDUSTRIAL GOODS DISTRIBUTION ON DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR DAYS

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    E. V. PANARINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to realization of a state policy of distribution of industrial goods on Don and the North Caucasus in days of the Great Patriotic War. The principles of use of a rationing system of distribution of essentials, her differentiated character, preferential categories of consumers providing allocation are considered. Concrete examples of application of coupons at acquisition of clothes, footwear and other goods are given. Conditions of execution of this order by local bodies of Don and the North Caucasus are analyzed; the attention to limitation of the allocated manufactured goods from the centralized funds is paid. Much attention is paid to the measures for research of additional sources of providing the population of Don and the North Caucasus taken from local bodies by essentials. The attention to especially difficult situation with providing the population of the region, owing to occupation consequences is paid. Data on restoration and development of the local industry, cooperative artels, increase in release of goods, necessary for the population, are provided. The role of the trade-union organizations in supply of the most needing workers with clothes, footwear and other manufactured goods reveals. The assessment is given to results of collaboration of local bodies and public organizations in providing the population with manufactured goods, the remaining difficult situation in questions of providing inhabitants of Don and the North Caucasus by essentials throughout the entire period of the Great Patriotic War is noted.

  1. CREATING NATIONAL LITERATURE AS A FACTOR IN THE SOVIETIZATION OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS (TO THE HISTORY OF ADYGHE INTELLECTUALS

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    Bochkareva A. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the creation and use of the national literature and national Circassia’s language, as a major factor of Sovietization of the North Caucasus in the process of integration of the region in Soviet geopolitical space in the 1920s-1930s. The article is made in the framework of regional competition: "The North Caucasus: Tradition and Modernity" in 2014 - the Krasnodar Territory. 14-11-23007 Project Type "(p", the theme: "The Role of the national intelligentsia in the incorporation of the North Caucasus in the Russian geopolitical space of the. Nineteenth century. - 20-ies. Twentieth century. (based on the Adyghe people. " It is pointed out that the development of the national writing by Circassian intelligence became not only an important matter of national life of Adyghe people, but also a key part of the national policy of the Soviet authorities towards national minorities. It is noted, that in many respects, revolutionary events in Russia became one of the most powerful external factors that stimulated the revitalization of Circassian intelligentsia in the development and diffusion of national literature. It is shown that in the course of the policy of "language building" in the national autonomies within the first twenty years of the Soviet government the graphics based writing changed three times (Arabic, Latin, Russian and three times they were eliminating illiteracy. The conclusion is that intellectuals deprived of the possibility to solve these issues, and a key influence on the development of national literature evolution of Circassians had views of the Bolsheviks in the language policy. In general, the issue of writing, mostly related to the problem of education in specific historical circumstances, has acquired great social and political importance, and has become an important part of the national policy of the Soviet government in matters of Sovietization of the North Caucasus

  2. MUSLIM HOLIDAYS IN THE POLICY OF THE THIRD REICH AMONG THE MOUNTAINEERS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN 1942-1944.

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    Tatarov A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the place of Islamic festivities of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha in the policy of Nazi Germany among the North Caucasus highlanders. Implementing “The North Caucasian experiment” based on speculation costs in prewar policy of Soviet power in the North Caucasus, the occupation regime has identified Islamic holidays a special role in the demonstration of “good intentions” and propaganda among highlanders. The author's concept is founded on the premise that under Nazi occupation of mountain areas Muslim holidays, with a strong outward expression, became a part of not only religious but also the ethno-political, social and economic policies of the Third Reich and served as a means of “political security” for Nazi rule. Using the archival documents and materials of the Berlin newspaper “Gazavat”, the author reveals the background, course and consequences of celebration of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha in the occupied North Caucasus in October and December 1942 and the place of Islamic holidays in Anti-Communist propaganda among highlanders in the Wehrmacht units. The chronological scope of the study is conditioned by the fact that it was during 1942-1944 the arsenal of policy of the Third Reich among Muslims in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East included Muslim holidays

  3. The Establishment of the System of Public Education in the Caucasus (1802–1917 years: the Characteristic Features

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    Natalya A. Shevchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the establishment of the system of public education in the Caucasus in 1802-1917 years. The article proposed a periodization of the process of formation; the attention is paid to the number of pupils in the educational institutions, as well as the ethnic composition. In writing this article, the authors made use of statistical reports and descriptions, the materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals, normative-legal sources, as well as the modern scientific literature. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In conclusion, the authors stated that that the system of public education in the Caucasus was faced with the numerous difficulties. The ambitious project, 1829 – the Regulation on the Transcaucasian colleges, the establishment of 20 district schools in the region was implemented only in the 1873 year, that is, it took 40 years for its realization. In addition to overcome the lack of understanding by the local population, the Caucasian administration was forced to change frequently the curriculum and to include the discipline of a regional component. However, by the beginning of XX century the system of public education in the Caucasus reached the level of full-fledged secondary school, and on the agenda stood the issue of higher education.

  4. Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekelia, S.A.; Kekelia, M.A.; Kuloshvili, S.I.; Sadradze, N.G.; Gagnidze, N.E.; Yaroshevich, V.Z.; Asatiani, G.G.; Doebrich, J.L.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates, which are part of a terrane that likely accreted to the continental margin from late Paleozoic to Jurassic. The slates were subsequently intruded by both Middle to Late Jurassic and Neogene granitoids. Quartz veins in the more carbonaceous slate units are most consistently enriched in As, Au, Hg, Sb, and W, and show mineralization styles most consistent with typical orogenic gold deposits. Quartz veins in the Mestia-Racha district were mined in Soviet times for As, Sb, and W, but many of these are now being recognized as gold resource targets. The veins occur in the footwall of a thrust fault between the Southern Slope zone and an earlier accreted terrane, the Main Zone, to the north. Many veins in the district continue along strike for > 1??km and some cut Neogene intrusions, constraining ore formation to the most recent 4 to 5??million years. Gold deposition thus correlates with final collision of the Arabian plate to the south and uplift of the ore-hosting Greater Caucasus. The Zopkhito deposit, previously mined for antimony, contains an estimated 55??t Au at a cutoff grade of 0.5??g/t. The veins are localized in an area where smaller-order structures show a major change in strike from N-S to more E-W trends. A pyrite-arsenopyrite ore stage includes gold concentrated in both sulfide phases; it is overprinted by a later stibnite-dominant stage. Fluid-inclusion studies of ore samples from the Zopkhito deposit indicate minimum trapping temperatures of 300 to 350????C and 200 to 300????C for the two stages, respectively, and minimum

  5. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction

  6. Simulation and reconstruction of parameters of streamflow and glacier mass balance in the Northern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was aimed at numerical modeling of spatial-temporal variability of the river Terek seasonal (April to September streamflow characteristics and long-term fluctuations of components of annual glacier mass balances in this basin and on the adjacent territories. Mass balance of glaciers Djankuat and Garabashi was calculated. Simulation was performed by means of stochastic modeling and discrete data presenting fields of main meteorological parameters (precipitation, air temperature and humidity having effect on the streamflow. Realization of this approach is complicated by the fact that spatial representativeness of hydrological and meteorological sites are not corresponding one to another. Data on the runoff is clearly related to the total drainage area closed by a gauging station. And for this data we study a relationship with meteorological parameters which are measured at a non-regular observational network whose spatial representativeness is unknown. These stations are generally located beyond the area under investigation (Fig. 2. Similar problem exists when we analyze a relationship between components of the mass balance of individual glaciers (Djankuat and Garabashi and the above climate characteristics measured at some stations located on the whole Caucasus territory. The same takes place when long-term indices of width and density of tree annual rings obtained in upper reaches of the river Kuban’ are used for analysis of variations of the runoff and the glacier mass balance in the river Terek basin located at a distance of 100-150 km from the Kuban’ dendrologic sites.To solve the problem we used a wide number of factors which directly (various information about the climate or indirectly (indices of the climate dryness, wood ring characteristics characterize conditions of formation of annual and seasonal river runoff and components of glacier mass balance in the North Caucasus. Use of all obtained information made possible the

  7. The new 2meter RCC Telescope in the Northern CAucasus (3100m) for Modern Astronomical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarady, V.; Yatskiv, Ya.

    A new 2 meter Ritchey-Chretien-Coude telescope in the Northern Caucasus is expected to be ready for astronomical research in late 1995. The telescope is located on the Terskol peak (near Elbrus) with the altitude of 3100 meter. The low atmospheric water vapour content and the high air transparency in the ultraviolet region allow us to infer that the Terskol peak is one of the best sites in Europe for astronomical ground observation. The mean seeing is about 1 arcsec at the Terskol peak. The main parameters of the optical system are as follows: * equivalent focal length is 16000 mm for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 72000 mm for the Coude system; * diameter of the field free from vignetting is 108' for the Ritchey-Chretien system and 5' for another one; *spot concentration is 80% inside the 0.5" circle. The new telescope will be used in investigating the fundamental problems of the star brightness variability, physics of stars and galaxies, studying the planet and satellite atmosphere dynamics. The precise astrometrical problems can also be solved with this telescope. The telescope will be equiped with the following detectors: -CCD Echelle spectrograph in the Coude focus; - astronomical infrared Fourie spectrometre; -digital panoramic polarimeter; -panoramic spectrophotometer with Fabry-Perot interferometer. This project is realized by the joint efforts of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Kiev (Ukrainian Academy of Sciences) and the International Centre for Astronomical and Medical-Ecological Investigations. Proposals for Scientific observation at the Terskol Observatory are encouraged.

  8. Measurement of radon in ground waters of the Western Caucasus for seismological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinsky, I; Tsvetkova, T; Nevinskaya, E

    2015-11-01

    Results of radon ((222)Rn) concentration measurement in ground waters in the Western Caucasus are described. In 2010-2011 each day at 12:00 Moscow winter time (9:00 GMT) sampling in volume of 0.5 l of waters was carried out in two wells at depth of 30 m and 180 m. In 2012 three times per day (7:00, 12:00, 17:00) this sampling was already carried out. Radon from water was extracting by degassing method with use of bubbler. Measurements of alpha activity of gas in scintillation (ZnS) chambers were done. The water radon data with seismic, meteorological and the Sun-Lunar data were compared. The mathematical method of definition of "splashes" in radon data before regional earthquakes is considered. The greatest probability in 72% of the forecast of regional earthquakes for the data from a well of 30 m depth was received. Correlation between meteo and radon data is absent. Correlation of lunar phases and solar activity with radon data is discussed. In July-December, 2012 sampling of water from 15 wells and measurements of radon were carried out. The distance between wells was near 50 km. Changes of radon maps in territory of South Russia during earthquakes are shown.

  9. Specific variations of the atmospheric electric field potential gradient as a possible precursor of Caucasus earthquakes

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    N. Kachakhidze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the study of anomalous disturbances of the gradient of electric field potential of the atmosphere as possible precursors of earthquakes.

    In order to reveal such precursor Dusheti observatory (φ=42.05; λ=44.42 records of electric field potential's gradient (EFPG of the atmosphere are considered for 41 earthquakes (M≥5.0 occurrence moments in the Caucasus region.

    Seasonal variations of atmospheric electric field potential gradient and inter overlapping influence of meteorological parameters upon this parameter are studied. Original method of "filtration" is devised and used in order to identify the effect of EFPG "clear" anomalies.

    The so-called "clear" anomalies are revealed from (−148.9 V/m to 188.5 V/m limits and they are connected with occurrence moments of 29 earthquakes out of 41 discussed earthquakes (about 71%. "clear" anomalies manifest themselves in 11-day precursor window.

    Duration of anomalies is from 40 to 90 min.

  10. Measurement of radon in ground waters of the Western Caucasus for seismological application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinsky, I; Tsvetkova, T; Nevinskaya, E

    2015-11-01

    Results of radon ((222)Rn) concentration measurement in ground waters in the Western Caucasus are described. In 2010-2011 each day at 12:00 Moscow winter time (9:00 GMT) sampling in volume of 0.5 l of waters was carried out in two wells at depth of 30 m and 180 m. In 2012 three times per day (7:00, 12:00, 17:00) this sampling was already carried out. Radon from water was extracting by degassing method with use of bubbler. Measurements of alpha activity of gas in scintillation (ZnS) chambers were done. The water radon data with seismic, meteorological and the Sun-Lunar data were compared. The mathematical method of definition of "splashes" in radon data before regional earthquakes is considered. The greatest probability in 72% of the forecast of regional earthquakes for the data from a well of 30 m depth was received. Correlation between meteo and radon data is absent. Correlation of lunar phases and solar activity with radon data is discussed. In July-December, 2012 sampling of water from 15 wells and measurements of radon were carried out. The distance between wells was near 50 km. Changes of radon maps in territory of South Russia during earthquakes are shown. PMID:26188714

  11. THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN 1918-1919 YY: POLITICAL REGIMES AND FORMS OF THEIR STATE ORGANIZATION

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    Semenov A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to process of the state development and emergence of new forms of the government in the region of the North Caucasus during the Civil War. The author tells how forms of a political system and the government in the region after October revolution of 1917 have changed. He analyzes the process of emergence of the new military-political modes and character of a state system in its various areas. In the article, the political background of appearance of new forms of statehood and power organization is also considered. The author equally investigates the forms of the state life created by Bolsheviks and their supporters, and the forms of their political opponents – representatives of the white, antiBolshevist movement. The author emphasizes that it was the period of disintegration of traditional Russian statehood and traditional forms of the organization of the political power in the region. New options of the state system which are directly connected with the crisis of the Russian society in 1917 y. came in the region to replace the old ones. In some cases, they represented rather non-standard forms of the organization of the government, including formation of the Soviet republics in the territory of the region, appearance of the ataman power and military dictatorships. On the one hand, they were based on ethnocultural specifics of regional life, and on the other hand they were defined by the crisis of the period of the Civil War

  12. MILITARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE AND POLITICAL ACTIVITY OF E.A. GOLOVIN IN THE CAUCASUS (1838–1842

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    Kondusov V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to military and administrative activity of one of imperial deputies – Evgeny Aleksandrovich Golovin in the Caucasus in 1838-1842. The general spent more than three months studying data on the area he did not know in the archives of SaintPetersburg. E. A. Golovin paid special attention to road and fortification construction. He aimed at making them “centres of Russian nationhood by establishing schools and markets”. On December 15, 1838 E. A. Golovin submitted a report to A. I. Chernyshov, the military minister, where he described the nearest political tasks of the Russian government. In Golovin’s opinion, the main military actions in Dagestan were supposed to be seizure of Chirkat, construction of fortifications therein and devastation of Akhulgo, residence of Shamil. However, E. A. Golovin turned out to be bound with instructions written in Petersburg more than his predecessors. Programmes for military actions in the Caucasus region specifying even troop units to participate in expeditions down to the last detail were drawn on an annually basis. By the end of his term in the position of the Commander-in-Chief of the Independent Caucasian Corps Golovin started supporting the siege system by combining it, the same way as A. P. Ermolov, with periodic temporary offensive operations. After the Evgenievskoe Fortification (named so to honour Golovin by Royal Decree had been constructed at the Sulak River, Evgeniy Aleksandrovich was dismissed in October 1842. The author concludes that in process of recognition of the world of mountaineers the commander-in-chief showed aspiration to searches of other, less dramatic solutions of the Caucasian question, opened for the successors of prospect of the movement of Russia and the people of Chechnya, Dagestan and Western Caucasus towards each other

  13. Tufa and travertine of the Lesser Caucasus: a light on the Quaternary palaeoenvironment of the Circumcaspian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, V.; Roiron, P.; Nahapetyan, S.; Joannin, S.; Chataigner, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the course of the International Associated Laboratory HEMHA (Humans and Environment in Mountainous Habitats : the case of Armenia), the French Foreign Affair Ministry Caucasus Mission (CNRS-UMR 5133 Archéorient, Lyon University) and the French-German research program Ancient Kura (CNRS-UMR 7192 PrOCauLAC, Paris, France, Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Eurasien-Abteilung, Berlin, Germany with ANR-CNRS and DFG funding) numerous sites of the Lesser Caucasus territory are under geomorphological, palaeoenvironmental and archaeological investigations. Through comparisons between the tufa/travertine system and the detrital formation morphosedimentary evolution, one of our research interests is to define the Late Quaternary landscape mutations as well as the origin and rhythmicity of the major morphogenic trends reversals. The impacts of the environmental changes highlighted on the human occupation modes are also debated. A total of 14 travertine and tufa formations were studied (8 Pleistocene and 6 Postglacial formations) on a Northwest-Southeast transect of more than 300 km across the Lesser Caucasus. Each of these carbonated system development are correlated with high global relative sea levels and interstadial climates on a range between the Marine Isotopic Stage 11 and 1 (ca. 335 to 1.5 Ky BP). The absolute chronology is constrained by a series of U/Th and 14C dating. A total of 24 dating was performed (6 radiocarbon and 18 U/Th datings), allowing a high quality overview of the travertinization process over the time at a regional scale. Jointly with the measurement of the late Quaternary interglacial series impact on the tufas development in the Caucasus, the geomorphological position of some travertinous formations and their absolute dating gives some clues about the neotectonic evolution of the studied valleys. In some area, the uplift rate has been determined (ca. 8 mm/year) and discretized from the alluvial incision signal. The analysis of the carbonated

  14. Late Holocene climate history recorded in Karakel lake sediments, Central Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomina, Olga; Kalugin, Ivan; Darin, Andrey; Chepurnaya, Anna; Alexandrin, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    The Holocene climatic history in Caucasus is poorly studied. Two lake sediment cores up to 180 cm long retrieved from the Karakel lake (N 43° 26' 12,13" E 41° 44' 34,72" H=1335 m, Teberda valley, Western Caucasus) in 2010 provide a unique opportunity for the high resolution reconstruction of climate and environment in the Late Holocene in this region. For this purpose we used the scanning X-ray Fluorescence Analyses on Synchrotron Radiation technique (SRXFA) (0.1 mm resolution equal to 4 years), providing data of distribution of more than 50 micro- and macroelements, the loss-on-ignition, magnetic susceptibility, water content, wet and dry bulk density and other physical properties of the sediments as well as palynology (10 mm resolution approximately equal to 40 years). The surface of the lake Karakel is 140x280 m, the lake is 6-8 m deep and is dammed by an old moraine covered by a sparse pine forest. Two units are clearly distinguished in the sediments: the uppermost part (0-54 cm) consists of dark brown to black organic reach sediments, the lower part is light gray laminated clay, poor in organic. Three radiocarbon dates (AMS) from the depth 30-31 cm (1550 ± 30 BP), 52-54 cm (2235 ± 35 BP), 143-145 μm (9760 ± 80 BP) provide the chronological control for the sedimentation rate. The hiatus between the lower and upper units is possible, while the uniform continuous accumulation rate 0.22-0.23 mm/year without major episodes of erosion is supposed for the upper part of the sediments. Seven years from the uppermost part of the sediments is lost in the column collected by the borer in comparison with those retrieved by the box. The late Holocene unit is subdivided into four palynological zones characterizing the changes in the surrounding vegetation and climate. The very good correspondence exists between the total pollen productivity, especially for the tree pollen, and the bromide content in the sediments, which is in turn correlative with the total

  15. Seismic hazard assessment based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: the Greater Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Losses from natural disasters continue to increase mainly due to poor understanding by majority of scientific community, decision makers and public, the three components of Risk, i.e., Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. Contemporary Science is responsible for not coping with challenging changes of Exposures and their Vulnerability inflicted by growing population, its concentration, etc., which result in a steady increase of Losses from Natural Hazards. Scientists owe to Society for lack of knowledge, education, and communication. In fact, Contemporary Science can do a better job in disclosing Natural Hazards, assessing Risks, and delivering such knowledge in advance catastrophic events. We continue applying the general concept of seismic risk analysis in a number of seismic regions worldwide by constructing regional seismic hazard maps based on the Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), i.e. log N(M,L) = A - B•(M-6) + C•log L, where N(M,L) is the expected annual number of earthquakes of a certain magnitude M within an seismically prone area of linear dimension L. The parameters A, B, and C of USLE are used to estimate, first, the expected maximum magnitude in a time interval at a seismically prone cell of a uniform grid that cover the region of interest, and then the corresponding expected ground shaking parameters including macro-seismic intensity. After a rigorous testing against the available seismic evidences in the past (e.g., the historically reported macro-seismic intensity), such a seismic hazard map is used to generate maps of specific earthquake risks (e.g., those based on the density of exposed population). The methodology of seismic hazard and risks assessment based on USLE is illustrated by application to the seismic region of Greater Caucasus.

  16. Moderate, strong and strongest earthquake-prone areas in the Caucasus, California and the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeboev, Boris; Gvishiani, Alexei

    2016-04-01

    We present this study on recognition of areas of possible occurrence of strong earthquakes. The study deals with the earthquake-prone areas in three regions with different geological and tectonic structures located in different parts of the world. The authors created a new method (FCAZ - Fuzzy Clustering and Zoning) for recognition of highly seismic areas, where epicenters of earthquakes with magnitude M≥M0 can occur. The magnitude threshold M0 depends on the seismic activity of the region. The objects of clustering are earthquake epicenters. The new method allows us to implement uniformly necessary clustering of the recognition objects respectively for moderate, strong and strongest events. Suggested approach consists of two steps: clustering of known earthquake epicenters by the original DPS (Discrete Perfect Sets) algorithm and delineating highly seismic zones around the recognized clusters by another original E2XT algorithm. By means of this method we detected the areas of possible occurrence of the epicenters of strong earthquakes in the Caucasus (M≥5), in California (M≥6.5) and in the mountain belt of the Andes (M≥7.75). The latter case relates to the possible areas of natural disaster occurence. Reliability of the results is confirmed by numerous control experiments, including individual and complete seismic history. Two strongest recent Chilean earthquakes occurred in 2014 and 2015 after the moment the results were published. Their epicenters belong to the zone recognized as high seismically hazardous. It is a strong independent argument which confirms the reliability of the results. The presented results integrate most recent outcomes of more than 40 years of research in pattern recognition and systems analysis for seismic zoning implemented in Russian Academy of Science. This research is supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project № 15-17-30020).

  17. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

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    Fatima I. Lunze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design: We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results: Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53% and for indications not related to violence (47%. None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions: In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include

  18. Investigation of a deep ice core from the Elbrus western plateau, the Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalenko, V.; Sokratov, S.; Kutuzov, S.; Ginot, P.; Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kozachek, A.; Ekaykin, A.; Faïn, X.; Lim, S.; Schotterer, U.; Lipenkov, V.; Toropov, P.

    2015-12-01

    A 182 m ice core was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt. Elbrus (43°20´53.9'' N, 42°25´36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region that represents a paleoclimate record that is practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high snow accumulation rates at the drilling site enabled the analysis of the intraseasonal variability in climate proxies. Borehole temperatures ranged from -17 °C at 10 m depth to -2.4 °C at 182 m. A detailed radio-echo sounding survey showed that the glacier thickness ranged from 45 m near the marginal zone of the plateau up to 255 m at the glacier center. The ice core has been analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-), succinic acid (HOOCCH2COOH), and tritium content. The mean annual net accumulation rate of 1455 mm w.e. for the last 140 years was estimated from distinct annual oscillations of δ18O, δD, succinic acid, and NH4+. Annual layer counting also helped date the ice core, agreeing with the absolute markers of the tritium 1963 bomb horizon located at the core depth of 50.7 m w.e. and the sulfate peak of the Katmai eruption (1912) at 87.7 m w.e. According to mathematical modeling results, the ice age at the maximum glacier depth is predicted to be ~ 660 years BP. The 2009 borehole is located downstream from this point, resulting in an estimated basal ice age of less than 350-400 years BP at the drilling site. The glaciological and initial chemical analyses from the Elbrus ice core help reconstruct the atmospheric history of the European region.

  19. Spectral and informational analysis of seismicity: An application to the 1996-2012 seismicity of the Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of the greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Babayev, Gulam; Kadirov, Fakhraddin

    2013-12-01

    The time series analysis of seismic sequences needs proper methodologies that allow us to capture the main features of the time dynamics of earthquakes. Among these features, the identification of periodicities along with the quantification of their intensity represents an important task, concerning the detection of regular dynamical behaviours, with clear implications for earthquake prediction. In the present study, we applied three different methods to investigate the time dynamics of the seismic activity of the Northern Caucasus-Azerbaijan part of the Greater Caucasus-Kopet Dag region. We analysed the monthly number of earthquakes which occurred between 1996 and 2012 by means of: (i) the robust estimation of the periodogram, (ii) the singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and (iii) the Fisher-Shannon method. Two main significant periodicities are detected: 102 months and 20 months. The first corresponds actually to the long-term variation of the monthly seismic activity of the area, while the second represents the more intense cyclic component. Periodicities of 7 and 30 months are also identified, but with a lower intensity than the 20-month periodicity. The Fisher-Shannon method has revealed that the long-term variation of the series is also characterized by higher organization and lower degree of disorder. The present study shows how the application of methods from statistical mechanics could contribute to unveil dynamical features in seismicity.

  20. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF RENDZINA SOILS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS AT POLLUTION BY ZINC, CADMIUM, MOLYBDENUM AND SELENIUM

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    Tatlok D. R.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendzina soils are very widespread in the Caucasus. Because of their ecological and genetic characteristics Rendzina has significant buffering capacity to chemical pollution. The object of investigation was calcareous leached soil. Location selection - Azishskaya ridge on the border of the Republic of Adygea and the Krasnodar region. As pollutants, we have selected Zn, Cd, Mo, Se, since soil contamination with these elements in the south of Russia is not uncommon. Contamination of zinc, cadmium, molybdenum and selenium causes deterioration in the biological properties of calcareous soils of the Western Caucasus. We have investigated the toxicity of the elements formed following series due to their influence on Rendzina soils: Zn> Se> Cd> = Mo. The study attempted to analyze the entire range of concentrations of the examined elements in the soil, currently occurring in nature. In most cases, all the investigated substances registered direct correlation between the concentration of the pollutant in the soil and the degree of reduction of biological indicators. The activity of catalase and dehydrogenase cellulolytic ability, plenty of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, length of roots of radish can be used to monitor, diagnose and regulation of chemical pollution of soil Zn, Cd, Mo, Se

  1. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

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    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  2. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  3. Deriving hydrologic conditions in the southern Caucasus region during the Little Ice Age using different geomorphological and paleoenvironmental archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Benito, Dario Martin; Pederson, Neil; Faust, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    From the 15th century to ca. 1850 AD, the Little Ice Age (LIA), was one of the most prominent climatic fluctuations during the Holocene. It was characterized by negative temperature anomalies evidenced for many regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Mann 2002). During the LIA, many of these regions showed significant changes of their landscape dynamics such as glacier advances and an intensified hydrological cycle. Although glacier advances and reduced pine growth are reported from the Greater Caucasus for parts of the LIA (Solomina 2005), little is known about the hydrological conditions of the humid to semi-arid Lesser Caucasus and Transcaucasus region during the LIA. Existing pollen records are so strongly disturbed by anthropogenic activity during the last millenia that the LIA is not resolved in the only existing pollen-based precipitation reconstruction for the region (Connor & Kvavadze 2008). Here, we present data derived from different kinds of geomorphological archives from the southern Caucasus region (fluvial sediments, indicators for the timing of incision of recently dry valleys). These data demonstrate intensive geomorphic activity during the LIA obviously caused by a strongly intensified hydrological cycle. Given the rather low temporal resolution of these geomorphological archives, however, more highly-resolved palaeoenvironmental data are needed to better understand also minor climatic and hydrologic fluctuations around the LIA period. To this end, we intend to use a recently developed multispecies tree-ring network from living trees (Martin-Benito et al., in revision). This tree-ring network will be expanded both in space and time using subfossil wood material (stems) found embedded into fluvial LIA-terrace deposits and radiocarbon-dated to the end of the 15th century AD. By overlapping these samples with the living tree network, we will be able to better characterize sub-ordinate climatic and hydrologic fluctuations during the LIA period. References

  4. Lithic assemblages of Azokh Cave (Nagorno Karabagh, Lesser Caucasus: Raw materials, technology and regional context

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    Lena Asryan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Azokh Cave is a Middle Pleistocene to Holocene site located in Nagorno Karabagh (Lesser Caucasus. The main entrance, Azokh 1, is a large cave that has two geological sequences (lower and upper with nine geo-archaeological units of which only the upper ones (Units I to V have a significant archaeological record.  The faunal remains and lithic artefacts in these units indicate aspects of human occupation, and exploitation of, and association with animals.     The lithic artefacts presented here were recovered from Units V, III and II during the 2002 – 2009 excavation seasons. The available chronological data indicates an age between 293 – 100 Ka for these units. The operational chain is incomplete and artefacts found in the cave are primarily end-products dominated by flake-tools. The assemblage of Unit V is composed primarily of simple, unretouched flakes with a minimal presence of retouched flakes and cores. The Unit II lithic assemblage includes a substantial Levallois component, although with fewer cores and retouched flakes. There are very few flake tools in Unit III. While it is still difficult to assign the Unit V assemblage to a techno-typological group or complex (i.e. Acheulean, Mousterian or other local techno-complexes such as the Kudarian, the Unit II assemblage is clearly associated with Mode 3 or the Mousterian techno-complex.Different local and non-local raw materials were exploited in all units for the production of lithic artefacts, although the range of raw materials is more varied in Unit II. Local chert, flint and basalt were used most commonly, probably due to their easy accessibility. Limestone, jasper and sandstone, from local and non-local sources, are present in small quantities in Units V and II. Obsidian is the only raw material that possibly originates from more distant sources. Flint and chert appear to have been preferentially exploited for flake tool production in all units, but the toolmakers show a

  5. Nitrogen transformation in alpine soils of the Northern Caucasus: effect of nitrogen source and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Mikhail; Ermak, Anton; Malysheva, Tatiana; Mulyukova, Olga

    2010-05-01

    The alpine landscape supports a variety of plant communities whose distribution corresponds to their topographic position. Topography controls snow accumulation and hence soil winter temperature, length of growing season and soil water availability. The research was conducted at the Teberda Biosphere Reserve (Northern Caucasus, Russia). The study sites were located at Mt. Malaya Khatipara (43°27'N, 41°42'E) between 2700 and 2750 m a.s.l. The investigated toposequence was representative of the soil and plant community associations in the alpine zone of the Teberda Reserve: the wind-exposed ridges and upper slopes are covered by low-productive alpine lichen heaths; intermediate topographic positions are occupied by the most productive grasslands and meadows; the slope bottom is occupied by low-productive snowbed community. Under intensive snow cover accumulation typical for many alpine ecosystems, the temperature of soil within winter makes nearby 0 °C, while in case of absence or thin snow cover, characteristic for a lichen heath, the temperature can fall to -10 °C. The influence of nitrogen source, low temperatures and soil drying on processes of nitrogen mineralization, nitrification and plant/microbial immobilization was studied in the field and laboratory incubation experiments. 15N labeled ammonium, nitrate, glycine and aspartic acid were injected in situ before growth of aboveground biomass into the soil of lichen heath to investigate how the different nitrogen sources was subsequently utilized and cycled in the ecosystem. We analyzed the distribution of 15N between plants, soil microorganisms and different soil nitrogen compounds during all growing season in order to reveal differences for separate nitrogen sources. We concluded that the soil microorganisms were more efficient than plants in nitrogen uptake (especially amino acids) under natural conditions. In the laboratory, fresh and dry-rewetted soils of different alpine ecosystems were incubated at

  6. Environmental change and cultural adaptation in the southern Caucasus: latest results from Aghitu-3 Cave, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

    2014-05-01

    The well stratified locality of Aghitu-3 Cave in the southern Caucasus provides a glimpse into the daily lives of the earliest known Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia. With three main phases of sedimentation serving as a backdrop to human settlement, the locality provides an excellent stratigraphic record documenting environmental change between about 40,000 and 24,000 cal BP. From the end of MIS 3 with its warm and humid climate, early modern humans made use of the cave with increasing frequency during the colder and drier MIS 2. People produced stone tools from obsidian and chert, hunted medium sized ungulates and equids, and used bone tools to make clothing. The archaeological finds from Aghitu-3 suggest that mobile groups of Upper Paleolithic people used this high altitude (1601 m) cave as a seasonal camp with increasing frequency over time. Carnivores and birds of prey also made use of the cave, likely when humans were not present. The paleoenvironmental indicators confirm a warmer and more humid climate during the first sedimentary phase between about 40,000 and 33,000 cal BP. At about 35,000 cal BP the pollen profile indicates a vegetation of mixed deciduous and steppic species. The presence of green algae supports the interpretation that more humid conditions prevailed. Geological analysis indicates uniform, fine-grained deposition along the banks of a slow moving stream. This and the general lack of rock falls confirm a warmer and more humid climate. The spectrum of micromammals shows a higher proportion of golden hamster, also supporting a favorable climate. However, starting about 33,000 cal BP, we observe a second phase of deposition characterized by coarser sediment with evidence of rill washing, cycles of erosion and frequent large basalt rock falls. These observations suggest a dramatic cooling trend as the climate began to deteriorate. The third depositional phase starts about 29,000 cal BP and is marked by mainly aeolian deposition

  7. Late Pleistocene river migrations in response to thrust belt advance and sediment-flux steering - The Kura River (southern Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Sukhishvili, Lasha; Faust, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    One reaction of rivers toward allogenic triggers is the large-scale river channel migration in the form of avulsions or progressive lateral migrations (combing) that are widespread phenomena around the world during the late Quaternary. Because they potentially cause significant human and economic losses and significantly change geomorphic processes in the affected regions, a deeper knowledge about causes and rates is essential and furthermore helps to identify the dominant drivers of regional landscape evolution during different periods. One possible cause for river channel migrations is sediment-flux steering, i.e. the shift of rivers in sedimentary basins against a tectonically driven trend caused by transverse sediment discharge. During the last 30 years, sediment-flux steering has been investigated by field and experimental studies in extensional half-grabens with generally small-sized transverse catchments and/or volcaniclastic sedimentation. This study presents geomorphologic, geochronologic, and heavy mineral analyses together with complementary tectonomorphometric and earthquake data to investigate late Quaternary channel migrations of the Kura River in the southern foreland basin of the Greater Caucasus, a region where the late Quaternary landscape evolution is rather fragmentarily understood so far. Special emphasis of this study is given to the interplay between axial river flow and transverse sediment supply leading to sediment-flux steering. Large-scale migrations of the course of the Kura River during the late Quaternary reflect the interplay between tectonic processes leading to the southwestward advance of the Kura Fold-and-Thrust-Belt and climatically-triggered sediment-flux steering caused by aggradation phases of transverse rivers with comparatively large catchment areas in the Lesser Caucasus. During generally warmer periods such as the Holocene with fluvial incision and low sediment supply from the transverse rivers, the main Kura River could

  8. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  9. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a

  10. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    -ralstonite, and fluorite-identified in these metasomatic rocks for the first time. By analogy with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Chile and the United States, the ore mineralization of the KOMS may be classified by composition and textural and structural attributes as a supraore level of porphyry copper genetic type. The volcanic rocks of the KOMS and the EVC as a whole are enriched in Ag, Mo, Zn, As, Sb, Se, and Ba. Judging from the scale of argillic alteration and taking into account the data on porphyry Cu-Mo ore-magmatic systems of the Greater Caucasus, veined Pb-Zn ore mineralization may be expected in the propylitic zone at a depth down to 1000 m from the present-day erosion level of the KOMS. Stringer-disseminated Au-Ag, Cu, and Cu-Mo ore mineralization of the upper part of the porphyry ore-magmatic system related to subvolcanic dacitic intrusions may be localized somewhat deeper.

  11. Anthropocene and bioclimatic potential of mountain resorts in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of anthropocene (A) on natural curative resources (NCR) of the mountain resorts in the North Caucasus (MRNC) according to long-term monitoring (M) of NCR condition which is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol M of IFA RAS, landscape M of SNP, and also references on the state of the environment (E). The healthcare effects of NCR were estimated from the position of the methods[1] accepted in balneology. Typification of anthropogenous factors of the surface atmosphere for MRNC is constructed on the basis of semirational analysis of rehabilitation properties of climate and landscape studied in the course of recovery treatment and health-improving rest of profile patients in clinics of PRIC FMBA taking into account the factors of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere by the technique[2]. In the development of A in the MRNC it is possible to allocate three conditional periods: - 1803 - 1880 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is almost not changed (10-20%), there were the first signs of influence A on E; - 1881-1970 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is slightly changed (21-70%), the formation of new forms of the resort landscape and town-planning, the development of mountain-sanitary control zone to decrease anthropogenic pollution of E. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2,35-2,75 points; 78-92%); - 1971-2015 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is moderately transformed (71-85%), there is a consolidation of building of city and resort zones, signs of global climate change (the increase in the annual amount of precipitation by 10% (since 2002), episodes of excessive heat (Tmax >30°C) for 12.4%, thermal balance of the person is higher than +600 W/m2 for 11%. There have been revealed some new specific rehabilitation properties of NCR and there have been denoted some criteria of their protection. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2

  12. Specific weather biotrop factors in the mountain resorts of North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Key aspects of weather therapeutic action in the mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus (RNC) are formed under the combined influence of global, regional and local atmospheric processes, picturesque landscape, vegetation which create specificity and attraction of the weather regime for the interests of resort rehabilitation, recreation and tourism practically during the whole year. They include high purity of surface atmosphere (background level of aerosols for the countryside, the transparency of the atmosphere 0.780 -0.890); natural hypo barium and hypoxia (5-10%); increased natural aeroionization (N+=400-1000 ion/cm3; N- = 600-1200 ion/cm3; KUI = 0.8 -1.0); the softness of temperature rate (± 600 W/m ); regime of solar radiation favourable for heliotherapy. Pathogenic effects in the mountains can occur both in front atmospheric processes and in conditions of relatively favorable weather. For example, in a stable anti-cyclonic air mass with the sunny weather, foehn effects can happen that are accompanied by excessively low air humidity (lower than 20-30%), the air temperature rises in the afternoon (in winter until 15- 20°C, in summer - up to 25-35°C). The situation can be worsened by ozone intrusion (O3) with the increase of its concentration by 20 ppb or more, temperature stratification change, formation of pollution accumulation conditions in the gorges and valleys where the resort towns are located. We can observe: the increase in the concentration of aerosol pollution from 1.78 to 4 and even up to 8-10 particles/cm (particle diameter is 500-1000 nm); the rise in mass concentration of submicron aerosol up to 75 mkg/m3 and the gas pollution (CO, COx, O3) of the surface atmosphere. Against this backdrop the effects of rapid changes in the chemical composition of natural ions due to the formation of positive nitrogen ions (often with a prevalence of positive over negative air ions) can be sometimes developed. In such situations people suffering from

  13. Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Wittenberg, Ruediger;

    2006-01-01

    studies show a higher proportion of specialist herbivores in the native habitats compared to the invaded areas, supporting the "enemy release hypothesis" (ERH). When analysing the relative size of the niches (measured as plant organ biomass), we found less herbivore species per biomass oil the stem and......Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), was introduced from the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became all invasive weed which created major problems for European authorities. Phytophagous insects were collected in the native range of the giant hogweed...... (Caucasus) and were compared to those found oil plants in the invaded parts of Europe. The list of herbivores was compiled from surveys of 27 localities in nine countries during two seasons. In addition, literature records for herbivores were analysed for a total of 16 Heracleum species. We recorded a total...

  14. Structural geometries and magnitude of shortening in the eastern Kura fold-thrust belt, Azerbaijan: Implications for the development of the Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Adam M.; Cowgill, Eric; Murtuzayev, Ibrahim; Kangarli, Talat; Stoica, Marius

    2013-06-01

    Greater Caucasus are the northernmost extent of the Arabia-Eurasia collision and are thought to represent the main locus of shortening within the central portion of the collision zone between 40° and 48°E. Recent work suggests that in detail, since the Plio-Pleistocene, much of the shortening in the eastern portion of the Caucasus system has been focused within the Kura fold-thrust belt along the southeastern margin of the Greater Caucasus. Here we present new field mapping and stratigraphic investigations of the eastern termination of the Kura fold-thrust belt in Azerbaijan to better constrain the structural geometries, magnitude of shortening, and initiation age for this portion of the fold-thrust belt. Our work suggests that this area of the fold-thrust belt exhibits significant along-strike variations in structural style and evolution and can effectively be divided into two distinct domains at ~48°E. The western domain is characterized by a subcritical median surface slope and isolated folds and thrusts propagating out of sequence, whereas the eastern domain is dominated by a single duplex structure and a history of in-sequence development in a critically tapered wedge. We hypothesize that these variations result from changes in relative rates of syn-tectonic sedimentation, erosion, and convergence velocity along strike. We find that within the western domain, the fold-thrust belt has accommodated ~12 km of total shortening. An unconformity within the western domain brackets the initiation age of this portion of the fold-thrust belt to between 1.8 and 0.88 Ma yielding permissible average shortening rates of between 6.7 and 13.6 mm/yr. Comparison of these average shortening rates to the geodetically measured shortening rate of 8 mm/yr indicates that since initiation, the fold-thrust belt has accommodated 83-100% of convergence between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus at this longitude.

  15. Gender Statistics in the Southern Caucasus and Central and West Asia: A Situational Analysis Promoting Gender-Inclusive Growth in Central and West Asian Developing Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a baseline of the capacity of Asian Development Bank developing member countries to generate, analyze, disseminate, and use sex-disaggregated data. It introduces a framework on gender statistics and guides in assessing statistical systems in the Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and West Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). It recommends ways to bridge the gaps in gender data collec...

  16. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kutuzov; M. Shahgedanova; V. Mikhalenko; P. Ginot; Lavrentiev, I.; S. Kemp

    2013-01-01

    The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009–2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hour...

  17. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009-2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kutuzov; M. Shahgedanova; V. Mikhalenko; Ginot, Patrick; Lavrentiev, I.; S. Kemp

    2013-01-01

    The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009-2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (ca...

  18. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kutuzov; M. Shahgedanova; V. Mikhalenko; P. Ginot; Lavrentiev, I.; S. Kemp

    2013-01-01

    The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009–2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (ca...

  19. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) in Europe and the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Robert; Krofel, Miha; Giannatos, Giorgos; Ćirović, Duško; Männil, Peep; Volokh, Anatoliy M.; Lanszki, József; Heltai, Miklós; Szabó, László; Banea, Ovidiu C.; Yavruyan, Eduard; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Kopaliani, Natia; Miliou, Anastasia; Tryfonopoulos, George A.; Lymberakis, Petros; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pakeltytė, Giedrė; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus), we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe’s native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA]), although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA), or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE). We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is “non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health”. These insights into the genetic

  20. Teberda valley runoff variability (AD 1797-2003) based on tree-ring reconstruction (Northern Caucasus, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matskovskiy, V. V.; Dolgova, E. A.; Solomina, O. N.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper we provide a new tree-ring based runoff reconstruction for Teberda river for 1797-2003. Teberda river is a tributary of Kuban' (Azov Sea basin), 60 km long with the watershed surface equal to 1080 km2. 60% of runoff occurs in summer, 17% - in the fall, 5% - in winter, 18% - in spring. 55,8% of runoff (at Teberda hydrological station) is provided by snow and ice melt (Lurye 2000). No statistically significant trend is identified in the Teberda runoff records in 1930-2000 despite of some important climatic and environmental changes occurred in this period in the Northern Caucasus, namely a general warming in winter, increase in solid precipitation and recession of glaciers. Tree-ring properties were successfully used previously to reconstruct streamflow (Stockton and Jacoby, 1976, Woodhouse et al., 2006) in the regions where drought influence both tree growth and river runoff regime. In the Northern Caucasus, even at the upper tree limit pine and spruce growth is largely limited by the availability of water (Dologva et al., 2007). The correlation between Pinus silvestris ring width and June-July Teberda river runoff is 0.4, while it increases up to 0.69 for 11-years running mean. We used linear regression of instrumental records of Teberda runoff (1927-2000) and first principal component of the pine ring width chronologies from the same valley to reconstruct the June-July runoff for the period 1797-2003. Our chronology is two centuries longer, but its reliable portion (EPS > 0.8) begin in the late 18th century. We used cross-validation to verify the reconstruction, so the correlation coefficient is 0.72 and mean difference is 23.13 (52% of interquartile range) between reconstruction and instrumental record for the verification period. The reconstruction reproduces well the general trends in runoff variability, but slightly underestimates the amplitude of the runoff positive anomalies in 1940s. The positive peaks of reconstructed runoff are centered

  1. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus in Europe and the Caucasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rutkowski

    Full Text Available In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus, we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe's native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA], although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA, or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE. We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is "non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health". These insights into the

  2. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) in Europe and the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Robert; Krofel, Miha; Giannatos, Giorgos; Ćirović, Duško; Männil, Peep; Volokh, Anatoliy M; Lanszki, József; Heltai, Miklós; Szabó, László; Banea, Ovidiu C; Yavruyan, Eduard; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Kopaliani, Natia; Miliou, Anastasia; Tryfonopoulos, George A; Lymberakis, Petros; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pakeltytė, Giedrė; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus), we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe's native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA]), although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA), or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE). We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is "non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health". These insights into the genetic

  3. The problem of the age and structural position of the Blyb metamorphic complex (Fore Range zone, Great Caucasus) granitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Latyshev, Anton; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    The Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) of the Fore Range zone is one of the most high-grade metamorphosed element of the Great Caucasus fold belt. Determination of the timing and the mechanism of formation of the Fore Range fold-thrust structures are not possible without investigation of the BMC located at the basement of its section. At the same time, the conceptions about its structure and age are outdated and need revision. Somin (2011) determined the age of the protolith and metamorphism of the Blyb complex as the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous. We have recently shown that the BMC has not the dome, as previously thought, but nappe structure (Vidjapin, Kamzolkin, 2015), and is metamorphically coherent with the peak metamorphism pressures up to 22 kbar (Kamzolkin et al., 2015; Konilov et al., 2013). Considering the age and structure of the Blyb complex it is necessary to revise the age of granitoid intrusions and their relations with gneisses and schists, which constitute the main part of the section of the complex. Most authors (Gamkrelidze, Shengelia, 2007; Lavrischev, 2002; Baranov, 1967) adheres to Early Paleozoic age of intrusives, which is doubtful, considering the younger age of metamorphic rocks. We suppose, that the intrusive bodies broke through a BMC nappe structure during the exhumation of the complex (Perchuk, 1991) at the Devonian - Carboniferous boundary. Seemingly, the massive monzodiorites body (Lavrischev, 2002), intruding garnet-muscovite schists and amphibolite gneisses of the Blyb complex and cut by the Main Caucasian fault (MCF), are younger. Given the timing of termination of the MCF movement activity as the Middle Jurassic (Greater Caucasus..., 2005), their age should be in the Early Carboniferous - Middle Jurassic interval. At the same time, on the modern geological map (Lavrischev, 2002) monzodiorites body is assigned to the Middle Paleozoic. The study of the BMC granitoids and monzodiorites will help in determining of the mechanism and

  4. Nabro volcano aerosol in the stratosphere over Georgia, South Caucasus from ground-based spectrometry of twilight sky brightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mateshvili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based spectral measurements of twilight sky brightness were carried out between October 2009 and August 2011 in Georgia, South Caucasus. The algorithm which allowed to retrieve the lower stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosol extinction profiles was developed. The Monte-Carlo technique was used to correctly represent multiple scattering in a spherical atmosphere. The estimated stratospheric aerosol optical depths at a wavelength of 780 nm were: 3.0 × 10−3 ± 1 × 10 −3 (31 August 2009–15 January 2011 and 1.1 × 10−2 ± 3 × 10−3 (18 July 2011–03 August 2011, 10 observations. The first optical depth value corresponds to the background stratospheric aerosol level, the last one to the volcanically disturbed one after the Nabro eruption in June 2011. Reconsideration of measurements acquired soon after the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 allowed to model the phenomenon of the "second purple light", a twilight sky brightness enhancement at large solar zenith angles (97–102°. Monte-Carlo modeling reveals that the second purple light is caused by multiple scattering in the stratospheric aerosol layer. The modeling also shows that, assuming a hypothetical mesospheric aerosol layer with optical extinction comparable to typical noctilucent cloud values, a measurable twilight sky brightness increase at wavelength 440 nm follows at solar zenith angles 98–99°.

  5. THE PROCESS AND THE RESULTS OF FORCING THE COLLECTIVE-FARM CONSTRUCTION IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE LATE 1920 s.

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. PANARIN

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the process of collective-farm construction in the North Caucasus in 1928‒1929 Emphasizes the link between the outbreak forced creations of collective farms and carried out grain procurement campaign, as well as the increasing infringement of the rights of the wealthy part of the village. Marks the class character of ongoing activities on the establishment of collective farms, involving the application of state aid coming into the farms of the poor. Characterized by the ...

  6. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  7. THE ROLE OF GOVEMMENT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MOTHERHOOD ON THE DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna PANARINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the reasons which intensified problems of motherhood because of significant worsening of the demographic situation in the country and in the North Caucasus in the Great Patriotic War. The article highlights the measures undertaken by the government bodies and social organizations to provide assistance to pregnant women, nursing mothers and single mothers. Special attention is given to the issues related to payment of benefits to women in need, improvement of working conditions, health care and creation of conditions for raising children. The author stresses the role of trade union organizations directly involved in helping women to deal with such problems as placing children in kindergartens and nurseries, finding additional sources of food supply, repairing apartments and many others. It is proved that at the final stage of the war the assistance measures were strengthened, that was manifested in the improvement of their financial situation and increased social status of women with many children in Soviet society. The article shows the main results of this work, which alleviated the demographic problems on the territory of the Don and the North Caucasus

  8. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Agonopterix caucasiella sp.n. is described and compared with its closest relatives, A. ciliella (Stainton, 1849) and A. heracliana (Linnaeus, 1758). Adults and genitalia of these species are figured. The life history of A. caucasiella sp.n. in the Caucasus is described. Its larva feeds in the...

  9. “Keeping Solid Memoirs About the Performed Exploits”: a Case for the Caucasus Military-Historical Department’s Role in the Establishment of the Regimental Historiography in the Late XIX c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Kolosovskay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider the experience of saving the military sector of the historical memory. It is particularly concern with the issue of the foundation of so-called ―regimental historiography‖ – a corpus of investigations, performed by the militaries about their regiment’s deeds. The article attempts to bring in a number of general questions, related to the history of the troops of the Caucasus Army of the XIX c. The investigation is devoted specifically to the role of the Military-Historical department of the Caucasus Military District General Stuff. The research is based on either newspapers (as the ―Caucasus Journal‖ or primary sources, collected in Federal and regional archives with a particular focus on published ―regimental histories‖ of certain troops. Based on the approach offered by research direction of the ―intellectual history‖, the author came to the conclusions, that all regiment histories were written by non-professional historians. Their historical plot was determined by the official ideological background and by the wish for keeping the memory about the war exploits and traditions of their regiment. The work existence depended not only on the author subjective will, but either on financial issues – money need for the papers printing. The Caucasus Military-Historical department’s participation in this process allowed achieving extremely high results. Many printed and edited papers contained much more than making the dry roll-call of battles and military events. They included either reviews of political, historical, cultural and ethnological context, making some shift to mastering the base for the further scientific Caucasus studies.

  10. Holocene paleovegetation reconstructed from a fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River (Caucasus region) using leaf-wax biomarkers - local vs. catchment information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Marcel; Zech, Roland; von Suchodoletz, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Due to its small-scale pattern of different climatic and ecologic regions and a long-lasting history of human land-use since ca. 8 ka, the Caucasus region is of particular interest with regard to Holocene climatic and paleoenvironmental changes. However, there only exists a limited number of paleoenvironmental reconstructions from that region yet. This study aims at reconstructing Holocene vegetational and paleoenvironmental changes using leaf-wax n-alkanes, n-carboxylic acids and compound specific δ13C and δD isotopes from a fluvial sediment-paleosol sequence along the upper Alazani River in eastern Georgia. Phases of sedimentation and pedogenesis between >8 until ca. 1.7 cal. ka BP reflect alternating periods of geomorphic stability (pedogenesis) with reduced flooding activity due to more arid conditions, and periods of geomorphic activity (sedimentation) with increased flooding and erosion in the humid catchment area due to enhanced precipitation. Thus, biomarkers derived from non-pedogenetic sediments should be mostly derived from the catchment area located in the southern Greater Caucasus Mountains, whereas due to pedogenetic accumulation of organic matter biomarkers derived from the (paleo-)soils should mostly show the local signal of the sampling site located in the piedmont area. Long-chain leaf wax-derived n-alkanes are present in all samples: Paleosols are mostly dominated by high contributions from grass vegetation (C31 and C33), indicating a local dominance of grass vegetation throughout the Holocene. This could be caused by relatively arid conditions and/or by agricultural use that is documented at this site by potsherds from ca. 8 cal. ka BP. Non-pedogenetic sediment layers show a higher abundance of grass-derived n-alkanes during the early Holocene and the Caucasian Holocene climate optimum around 5 cal. ka BP, whereas deciduous trees (C27 and C29) may have dominated after that period. However, it is not clear yet whether this vegetation change

  11. Plants and Humans in the Near East and the Caucasus: Ancient and Traditional Uses of Plants as Food and Medicine, a Diachronic Ethnobotanical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi F. Miller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of Plants and Humans in the Near East and the Caucasus: Ancient and Traditional Uses of Plants as Food and Medicine, a Diachronic Ethnobotanical Review (2 vols. Vol. 1: The Landscapes. The Plants: Ferns and Gymnosperms. Vol. 2: The Plants: Angiosperms. Diego Rivera Núñez, Gonzalo Matilla Séiquer, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz Ariza. 2011. Ediciones de la Unverisdad de Murcia. Pp. 1056. EUR 23.76 (paperback. ISBN 978-84-15463-07-08 (2 vols., 978-84-15463-05-4 (vol. 1, 978-84-15463-06-1 (vol. 2.

  12. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nosenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution "provenancing" of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived with HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (ca. 100 km resolution. Dust, deposited on 5 May 2009, originated in the foothills of the Djebel Akhdar in eastern Libya where dust sources were activated by the intrusion of cold air from the Mediterranean Sea and Saharan low pressure system and transported to the Caucasus along the eastern Mediterranean coast, Syria and Turkey. Particles with an average diameter below 8 μm accounted for 90% of the measured particles in the sample with a mean of 3.58 μm, median 2.48 μm. The chemical signature of this long-travelled dust was significantly different from the locally-produced dust and close to that of soils collected in a palaeolake in the source region, in concentrations of hematite. Potential addition of dust from a secondary source in northern Mesopotamia introduced uncertainty in the "provenancing" of dust from this event. Nevertheless, the approach adopted here enables other dust horizons in the snowpack to be linked to specific dust transport events recorded in remote sensing and meteorological data archives.

  13. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  14. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and provenancing of desert dust events recorded in snow pack.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shahgedanova; S. Kutuzov; White, K.; G. Nosenko

    2012-01-01

    A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution provenancing of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue c...

  15. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and "provenancing" of desert dust events recorded in snow pack

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shahgedanova; S. Kutuzov; White, K. H.; G. Nosenko

    2013-01-01

    A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution "provenancing" of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue...

  16. Desert dust deposition on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2009–2012 as recorded in snow and shallow ice core: high-resolution "provenancing", transport patterns, physical properties and soluble ionic composition

    OpenAIRE

    S. Kutuzov; M. Shahgedanova; V. Mikhalenko; Lavrentiev, I.; S. Kemp

    2013-01-01

    A record of dust deposition events between 2009 and 2012 on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow ice core is presented for the first time for this region. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high te...

  17. THE STABILITY IN THE SOUTH CAUCASUS AND THE RETURN PROBLEM OF THE AHISKA TURKS TO THEIR HOMELAND / GÜNEY KAFKASYA’DA İSTİKRAR VE AHISKALILARIN VATANA DÖNÜS SORUNU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Coşkun TOPAL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Stalin’s Resolution on deportation of AhiskaTurks was enforced on 15th November 1944. AhiskaTurks have struggled to return their homeland for morethen half century and the most of them still live variousparts of the world, out of the Georgia. The SouthCaucasus which their homeland acquired moreimportance for great powers in 20th century. Because of world strategy and control over natural resources, Thegreat powers are determined to secure for themselves adominant role in Caucasia. They aim to protect their rolein this region. The American and European policy in theCaucasus region also aim to break Russia's monopolyover the Central Asian oil and natural gas resources. Theoil and gas transport routes in The region is alsoimportant for the The American and European energysecurity. The Ahiska have also very important geographytrough its geostrategic and geoeconomic aspects. Theregion which is the road to Blacksea for Armenia, alsoconnects Turkey to Central Asia and Russia to the MiddleEast. In this study we will examine the stability in TheSouth Caucasus and the return problem of the AhıskaTurks to their homeland from international relationsperspectives.

  18. The Devdorak ice-rock avalanche and consequent debris flow from the slope of Mt. Kazbek (Caucasus, Georgia) in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomorets, Sergey; Savernyuk, Elena; Petrakov, Dmitry; Dokukin, Mikhail; Gotsiridze, George; Gavardashvili, Givi; Drobyshev, Valery; Tutubalina, Olga; Zaporozhchenko, Eduard; Kamenev, Nikolay; Kamenev, Vladimir; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeffrey; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We have studied catastrophic glacial events of 2014 in the Kazbek-Dzhimaray massif, Caucasus Mts., Georgia. The first event is a so called "Kazbek blockage" of the Georgian Military Road, on 17 May 2014, which formed as a result of an ice-rock avalanche onto the Devdorak Glacier, and is similar to blockages which occurred in the same location in the 18th-19th century. The second event is a consequent debris flow on 20 August 2014. In May, June 2014 and September 2015 we conducted three field investigations of the disaster zone, which includes Devdorak Glacier, Amilishka and Kabakhi river valleys, the Terek River valley near the Kabakhi River mouth, and a temporary lake.We analyzed field research data, interpreted SPOT 6, Landsat-8 OLI, Terra ASTER, and Pleiades satellite imagery, as well as post-disaster helicopter imagery. To assess dynamic features of the ice-rock flow on 17 May 2014, we measured valley crossections with Bushnell laser ranger. In 2015 we have marked a 180-m baseline for ground stereosurvey and made a stereopair of the Devdorak glacier terminus from a distance of 700 m. The 17 May 2014 ice-rock avalanche initiated at 4500 m. a.s.l. It collapsed onto the tongue of the Devdorak Glacier which reaches down to 2300 m a.s.l. Downstream of the tongue, the avalanche transformed into an ice-rock "avalanche flow" which blocked the Terek River valley. The traffic on Military Georgian Road (part of E117 highway) which connects Russia with Georgia was stopped. 7 people were killed in their vehicles. The total length of the ice-rock avalanche and the subsequent flow was over 10 km. A temporary lake formed in the Terek river valley, reaching 300 m in length, and over 10 m in depth. For several hours, the lake was threatening another debris flow downstream the Terek river valley. According to field estimates at the Devdorak glacier tongue and in Amilishka, Kabakhi and Terek river valleys, the volume of the transported ice-rock avalanche mass, which deposited in

  19. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kutuzov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009–2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (ca. 20–100 km resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March–June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in northeastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric southwesterly flow with daily winds speeds of 20–30 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Although these events were less frequent than those originating in the Middle East, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centred over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or southeasterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12–18 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterised dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0–2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and

  20. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009-2012 using snow pit and firn core records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzov, S.; Shahgedanova, M.; Mikhalenko, V.; Ginot, P.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kemp, S.

    2013-09-01

    The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009-2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (ca. 20-100 km) resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March-June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in northeastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric southwesterly flow with daily winds speeds of 20-30 m s-1 at 700 hPa level. Although these events were less frequent than those originating in the Middle East, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centred over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or southeasterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12-18 m s-1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterised dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0-2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and the Middle East.

  1. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Desert Dust Deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus as Documented in Snow Pit and Shallow Core Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzov, S.; Shahgedanova, M.; Mikhalenko, V.; Ginot, P.; Lavrentiev, I.; Popov, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present a study of dust deposition events and its physical and chemical characteristics in Caucasus Mountains as documented by snow and firn pack at Mt Elbrus. Dust samples were collected from the shallow ice cores and snow pits in 2009-2013 at the western Elbrus plateau (5150 m a.s.l.). Particle size distribution and chemical analysis (major ions, trace elements) were completed for each sample using Coulter Counter Multisizer III, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IC and ICPMS analysis. It was shown that desert dust deposition occurred in Caucasus 4-8 times a year and originates from the Northern Sahara and the deserts of the Middle East. Analysis of volumetric particle size distributions showed that the modal values ranged between 2 μm and 4 μm although most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0-2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm. These values are lower than those obtained from the ice cores in central and southern Asia following the deposition of long-travelled dust and are closer to those reported for the European Alps and the polar ice cores. All samples containing dust have a single mode which is usually interpreted as a single source region. They do not reveal any significant differences between the Saharan and the Middle Eastern sources. The annual average dust mass concentrations were 10-15 mg kg-1 which is higher than the average concentrations reported for other mountain regions and this was strongly affected by dust deposition events. The deposition of dust resulted in elevated concentrations of most ions, especially Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and sulphates. Dust originated from multiple sources in the Middle East including Mesopotamia or passing over the Middle East was characterised by the elevated concentrations of nitrates and ammonia which is related to a high atmospheric loads of ammonium emitted by agricultural sources and high concentrations of ammonium in dust originating from this region. By contrast, samples of the Saharan dust showed

  2. The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system in the western Caucasus; El sistema de cuevas Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya en el Caucaso occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavlyudov, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system (SMI) is located within the Khipstinsky karstic massif, in the Western Caucasus. The cave is a branched, arborescent system of cave channels through which underground water streams flow and change in an upwards direction in sub-vertical shafts. Now 3 such shafts, which have a connection with the cave river, are being studied: the Snezhnaya (1970 m a.s.l.), the Mezhennogo (2 015 m a.s.l.) and the Illyuziya (2 389 m a.s.l.). The SMI cave system has been investigated since 1971 and the currently known depth of the system is 1 760 m, the extent of the galleries ≥32 km, the volume ≥2.7 million m3, the specific volume - 84 m{sup 3}/m. The size of the biggest cave chamber the Thronnyj - is 309x109x40 m. The average discharge of the underground river is about 500 l/s. The temperature in the cavity changes from 0 to 6.5 degree centigrade. Research on the SMI cave system continues. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of genetic variability of wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in Canada and the Caucasus region by chemical and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Josef; Nesvadba, Vladimír; Krofta, Karel; Henychova, Alena; Marzoev, Arkady Inalovic; Richards, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are potential new germplasms to expand the variability of genetic resources for hop breeding. We evaluated Canadian (62 plants) and Caucasian (58 plants) wild hops by their chemical characteristics and with molecular genetic analyses using sequence-tagged site and simple sequence repeat markers, in comparison with European (104 plants) and North American (27 plants) wild hops. The contents of alpha and beta acids varied from 0.36% to 5.11% and from 0.43% to 6.66% in Canadian wild hops, and from 0.85% to 3.65% and from 1.22% to 4.81% in Caucasian wild hops, respectively. The contents of cohumulone and colupulone distinctly differed between European and North American wild hops: the cohumulone level in alpha acids was in the range 46.1%-68.4% among North American wild hops and in the range 13.6%-30.6% among European wild hops. The high content of myrcene and the low contents of humulene, farnesene, and selinenes were typical for wild hops from Canada, in contrast to wild hops from the Caucasus region. We compared the chemical characteristics with molecular genetic data. Chemical characteristics differentiated wild hops into North American and Eurasian groups. Molecular genetic analysis was able to separate Caucasian wild hops from European wild hops. We proved a hop phylogeny by means of wide molecular analysis. PMID:20616876

  4. Absolute paleointensity determinations by using of conventional double-heating and multispecimen approaches on a Pliocene lava flow sequence from the Lesser Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Caccavari, Ana; Calvo-Rathert, Manuel; Morales, Juan; Solano, Miguel Cervantes; Vashakidze, Goga; Huaiyu, He; Vegas, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    We report 28 successful Thellier type absolute geomagnetic paleointensity determinations from a Pleistocene lava sequence composed of 39 successive flows in the Djavakheti Highland (Lesser Caucasus, Georgia). Additionally, multispecimen technique provided the estimation of geomagnetic field strength for 12 independent cooling units. Paleointensity studies were performed using both Thellier type double heating and multispecimen techniques. Samples selection was mainly based on uni-vectorial remanent magnetization, thermal stability and domain size of the samples. Flow-mean Thellier paleointensity values range from 16.3 ± 5.2 to 71.0 ± 0.3 μT, while intensities obtained using multispecimen approach vary from17.2 ± 2.3 to 69.3 ± 7.9 μT. One of the flows is located near a possible discontinuity in the sequence and yields a rather low Thellier absolute intensity (16.3 ± 5.2) suggesting a transitional regime and the onset of the Matuyama-Olduvai polarity transition, which does not appear on the directional record. Multispecimen paleointensities from the same flow, however, yield higher, close to present day values which makes untenable the hypothesis of occurrence of transitional field. Thus the whole sequence was emplaced in a short time between the Olduvai chron and 1.73 ± 0.03 Ma, as suggested by available radiometric and paleomagnetic data (Caccavari et al., 2014).

  5. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  6. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  7. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  8. The altitudinal mobility of wild sheep at the Epigravettian site of Kalavan 1 (Lesser Caucasus, Armenia): Evidence from a sequential isotopic analysis in tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Carlos; Balasse, Marie; Bălăşescu, Adrian; Chataigner, Christine; Gasparyan, Boris; Montoya, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Kalavan 1 is an Epigravettian hunting campsite in the Aregunyats mountain chain in northeastern Armenia (Lesser Caucasus). The site lies at an elevation of 1640 m in a bottleneck that controls the descent into the Barepat Valley from the alpine meadows above. The lithic and faunal assemblages show evidence of the production of hunting weapons, the hunting and targeting of wild sheep (Ovis orientalis), and the constitution of animal product reserves. A seasonal occupation of the site was proposed within a model of occupation by Epigravettian hunter-gatherers that involved a search for obsidian resources in high altitude sources from the spring to the summer and settling at Kalavan 1 at the end of summer or during autumn to coincide with the migration of wild herds from the alpine meadows to the valley. A key parameter of this model is wild sheep ethology, with a specifically seasonal vertical mobility, based on observations from contemporary mouflon populations from the surrounding areas. In this study, the vertical mobility of Paleolithic wild sheep was directly investigated through sequential isotope analysis (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) in teeth. A marked seasonality of birth is suggested that reflects a physiological adaptation to the strong environmental constraints of this mountainous region. Most importantly, a recurrent altitudinal mobility was demonstrated on a seasonal basis, which confirms that wild sheep migrated from lowland areas that they occupied in the winter and then moved to higher altitude meadows during the summer. Last, low inter-individual variability in the stable isotope sequences favors a hypothesis of accumulation for these faunal remains over a short time period. Overall, this new dataset strengthens the previous interpretations for Kalavan 1 and contributes to an understanding of the pattern of occupation of mountain territories by Epigravettian communities. PMID:27457543

  9. Chemical and mineralogical data and processing methods management system prototype with application to study of the North Caucasus Blybsky Metamorphic Complexes metamorphism PT-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Konilov, Aleksandr; Aleshin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    There are many various methods of assessing the conditions of rocks formation based on determining the composition of the constituent minerals. Our objective was to create a universal tool for processing mineral's chemical analysis results and solving geothermobarometry problems by creating a database of existing sensors and providing a user-friendly standard interface. Similar computer assisted tools are based upon large collection of sensors (geothermometers and geobarometers) are known, for example, the project TPF (Konilov A.N., 1999) - text-based sensor collection tool written in PASCAL. The application contained more than 350 different sensors and has been used widely in petrochemical studies (see A.N. Konilov , A.A. Grafchikov, V.I. Fonarev 2010 for review). Our prototype uses the TPF project concept and is designed with modern application development techniques, which allows better flexibility. Main components of the designed system are 3 connected datasets: sensors collection (geothermometers, geobarometers, oxygen geobarometers, etc.), petrochemical data and modeling results. All data is maintained by special management and visualization tools and resides in sql database. System utilities allow user to import and export data in various file formats, edit records and plot graphs. Sensors database contains up to date collections of known methods. New sensors may be added by user. Measured database should be filled in by researcher. User friendly interface allows access to all available data and sensors, automates routine work, reduces the risk of common user mistakes and simplifies information exchange between research groups. We use prototype to evaluate peak pressure during the formation of garnet-amphibolite apoeclogites, gneisses and schists Blybsky metamorphic complex of the Front Range of the Northern Caucasus. In particular, our estimation of formation pressure range (18 ± 4 kbar) agrees on independent research results. The reported study was

  10. THE PRACTICE OF DISCRIMINATORY MEASURES IN THE FORM OF DEPRIVATION OF ELECTORAL RIGHTS FOR THE USE OF HIRED LABOR IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN 1921 - 1936 (on the materials of KARACHAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taulan Iosifovich Atayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights such kind of social discrimination as disenfranchisement, practiced in the first years of Soviet rule (1921-1936. This work is based on the materials related to the former Karachai Autonomous Region and on the documents of the State Archive of the Republic of Karachay-Cherkessia. A substantial portion of the used materials are introduced into the scientific circulation for the first time. In this study, the author draws attention to the practice of disenfranchisement in respect of persons who have used hired labor. This measure of social discrimination was widely used in the North Caucasus, and at the same time it was not fully reflected in the legal regulations and instructions for the election commissions, what caused a lot of collisions in the course of its on-site implementation. The article analyzes the specifics of this type of repression; address the issues related to the attempts of the "disenfranchised" to defend their rights, the progress of election campaigns, the policies of central and regional authorities in this field, the dynamics of disenfranchisement use in the North Caucasus region of Karachai.

  11. ETHNONYMIC AND TOPONIMIC NAMES OF THE NORTH-WEST CAUCASUS IN HISTORICAL SOURCES: ON EXAMPLE OF PORTOLAN (NAUTICAL MAP OF PIETRO VESKONTE, 1318

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kh. KHOTKO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first map of the Black Sea that adequately reflected the outlines of its shores, was the one established by Genoese Pietro Veskonte in 1311-1318. It contained a number of names of settlements and harbors, which were the main points of the Genoese-Caucasian trade. Instead of the single "country" – Zikhia, the largest ethno-territorial union of the North-West Caucasus during that period, Veskonte pointed two Zikhias – Black Zikhia and White Zikhia. The colour symbolism of the territorial structure of the one space was based on the nature of the relationship with supreme authority of the khan of the Golden Horde. Beside that main criterion there was the criterion of political order: areas under the princes’ ruling were considered as white ones, and mountain communities administrating in democratic ways – as black areas. The author proposes a new etymology of the toponym “Anapa”, which had been used for the first time in 1479 by Ottoman historian Kemalpashazade. Anapa, presumably, was a Turkish distortion of the Italian name “Mapa”. That latter form was used in numerous Italian sources of the XIV-XV centuries and quite probably related to the Greek primal word – “emporia” or “Emporion” ("market square", "commercial city" through the Latin (Italic form “Maparium”, which was occasionally used as the full name of Mapa. During the XVI-XVIII centuries Circassians learned the Ottoman form of the toponym and it began to be perceived as the typical for Circassian language compound word due to the full compliance of its morphemic structure to the word formation rules of Circassian language.

  12. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and provenancing of desert dust events recorded in snow pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgedanova, M.; Kutuzov, S.; White, K.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-09-01

    A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution provenancing of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived with HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (ca. 100 km) resolution. Dust, deposited on 5 May 2009, originated in the foothills of the Djebel Akhdar in eastern Libya where dust sources were activated by the intrusion of cold air from the Mediterranean Sea and Saharan low pressure system and transported to the Caucasus along the eastern Mediterranean coast, Syria and Turkey. Particles with an average diameter below 8 μm accounted for 90% of the measured particles in the sample with a mean of 3.58 μm, median 2.48 μm and the dominant mode of 0.60 μm. The chemical signature of this long-travelled dust was significantly different from the locally-produced dust and close to that of soils collected in a palaeolake in the source region, in concentrations of hematite and oxides of aluminium, manganese, and magnesium. Potential addition of dust from a secondary source in northern Mesopotamia introduced uncertainty in the provenancing of dust from this event. Nevertheless, the approach adopted here enables other dust horizons in the snowpack to be linked to specific dust transport events recorded in remote sensing and meteorological data archives.

  13. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt.~Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and "provenancing" of desert dust events recorded in snow pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgedanova, M.; Kutuzov, S.; White, K. H.; Nosenko, G.

    2013-02-01

    A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution "provenancing" of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived with HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (ca. 100 km) resolution. Dust, deposited on 5 May 2009, originated in the foothills of the Djebel Akhdar in eastern Libya where dust sources were activated by the intrusion of cold air from the Mediterranean Sea and Saharan low pressure system and transported to the Caucasus along the eastern Mediterranean coast, Syria and Turkey. Particles with an average diameter below 8 μm accounted for 90% of the measured particles in the sample with a mean of 3.58 μm, median 2.48 μm. The chemical signature of this long-travelled dust was significantly different from the locally-produced dust and close to that of soils collected in a palaeolake in the source region, in concentrations of hematite. Potential addition of dust from a secondary source in northern Mesopotamia introduced uncertainty in the "provenancing" of dust from this event. Nevertheless, the approach adopted here enables other dust horizons in the snowpack to be linked to specific dust transport events recorded in remote sensing and meteorological data archives.

  14. Using the significant dust deposition event on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009 to develop a method for dating and provenancing of desert dust events recorded in snow pack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahgedanova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant desert dust deposition event occurred on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia on 5 May 2009, where the deposited dust later appeared as a brown layer in the snow pack. An examination of dust transportation history and analysis of chemical and physical properties of the deposited dust were used to develop a new approach for high-resolution provenancing of dust deposition events recorded in snow pack using multiple independent techniques. A combination of SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived with HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (ca. 100 km resolution. Dust, deposited on 5 May 2009, originated in the foothills of the Djebel Akhdar in eastern Libya where dust sources were activated by the intrusion of cold air from the Mediterranean Sea and Saharan low pressure system and transported to the Caucasus along the eastern Mediterranean coast, Syria and Turkey. Particles with an average diameter below 8 μm accounted for 90% of the measured particles in the sample with a mean of 3.58 μm, median 2.48 μm and the dominant mode of 0.60 μm. The chemical signature of this long-travelled dust was significantly different from the locally-produced dust and close to that of soils collected in a palaeolake in the source region, in concentrations of hematite and oxides of aluminium, manganese, and magnesium. Potential addition of dust from a secondary source in northern Mesopotamia introduced uncertainty in the provenancing of dust from this event. Nevertheless, the approach adopted here enables other dust horizons in the snowpack to be linked to specific dust transport events recorded in remote sensing and meteorological data archives.

  15. Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, Carey; Taylor, Hugh P.; Hon, Ken; Tsvetkov, Andrei

    1996-10-01

    Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 × 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na 2O, CaO, A1 2O 3, total Fe, MgO, TiO 2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO 2, K 2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO 2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous δ18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high δ18O values (+4.4 to +10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous δ18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass δ18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the δ18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of δfeldspar vs. δgroundmss/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low- 18O H 2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the 18O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600 °C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric

  16. 2.8-Ma ash-flow caldera at Chegem River in the northern Caucasus Mountains (Russia), contemporaneous granites, and associated ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Bogatikov, O.A.; Tsvetkov, A.A.; Gazis, C.; Gurbanov, A.G.; Hon, K.; Koronovsky, N.V.; Kovalenko, V.I.; Marchev, P.

    1993-01-01

    Diverse latest Pliocene volcanic and plutonic rocks in the north-central Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia are newly interpreted as components of a large caldera system that erupted a compositionally zoned rhyolite-dacite ash-flow sheet at 2.83 ?? 0.02 Ma (sanidine and biotite 40Ar/39Ar). Despite its location within a cratonic collision zone, the Chegem system is structurally and petrologically similar to typical calderas of continental-margin volcanic arcs. Erosional remnants of the outflow Chegem Tuff sheet extend at least 50 km north from the source caldera in the upper Chegem River. These outflow remnants were previously interpreted by others as erupted from several local vents, but petrologic similarities indicate a common origin and correlation with thick intracaldera Chegem Tuff. The 11 ?? 15 km caldera and associated intrusions are superbly exposed over a vertical range of 2,300 m in deep canyons above treeline (elev. to 3,800 m). Densely welded intracaldera Chegem Tuff, previously described by others as a rhyolite lava plateau, forms a single cooling unit, is > 2 km thick, and contains large slide blocks from the caldera walls. Caldera subsidence was accommodated along several concentric ring fractures. No prevolcanic floor is exposed within the central core of the caldera. The caldera-filling tuff is overlain by andesitic lavas and cut by a 2.84 ?? 0.03-Ma porphyritic granodiorite intrusion that has a cooling age analytically indistinguishable from that of the tuffs. The Eldjurta Granite, a pluton exposed low in the next large canyon (Baksan River) 10 km to the northwest of the caldera, yields variable K-feldspar and biotite ages (2.8 to 1.0 Ma) through a 5-km vertical range in surface and drill-hole samples. These variable dates appear to record a prolonged complex cooling history within upper parts of another caldera-related pluton. Major W-Mo ore deposits at the Tirniauz mine are hosted in skarns and hornfels along the roof of the Eldjurta Granite

  17. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    atmospheric pollution making by Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. The average weighted WPI forms the basis of weather type number, synoptic weather forecast allows you to define a subtype of the weather. This classification is used in the system of MWF in the resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters (mountainous region of Northern Caucasus), making for the purpose of timely warnings of medical personnel of medical institutions to strengthen health surveillance and, if necessary, conduct prevention of MPR. MPR to changing weather conditions are most manifest in connection with resettlement of patients from their places of permanent residence to the unusual climatic conditions of the resort. In this regard, in order to enhance the spa rehabilitation of meteosensitive patients with coronary artery disease at PSRIC a physiological method was developed for early and routine prophylaxis of maladaptive pathological and, above all, MPR using the method of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation by MDMK-4 apparatus with a frontooccipital location of the electrodes. Clinical manifestation of the MPR in adverse weather conditions in patients with coronary artery disease, hypertension with dysadaptation syndrome is characterized by frequent recurrences of angina, rhythm disorders, cerebral symptoms, vascular crisis, violations in the field of psycho-emotional area and other disorders. These meteopathies are eliminated with high efficiency using the MDMK-4 apparatus in individually selected modes at the planned rate of prophylaxis for 10 procedures. In order to urgent MPR prevention the procedures can be used situationally. The high preventive and curative effects of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation of the MDMK-4 apparatus is shown by positive dynamics of the clinical status of patients, including data on the MPR test survey, the Kerdem vegetative index, rheoencephalography indicators, electrocardiography, neurovascular reactivity, Holter

  18. Desert dust deposition on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2009–2012 as recorded in snow and shallow ice core: high-resolution "provenancing", transport patterns, physical properties and soluble ionic composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kutuzov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A record of dust deposition events between 2009 and 2012 on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow ice core is presented for the first time for this region. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (cf. 20–100 km resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March–June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in north-eastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric south-westerly flow with daily winds speeds of 20–30 m s−1 at 700 hPa level and, although these events were less frequent, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centered over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or south-easterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12–18 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterise dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0–2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and the Middle

  19. Desert dust deposition on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2009-2012 as recorded in snow and shallow ice core: high-resolution "provenancing", transport patterns, physical properties and soluble ionic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzov, S.; Shahgedanova, M.; Mikhalenko, V.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kemp, S.

    2013-04-01

    A record of dust deposition events between 2009 and 2012 on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow ice core is presented for the first time for this region. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analysis of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours) and spatial (cf. 20-100 km) resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March-June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in north-eastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric south-westerly flow with daily winds speeds of 20-30 m s-1 at 700 hPa level and, although these events were less frequent, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centered over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or south-easterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12-18 m s-1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterise dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0-2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and the Middle East.

  20. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  1. 高加索酸奶中乳酸菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of Lactic acid bacteria (LAC) from yogurt of Russia's Caucasus region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨郁荭; 邵景海; 李亮; 韩迪; 赵霞; 方曙光

    2012-01-01

    从自然发酵的5份酸奶样品中,通过平板划线等方法分离筛选乳酸菌.经形态特征,生理生化特性及糖发酵试验等,筛选到12株乳酸菌,分别为:乳杆菌7株,其中:3株德氏乳杆菌保加利亚亚种(Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus),3株瑞士乳杆菌(Lactobacillus helveticus),1株罗伊氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus reuteri;乳酸球菌5株,包括3株嗜热链球菌(Streptococcus thermophilus),2株乳酸乳球菌乳脂亚种(Lactococcus lactis subsp.Cremoris.%12 strains of Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 5 traditional fermented yogurt samples of Russia's Caucasus region. According to the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristics, and the sugar-fermentation testing, among 12 strains, 7 strain were identified as lactobacillus, which include 3 strains of Lactobadllus detbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus, 3 strains of Lactobacillus helveticus, and 1 strain of Lactobacillus reuteri; 5 strains were identified as lactococcus, which include 3 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis spp. Cremoris.

  2. Caucasus conflict challenges US space policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A leaked e-mail sent to staff by NASA administrator Michael Griffin has indicated that there could be a "lengthy" period with no US crew based on the International Space Station (ISS). His fears stem from a surprising source: the recent conflict between Georgia and Russia, and the subsequent occupation by Russian troops of South Ossetia - a disputed part of Georgia - and Georgia itself. It triggered a frosty relationship between the US and Russian governments, which has now cast doubts on an agreement to permit Americans to fly onboard the Russian Soyuz craft to reach the orbiting station.

  3. Ground Motion Prediction Models for Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Godoladze, Tea; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino

    2016-04-01

    Ground motion prediction models (GMPMs) relate ground motion intensity measures to variables describing earthquake source, path, and site effects. Estimation of expected ground motion is a fundamental earthquake hazard assessment. The most commonly used parameter for attenuation relation is peak ground acceleration or spectral acceleration because this parameter gives useful information for Seismic Hazard Assessment. Since 2003 development of Georgian Digital Seismic Network has started. In this study new GMP models are obtained based on new data from Georgian seismic network and also from neighboring countries. Estimation of models is obtained by classical, statistical way, regression analysis. In this study site ground conditions are additionally considered because the same earthquake recorded at the same distance may cause different damage according to ground conditions. Empirical ground-motion prediction models (GMPMs) require adjustment to make them appropriate for site-specific scenarios. However, the process of making such adjustments remains a challenge. This work presents a holistic framework for the development of a peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA) GMPE that is easily adjustable to different seismological conditions and does not suffer from the practical problems associated with adjustments in the response spectral domain.

  4. 19.YÜZYILIN 80-90’LI YILLARINDA GÜNEY KAFKASYA’NIN ETNOGRAFİK HARİTASI (KARS VE DİĞER BÖLGELER / THE ETHNOGRAPHIC MAP OF THE SOUTH CAUCASUS, INCLUDING KARS IN THE 80-90S OF THE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memmedova İrade Malik kızı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available (Rusya Devlet Askeri – Tarih Arşivinin Belgelerine DayanarakMemmedova İrade Malik kızıÖzetMakalede Rusya Devlet Askeri – Tarih Arşivinin 414 fonunda korunan İmparator Rus Coğrafya Derneğinin Kafkasya Şubesinin yöneticisi Y.Kondratenko tarafından düzenlenmiş, Kars da olmak üzere Güney Kafkasya’nın guberniya1 ve vilayetlerinin etnografik haritaları araştırılmıştır. Tarafımızdan araştırılan ve 9 haritadan oluşan bu belge 19.yüzyılın 80 – 90’lı yıllarında Kars’ı da kapsamakla Güney Kafkasya’da yaşayan halkların etnik içeriği ve nüfusuna ait bilgiler veriyor. Güney Kafkasya’da 730860 erkek ve 575446 kadın olmakla, genel olarak 1306306 Türk yaşıyordu ki bunun da 1139659’unu Azerbaycan Türkleri, 70226’sını Türkler, 8893’ünü Türkmenler, 24134’ünü Karakalpaklar, 2556’sını Nogaylar, 60838’ini Kumuklar oluşturmaktaydı. Kars Vilayetinin Daire, Polis Sahaları ve Köylerinin Sınırları Belirtilmekle Haritası Kars ili halkının etnik, dini ve nüfusunun öğrenilmesi açısından çok değerlidir.19.yüzyılın başlarına göre yüzyılın sonlarına Rusya İmparatorluğunun Hristiyanlaştırma politikası sonucu Güney Kafkasya’da Hristiyan nüfus yapay olarak çoğalmıştı. Fakat tüm bunlara rağmen 19.yüzyılın sonlarında Güney Kafkasya’da yine de Müslümanlar (özellikle de Türk halkları çoğulu oluşturmaktaydı.AbstractIn the article were researched ethnographic maps of provinces and districts of the South Caucasus, including the Kars province, compiled by the business manager of the department of the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia Y.Kondratenko kept in 414 funds of State Military-Historical Archive of Russia. This document consisting of 9 maps provides valuable information about the number and ethnic content of peoples living in the South Caucasus, including Kars in 80-90s of the XIX century. Altogether 1306306 Turks were living in

  5. ECOSYSTEM DEGRADATION OF THE LIMESTONE MASSIFS OF WESTERN CAUCASUS AFTER DEFORESTATION Деградация экосистем известняковых массивов Западного Кавказа при вырубке леса

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeev K. S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in mountain ecosystems occur after deforestation on limestone massifs of the Western Caucasus. Tall-mountain-meadow vegetation with a large variety of species formed at low and medium soil disturbance 3 years after logging. Physical and biological properties of calcareous soils also vary greatly. The values of biological activity decrease at the maximum load is more than 10 times. Biological activity is increased by 20-50% or more cutting stations with low disorders. Biological properties of soils (especially the enzymatic activity are very sensitive indicators of changes that have occurred as a result of logging. Changes in the activity of soil hydrolases different from changing oxidase activity at different times after logging

  6. Ethnic and Religious Roots of Regional Conflicts in the Caucasus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. I. Mustafayeva; V. Q. Mammadov; M. P. Zeynalov

    2012-01-01

    Throughout history, people have had to deal with conflict. Today they are like a metastasis of malignant tumors affecting the central nervous system of intemational relations. For centuries, people have tried to create theoretical models of a conflict-free society and to actualize them. Unfortunately, they have all failed and even more violent conflicts ensued. This is particularly relevant to Azerbaijan, a territory which has undergone many different guises over the centuries.

  7. THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanahu, Ruslan

    2008-01-01

    Globalization is undoubtedly a complex and contradictory sociocultural phenomenon affecting both numerically large and small nationalities, but its consequences can differ. The cultures of numerically small ethnic groups experience the consequences of globalization under the same conditions as large nationalities. But whereas large ethnic groups are in relatively little danger of losing their language and culture, the threat to the culture and uniqueness of numerically small Caucasian nationa...

  8. Armenia-To Trans-Boundary Fault: AN Example of International Cooperation in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, A.; Avagyan, A.; Avanesyan, M.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvili, Z.; Korzhenkov, A.; Philip, S.; Vergino, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of a trans-boundary active fault that cuts through the border of Armenia to Georgia in the area of the Javakheti volcanic highland have been conducted since 2007. The studies have been implemented based on the ISTC 1418 and NATO SfP 983284 Projects. The Javakheti Fault is oriented to the north-northwest and consists of individual segments displaying clear left-stepping trend. Fault mechanism is represented by right-lateral strike-slip with normal-fault component. The fault formed distinct scarps, deforming young volcanic and glacial sediments. The maximum-size displacements are recorded in the central part of the fault and range up to 150-200 m by normal fault and 700-900 m by right-lateral strike-slip fault. On both flanks, fault scarps have younger appearance, and displacement size there decreases to tens of meters. Fault length is 80 km, suggesting that maximum fault magnitude is estimated at 7.3 according to the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relation. Many minor earthquakes and a few stronger events (1088, Mw=6.4, 1899 Mw=6.4, 1912, Mw=6.4 and 1925, Mw=5.6) are associated with the fault. In 2011/2012, we conducted paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies of the fault. By two paleoseismological trenches were excavated in the central part of the fault, and on its northern and southern flanks. The trenches enabled recording at least three strong ancient earthquakes. Presently, results of radiocarbon age estimations of those events are expected. The Javakheti Fault may pose considerable seismic hazard for trans-boundary areas of Armenia and Georgia as its northern flank is located at the distance of 15 km from the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline.

  9. Colour symbolism in the folk literature and textile tradition of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David; Chenciner, Robert

    2006-06-01

    Colour associations have been analysed indirectly by a study of oral traditions and legends, using methods developed in structural anthropology. Colours were considered, not in isolation, but mainly in contrasting pairs or in sequences. It was found that a specific colour could have different associations in different conditions, and that generally the associations were more abstract than concrete. In surviving woollen rugs and felts and silk embroideries, colours appear to be linked with availability of dyes rather than symbolism.

  10. INFORMATION OPPOSITION TO EXTREMISM AS A WAY TO REDUCE TENSION IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS

    OpenAIRE

    Zeti, Polina; Zhirukhina, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Russia's southern regions have been the regular targets of extremism and terrorism for more than one decade now, which is hampering the development of the region's economic potential and the overall integration processes. The need to lower the extremely high level of the region's conflict potential, which is partially manifested in the activity of terrorist sabotage groups, is prompting reconsideration of the state strategy to combat extremism and terrorism. The forceful approach, which consi...

  11. INTRODUCTION OF SOME RARE AND ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WESTERN CAUCASUS FLORA TO IN VITRO CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov R. N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There were developed some methods of sterilization and introduction of the following endangered species of Caucasian flora to in vitro culture: Campanula sclerophylla Kolak., Lilium caucasicum Miscz. ex Grossh., Daphne woronowii Kolak., Pancratium maritimum L.. The effect of different plant hormones as well as their combinations and concentrations on the regeneration, growth and development of plants is studied. As a result of clonal propagation, more than 100 plants of Campanula sclerophylla Kolak, about 30 plants of Pancratium maritimum L., and 150 samples of Lilium caucasicum Miscz. Ex Grossh are saved in tissue culture

  12. PROBLEMS OF EUROPEAN COMMODITY SECURITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CENTRAL ASIA-CAUCASUS REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Tvalchrelidze, Alexander; Silagadze, Avtandil

    2011-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine “gas wars” and the cold winter that hit Southern and Central Europe in January 2006 and 2009 highlighted Europe’s commodity insecurity and its dependence on Russian good will. In all fairness, it should be noted that some studies on this topic appeared even before the “cold winter” of 2009, but their impact on the leadership of the European Commission was insignificant, to put it mildly. This is evident from the fact that prior to the 2009 crisis the International Energy Ag...

  13. Modern Climate Change and Mountain Skiing Tourism: the Alps and the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the research of modern climate change is beyond all doubts at the moment. Climate is, first of all, a significant share of any country’s resources. Losses due to global climate change can affect virtually all branches of economy and social aspects, including energy production, eco-systems, agriculture, forests, construction, transport, tourism etc.Climate change imposes certain mode of economy, a strategy of economy’s development years ahead. According to forecasts, for example the one of European environmental agency (EEA, one of the first “hostages” of climate change will be winter tourism and alpine skiing resorts. Climate change seriously influences incomes of countries and certain regions located in mountain areas and developing winter sports.Yet, forecasts of climatologists on modern climate change trends are ambiguous and sometimes controversial. For this reason definite scientific and practical interest is raised by research in climate change trends in mountain areas based on mostly state network of meteorological stations.

  14. Post-Soviet Economic Integration : The European Union and Russia in the South Caucasus

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of various projects for post-Soviet economic integration: the European Union (EU) has developed its Eastern Partnership, while Russia has put forward the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Post-Soviet states and, most notably, the countries of the 'shared neighbourhood' between Russia and the EU find themselves in a delicate position, as they are influenced and pressured by both of these actors for closer cooperation. The events in Ukraine have made clear tha...

  15. The Holocene landscape development of the Gareja region in eastern Georgia (Caucasus region) - an interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, M.; Sukhishvili, L.; Navrozashvili, L.; Kikvadze, B.; Janelidze, Z.; von Suchodoletz, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recognizing the fact that we are living in a constantly changing world became actual during the last decades, and promoted numerous studies related to the environmental consequences of climate change and human impact. In this context, the study of human- and naturally-triggered palaeoenvironmental changes leads to a better understanding of possible changes during the future. Human impact became progressively important during the last millenia, and caused dramatic changes of the natural environment especially in fragile landscapes. The semi-arid Gareja region in the Iori Highland in the eastern part of the Republic of Georgia is characterized by an annual precipitation water resources today, hinting to some sources of fresh water allowing people to live there during those periods. Furthermore, former archaeo-botanical studies assume that the region was covered by forests instead of steppes during the past, although there is no final proof yet. The goal of this study is to shed light on the development of the Gareja landscape during the prehistoric period and thus to address some of the issues described above. To do so, our work is based on the spatial pattern of prehistoric settlements derived from archaeologic data of the Soviet period, GIS stream modelling and the analysis of fluvial and slope deposits from the area using a multi-proxy approach. Altogether, these data indicate a dramatic palaeoenvironmental change in the Gareja region ca. 3 ka ago, leading to the recent steppe and almost unpopulated character of the landscape.

  16. The Virtual Silk Highway -- Connectivity for Central Asia and the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Hans

    2007-04-01

    This presentation focuses on Internet for research and education communities in the countries along the Great Silk Road, eight republics of the Former Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia) and Afghanistan. When the Internet became a standard science tool in the nineties, connectivity to this area was limited to analog telephone lines. The TAE fiber was installed from Istanbul via Tashkent to Shanghai, but it was based on international ISDN telephone calls at 10 per minute, unaffordable to communities with salaries of 300 per month. Satellites offered connectivity on short notice at better prices but funding by the communities was out of the question. Aid programs stepped in, connecting individual institutes across the area to the outside world. ISPs catered to those who could afford it, such as universities selling MBA courses, but Internet for research and education was lacking. In 2001, the NATO Science Programme added to its grants to institutes a multi-year program of providing a shared satellite service for international connectivity to all the countries above. National connectivity and solving the ``last mile problem'' was also funded, provided that a National Research and Education Network (NREN) organization was created in the country. SILK-1 ran 2002-6 for 3.5m providing 30Mbps west->east and 6Mbps east->west. QOS was implemented for video and audio conferencing. Co-funding by NRENs and others was established, but sustainability is still outstanding. Only recently, affordable fiber (SILK-2 in 2006 was issued in a technology-neutral way. No fiber bids were received, but a cheaper satellite service providing a total of 120/30Mbps for 3.5m in 2007-8. With fiber initiatives under way, it is hoped that part of SILK-2 can switch to fiber in 2009.

  17. CHANGE OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOILS OF NORTH CAUCASUS IN RELATION TO CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozun Y. S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions have considerable impact on biological properties of soils of the South of Russia. From all studied indicators the most dependent on climate there was maintenance of a humus and activity of polyphenoloxidases and peroxidases. Values of the integrated indicator of a biological condition (IIBC on a profile of soils decrease in process of increase in an amount of precipitation, decrease in temperature, and increase in height of the district in next order: meadow subalpine → brown forest → gray forest → black leached soil → black typical soil → black ordinary soi

  18. The Influence of Firm Characteristics and Export Performance in Central and Eastern Europe: Comparisons of Visegrad, Baltic and Caucasus States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej CIEŚLIK

    2014-03-01

    Export  competitiveness  of  firms  from  the  CEE countries can be improved through the development of modern educational systems allowing  to  accelerate  the  accumulation  of  human  capital.  The  financial  support  to research  and  development  and  innovation  activities  should  also  have  a  positive impact on the export performance of firms from the CEE countries. We take into account labor  productivity and other firm characteristics that may affect export performance such as the age and the size of the firm, the use of human capital, and the degree of firm internationalization.

  19. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus) in Europe and the Caucasus

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Rutkowski; Miha Krofel; Giorgos Giannatos; Duško Ćirović; Peep Männil; Anatoliy M Volokh; József Lanszki; Miklós Heltai; László Szabó; Banea, Ovidiu C.; Eduard Yavruyan; Vahram Hayrapetyan; Natia Kopaliani; Anastasia Miliou; George A Tryfonopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus), we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether th...

  20. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  1. South Caucasus. An Uncertain Path. Analyzing Vulnerabilities in Respecting Human Rights and Some Recommendations for Democratic Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gherasim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen years after Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia Achieved independence, power is still concentrated in the hands of a few. There are strong regional disparities within all three countries, with the capitals having the lion’s share of population, power and resources. Minorities are poorly represented in public life and suffer from lack of educational opportunities and breaches of human rights from those that make up the majority. More often than not, continue weak statehood means that states are incapable of providing basic public services, let alone ensure protection against human rights abuses.

  2. Travel Industry Specialists’ Training for Professional Activities in a Foreign Language in the North Caucasus Federal District of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Markaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of foreign language teaching of the future hospitality and tourism specialists in terms of professional intercultural communication. First of all, we have analyzed the peculiarities of professional activities and job specification of tourism specialists, then on these grounds we have selected professional foreign competences, which are necessary to develop while teaching this type of specialists foreign languages. Taking into consideration the nature of the tourism specialists’ professional activities and the training objectives of professional foreign language communication, we have worked out the fundamental methodological principles of teaching foreign languages for special purposes, namely the professional communicative principle and the professional intercultural principle. At the same time, we have presented linguistic-didactic basics of tourism specialists’ language training. Particular emphasis is put on the use of the materials, containing regional component, which facilitate to develop the ability to represent native culture during professional intercultural communication.

  3. PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS ON THE FRONT EVERY DAY LIFE IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS DURING THE CIVIL WAR OF 1917-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polivina M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the specifics of everyday life, which was reflected in the 1917-1920 war journalism. The article highlights the lack of journalistic freedom and creative choice, since publication on the front everyday life in this period were under especially careful censorship

  4. Evolution of Pleistocene to Holocene eruptions in the Lesser Caucasus Mts:Insights from geology, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Sugden, Patrick; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Halama, Ralf; Ishizuka, Osamu; Connor, Laura; Karapetian, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Both effusive and highly explosive (VEI>5) and often voluminous caldera volcanism has developed atop the collision zone between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. Currently what is exposed on the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian active orogenic plateau is post-Mesozoic felsic to intermediate collision-related plutons, and mostly collision or post-collision related Quaternary volcanic structures. We have studied in detail the volcanism, tectonics and geophysics on the territory of E.Turkey and Armenia, where several large stratovolcanoes (Ararat, Lesser Ararat, Aragats, Tsghuk, Ishkhanasar) are surrounded by distinct monogenetic volcanic fields (distributed volcanism). These large in volume stratovolcanoes and the associated low volume monogenetic cones range from normal calk-alkaline to high-K shoshonitic in affinity, with their products ranging from basanites to high K trachytes and rhyolites. Several volcanic provinces, namely Kechut/Javakheti, Aragats, Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik are recognized in Armenia and each of them has > 100 mapped volcanoes. These have distinct geochemical (mineral chemistry, trace element and Sr-Nd-B isotope systematics) and petrological (melt eruption temperatures and volatile contents) fingerprints that may or may not vary over time. Age determinations and volcano-stratigraphy sections for each of the case studies we aim to present shows that the volcanism includes a continuous record from Pleistocene to Holocene, or even historical eruptions. The excellent volcano exposures and the now complete high resolution database (GIS), geological mapping, and new and improved K-Ar and Ar-Ar geochronology, uniquely allows us to evaluate the driving forces behind the volcanism in this continent-continent collision setting that is uniquely associated with long lasting eruption episodes. We shall compare the now well studied historical/Holocene eruptions with those pre-dating them, with the aim to identify possible geochemical or petrological precursors, on both local and regional scales. Our presentation will include several case studies, new ages, high resolution maps of many volcanoes and their association with young active faulting and often large earthquakes. We will present one particular high resolution case study (on Aragats volcanic complex) where we attempted to quantify the volcanic hazards. This is important as this region hosts the active Metsamor nuclear power plant and the capital city of Yerevan (population > 1.4 million), where people live in area with very low (10^6), yet existing risk for a renewed volcanic activity.

  5. A paleolatitude reconstruction of the South Armenian Block (Lesser Caucasus) for the Late Cretaceous : Constraints on the Tethyan realm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Maud J M; Smith, Brigitte; Kirscher, Uwe; Mensink, Marily; Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Grigoryan, Araik; Sahakyan, Lilit; Avagyan, Ara; Langereis, Cor; Müller, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The continental South Armenian Block - part of the Anatolide-Tauride South Armenian microplate - of Gondwana origin rifted from the African margin after the Triassic and collided with the Eurasian margin after the Late Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, two northward dipping subduction zones we

  6. A paleolatitude reconstruction of the South Armenian Block (Lesser Caucasus) for the Late Cretaceous: Constraints on the Tethyan realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Maud J. M.; Smith, Brigitte; Kirscher, Uwe; Mensink, Marily; Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Grigoryan, Araik; Sahakyan, Lilit; Avagyan, Ara; Langereis, Cor; Müller, Carla

    2015-03-01

    The continental South Armenian Block - part of the Anatolide-Tauride South Armenian microplate - of Gondwana origin rifted from the African margin after the Triassic and collided with the Eurasian margin after the Late Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, two northward dipping subduction zones were simultaneously active in the northern Neo-Tethys between the South Armenian Block in the south and the Eurasian margin in the north: oceanic subduction took place below the continental Eurasian margin and intra-oceanic subduction resulted in ophiolite obduction onto the South Armenian Block in the Late Cretaceous. The paleolatitude position of the South Armenian Block before its collision with Eurasia within paleogeographic reconstructions is poorly determined and limited to one study. This earlier study places the South Armenian Block at the African margin in the Early Jurassic. To reconstruct the paleolatitude history of the South Armenian Block, we sampled Upper Devonian-Permian and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in Armenia. The sampled Paleozoic rocks have likely been remagnetized. Results from two out of three sites sampled in Upper Cretaceous strata pass fold tests and probably all three carry a primary paleomagnetic signal. The sampled sedimentary rocks were potentially affected by inclination shallowing. Therefore, two sites that consist of a large number of samples (> 100) were corrected for inclination shallowing using the elongation/inclination method. These are the first paleomagnetic data that quantify the South Armenian Block's position in the Tethys ocean between post-Triassic rifting from the African margin and post-Cretaceous collision with Eurasia. A locality sampled in Lower Campanian Eurasian margin sedimentary rocks and corrected for inclination shallowing, confirms that the corresponding paleolatitude falls on the Eurasian paleolatitude curve. The north-south distance between the South Armenian Block and the Eurasian margin just after Coniacian-Santonian ophiolite obduction was at most 1000 km.

  7. Towards a formal genealogical classification of the Lezgian languages (North Caucasus: testing various phylogenetic methods on lexical data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Kassian

    Full Text Available A lexicostatistical classification is proposed for 20 languages and dialects of the Lezgian group of the North Caucasian family, based on meticulously compiled 110-item wordlists, published as part of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project. The lexical data have been subsequently analyzed with the aid of the principal phylogenetic methods, both distance-based and character-based: Starling neighbor joining (StarlingNJ, Neighbor joining (NJ, Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC, Unweighted maximum parsimony (UMP. Cognation indexes within the input matrix were marked by two different algorithms: traditional etymological approach and phonetic similarity, i.e., the automatic method of consonant classes (Levenshtein distances. Due to certain reasons (first of all, high lexicographic quality of the wordlists and a consensus about the Lezgian phylogeny among Caucasologists, the Lezgian database is a perfect testing area for appraisal of phylogenetic methods. For the etymology-based input matrix, all the phylogenetic methods, with the possible exception of UMP, have yielded trees that are sufficiently compatible with each other to generate a consensus phylogenetic tree of the Lezgian lects. The obtained consensus tree agrees with the traditional expert classification as well as some of the previously proposed formal classifications of this linguistic group. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the UMP method has suggested the least plausible tree of all. In the case of the phonetic similarity-based input matrix, the distance-based methods (StarlingNJ, NJ, UPGMA have produced the trees that are rather close to the consensus etymology-based tree and the traditional expert classification, whereas the character-based methods (Bayesian MCMC, UMP have yielded less likely topologies.

  8. [Basic measures for prevention of the epidemiological consequences of a natural disaster in the North Caucasus in 2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Efremenko, V I; Briukhanova, G D; Malashikhin, N T; Vovk, Iu I; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Koval'chuk, I V; Fedosova, G N

    2003-01-01

    The system of organizational and prophylactic measures, carried out with a view to prevent epidemiological aggravations in connection with the natural calamity in the Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation in 2003, is described. Proposals on the improvement of the system of preventive measures, including the monitoring of the epidemiological, sanitary and hygienic situation, personnel training, technical provision, the cooperation of different services and departments, capable of ensuring the liquidation of the consequences of emergency situations of the natural character, are made. PMID:14716967

  9. 俄格冲突:外高加索大国博弈的缩影%Conflict between Russia and Georgia:the Epitome of the Powers' Struggle in Outer Caucasus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜

    2008-01-01

    2008年8月7日,正当全世界瞩目的北京奥运会即将开幕之际,格鲁吉亚对其境内一直谋求独立的南奥塞梯自治州发动进攻,试图一举“收复”南奥塞梯。不料,驻扎在外高加索地区的俄罗斯军队立即介入,迅速将格军击溃,并向格首都第比利斯推进。俄罗斯与格鲁吉亚发生了大规模军事冲突。8月26日,俄罗斯总统梅德韦杰夫宣布,俄罗斯承认格鲁吉亚南奥塞梯自治州和阿布哈兹自治共和国独立,

  10. 高加索的伊斯兰教及其对俄罗斯地区冲突的影响%Islam in the Caucasus and its influence on conflicts in Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿·亚尔雷卡波夫; 齐昕

    2013-01-01

    高加索的伊斯兰世界远非一个非黑即白、非官方即地下,仅仅是传统与非传统对立的天地.这更像是一个马赛克拼接式的世界,各个谱系、派别交织融汇.伊斯兰在当代北高加索各国中占有重要地位,积极填补着当地意识形态领域的空白.而热点地区大大小小的新旧冲突中,我们也总是看到伊斯兰的影子.对于这些,我们无疑应该清醒对待.很多时候,伊斯兰往往只是冲突各方掩盖真实目的的一个幌子.

  11. Güney Kafkasyada Kadim Yerleşmenin Paleocoğrafi Durumuna Bir Örnek: Nahçıvan An Example to paleogeography of the ancient settlement in South Caucasus : Nakhchivan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Naxcivan is one of the oldest settlement that has found a place inNear and Middle East as well as Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS. Geographical position, climate and natural sources contribute toNaxcivan's primary settlement which is founded around 5000-6000years ago. The fact that Naxcivan has a backround around 420 millionyears indicates a long geological period to have its today's view. Thelands covered by ocean water in the Devonian period were exposed totransgression and regression of seas not a few times, later. Sea waterleaves towards the end of Miocene epoch. Naxcivan and its environshave today's orographic view towards the end of Pliocene epoch.Multi-faceted geological development periods (volcanism, tectonicmovements, different stratigraphic sequences contribute to formation ofvarious natural mineral resources. This paves the way for getting rawmaterials needed for future's settlements. Boreal climate period whichhas temperate, cold and moist climate at mountainous lands of mediumor low heights in Naxcivan 10-12 thousand years ago, changes intoSultry Vereal Climate period 8-9 thousand years ago firstly and ColdAtlantic Climate period of Holocene epoch 6-8 thousand years ago,later. Caspian Sea overruns the plains of Kura and Naxcivan as a resultof temperate and hot effects of Subboreal Climate period on mountainsagain 4.5 or 5 thousand years ago. This causes immigration towardsthe west and basis of today's Naxcivan and its environs as settlements.Caves and natural strongholds play a major role in primarysettlements of the town of Naxcivan. Furthermore, mineral deposits ofsodium chloride as a present of seas to Naxcivan, Naxcivan' s strategicposition and the oldest caravan routes contribute to the development ofsettlement in Naxcivan in the lenght of time. Nahçıvan, Yakın ve Orta Doğu’da, aynı zamanda BağımsızDevletler Topluluğu içinde yer alan çok eski yaşam alanlarından biridir.Geçmişi yaklaşık 5000-6000 yıl öncesine dayanan Nahçıvan etrafındakiilkin (birincil yerleşmede coğrafi konum, iklim ve doğal kaynaklarönemli rol oynamıştır.Nahçıvan dolaylarının jeolojik oluşum yönünden 420 milyon yılayakın bir geçmişi vardır. Nahçıvan diyarının bugünkü jeo-morfolojikgörünümü üzerinde uzun bir jeolojik (litolojik, stratigrafik ve tektonikgeçmişin etkisi vardır. Devon döneminde okyanus sularıyla kaplananarazi daha sonraları bir çok kez denizlerin transgresyon veregresyonuna maruz kalmış ve Miyosen dönemi sonuna doğru denizsuları bölgeyi tamamen terk etmiştir. Pliyosenin son döneminde iseNahçıvan ve çevresi şu anki orografik görüntüsünü almıştır.Karmaşık jeolojik gelişim süreçleri (volkanizma, tektonikhareketler, farklı stratigrafik basamaklar çeşitli mineral doğalkaynakların oluşmasına bu da gelecekteki yerleşmede ihtiyaç duyulanhammaddenin meydana gelmesine zemin hazırlamıştır.10-12 bin yıl önce Nahçıvan’ın orta ve alçak dağlık arazilerindeılıman soğuk ve rutubetli iklimin hakim olduğu Boreal iklim dönemiyerini; 8-9 bin yıl önce Sıcak Rutubetli Vereal iklim dönemine ve 6-8 binyıl önce de Holosen’in Soğuk Atlantik iklim dönemine bırakmıştır.Yaklaşık 4.5 - 5 bin yıl önce Subboreal iklim döneminde dağlardayeniden ılıman sıcak iklimin hakim olmaya başlamasıyla birlikte Hazardenizi, Kura ve Nahçıvan düzlüklerini istila etmiştir. Bu duruminsanların batıya doğru göç etmesine ve dolayısıyla bugünkü Nahçıvanşehri ve çevresindeki birçok yaşam alanlarının da temelinin atılmasınasebep olmuştur.Nahçıvan’da görülen ilk yerleşmelerde mağaralar, doğal barınaklarve doğal kaleler önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Bununla birlikte jeolojikgelişim sürecinde transgresyonlar sonucu denizlerin Nahçıvan’aarmağan ettiği tuz maden yatakları, Nahçıvan’ın elverişli coğrafi konumu ve eski kervan yollarının buradan geçmesi Nahçıvan’dakiyerleşmenin zaman içinde gelişmesine neden olmuştur.

  12. Geochemical evaluation of environmental conditions in the area of activity of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant (Kabardino-Balkaria, North Caucasus): Sources of environment contamination, impact upon neighboring areas, and ways for recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Vinokurov, S. F.; Karamurzov, B. S.; Gazeev, V. M.; Leksin, A. B.; Shevchenko, A. V.; Dolov, S. M.; Dudarov, Z. I.

    2015-09-01

    Geochemical investigations of surface waters, agricultural soils, pastures, and industrial waters of the Tyrnyauz Tungsten-Molybdenum Plant (TTMP) have revealed the technogenic and natural contamination sources of the ecosystem. In 2014, the Baksan River waters on coming to the plain were contaminated in W, Mo, Nb, U, Fe, Sb, Rb, Li, Tl, and Be. The TLVs for potable water were exceeded from tenfold to thousandfold (Tl and Be). These waters are hazardous for agricultural irrigation. To decrease the negative environmental loads, the authors propose to create a technology for the treatment and utilization of technological wastes, as well as to build up the cleaning filters (ion-exchange columns of various types) for the watercourses draining the TTMP open casts.

  13. A comparative assessment of the biological properties of soils in the cultural and native cenoses of the Central Caucasus (using the example of the Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality in Kabardino-Balkaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobtsova, O. N.; Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of the most widespread automorphic and hydromorphic soils of cultural and native cenoses in the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality (Kabardino-Balkaria) are compared. The data on the humus reserves in the 0- to 20-cm soil layer and those on the carbon content in the microbial biomass calculated on the basis of the results of substrate-induced respiration measurements are presented. The share of carbon in the microbial biomass of the total organic carbon in the soils was determined. Long-term (more than 70 years) farming on the studied soils significantly changed their biological properties. The humus content and its reserves became lower by 25-40%. The physiological activity of the microbial biomass in the cultural soils decreased by more than 60%. Presently, the soils of the cultural cenoses function as an entire natural system, but at a lower level of fertility; the loss of more than 30% of the bioorganic potential (the critical threshold of soil system stability) indicates the disturbance of soil ecological functions, their stability, and the capability of self-restoration.

  14. Wpływ procesów dezintegracyjnych i destabilizacyjnych Kaukazu Północnego na bezpieczeństwo Federacji Rosyjskiej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wolska-Liśkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents how the processes occurring on the North Caucasus can disintegrate and destabilize the Russian Federation. The author discusses the problem of Chechen separatism and the evolution of objectives and the methods of combat Chechen fighters form Chechnya's declaration of independence in 90’s up to the creation of the Caucasus Emirate. In this paper also mentioned about the phenomenon reislamization the North Caucasus and the growing cultural and religious chasm between the Russians and the Caucasian people. In article also discussed problem of Doku Umarov mujahideen activities within the context of the Winter Olympics in 2014.

  15. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  16. National security policy and defence structures' development programme of Armenia / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia rahvuslikust julgeolekupoliitikast ja kaitsestruktuuride arengust 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  17. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  18. Implicit theories of innovativeness: a cross-cultural analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Lebedeva; Lusine Grigoryan

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals and examines cultural differences in values, implicit theories of innovativeness, and attitudes toward innovation across three ethnocultural groups: Russians, representatives of the peoples of North Caucasus (Ingush and Chechens), and Tuvins (N = 801). Individual theories of innovativeness appeared to be more pronounced in Russians, whereas social theories of innovativeness are more discernible in respondents from the North Caucasus and Tuva. Using structural equation model...

  19. HAUT-KARABAGH : GÉOPOLITIQUE D'UN CONFLIT SANS FIN - NAGORNO-KARABAGH : POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AN ENDLESS CONFLICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2013-01-01

    International audience The South Caucasus or Transcaucasus is a region where diversified geography combined with historical heritage, gives a population spread out in varied ethnic groups and attached to different religious concepts. At the heart of this South-Caucasus, the geopolitical decisions of the Soviet era's first first years have, against the will of the majority of the inhabitants, consigned the Nagorno-Karabagh to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azarbaidjan. Since, tensions wit...

  20. Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States. Project November 2007 - October 2009. Final report. Advisory assistance programme for environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fammler, Heidrun; Kuris, Merle [Baltic Environmental Forum, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-12-15

    This is the final report of the project ''Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States'', which was co-funded by the German Environmental Agency (project No 380 01 173). The main outcomes of the project are: - The ''Guidelines for the investigation of the impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment in the Baltic States'' developed by the Baltic Environmental Forum and German consultant Dr. Jan Kube in consultation with experts from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The guidelines give an overview on potential negative impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment and general EIA and monitoring requirements as well as give detailed guidance on methodology for relevant field investigations. - The background paper ''Legal frame for the use of offshore wind energy in Germany'' prepared by RA'in Dr. Ursula Prall (April 2009) - 3 international workshops on different aspects related to establishment of offshore wind farms and assessment of their environmental impacts. (orig.)

  1. 诗文与影像的高加索——俄罗斯经典《高加索的俘虏》:从文学到电影的比较%Caucasia in Poems and Videos——Russian classic Prisoner of the Caucasus: A comparison from literature to film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2008-01-01

    是俄罗斯的文学经典,经过普希金、托尔斯泰等人的创作、改写后,当代俄罗斯电影导演谢尔盖·波德洛夫又一次进行了改编,背景为车臣战争,把重点放到了对俄罗斯当代精神的审视上,超越了前代版本.

  2. Геродот о владениях персов за Кавказом (Herod. III: 97) / Herodotus on the Persians for the possession of the Caucasus (Herod. III: 97)

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Molev

    2016-01-01

    В данной главе Геродот, судя по ее контексту, специально отмечает предел распространения власти персов на севере. Попытки понять эту фразу в том значении, что до времени написания его труда, Боспор был подчинен персам (Й. Нилинг, Г. Р. Цецхладзе) не соответствуют контексту данной главы труда Геродота. In this chapter, Herodotus, according to its context, specifically notes limit the spread of the power of the Persians to the north. Attempts to understand this phrase in the sense that prio...

  3. Геродот о владениях персов за Кавказом (Herod. III: 97 / Herodotus on the Persians for the possession of the Caucasus (Herod. III: 97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Molev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available В данной главе Геродот, судя по ее контексту, специально отмечает предел распространения власти персов на севере. Попытки понять эту фразу в том значении, что до времени написания его труда, Боспор был подчинен персам (Й. Нилинг, Г. Р. Цецхладзе не соответствуют контексту данной главы труда Геродота. In this chapter, Herodotus, according to its context, specifically notes limit the spread of the power of the Persians to the north. Attempts to understand this phrase in the sense that prior to the writing of his work, was subordinate to the Bosporus Persians (J. Niling, G. R. Tsetskhladze does not correspond to the context of this chapter of Herodotus.

  4. GPS constraints on the deformation of Azerbaijan and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuğ, Bahadır; Meherremov, Elçin; Kurt, Mustafa; Özdemir, Soner; Esedov, Namaz; Lenk, Onur

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we present new GPS observations in Azerbaijan to provide an improved basis for determining the distribution of crustal deformation throughout the country and surrounding areas. The deformation field in the region has been analyzed with a dense GPS network configuration and a reliable quantification of the ongoing deformation was achieved. Results show that while contraction is dominant over the whole region, it is mostly concentrated on the middle and eastern parts of Caucasus Thrust Fault reaching up to 6.4 ± 0.2 mm/yr and Lesser Caucasus Fault does no accommodate more than 1-2 mm/yr of contraction. New network also clearly substantiates that the West Caspian Fault, which is a continuation of Caucasus Thrust Fault in the south, accommodates right-lateral slip rates of 7.1 ± 0.3 mm/yr in addition to 5.5 ± 0.3 mm/yr contraction rates.

  5. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer and barley (possibly hulled. Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the cultivation and use of certain cereal grains at Early Bronze sites such as Tsaghkasar can tentatively be added to a constellation of practices associated with the Kura‐Araxes culture in the South Caucasus.

  6. Measuring the Famine: Consumption Level in 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey А. Nefedov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of territorial-fixed coverage of the 1933 famine is a matter of dispute between Ukrainian and Russian historians. While the latter believe that the famine was localized in Ukraine only, the latter claim it also covered wide areas in Russia, in particular, the Northern Caucasus, the Volga River basin, and the Central Chernozem District. To solve this problem, the author involves data from nourishment studies conducted by the State Planning Committee of the USSR in 1933. This data does not include information on the Northern Caucasus, but demonstrates that the most catastrophic situation among other regions was in Ukraine.

  7. THE GEOGRAPHICAL IMPORTANCE OF DARBAND AND ITS ROLE IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND IRAN IN THE SAFAVID ERA

    OpenAIRE

    Panahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Darband, as one of the coastal towns along the Caspian Sea and as part of Caucasus region, played an important role in the political developments of this country. The city, after the complete conquest of Caucasus by Shah Ismail I was supervised by Shervan ruler, but after the outbreak of Shervan ruler and the creation of Bigla Beigi in Shervan, Darband got a better position in Safavid government. Darband, not only in the Safavid era, but also from the ancient time, because of its proximity to...

  8. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  9. Speech by Mr. Evaldas Ignatavicius, state secretary, ministry of foreign affairs, Republic of Lithuania / Evaldas Ignatavicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ignatavicius, Evaldas

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Leedu ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelise sõjalis-poliitilise koostöö arendamisest 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: Making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  10. Summing Up / Garry Johnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Garry

    2003-01-01

    Kokkuvõte 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminari "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" ettekannetest Balti- ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia regiooni riikide vahelise sõjalis- ja julgeolekualase koostöö arendamisest

  11. Rol Gruzinskoi zheleznoi dorogi v razvitii transportnogo koridora TRACECA = The role of the Georgian railways in the development of the TRACECA transport corridor / Teimuraz Gorshkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorshkov, Teimuraz

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" tutvustab Euroopat ja Kesk-Aasiat ühendava transpordikoridori TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia) programmi ja Gruusia raudtee kui programmi olulisima komponendi, arendamise ülesandeid

  12. Project-Based Method as an Effective Means of Interdisciplinary Interaction While Teaching a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar, Irina Alekseevna; Kulbakova, Renata Ivanovna; Svintorzhitskaja, Irina Andreevna; Pilat, Larisa Pavlovna; Zavrumov, Zaur Aslanovich

    2016-01-01

    The article explains how to use a project-based method as an effective means of interdisciplinary interaction when teaching a foreign language on the example of The Institute of service, tourism and design (branch) of the North Caucasus Federal University (Pyatigorsk, Stavropol Territory Russia). The article holds the main objectives of the…

  13. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.I. Gibson; R.A. Bray; D. Hunt; B.B. Georgiev; T. Scholz; P.D. Harris; T.A. Bakke; T. Pojmanska; K. Niewiadomska; A. Kostadinova; V. Tkach; O. Bain; M.C. Durette-Desset; L. Gibbons; F. Moravec; A. Petter; Z.M. Dimitrova; K. Buchmann; E.T. Valtonen; Y. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fa

  14. РУССКИЙ ЯЗЫК И ЕГО РОЛЬ В АДАПТАЦИИ МИГРАНТОВ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ УДИН РОССИИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дабаков В. В.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a case study of immigrant adaptation in Russia. Taking a small ethnic group of the Udis (one of the indigenous peoples of the Caucasus, it considers the impact of their competence in Russian and the existence of Russian-language schools in the locations they originally come from.

  15. Genetic diversity of medlar (Mespilus germanica) germplasm using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The medlar (Mespilus germanica) is a pome fruit related to pear (Pyrus sp.) and hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) that has been cultivated for many centuries for its edible fruit. It was also an important medicinal plant in the Middle Ages. The center of origin for Mespilus is the Trans-Caucasus region and t...

  16. Separatisme, islamisme en regionalisme aan Ruslands zuidgrens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Jansen

    2010-01-01

    Marc Jansen focuses on the Northern Caucasus, home to dozens of nationalities mainly of Muslim origin, and Russia's problem area, its 'inner abroad'. Although the Chechen struggle for independence has largely been crushed, the turmoil continues. Terrorist attempts at disrupting Russian society organ

  17. 78 FR 59854 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisitions in Support of Operations in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... of the countries of the South Caucasus or Central and South Asia in acquisitions in support of... 225.77 to apply only to operations in Afghanistan, and deletes application of the policies and... products and services from Afghanistan and the Central Asian states in support of operations in...

  18. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikidega ja osalemisest rahvusvahelistes sõjalistes koostööprogrammides 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  19. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Najaf Gambarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gambarov, Najaf

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Aserbaidžaani sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõududega ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  20. 77 FR 68699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... issued as an interim rule under DFARS Case 2011-D046 (76 FR 78858, December 20, 2011). VI. Determination.../ Central and South Asian (SC/CASA) state'' and ``South Caucasus/Central and South Asian (SC/CASA) state end... evaluate offers of qualifying country end products, SC/CASA state end products, or Free Trade...

  1. Way ahead / Zeyno Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Zeyno

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne Lõuna-Kaukaasia regiooni strateegilisest tähtsusest nafta- ja gaasimajanduses, riikide sisepoliitilisest olukorrast, sõjaliste konfliktide lahendamise vajalikkusest rahvusvahelisel tasandil, Venemaa, USA ning NATO mõjust julgeoleku ja stabiilsuse tagamisele

  2. Geographic variation in the effects of disturbance, fungi, insects, and resilience on the abundance of a globally distributed plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: To assess the effects of disturbance, fungi, insects, and resilience on the abundance of a globally distributed ruderal, Centaurea solstitialis, in two regions with contrasting conditions within both native and non-native ranges. Location: The Caucasus (Georgia and Armenia) and south-western...

  3. Welcome speech by H. E. Linas Linkevicius, minister of national defence of the Republic of Lithuania / Linas Linkevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linkevicius, Linas

    2003-01-01

    Leedu kaitseministri Linas Linkeviciuse avaettekanne Balti ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia riikide vahelisest poliitilis-sõjalisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  4. Superspecies Pyrgus Malvae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) in the East Mediterranean, with notes on Phylogenetic and Biological relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1987-01-01

    The possible zone of contact between Pyrgus (malvae) malvae Linnaeus, 1758, and P. (malvae) melotis Duponchel, 1832, is re-examined. The two taxa apparently meet (in the subspecies malvae and ponticus Reverdin, 1914, respectively) in N. and W. Turkey and possibly in S. Russia north of the Caucasus.

  5. Notes on the genus Pyrgus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.

    1975-01-01

    1. Pyrgus alveus caucasius Picard and Pyrgus jupei Alberti In a paper on Pyrgus bellieri, Picard (1949: 57) casually named the populations of Pyrgus alveus from the Caucasus and Transcaucasia caucasius. According to Picard, Reverdin (1915) confused this form with the Chinese sifanicus which has diff

  6. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  7. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  8. National security policy and plans for development of defence structures / Kakha Katsitadze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katsitadze, Kakha

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne Gruusia rahvusliku julgeolekupoliitika kontseptsioonist ja sõjaväe ülesehituse strateegiast

  9. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eppie R; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Müller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F G; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic-Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ∼45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ∼25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ∼3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages. PMID:26567969

  10. SILK ROAD DISEASE: FROM LEGENDS TO THE 21st CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Alekberova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the historical and geographical aspects of Behcet’s disease (BD. As is known, the geographical distribution of this disease is associated with the ancient caravan route called the Silk Road: it was in these areas along which the latter once ran there have been predominantly cases of BD so far. There are discrepancies in the literature regarding whether the Silk Road was across the North Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea in particular. In support of this conjecture, there is interesting evidence: stone-cutting images that have been retained on the houses of the Dagestani settlement of Kubachi. All give an answer why the natives of the North Caucasus constitute one-fourth of the total number of BD patients followed up at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology 

  11. Fertile Garlic Clones in the Gatersleben Collection

    OpenAIRE

    ETOU, Takeomi; Keller, E. R. Joachim; SENULA, Angelika

    2001-01-01

    In the Gatersleben collection, fertile garlic accessions were surveyed. It was clarified that in total, 15 accessions were pollen fertile, and that 14 of them came from Central Asia, Caucasus or Russia. These accessions are useful for garlic breeding. Meiosis was examined in five accessions. All of them showed regular chromosome pairing at meiosis, eight bivalent chromosomes. Two of the five accessions came from Europe, Italy and France. It was confirmed that there exist some garlic clones wi...

  12. The European Union Building Peace Near and Afar: Monitoring the Implementation of International Peace Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Máire Braniff

    2013-01-01

    The European Union’s (EU) support and contribution to international peace and security continues to develop with involvement in the Balkans, South Caucasus, Africa, Middle East and South Asia (Council of the European Union 2005). Within the broad range of civilian and military interventions under the Common Security and Defence policy (CSDP) there have been two monitoring missions that have emerged from peace agreements, in Aceh (2005-2006) and in Georgia (2008 to date). This article maps the...

  13. The Possibilities of Forensic Dentistry in Ethnicity Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Romodanovsky P.О.; Bisharyan М.S.; Barinov Е.Kh.

    2012-01-01

    There have been studied the possibilities of forensic dentistry application for individual ethnic identification by the example of the analysis of dentomaxillar system features of the population of the Republic of Armenia. Complex study included clinical, morphometric, X-ray techniques and statistical analysis. The obtained data were correlated with the data of other ethnic groups living in North Caucasus, and Russian population. The investigation results after statistical data manipulation s...

  14. Political and Economic Cooperation between Armenia and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Папоян, Айваз Рафикович

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the development of cooperation between Armenia and the European Union since Armenia’s independence in 1991 to the present. The author discusses the inclusion of Armenia in the program of the European Neighborhood Policy, which was launched by the EU with the view to strengthen relations between the EU and countries of Southern Caucasus, Eastern Europe and Mediterranean region. The role of trade relations between Armenia and the EU’s countries is analyzed. Key words: the ...

  15. Genetic characterization of Lithuanian honeybee lines based on ISSR polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Ceksteryte, Violeta; Paplauskiene, Vanda; Tamasauskiene, Diana; Pasakinskiene, Izolda; Mazeikiene, Ingrida

    2012-01-01

    International audience This study presents the first results from the selection and evaluation of inter-simple sequence repeat markers for the genetic assessment of honeybee lines developed in Lithuania and introduced subspecies. Two Lithuania-bred lines of Apis mellifera carnica were compared to those introduced from Czech Republic and Slovenia and also to a subspecies introduced from the Caucasus (Apis mellifera caucasica) and local Buckfast hybrids. The genetic constitution was assayed ...

  16. Strong variations of cosmic ray intensity during thunderstorms and associated pulsations of the geomagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kanonidi, K Kh; Lidvansky, A S; Sobisevich, L E

    2011-01-01

    Strong variations of the intensity of secondary cosmic rays during thunderstorms are found to be accompanied in some cases by very clear pulsations of the geomagnetic field. The experiment is carried out in the Baksan Valley, North Caucasus, the Carpet air shower array being used as a particle detector. Magnetic field measurements are made with high-precision magnetometers located deep underground in the tunnel of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, several kilometers apart from the air shower array.

  17. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  18. Interdependent relations between comic and animated cartoons

    OpenAIRE

    Eloyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Interdependent relations between comic and animated Cartoons. This book was produced in the context of Art Dubai's Marker, a curated not-for-profit gallery programme that concentrates each year on a particular theme or geography. (www.artdubai.ae/marker). The 2014 edition of Marker is curated by Slavs and Tatars and takes Central Asia and the Caucasus as its focus.".

  19. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented. ....... Adopted in late 2005, the strategy has four main principles: a lifecycle approach, youth participation, equity and intersectoral collaboration....

  20. Homegrown Hostilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ In recent months,the number of terrorist attacks in Russia has soared.Moscow and the North Caucasus republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia have all been targets of terrorist violence,which has led to a wave of deaths,injuries and property losses.These events have demonstrated the severity of the situation Russia faces,while exposing the flaws that exist in its present security climate.

  1. Importance of Transport Corridors in Regional Development: The Case of TRACECA

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIR KESER, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    After the Second World War regional development has been an important subject of economic analysis. Transport activities and developing transport corridors have been observed among the most important factors in ensuring regional development.One of the most comprehensive transport corridors is the TRACECA (Europa-Caucasus-Asia Transport Corridor) corridor which is referred to as the New Silk Road.The TRACECA corridor has been thought to play an important role in Turkey's all kinds of passenger...

  2. EU-GUAM: ENGAGEMENT OR ESTRANGEMENT?

    OpenAIRE

    Norling, Nicklas; Nilsson, Niklas

    2008-01-01

    The wider Black Sea and Caspian Sea regions have so far figured as relatively peripheral concerns for the European Union. While the enlargement of the EU has created incentives for a stronger commitment to these regions, the motives for a more strategic European engagement in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and around the Black Sea have always existed. These regions provide access to energy outside the control of OPEC and Russia and provide a transit corridor connecting Europe with the Middle Eas...

  3. GUAM AND THE PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Jinguo, Wang; Zhizun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    The GUAM organization was officially founded as a political, economic, and strategic union called upon to strengthen the sovereignty of four former Soviet republics-Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, and Moldova. In the ten years of its existence, GUAM has become an important structure striving to consolidate regional economic cooperation by developing the Europe-Caucasus-Asia transportation corridor. GUAM has also been a forum for discussing security problems, helping to settle conflicts, and eli...

  4. THE STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROHYDRAULIC EFFECT ON THE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT AND THE PENETRATION DEPTH OF SALT INTO MUSCLE TISSUES DURING SALTING

    OpenAIRE

    N. P. Oboturova; I. A. Evdokimov; A. A. Nagdalian; Yu. I. Kulikov; O. A. Gusevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Currently, promising methods for intensifying the salting technology of raw meat are those based on pulsed energy effects, accompanied by a variety of physical and chemical effects. One of these methods is a discharge-pulse technology, developed by the scientists of the department of meat and canning technologies of the North Caucasus Federal University. When a short high voltage electrical pulse forms in the brine-meat system, high pressure forms in the working tank, the increase in pressure...

  5. SOME CONSTRAINTS ON INTERSPECIFIC CROSSING OF DURUM WHEAT WITH AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONS SCREENED UNDER WATER-DEFICIT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Masanori Inagaki; Bilal Humeid; Sawsan Tawkaz; Ahmed Amri

    2014-01-01

    A total of 400 accessions of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (goat grass) collected from western Asia and the Caucasus were screened for the productive tillering capacity under rain-fed field conditions with the aim of developing new, synthetic hexaploid wheats having enhanced drought adaptation. Of these, 23 Ae. tauschii accessions were selected for interspecific crossing with two durum wheat varieties ‘Belikh-2’ and ‘Jennah Khetifa’. Fifteen of the selected accessions were of Pakistani origin and e...

  6. Changes of Marukh Glacier from 1945 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    S. S. Kutuzov; I. I. LAVRENTIEV; Yu. Ya. Macheret; Petrakov, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies have been carried out in summer 2011 at Marukh Glacier located in western part of the Northern Caucasus. The studies included ground-based radio-echo sounding measurements at a frequency of 20 MHz and glacier surface elevation survey using a dual frequency differential GPS receiver. Changes of volume and surface area of the glacier for the period 1945–2011 have been estimated using aerial photo, satellite images and topographic maps analysis. It is founded that Marukh Glacier is...

  7. Computational Astrophysics Towards Exascale Computing and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, Armenia has a leading position both within the computer science and Information Technology and Astronomy and Astrophysics sectors in the South Caucasus region and beyond. For instance recent years Information Technology (IT) became one of the fastest growing industries of the Armenian economy (EIF 2013). The main objective of this article is to highlight the key activities that will spur Armenia to strengthen its computational astrophysics capacity thanks to the analysis made of the current trends of e-Infrastructures worldwide.

  8. Democracy and Development in the Making: Civic Participation in Armenia; Challenges, Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Sargsyan, Gayane

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on civic participation and its role in an emerging democracy context, and examines the forms, patterns, trends, obstacles to and opportunities for civic participation, as well as the impact of civic participation on democratization and development processes in Armenia, a post-soviet country in the South Caucasus, that has embarked on simultaneous transition toward democracy and free market economy since its independence in 1991. The dissertation suggests that civic p...

  9. Sustainable Solution for Increasing the Share of Solar Photovoltaic Usages on Residential Houses in Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Elnur Abbasov

    2016-01-01

    The Republic of Azerbaijan, as the largest nation state in the South Caucasus Region, has the potential for developing and using renewable sources of energy in order to support the environmental challenge resolution associated with climate change, improving the environmental situation in the country. Solar photovoltaic (PV) comprises one of the direct usages of solar energy. In this paper, a sustainable PV usage scenario in residential houses was introduced to reduce negative environmental ef...

  10. Resettlement of the Circassians and Nogay Immigration in Anatolia in 19th Century And Çankırı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galip ÇAĞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 19th century was a disaster year for the Ottoman State. The causes and consequences of wars in this century has been a great destruction. The migrations were the most important of this destruction. Migrations in the Balkans and the Caucasus have brought a huge housing problem. In order to overcome these difficulties immigrants quickly directed into the interior of Anatolia by Ottoman administration. In this study will focus on in particular Cankiri resettlements of Nogai immigrants which mentioned above.

  11. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt:Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Sharkov; V. Lebedev; A. Chugaev; L. Zabarinskaya; A. Rodnikov; N. Sergeeva; I. Safonova

    2015-01-01

    The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains:the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS) in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate;it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF), which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1) plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2) suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50e60 km), we suggest that the “supra-subduction-type”magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  12. Zygmunt Rewkowski – nieznany polski ekonomista i statystyk

    OpenAIRE

    Bochenek, Mirosław

    2008-01-01

    Zygmunt Rewkowski received the Vilnius University’s Chair of the Probabilistic Theory – established specially for him – when he was only twenty two. Unfortunately, two years later, in the repressions following the November Uprising, the czar of Russia dissolved the University, and after the following two years the tsarist authorities exiled the young academic for twenty-five years of military service in the Caucasus. After serving the punishment, he worked as a communications engineer for the...

  13. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite; Marco Antonio Lemos Miguel; Raquel Silva Peixoto; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Joab Trajano Silva; Vania Margaret Flosi Paschoalin

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial inte...

  14. Being both Non-Jewish Israelis and Non-Palestinian Muslims: Isn’t it Too Much?

    OpenAIRE

    Merza, Eleonore

    2011-01-01

    “Vicielitcia kouda oukajout ili perecelitcia v Tourstsiou” (“You will settle where you are told to or you will emigrate to Turkey”). These are the words Tsar Alexander II delivered to the delegation of Circassian tribes, then subjects of the Ottoman Empire, after the Russian Empire conquered the Caucasus. Before trying to understand how cultural identity, Muslim religion, and Israeli citizenship link up in the Circassian diaspora in Israel, we should define who the Circassians are and how the...

  15. Problem of tectonic belonging of folded structures of the middle and south Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : Caspian Aquatorium adjacent to continental territory of Azerbaijan Republic covers the western part of the middle and south Caspian. Tectonically it together with adjacent land is presented by two heterogeneous geodynamic units. Folded construction of the Greater Caucasus os located towards south from Kusar-Devechi piedmont trough in geologic structure of which Mesozoic deposits take part and South-East paleogene ones. As it is known folded construction of the Greater Caucasus undergoes a subsidence of over thrust folds in south-east direction and due to this its width is reduced and faults framing it from and from south in the middle Caspian are completely combined. Local folded structures of Absheron archipelago consist of weak Cenozoic deposits bedded at not large depth on Mesozoic complex. It should be mentioned that manifestations of mud volcanoes are of insignificant distribution within both folded construction of the Greater Caucasus and Absheron archipelago. On contrary, majority of local structures of Baku archipelago and especially Gobustan is characterized by availability of large mud volcanoes, possessing different types, geometrical forms and intensive eruptions of paroxysm.

  16. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  17. Reducing Seismic Hazard and Building Capacity Through International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, E. S.; Arakelyan, A.; Babayan, H.; Durgaryan, R.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Kalogeras, I.; Karakhanyan, A.; Martin, R. J.; Yetirmishli, G.

    2012-12-01

    During the last 50 years, the Caucasus, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea regions have experienced several devastating earthquakes. While each country in the region has worked with its neighbors on small, ad-hoc projects to improve preparedness, deeply ingrained political and ethnic rivalries, and severely stressed economies have severely hindered sustained regional cooperation. Future damaging earthquakes are inevitable and without proper planning the negative impact on public safety, security, economics and stability in these regions will be devastating. We have, through twelve years of international scientific cooperation, focused on the development of an expanded skill base and infrastructure, through the installation of new, modern, digital seismic monitoring networks, building of historic databases, sharing seismic, geologic and geophysical data, conducting joint scientific investigations utilizing the new digital data and applying modern techniques, as well as the development of regional hazard models that the scientists of the region share with their governments and use to advise them on the best ways to mitigate the impact of a damaging earthquake. We have established specialized regional scientific task-force teams who can carry out seismological, geological and engineering studies in the epicentral zone, including the collection of new scientific data, for better understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes as well to provide emergency support in crisis and post-crisis situations in the Southern Caucasus countries. "Secrecy" in crisis and post-crisis situations in the former Soviet Union countries, as well as political instabilities, led to an absence of seismic risk reduction and prevention measures as well as little to no training of scientific-technical personnel who could take action in emergency situations. There were few opportunities for the development of a next generation of scientific experts, thus we have placed emphasis on the inclusion

  18. GPS-based crustal deformations in Azerbaijan and their influence on seismicity and mud volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Guliyev, I. S.; Feyzullayev, A. A.; Safarov, R. T.; Mammadov, S. K.; Babayev, G. R.; Rashidov, T. M.

    2014-11-01

    Using Shen's method (Shen et al., 1996), deformations of the Earth's crust in Azerbaijan were studied based on GPS measurements. For estimating the rate of deformation, we used the field of velocity vectors for Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and Armenia that were derived from GPS measurements during 1998-2012. It is established that compression is observable along the Greater Caucasus, in Gobustan, the Kura depression, Nakhchyvan Autonomous Republic, and adjacent areas of Iran. The axes of compression/contraction of the crust in the Greater Caucasus region are oriented in the S-NE direction. The maximum strain rate (approximately 200 × 10-9 per annum) is documented in the zone of mud volcanism at the SHIK site (Shykhlar), which is marked by a sharp change in the direction of the compression axes (SW-NE). It is revealed that the deformation field also includes the zones where strain rates are very low approximating 5 × 10-9 per annum. These zones include the Caspian-Guba and northern Gobustan areas, characterized by extensive development of mud volcanism. The extension zones are confined to the Lesser Caucasus and are revealed in the Gedabek (GEDA) and Shusha (SHOU) areas, as well as in the zone located between the DAMO and PIRM sites (Iran), where the deformation rate amounts to 100 × 10-9 per annum. It is concluded that the predominant factor responsible for the eruption of mud volcanoes is the intensity of gas-generation processes in the earth's interior, while deformation processes play the role of a trigger. The zone of the epicenters of strong earthquakes is correlated to the gradient zone in the crustal strain rates.

  19. We Are All Georgians: The Neoconservative Narrative on the Russia-Georgia War

    OpenAIRE

    Koskenniemi, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the U.S. foreign policy discussion that followed the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. In the politically charged setting that preceded the presidential elections, the subject of the debate was not only Washington's response to the crisis in the Caucasus but, more generally, the direction of U.S. foreign policy after the presidency of George W. Bush. As of November 2010, the reasons for and consequences of the Russia-Georgia war continue to be contest...

  20. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Duško Ćirović; Dimosthenis Chochlakis; Snežana Tomanović; Ratko Sukara; Aleksandra Penezić; Yannis Tselentis; Anna Psaroulaki

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was ch...

  1. Black Soil : Oil and ethnicity in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the creation of 15 new states where there previously had been a single and vast multi-ethnical empire. Of the former Soviet territories, the Caucasus region – wedged in between the Black and the Caspian Sea – stands out. In addition to being haunted with separatism and civil war for the passed 14 years, the region has also evolved into a focal point for Russian and US great power interests regarding control over the substantial oil reserves s...

  2. An attempt to determine the tritium, {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl and radon in territory of mud volcano in Taman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevinsky, I. E-mail: mera@mail.kuban.su; Nevinsky, V.; Panyushkin, V.; Ferronsky, V.; Tsvetkova, T

    2001-06-01

    Little is known about the radio-isotopic geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Taman area, Krasnodar region, in the tectonic active zone of the Caucasus range. In 1998, we have started the determination of radon in soil air using solid state nuclear track detectors on a monthly basis. Tritium was determined out of water sampled at the mud volcano vents by means of both mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation. {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl were also determined by means of a low background gamma spectrometer placed at a depth of 50 m in our underground laboratory. It was found that mud volcano fluids are of partial deep origin.

  3. A new species of the water mite genus Hygrobates Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Hygrobatidae) from the ancient Lake Ohrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A new water mite species, Hygrobates zawali n. sp., is described from material collected in the ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula. This species has been confused for a long time with the rhithrobiontic H. diversiporus Sokolow, 1927, known from the Caucasus (Russia) and Turkey. The new species closely resembles H. quanaticola Schwoerbel & Sepasgozarian, 1976, a little documented species described from Iran, which is here illustrated based on re-examination of the type material. Furthermore, a key for the identification of species of the subgenus Rivobates Thor, 1897, from the Western Palaearctic is given. PMID:25781785

  4. Variations of cosmic ray muon flux during thunderstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations of the intensity of cosmic ray muons during thunderstorms are investigated. Linear and quadratic coefficients of regression of the muon flux with near-ground electric field are calculated and compared to the experimental data obtained with the Carpet air shower array in the Baksan Valley, North Caucasus. Based on correlations with the near-ground field, estimates are made of regression coefficients with the mean potential difference in the stratosphere, between the effective level of muon production and the ionosphere. It is shown that maximum observable muon effects (variations with amplitudes of 1%) correspond to a mean potential difference in the stratosphere of about 200 MV.

  5. Russian and Caspian hydrocarbons: energy supply stakes for the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    11 p.Cahier de recherche LEPII ; n°13bis. The crisis between Russia and Georgia in August 2008 highlights the fragility and instability of transporting gas from the Caspian and Central Asia to Europe via the "Caucasus transit corridor". The feasibility of one of the EU's possible strategies for diversifying its energy supplies might now be called into question. The aim of this article is to examine the new strategies that could emerge in the producing countries as well as those of internat...

  6. Russisch-Deutsche Kaukasusexpedition 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfer, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From August 22nd to September 4th, 2011 a joint expedition of scientists from Germany and Russia of the Julius Kühn-Institute (JKI and the Nikolaj I. Vavilov Research Institute of Plant Industry (VIR into North Caucasus has been taken place. The expedition was aimed on collection of fruit genetic resources in this region and their introduction into national collections for fruit genetic resources of both countries. Subsequently, the collected material will be evaluated by the participating partners regarding sources of agronomical important traits in order to provide new resources for breeding purposes, and aid in determining accessions for core collections of the fruit species.

  7. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert palteau of northwest Iran dominates the center of the northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west. The shuttle stabilizer, OMS pods and open payload bay can also be seen just above the horizon.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL RESEARCH OF LEAVES OF FEIJOA SELLOWIANA BERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feijoa leaves gathered from Feijoa sellowiana Berg. of Myrtaceae family on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were the object of this research. Establishment of morphological and anatomical features for diagnosis of feijoa leaves was the purpose of this work. Using macro- and microscopic analysis methods we have determined external and microdiagnostic features which can be used for development of authenticity of the feijoa leaves active parts.

  9. Pirimze

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatadze, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "This publication is a part of the project Pirimze by Sophia Tabatadze. You can see the development of the project on: www.pirimze.blogspot.com. This book was produced in the context of Art Dubai's Marker, a curated not-for-profit gallery programme that concentrates each year on a particular theme or geography. (www.artdubai.ae/marker). The 2014 edition of Marker is curated by Slavs and Tatars and takes Central Asia and the Caucasus as its focus.".

  10. South Caspian Pliocene-Anthropogenic basin (summary of existing views)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrakhov, Rashad; Shiraliyeva, Sevinj; Kerimova, Nailya

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of long-time integrated sedimentology, paleogeographic and structural - formation studies covering Pliocene-Anthropogenic sediments of South Caspian Basin (SCB) and design of structural - formation, paleogeographic and catagenetic models applying geophysical studies in the region, the author has interred rift nature on this basin during Pliocene-Anthropogenic stage of its evolution. It is assumed that SCB is intercontinental with absence of continental crust. Evolution of SCR started from Miocene, continental stage of development Lesser and Great Caucasus and Kopetdag. At initial stage of South Caspian rift-graben evolution the crystal uplift of Caucasus, Kopetdag and Talysh organic system took place. Extension forces within their borders caused collapse of central part of South Caspian block. We assumed that at later stage folded blocks of Lesser Caucasus and Talysh on the other hand Alborz and Kopetdagh on the other were moving apart. As a result of these riftogene processes the contemporary structure of SCB Antropogene was formed. Starting from Miocene, subsidence of central part of SCB and later movements of folded blocks of Great and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh and Elbrus occurred along Western Caspian, Sangachal - Ogurcghy deep faults and Turkmenistan thrust. During rift generation within SCB, magmatic troughs emerged in the rift zone - South Absheron, Lower Kura. Enzaly and Western Turkmenistan. Structural-formation studies with application of geophysical data acquired in the region, allow assuming that massive Godina can be considered as interrift horst with large gravity anomaly. Its generation relates to Miocene-Pliocene ages and was formed due to South Caspian riftogenesis. The following are sedimentologic evidences of South Caspian rift basin: a) Avalanche sedimentation and development of large thickness (2.5-3 km/106 years) even within border of Lower Pliocene (Productive Series); b) Morphology of Lower Pliocene molasses formation covering 600

  11. COLLECTIVE MEMORY AND MEMORY POLITICS IN THE CENTRAL CAUCASIAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Garagozov, Rauf

    2005-01-01

    The recent media reports about the progress made by a group of academics from Armenia, Russia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan working on a joint textbook on the history of the Caucasus from the ancient times to 1921 revealed how much tension this topic has created in the region. The project known as the Tbilisi Initiative launched in 1997 was encouraged and funded by the Council of Europe within a program for promoting education reforms in the former Soviet republics. This work designed to provide o...

  12. Victimized Majority: Latent Politics of Ethnic Discrimination in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Babichenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the brief analysis of one of the most important problems of the Russian Federation – the ethnic conflicts. Such a phenomenon has various dimensions and manifestations: from discrimination on the labor market to the extreme of ethnic cleansing during wars in Chechnya. The author focuses on the previously unexplored side of the problem: structural oppression conducted by minorities against the cultural majority of the country with a special regard to the republics of North Caucasus where the scope and intensity of ethnic strife found the most dangerous and explosive forms threatening with disintegration of the state.

  13. Paris, Moscow, and “Europe out of the EU”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perchoc Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the presidencies of Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, the French diplomats were keen to strengthen the partnership between Paris and Moscow as it served French interests on the international stage. In this context, this article demonstrates that Eastern-Central Europe (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus is of secondary interest for French diplomacy, unless it provides an opportunity to highlight Paris’ role in international affairs. The Georgian war in 2008, the Mistral issue, and the Ukraine crises are several good illustrations of this phenomenon.

  14. History of Alibek Glacier based on Earth remote sensing images, bioindication and cosmogenic isopotes (14С and 10Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Bushueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the reconstruction of fluctuations of Alibek valley glacier situated in the Teberda valley, Western Caucasus. The former positions of glacier of the past 120 years were reconstructed basing on the old photographs of 1904, 1921, remote sensing data of 1955, 1987, 2007, 2008 and 2012, plans created in 20th century. Since the middle of 20th century Alibek Glacier decreased by 650 m in length and by 0,67 km2 in area and its tongue has risen by 110 m.

  15. Reconstructing mass balance of Garabashi Glacier (1800–2005 using dendrochronological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolgova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration whether tree-ring data can be effectually applied for the mass balance reconstruction in Caucasus was the main goal of this research. Tree-ring width and maximum density chronologies of pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at seven high-elevation sites in Northern Caucasus were explored for this purpose. As well as in other places of the temperate zone tree- ring width has complex climate signal controlled both temperature and precipitation. Instrumental mass balance records of Garabashi Gglacier started at 1983s. It is well known that Caucasus glaciers intensively retreat in the last decades and according to instrumental data mass balance variations are mostly controlled by the ablation, i.e. summer temperature variations. Maximum density chronology has statistically significant correlation with mass balance due to summer temperature sensitivity and great input of ablation to total mass balance variations. To include in our reconstruction different climatically sensitive parameters, stepwise multiple regression model was used. The strongest relation (r = 0.88; r2 = 0.78; p < 0.05 between two ring-width and one maximum density chronologies was identified. Cross-validation test (r = 0.79; r2 = 0.62; p < 0.05 confirmed model adequacy and it allowed to reconstruct Garabashi Glacier mass balance for 1800–2005ss. Reconstructed and instrumental mass balance values coincide well except the most recent period in 2000s, when the reconstructed mass balance slightly underestimated the real values. However even in this period it remained negative as well as the instrumental records. The bias can be explained by the weak sensitivity of the chronologies to winter precipitation (i.e. accumulation. The tree-ring based mass balance reconstruction was compared with one based on meteorological data (since 1905s. Both reconstructions have good interannual agreement (r = 0.53; p < 0.05 particularly for the period between 1975 and 2005. According to the

  16. The problem of the neolithisation process chronology in Povolzhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vybornov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower and Middle Volga basin regions border the Caucasus and Central Asia in the South. These regions are important in the study of the neolithisation process in Europe and the chronology of Neolithic cultures is of great significance in this respect. New 14C dates of different organic materials from archaeological sites in these regions have been obtained in the last five years. According to these data, the beginning of neolithisation in North Caspian region can be dated to the beginning of the 5th millennium BC; but in the Povolzhye it happened at least a millennium earlier.

  17. The second complete skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis (Elephantidae, Proboscidea) from the Stavropol Region, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschenko, E. N.; Schvyreva, A. K.; Kalmykov, N. P.

    2011-08-01

    The skeleton of Archidiskodon meridionalis ( Nesti, 1825) from the Rodionovo locality (Stavropol Administrative Region, Russia) is described in detail. It represents the second discovery of an almost complete skeleton of a fossil elephant in the Northern Caucasus. The age of the fossil is estimated as Early Pleistocene (upper Apsheronian, late Middle Villafranchian). Attribution of the skeleton to this species, widely distributed in Eurasia during the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, is based on the tooth characters (M3/m3 enamel thickness and lamellar frequency). Validity of the genus Archidiskodon Pohlig, 1888 is discussed.

  18. Defence of the Realm: The ‘New’ Russian Patriotism on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gillespie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the war theme in Russian film since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with special reference to the ongoing conflict in the Caucasus. It will explore the tension and seeming contradiction between the military machine as faceless bureaucracy, and the ordinary soldier, seen as the honest and true face of Mother Russia. Through an analysis of both TV and feature films, it will also explore the evolution of attitudes towards the 'new' Putin-era reality, where business and capitalism are condemned as helping the 'enemy', at the expense of the Motherland. Films to be discussed include Chest' imeiu, Gospoda ofitsery, Blokpost, Marsh-brosok, Voina.

  19. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra; Zhukovsky, Michael; Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S

    2010-01-01

    Water (226)Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for (226)Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l(-1). Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low (226)Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l(-1)) caused high (226)Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg(-1)), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m(-3) (Niska Banja). PMID:19853463

  20. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  1. Dengue and dengue vectors in the WHO European region: past, present, and scenarios for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Francis; Mathis, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    After 55 years of absence, dengue has re-emerged in the WHO European region both as locally transmitted sporadic cases and as an outbreak in Madeira, driven by the introduction of people infected with the virus and the invasion of the vector mosquito species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Models predict a further spread of A albopictus, particularly under climate change conditions. Dengue transmission models suggest a low risk in Europe, but these models too rarely include transmission by A albopictus (the main established vector). Further information gaps exist with regard to the Caucasus and central Asian countries of the WHO European region. Many European countries have implemented surveillance and control measures for invasive mosquitoes, but only a few include surveillance for dengue. As long as no dengue-specific prophylaxis or therapeutics are available, integrated vector management is the most sustainable control option. The rapid elimination of newly introduced A aegypti populations should be targeted in the European region, particularly in southern Europe and the Caucasus, where the species was present for decades until the 1950s. PMID:25172160

  2. PROBLEMS OF ENGINEERING PROTECTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF COSTAL URBAN AREAS OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbanov S. O.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to actual problems of ecological monitoring of conditions of small rivers in the North Caucasus and southern Russia. We are giving here the results of researches of natural and economic conditions and the current state of the river Nalchik near the city of Nalchik, which is typical for many small rivers. The materials of engineering researches and inspections of the territory of the urbanized areas of the river are brought with the detailed analysis of the results of the destroyed and broken areas. We describe the causes of the destruction of man-made protective and regulatory structures and the factors of their impact on the water protecting coastal zone and the hydrological regime of rivers. The effective method of regulation of short sites of the small rivers with use of groins and flexible biopositive nature protection technologies is offered. According to the complex research effective measures to improve the ecological state of the rivers on the example of Nalchik are offered. The rationale for the development of environmental monitoring in all urbanized coastal zones of small rivers and their cadastral registration is made. The main findings of the analytical and experimental research on different areas specific to the small rivers of the North Caucasus and southern Russia are brought here

  3. Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain under-represented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War I. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them with 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3000 and ~2000 bce, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East. However, genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1200 bce when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran. Finally, we show that Armenians have higher genetic affinity to Neolithic Europeans than other present-day Near Easterners, and that 29% of Armenian ancestry may originate from an ancestral population that is best represented by Neolithic Europeans. PMID:26486470

  4. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  5. Methods for detecting formation mechanisms and determining a final strain value for different scales of folded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor L.

    2012-03-01

    Linear folding, developing in fold and thrust belts, is treated as a hierarchic system, at each level of which objects are described by special kinematic models. Geometric parameters of natural folded structures are determined by a combination of various mechanisms incorporated in the model, and a value of finite strain. Several case studies demonstrate how such data enables one to solve structural and geodynamic problems for natural objects of different size. Shortening value of two morphological types of folds is determined based on the geometry of competent layers. Application of the method to analyze the folds of the Vorontsov nappe (Greater Caucasus) determines its gravitational origin. Structural cross-sections though several tectonic zones are subdivided into relatively small domains, the geometry of which, particularly in thin-bedded flysch deposits, making it possible to identify the mechanisms of formation of both local and large structures, and also to reconstruct the pre-folded state of each domain and of the entire cross-sections. By aggregation of tectonic domains into large modules and determination of the value of shortening, we have constructed for the first time a 3D model of the present-day structure of the northwestern Caucasus, which is balanced for the whole sedimentary cover. The geometry of large structures makes it possible to validate geodynamic models.

  6. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, Marcos

    2016-06-18

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding,ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting they were somewhat isolated from other populations in the region. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic Anatolians, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity of early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  7. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego-Llorente, M.

    2016-08-09

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  8. 3D crustal and lithospheric model of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavalli-Anbaran, Seyed-Hani; Zeyen, Hermann; Jamasb, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional joined inversion of topography, gravity and geoid data was carried out in the collision zone between the Eurasian and Arabian plates, comprising Central and Eastern Anatolia, the Black Sea Basin and the Caucasus region. The 3D algorithm, first introduced by Motavalli-Anbaran et al. (2013), is based on a Bayesian approach with Gaussian density functions in which the targeted area is divided into vertical columns, each comprised of four layers namely water (of known thickness i.e. bathymetry) if present, crust, lithospheric mantle, and asthenosphere. The inversion results are Moho depth, average crustal density and depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, defined here as the 1350 °C isotherm. Existing seismic Moho depths were used as a priori information in order to constrain crustal thicknesses. Thickest crust (up to 50 km) was found underneath the Great Caucasus Mountains, thinnest crust (22-25 km) underneath the Black Sea Basin. The East-Anatolian plateau is underlain by relatively thick crust (up to 45 km), thinning to less than 40 km towards the Central Anatolian Plateau. Eastern Anatolia and the eastern part of Central Anatolia are underlain by strongly thinned lithosphere (up to 100 km). Thickest lithosphere (up to 200 km) underlies the Caspian Basin and the Russian Platform.

  9. HOARD OF COINS DATED FROM 1891 AT THE VICINITY OF THE VILLAGE SANDATOVSKOYE (STAVROPOLYE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. NAROZHNY

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered the composition of a hoard of coins discovered at the vicinity of the village Sandatovsloye “of the former Medvezhinsky Administrative District” of Stavropolye Province. The part of coins from the hoard uncovered in 1891 by the village‟ peasants, had been handed over to the Imperial Hermitage, where Markov A.K. had determined these coins. Pakhomov E.A. further published remarks on the hoard‟s composition, and Professor Fiodorov-Davydov G.A. at the Moscow State University considered them for a source of reference when specifying peculiarities of currency‟ circulation in the Northern Caucasus in the XV century. The paper made correction of several discrepancies once revealed at the domain-specific publications, and made comments on all issues of the coins that were part to the hoard. On the grounds of examination of coins, one could specify an expected date of hiding the hoard (i.e. burying in earth. The latter had been directly related to some specific events in history of the second half of XV century, referred to invasion of detachments led by the Sheikh Haydar Sefevide from Persia to the Northern Caucasus (in 1487.

  10. Coevolution of genes and languages and high levels of population structure among the highland populations of Daghestan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafet, Tatiana M; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Nichols, Johanna; Bulayev, Oleg A; Gurgenova, Farida; Omarova, Jamilia; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Savina, Olga V; Rodrigue, Barry H; Hammer, Michael F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of the combination of great linguistic and cultural diversity, the highland populations of Daghestan present an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis of language-gene coevolution at a fine geographic scale. However, previous genetic studies generally have been restricted to uniparental markers and have not included many of the key populations of the region. To improve our understanding of the genetic structure of Daghestani populations and to investigate possible correlations between genetic and linguistic variation, we analyzed ~550,000 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms, phylogenetically informative Y chromosome markers and mtDNA haplotypes in 21 ethnic Daghestani groups. We found high levels of population structure in Daghestan consistent with the hypothesis of long-term isolation among populations of the highland Caucasus. Highland Daghestani populations exhibit extremely high levels of between-population diversity for all genetic systems tested, leading to some of the highest FST values observed for any region of the world. In addition, we find a significant positive correlation between gene and language diversity, suggesting that these two aspects of human diversity have coevolved as a result of historical patterns of social interaction among highland farmers at the community level. Finally, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that most Daghestanian-speaking groups descend from a common ancestral population (~6000-6500 years ago) that spread to the Caucasus by demic diffusion followed by population fragmentation and low levels of gene flow. PMID:26607180

  11. Ways of far-distance dust transport onto Caucasian glaciers and chemical composition of snow on the Western plateau of Elbrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kutuzov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss the chronology of dust deposition events documented by the shallow firn and ice cores extracted on the Western Plateau, Mt. Elbrus (5150 m a.s.l. in 2009, 2012 and 2013. Snow and ice samples were analysed for major ions and minor element concentrations including heavy metals. Dust layers are formed on the surface of the glaciers as a result of atmospheric transport of mineral dust and aerosol particles to the Caucasus region. Satellite imagery (SEVIRI, trajectory models, and meteorological data were used for accurate dating of each the dust layers revealed in the ice cores. Then we tried to determine origins of the dust clouds and to investigate their transport pathways with high resolution (50–100 km. It was found that the desert dust is deposited on Caucasus glaciers 3–7 times in a year and it comes mainly from deserts of the Middle East and more rarely from the Northern Sahara desert. For the first time average annual dust flux (264 µg/cm2 per a year and average mass concentration (1.7 mg/kg over the period 2007–2013 were calculated for this region. The deposition of dust resulted in elevated concentrations consists of mostly ions, especially Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and sulphates. Dust originated from various sources in the Middle East, including Mesopotamia, or similar dust clouds passing over the Middle East are characterised by high concentrations of nitrates and ammonia that may be related to atmospheric transport of ammonium from agricultural lands that may explain high concentrations of ammonium in the dust originating from this region. Mean values of crustal enrichment factors (EF for the measured minor elements including heavy metals were calculated. We believe that high content of Cu, Zn and Cd can be a result of possible contribution from anthropogenic sources. Studies of the Caucasus ice cores may allow obtaining new independent data on the atmosphere circulation and high-altitude environment of this region.

  12. Assessment of the economic risk for the ski resorts of changes in snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the present time, a snowy cluster of mountain ski resorts is intensively progressing in vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. This region in the West Caucasus (Russia is characterized by relatively warm climate conditions. The snow cover thickness (of 1% insurance in area of the Aibga mountain range may reach 8.1 m. But the snow cover thickness is not the only characteristic of the mountain skiing attractiveness. According to the Swiss standards a mountain ski resort can be considered reliable if during seven seasons of ten ones the snow cover with minimal thickness of 30–50 cm exists for a time not shorter than 100 days during a period from 1st December till 15th April.According to the forecast, during future decades the calculated amount of solid precipitation should reduce by 25–30% in mountain regions on the south macro-slope of the Great Caucasus. As the calculations show, by 2041–2050 the maximal decade thickness of snow cover will decrease by 29–35% while a number of days with snow – by 35–40%. If this is the case, artificial snow will be needed in addition to the natural one. But, under warm climate conditions using of plants for artificial snow production will require a certain perfecting of the nowadays technologies, and very likely, with use of chemicals. That is why a shadowing of existing mountain ski routes by means of the tree planting along them could be ecologically more promising. As for the mountain ski resorts of the West Caucasus, we should mention a possible weakening of the avalanche activity as a potential positive effect of the climate warming predicted by models.

  13. Necessity of electromagnetic emission network arrangement in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turazashvili, Ioseb; Kachakhidze, Nino; Machavariani, Kakhaber; Kachakhidze, Manana; Gogoberidze, Vitali; Khazaradze, Giorgi

    2015-04-01

    The field of the tectonic stress has the hierarchical structure. The most characteristic features connected with the regional tectonic elements are determined by the geologic - tectonic data. It is established that in the young folded areas like the Caucasus the field of tectonic stress is characterized by the sharp anisotropy with the predominance of the compression perpendicular to the trend of folding. Spatial location of the main positive and negative geotectonic morphostructures of the Caucasus shows the existence of the wavy tectonic movements in the region. They are caused by the horizontal compression, provoked evidently by advancement of the Arabian lithosphere plate to the North and its re-approach with the Euro-Asian plate. All these cause considerable deformation of the lithosphere of the Caucasian region and its breaking up in separate blocks. This, in its turn, causes the concentration of stress along the boundaries of the blocks and rising of earthquakes focuses there. According to the instrumental data starting from 1899 at about 40 large earthquakes were fixed in the Caucasus. The rate of risks associated with these hazards increases every year in Georgia due to the appearance of new complicated technological construction: oil and gas pipelines large dams and hydropower plants and others. Modern ground-based and satellite methods of viewing enables to reveal those multiple anomalous geophysical phenomena which become evident in the period preceding earthquake and are directly connected with the process of its preparation. Lately special attention is attributed to the electromagnetic emission fixed during large earthquake and has already been successfully detected in Japan, America and Europe. Unfortunately there is no electromagnetic emission detection network in Georgia yet. The presented abstract concerns arrange of EM emission net and begin implementation of this vital task by arrangement of the one relevant station on the fault near Tbilisi

  14. Comparisons of the suture zones along a geotraverse from the Scythian Platform to the Arabian Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Yılmaz; Shota Adamia; Hüseyin Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    The area from the Greater Caucasus to the southeast Turkey is characterized and shaped by several major continental blocks. These are Scythian Platform, PontianeTranscaucasus Continent-Arc System (PTCAS), the AnatolianeIranian and the Arabian Platforms. The aim of this paper is to define these continental blocks and describe and also compare their boundary relationships along the suture zones. The Scythian Platform displays the evidence of the Hercynian and Alpine orogens. This platform is separated from the PTCAS by the Greater Caucasus Suture Zone. The incipient collision began along this suture zone before middleelate Carboniferous whereas the final collision occurred before Oligocene. The PTCAS can be divided into four structural units:(1) the Georgian Block e northern part of the PontianeTranscaucasian island-arc, (2) the southern and eastern Black Sea CoasteAdjaraeTrialeti Unit, (3) the ArtvineBolnisi Unit, comprising the northern part of the southern Transcaucasus, and (4) the Imbricated BayburteGarabagh Unit. The PTCAS could be separated from the AnatolianeIranian Platform by the North AnatolianeLesser Caucasus Suture (NALCS) zone. The initial collision was developed in this suture zone during Senonianeearly Eocene and final collision before middle Eocene or OligoceneeMiocene. The AnatolianeIranian Platform (AIP) is made up of the Tauride Platform and its metamorphic equivalents together with Iranian Platform. It could be separated from the Arabian Platform by the Southeastern Anatolian Suture (SEAS) zone. The collision ended before late Miocene along this suture zone. The southernmost continental block of the geotraverse is the Arabian Platform, which constitutes the northern part of the ArabianeAfrican Plate. This platform includes a sequence from the Precambrian felsic volcanic and clastic rocks to the Campanianeearly Maastrichtian flyschoidal clastics. All the suture zones include MORB and SSZ-types ophiolites in different ages. However, the ages of the

  15. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  16. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  17. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella species in the golden jackal Canis aureus in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirović, Duško; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Tomanović, Snežana; Sukara, Ratko; Penezić, Aleksandra; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013) from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9%) were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9%) were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes. PMID:24967397

  18. Caspian producers contemplate excess of export routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourth quarter of 2005 sees the commissioning of the latest oil export route from the Caspian: the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey. BTC is one of a series of potential export routes from Central Asia and the Trans-Caucasus. The proposed capacity of all these routes, however, far exceeds the volume of oil likely to be available to fill it at any time in the foreseeable future. Turkey nevertheless continues to press for more export capacity in an attempt to reduce the number of tankers passing through the narrow waterways that connect the Black Sea with the Mediterranean. For their part, Caspian oil producers want their oil to be transported by the cheapest and most direct route, which appears to rule out pipelines designed to divert their exports away from the Black Sea-Mediterranean sea-route. (author)

  19. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan GÜZEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Republic of Turkey’s relationships with Western world in general, and with EU in special. Putting forth the relationship betweeen EU and Republic of Turkey in a clear manner, underlying factors of Republic of Turkey’s accession to the EU has been discussed in accordance with the main problem of Republic of Turkey, including overpopulation and unemployment rate. However, it is essential for EU to consider geostrategical position of Republic of Turkey bringing Europe and Asia continent together and taking place amidst Caucasus and therefore Turkish nations. After all, if Republic of Turkey’s full membership will not materialize, Republic of Turkey should seek another unions to join or form a new one. In any case, EU like Republic of Turkey is well aware of that the reasons of Republic of Turkey’s efforts in joining to the EU greatly depend on Republic of Turkey’s westernization policy.

  20. Terrorism impact on the security of international pipelines; L'impact du terrorisme sur la securite des pipelines internationaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, L. [Ministere de la Defense, Dir. des Affaires Juridiques, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-03-15

    International pipelines, sometimes several thousands of km long, are today more and more the target of terror attacks. The sabotage of oil pipelines has been a recurrent problem in the history of Middle-East, but this risk has been enhanced after the September 11, 2001 event. From Africa to China, Caucasus and Central Asia, no pipeline can escape this threat. In front of this challenge, with strong consequences for consuming countries and investors, the crossed countries cannot find reliable solutions. Regional initiatives have been proposed to ensure pipelines protections but they remain insufficient to reassure the international community. For this reason, the consuming countries are tempted to ensure themselves this protection through NATO interventions or by interference-like unilateral actions. (J.S.)

  1. Galanthamine from snowdrop--the development of a modern drug against Alzheimer's disease from local Caucasian knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Michael; Lee Teoh, Hooi

    2004-06-01

    In recent years, galanthamine isolated from several members of the Amaryllidaceae (Leucojum spp., Narcissus species, Galanthus spp.) has become an important therapeutic options used to slow down the process of neurological degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. This review traces aspects of the history of its development from little known observational studies in the Caucasus Mountains (Southern Russia), to the use of this drug in Eastern European countries (esp. Bulgaria) in the treatment of poliomyelitis and ultimately to the recent introduction onto Western markets in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Of note, little is known about the early history of the drug's development and the review also points to other gaps in our knowledge about the ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and clinical use of galanthamine.

  2. Discovering the prehistory of multilingual situations in the lexicon An empirical study on the Caucasian Urum vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual situations are reflected in the lexicon; by consequence, lexical borrowings are powerful evidence for language contact in the prehistory of linguistic communities. This article presents an empirical study on the lexical knowledge of Caucasian Urum speakers, i. e., ethnic Greek speakers in the Small Caucasus, who are bilingual in a variety of Turkish (Urum and Russian. The analysis is based on the established assumption that certain concepts are cross-linguistically associated with a certain likelihood of borrowing. Based on this assumption the data from lexical knowledge allow for insights with respect to the substrate/superstrate status of the involved languages in a multilingual situation and provide evidence for the type of relation (genetic or contact-induced between compared languages.

  3. Molecular Assessment and Taxonomic Status of the Rapid Racerunner (Eremias velox complex) with Particular Attention to the Populations in Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinlong LIU; Natalia A.ANANJEVA; Marina A.CHIRIKOVA; Konstantin D.MILTO; Xianguang GUO

    2014-01-01

    The rapid racerunner, Eremias velox, is a widely distributed lizard from the northern Caucasus across entire Central Asia eastward to China. It is increasingly common to accept E. velox as a species complex in its entire range. To date, published morphological and molecular systematic hypotheses of this complex are only partially congruent, and its taxonomic status and evolutionary history are still far from clear. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA sequences were used to evaluate the taxonomy of this complex, with particular attention to the phylogenetic placement of populations in northwestern China. Examination of the phylogenetic analyses recovers seven distinct,previously assigned to E. v. velox. Finally, each of the three independently evolving lineages from Iranian Plateau should be recognized as three species new to science under the general lineage concept.

  4. TRADITIONAL CULTURE ABAZA: BASED ON GRAPHIC SOURCES OF THE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Nikolaevna KHLUDOVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains historical and ethnographic сomment of two graphic objects of the XIX century, related to ethnic group Abaza "tapanta" from the village Dudarukovsky. Analysis of graphic sources allows you to experience the connection of traditional material and spiritual. Culture of Abaza with culture of other mountain people, get a clear idea of its basic elements. The pictures give an opportunityto highlight the typical and specific features: the design and material. For the manufacture of the dwelling, location of female and male parts of the house, guest rooms, outbuildings, traditional dress, wedding customs.In the interior the following elements are common to all people of the North Caucasus: hearth, decoration of the walls with weapons. Interior details of the master's house and kunatskaya. 

  5. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.;

    2013-01-01

    , with the purpose of selecting agents for classical biological control in Europe. The literature review suggested that the most promising agent was the Chamaemyiidae fly, Leucopis hennigrata. A new survey in D. nordmannianae's area of origin – Turkey, Georgia and Russia – showed that L. hennigrata was present...... in all localities. It was particularly abundant in Turkey, where its impact on populations of D. nordmannianae appears to be high. Its use as a biological control agent is discussed, as well as other biological control strategies......The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...

  6. Geoneutrinos and the Earth inner parts structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sinev, V V

    2010-01-01

    The connection between geoneutrino registration and the Earth theory test is discussed. We compare standard theory of lithosphere plates and hypothesis of hydride Earth. Last hypothesis adds additional neutrino source $-$ planet core in which the initial Earth composition is conserved. Large volume scintillation detector is supposed to install at Baksan neutrino observatory INR RAS at Caucasus. The detector will register all possible neutrino fluxes, but mainly geo-neutrinos. So kind a detector (or detector net) placed in a number of sites on the Earth surface can measure all radioactivity from $^{238}$U and $^{232}$Th, because their neutrino energy exceeds the inverse beta-decay reaction threshold. By this way it will it possible to understand if there are any more neutrino sources in the Earth other than the crust and mantle.

  7. Four flavours of orogenic plateau magmatism: what's melting beneath the Turkish-Iranian Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Iain; Allen, Mark; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Kaislaniemi, Lars; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    Orogenic plateaux are first order topographic features of the continents, occurring in collision zones such as Tibet and Andean-style continental arcs. Plateaux are sites of abundant mantle-derived magmatism, but there is little understanding of its geodynamic cause in spite of widespread assumptions that slab break-off or lithospheric thinning are controlling factors. Late Cenozoic magmatism is distributed 100s of km from the Arabia-Eurasia suture zone across the modern Turkish-Iranian Plateau (TIP) in the countries of Armenia, Iran, Turkey and adjacent areas. There is huge compositional variation. Here we document four varieties of recent TIP magmas and argue their occurrence is controlled by: geographic location, prior fertilisation of the lithospheric mantle, lithospheric thickness, temperature and stability, and asthenospheric convection. (1) Close to the original Arabia-Eurasia suture in Eastern Turkey, slab break-off is likely to have occurred at ~10 Myr, and the lithosphere is presently thin (45-50 km) with little or no mantle lithosphere present. Magmatism is mostly calk-alkaline, sourced from the asthenosphere or any remaining mantle lithosphere, and is affected by crustal contamination. (2) In the Lesser Caucasus up to ~500 km from the suture, magmatism is more alkaline, less contaminated and is derived from subduction-modified lithospheric mantle. (3) Close to the suture in Iran, the lithosphere has thickened to >200 km during collision. Magmatism is volumetrically limited and derived almost exclusively from the lithospheric mantle, with highly enriched alkaline or ultrapotassic compositions. Unlike the Lesser Caucasus, there is little or no magmatism in the Iranian desert up to 500 km from the suture. (4) Beyond ~500 km from the suture zone, magmatism is sparse and varies in composition: dominantly OIB-like in Eastern Iran, alkaline but arc-like in the Alborz, and more felsic above the relatively thick (~55 km) crust of the Greater Caucasus. Magmatism

  8. Paléomagnétisme des régions volcaniques plio-quaternaires de la Georgie (Caucase du Sud): une étude pilote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Calvo, Manuel; Sologashvili, Djemal; Alva, Luis; Urrutia, Jaime

    2000-12-01

    A preliminary palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic study was carried out on 248 Plio-Quaternary lava flows and three interbedded lacustrine sedimentary layers from Georgia (Caucasus). Most samples are characterised by a single palaeomagnetic component, carried by magnetite, as confirmed by susceptibility-temperature curves. Normal, reversed and in a few cases intermediate polarities were recognised. A palaeomagnetic mean direction of D = 6.0°, I = 57.8°, k = 30, α95 = 3.8° was obtained. Considering the three sampled volcanic provinces separately, differences with the expected palaeodeclination are non-significative (Kazbeki and Khzami) or small (Djavakheti). A mean palaeointensity value of 41.5 ± 11.3 μT, corresponding to a mean VDM of 7.8 ± 3.7·10 22 A·m 2 is obtained.

  9. Properties and benefits of kefir -A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Moses John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.

  10. Genetic affinities of Ukrainians from the maternal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnov, Andrey; Balanovsky, Oleg; Utevska, Olga; Metspalu, Ene; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Agdzhoyan, Anastasia; Churnosov, Mikhail; Atramentova, Lyubov; Balanovska, Elena

    2013-12-01

    The area of what is now the Ukraine has been the arena of large-scale demographic processes that may have left their traces in the contemporary gene pool of Ukrainians. In this study, we present new mitochondrial DNA data for 607 Ukrainians (hypervariable segment I sequences and coding region polymorphisms). To study the maternal affinities of Ukrainians at the level of separate mitochondrial haplotypes, we apply an original technique, the haplotype co-occurrence analysis. About 20% of the Ukrainian maternal gene pool is represented by lineages highly specific to Ukrainians, but is scarcely found in other populations. About 9% of Ukrainian mtDNA lineages are typical for peoples of the Volga region. We also identified minor gene pool strata (1.6-3.3%), each of which is common in Lithuanians, Estonians, Saami, Nenets, Cornish, and the populations of the North Caucasus.

  11. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  12. International cooperation and security in the field of nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report presented/discussed are the ecological-humanitarian disasters and the related policy of the international organizations, especially IAEA, NATO and others on ensuring security of vital activity of people in the sphere of energy and particularly nuclear energy. Possessing the only nuclear power station in Trans Caucasus and the store of toxic wastes of reactive fuel the Government of Armenia and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia always take into consideration the many-sided aspects of prevention, warning about accident in energy buildings including nuclear accidents and modern response in case of occurring the latter ensuring security for ANPP personnel and the inhabitants of the settlements of the possible contingency zone. In their daily activity the workers of the Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia, especially those of the Armenian Rescue Service base on the experience and logistic support of international community some aspects of which are presented below

  13. Studies on bronze pre-monetary signs found in Dobroudja using XRF and micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Talmatchi, G.; Ceccato, D.

    2016-03-01

    We performed compositional analyses on 180 Scythian-type arrowheads and pre-monetary signs using XRF method and on 60 small fragments of such items (approx. 100 microns diameter), sampling being performed on previously corrosion-cleaned areas on their surface, using micro-PIXE. The items are found in Dobroudja, Istros-Histria region. The most relevant for numismatists result is that for each finding place the same type of alloy was used both for fighting arrowheads and for pre-monetary signs. Our analyses revealed three types of alloys: Cu-Sn-Pb ("normal" bronze), Cu-Sn-Mn-Pb and Cu-Sn-Sb-Pb. The presence of antimony suggests the use of fahlore-type poly-metals deposits, most probably from Caucasus Mountains. The problem of ancient bronze containing manganese is more complicated; an explanation could be the use of manganese oxides as flux necessary to smelt oxidized ores.

  14. To the Issue on the History of the Cadet Corps in Tiflis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamuka Gogitidze

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of organizing in Tiflis the cadet corps. The Tiflis cadet corps was founded in 1882 year on the basis of the military school that existed in Tbilisi since 1875 year. In 1827, the officers and officials who served in the Caucasus, presented a petition to Nicholas I on the establishment in the city of Tiflis cadet corps in 150 children. The authors note that a serious problem to a certain extent, affect the quality of teaching cadets, the housing problem. Housing in Tiflis at that time very little was built. It was very difficult to find an apartment in the city on the take-out money for these purposes. The only solution to this problem was to increase salaries to pay for housing. This was done by Layminga recommendations.

  15. ETHNIC CUSTOM-SPECIFIC COSTUME OF KARCHAGI LEZGHIN INHABITANTS OF THE SOUTHERN DAGESTAN IN THE XIX TO EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfulaevich Savzihan KARAKHANOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered one of the components to the material culture, namely the ethnic custom-specific costume of the Karchaga Lezghins, one could find there the brilliant image of the cultural uniqueness, of customs and household setups of everyday life. The study explored the grounds for both similarities and differences in comparing the Karchaga Lezghins with the general body of Lezghins, and with other ethnic communities of Dagestan and the Northern Caucasus. One may observe these traits in both male and female costume, in particular, dress, shoes, headdress, jewelry, children’s wear, etc. The female highlanders of Karchaga paid particular attention to the jewels. The craftsmen manufactured these articles from iron, silver, gold and so on. Besides the locally made fabric for sewing garments, local inhabitants have bought the imported cloth, or silk, woolen cloth shawls or brocade shawls etc., manufactured at the Russian factories. 

  16. Adats and Their Influence on the Social Structure and Legal Relations in the Community of Highland Peoples in Late XIX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Shavlоkhova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the question of entering the Caucasus into the composition of the Russian Empire and multiple problems and tasks, requiring the solution in the late 19th century. Of interest were the data of how the self-administration of the different population categories in the second half of the 19th century was realized, when the question came up of the highland nobility rights equialization with the rights of the Russian noblemen, for what the considerable part of the highland aristocracy stroke vigorously. The description of class gradation of the highland societies, such as Kabardinian, Adygei, Ossetian is given. Caucasian noblemen were nothing more than the petty liegemen of the princes. By the end of the 19th century the class division preserved its value only in everyday life: each family name bore the stamp of its origin.

  17. Temperature and radiation regime of glaciers on slopes of the Мount Elbrus in the ablation period over last 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Тoropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and radiation regimes of the Elbrus mountain area were reconstructed for summer seasons of 1948–2013 using observational data obtained by expeditions of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Geography of the Lomonosov Moscow State University together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. This made possible to analyze in details the meteorological conditions and to calculate statistical characteristics of both the air temperature and the radiation components. The reanalysis data were compared with the observational ones for the purpose to estimate an applicability of the reanalysis techniques for reconstruction of the Elbrus temperature regime. Using the above data the temperature trends were analyzed for the last 65 years, and the hypothesis on possible physical mechanisms of intensive glacier melting of the Central Caucasus in the XXI century had been formulated.

  18. KUBAN REGION RAILROAD DURING THE SECOND FIVE-YEAR PLAN: CHALLENGES OF REARRANGING THE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE AND LABOUR ACHIEVEMENTS BY THE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Eugenyevich Temlyakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered the issues the Kuban Region railroad transportation has faced during the Second Five-Year Plan. The author has brought to light the ways people had to cope with the challenges in rearranging the maintenance schedule at the Northern Caucasus Railroad Dept., and the staffing issue being pressing at that period. The survey has shown the part taken by the Communist Party and pubic administration bodies in implementing tasks the railroad transportation has faced. The paper examined resolutions taken in the 1930-ies by the Krasnodar city CPSU conferences and the Krasnodar city Party activists in relation to challenges the railroad transportation faced. The author made an inference that the new means and labour incentive approaches have taken the main part in increasing the rail traffic flow, and wide spreading of socialist emulation and the raising Stakhanovism on the railroad as well.

  19. Polarimetric method of estimation of vertical aerosol distribution in application to observations of ozone and NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansky, Nikolay F.; Kadyshevich, Elena A.; Savastyuk, Vladimir V.

    1994-01-01

    The degree of polarization of skylight at the zenith during twilight depends on the aerosol content in the atmosphere. The long-term observations at the high-mountain research station 'Kislovodsk' (North Caucasus) have shown that the variation of the degree of polarization after the eruption of the El Chichon volcano can serve as the effective parameter characterizing the vertical aerosol stratification in the atmosphere. The results of the measurements are confirmed by the numerical calculations. The algorithm of the retrieval of the vertical aerosol distribution on the base of the measurements of the degree of polarization is proposed. This method can be applied for the increasing of the precision of O3, NO2, and other gas content measurements.

  20. David Urquhart’s perceptions of the eastern question the affairs of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojković-Đurić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of his diplomatic career in Constantinople in 1835, David Urquhart was instrumental in promoting the British cause by endorsing its political grand design and mercantile interests in Turkey, Greece, the Caucasian region, Crimea, Serbia and adjacent Balkan principalities. While observing the complexities of the Eastern Question, Urquhart recognized the underlying importance that Serbia had attained in the context of competing imperial interests in the Balkans. His engaged commentaries on the crucial changes in Serbian political discourse elucidated as well his understanding of Serbian history and culture past and present. Urquhart discerned a correspondence between Serbian political affairs and the inherent situa­tion in the region of the Caucasus and Circassia.

  1. [It is a long way from Slagelse to Sebastopol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, E

    1999-01-01

    Above I have told the story of Frederik Lov, who was the brother of my great-great-grandmother. He was born in 1802 as son of a watchmaker and graduated from the grammar school in Slagelse in 1822, the very year when the fairyteller Hans Christian Andersen was sent to the same school. Frederik Lov went to Copenhagen to study at >The Royal Surgical AcademySmirnapublic bank of the town and elected member of the Duma. He lived at the house of Frederik Lov, which had been rebuilt after the Crimean War, and ever since descendents of Frederik Lov, lived in this house until it was destroyed by German bombs in 1942 and never rebuilt. A great-great-granddaughter of Frederik Lov, Olga Kulago, participated in the defense of Sebastopol in 1942 and was evacuated to Caucasus. After the war she studied medicine and graduated in 1950. She worked as an obstetrician until her retirement in 1977. PMID:11639157

  2. Compilation of the GSHAP regional seismic hazard for Europe, Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mayer-Rosa

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The seismic hazard map of the larger Europe-Africa-Middle East region has been generated as part of the global GSHAP hazard map. The hazard, expressing Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA expected at 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, is obtained by combining the results of 16 independent regional and national projects; among these is the hazard assessment for Libya and for the wide sub-Saharan Western African region, specifically produced for this regional compilation and here discussed to some length. Features of enhanced seismic hazard are observed along the African rift zone and in the Alpine-Himalayan belt, where there is a general eastward increase in hazard with peak levels in Greece, Turkey, Caucasus and Iran.

  3. Calvary of the Germans in Hungary at the end of WWII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkovits-Kretz Eleonóra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The German community in Hungary suffered many blows at the end of World War II and after it, on the basis of collective guilt. Immediately after the Red Army had marched in. gathering and deportation started into the camps of the Soviet Union, primarily into forced-labour camps in Donetsk, the Caucasus, and the Ural mountains. One third of them never returned. Those left behind had to face forced resettlement, the confiscation of their properties, and other ordeals. Their history was a taboo subject until the change of the political system in 1989. Not even until our days, by the 70th anniversary of the events, has their story reached a worthy place in national and international remembrance. International collaboration, the establishment of a research institute is needed to set to rights in history the story of the ordeal of the German community after World War II. for the present and future generations

  4. Parthenogenesis through the ice ages: A biogeographic analysis of Caucasian rock lizards (genus Darevskia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Susana; Rocha, Sara; Campos, João; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Corti, Claudia; Sillero, Neftali; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Arakelyan, Marine; Harris, D James; Carretero, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    Darevskia rock lizards include both sexual and parthenogenetic species, mostly distributed in the heterogeneous and ecologically diverse Caucasus. The parthenogenetic species originated via directional hybridogenesis, with only some of the sexual species known to serve as parentals. However, it remains unclear when and where these events happened and how many parental lineages were involved. A multilocus phylogeographic analysis was performed on the parthenogens D. unisexualis, D. bendimahiensis and D. uzzeli, and their putative maternal species D. raddei. Results show the parthenogenetic species all have relatively recent origins, approximately 200-70kyr ago, and at least three hybridization events were involved in their formation. Ecological niche models identify the region where hybridization events leading to the formation of D. unisexualis took place, namely in the northeast of the current distribution. Models also suggest that the sexual D. raddei might have undergone a habitat shift between the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:27246100

  5. First results of site testing program at Mt. Shatdzhatmaz in 2007 - 2009

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Voziakova, O; Safonov, B; Potanin, S; Kornilov, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results of the site testing performed at Mt.~Shatdzhatmaz at Northern Caucasus, where the new Sternberg astronomical institute 2.5-m telescope will be installed. An automatic site monitor instrumentation and functionality are described together with the methods of measurement of the basic astroclimate and weather parameters. The clear night sky time derived on the basis of 2006 -- 2009 data amounts to 1340 hours per year. Principle attention is given to the measurement of the optical turbulence altitude distribution which is the most important characteristic affecting optical telescopes performance. For the period from November 2007 to October 2009 more than 85\\,000 turbulence profiles were collected using the combined MASS/DIMM instrument. The statistical properties of turbulent atmosphere above the summit are derived and the median values for seeing $\\beta_0 = 0.93$~arcsec and free-atmosphere seeing $\\beta_{free} = 0.51$~arcsec are determined. Together with the estimations of isoplanati...

  6. Determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care in post-socialist Tajikistan: evidence and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L; Habibov, N N

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of rising levels of inequality in health care utilisation in the post-socialist countries of Central Asia and the Caucasus. Against this backdrop, we investigate the determinants of accessibility and affordability of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. A modified version of the Andersen Behavioural Model is used to conceptualise the determinants of health care utilisation in Tajikistan. Poisson and Ordered Logit regression models are performed to estimate the determinants of health care utilisation. Empirical results demonstrate that poverty, chronic illness and disability are the most important determinants of health care utilisation and affordability in Tajikistan. Other significant determinants include gender, the level of education of the household head, and the availability of medical personnel at a given population point. These findings suggest an urgent need for health care reform in order to ensure equality in accessibility and affordability for the entire population. PMID:19326278

  7. Song Repertoire and Origins of Crimean Population of Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita (Sylviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishchenko A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Song repertoire of geographically isolated Chiffchaff population that formed in Crimean mountains in 1990s is analyzed. There are 42 song elements in the Crimean Chiffchaff repertoire. A quarter of their song elements appear to be specific for this population because it is absent in neighboring European Chiffchaff populations from regions to the north (Ph. c. abietinus subspecies and west (Ph. c. collybita subspecies. Comparison of song elements of Crimean Chiffchaffs with those of Caucasian birds of Ph. c. caucasica subspecies shows that they belong to same vocal population: specific elements in Crimean Chiffchaff songs are found also in songs of Caucasian birds. This is evidence that breeding population of Chiffchaff in Crimea originated from the species expansion from Caucasus, and that Crimean Chiffchaffs belong to Ph. c. caucasica subspecies.

  8. HISTORICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGRICULTURAL POPULATION OF THE KUBAN REGION IN THE SECOND HALF OF ХIХ CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. KASYANOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of settlement of the region was hampered by the obstacles of local character, as the Board of the Cossack army sought to preserve the dominant position of the Cossacks in land holdings. Peasants – immigrants from different regions of the country encountered obstacles from the side of the Kuban Cossack army, which hindered the process of economic development of the region. The bulk of the peasants in the Kuban region in the second half of the nineteenth century remained in various kinds depending on the owners of the land from Cossacks and significantly change the character of agricultural production in their own land could not. Kuban region were significantly different in size from all regions and provinces of the Caucasus region, and in many cases several times. The Cossack population, performing tasks of military service, was not able to develop agricultural production in the region. 

  9. Sustainable Solution for Increasing the Share of Solar Photovoltaic Usages on Residential Houses in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnur Abbasov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Azerbaijan, as the largest nation state in the South Caucasus Region, has the potential for developing and using renewable sources of energy in order to support the environmental challenge resolution associated with climate change, improving the environmental situation in the country. Solar photovoltaic (PV comprises one of the direct usages of solar energy. In this paper, a sustainable PV usage scenario in residential houses was introduced to reduce negative environmental effects in land use, water consumption, air pollution, etc. It was recommended by the author that PV systems can be part of function and design of residential building components, such as roofs, walls and windows.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.71.4.12070

  10. Differential effects of historical migration, glaciations and human impact on the genetic structure and diversity of the mountain pasture weed Veratrum album L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2011-01-01

    by post-glacial vicariance while patterns of genetic diversity seemed mainly to be influenced by human land use. Our findings highlight the importance of applying a synthetic approach, testing the influence of both historical and contemporary processes on genetic structure and diversity in order...... grasslands. Location  Continental Europe. Methods  Forty populations from the Asian border (Urals and Caucasus) to Portugal were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) combined with selected plant and population measures. The data were analysed with phylogenetic, population genetic...... (R2 = 0.40). Main conclusions  Our results showed that V. album retained genetic imprints of historical range expansion into Europe, although this was alleviated by the influence of climatic oscillations and contemporary processes. For example, genetic population structure was strongly affected...

  11. The greatest prospects for development of underground gas storage in the European part of the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, V.P.; Lazarev, N.I.; Semenov, O.G.

    1978-05-01

    The greatest prospects for development of underground gas storage in the European part of the USSR are depleted gas deposits in the Ukraine, northern Caucasus, and Transcaucasus, according to a review of the possibilities of the future underground natural gas storage sites in the European part of the USSR and a discussion of the geological characteristics of these regions in relation to the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing different underground formations. Other possiblities include the construction of underground storage facilities in water-bearing strata of local upheavals in the Baltic region and the central economic regions, as well as in the base of small oil deposits and in aquiferous strata of local upheavals at the boundary of the North Tartar anticline and near the boundary of the Kamsk-Kinelsky Basin.

  12. Radium-226 concentration in spring water sampled in high radon regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, Aleksandra [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: onischenko@ecko.uran.ru; Zhukovsky, Michael [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, S. Kovalevskoy St., 20A, 620219, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Veselinovic, Nenad; Zunic, Zora S. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, ECE LAB, Mike Alasa St., 12-14, 11000, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-04-15

    Water {sup 226}Ra concentration in springs was measured in regions with high indoor radon: Ural, North Caucasus (Russia), Niska Banja (Serbia), Piestany (Slovakia), and Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan). This paper presents the results for {sup 226}Ra concentration above 0.03 Bq l{sup -1}. Radium in water could indicate indoor radon problem in the region and water investigation is useful at the initial stage of radon survey. Even low {sup 226}Ra concentration in water (0.1-0.6 Bq l{sup -1}) caused high {sup 226}Ra activity in travertine (up to 1500 Bq kg{sup -1}), which resulted in indoor radon concentration above 2000 Bq m{sup -3} (Niska Banja)

  13. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  14. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  15. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Ćirović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013 from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9% were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9% were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  16. CONSEQUENCES OF THE GEORGIAN-SOUTH OSSETIAN ARMED CONFLICT IN 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. KABISOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict to the international community. Aspects of contradictions and interests of South Ossetia and Georgia in the international arena. The analysis of the Georgian-South Ossetian relations, in the context of the security problems of the Caucasus region and taking into account the national interests of Russia, as one of the major mediators of the negotiation process between Georgia and South Ossetia. Presented by the opinion of international organizations around the situation in the Georgian-Ossetian conflict in August 2008. It is shown that the reaction of the NATO Council, the European Parliament on the recognition by the Russian Federation of the independence of South Ossetia. Concretized and summarized expert assessments of Russian and foreign political scientists on the causes and consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict. A new period in the history of the Republic of South Ossetia after the recognition of its independence by the Russian Federation. The estimation of the international community's recognition of independence of the Republic of South Ossetia. This conflict can be defined as a complex type of armed conflict, which is in its ethno-political roots, initially to develop a domestic, but later transformed into the international conflict. The problems of the foreign relations of the young state, the prospects for its viability after the selfdetermination of the Ossetian people and the armed conflict with Georgia in 2008, the forecast is given to development of relations between Georgia and the Republic of South Ossetia and the Caucasus region as a whole. Chronologically, it will be discussed between August 2008 after the recognition by the Russian Federation of the independence of South Ossetia and September 2009, when the final report of the Independent International Fact-Finding Commission on the Conflict in Georgia published.

  17. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Denisova, Galina; Perkova, Maria; Farjadian, Shirin; Yepiskoposyan, Levon

    2013-01-01

    Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region. PMID:24244704

  18. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Derenko

    Full Text Available Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region.

  19. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  20. Seismic source study of the Racha-Dzhava (Georgia) earthquake from aftershocks and broad-band teleseismic body-wave records: An example of active nappe tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenzalida, H.; Rivera, L.; Haessler, H.; Legrand, D.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, L.; McCormack, D.; Arefiev, S.; Langer, C.; Cisternas, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Racha-Dzhava earthquake (Ms = 7.0) that occurred on 1991 April 29 at 09:12:48.1 GMT in the southern border of the Great Caucasus is the biggest event ever recorded in the region, stronger than the Spitak earthquake (Ms = 6.9) of 1988. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organised and a temporary seismic network of 37 stations was deployed to record the aftershock activity. A very precise image of the aftershock distribution is obtained, showing an elongated cloud oriented N105??, with one branch trending N310?? in the western part. The southernmost part extends over 80 km, with the depth ranging from 0 to 15 km, and dips north. The northern branch, which is about 30 km long, shows activity that ranges in depth from 5 to 15 km. The complex thrust dips northwards. A stress-tensor inversion from P-wave first-motion polarities shows a state of triaxial compression, with the major principal axis oriented roughly N-S, the minor principal axis being vertical. Body-waveform inversion of teleseismic seismograms was performed for the main shock, which can be divided into four subevents with a total rupture-time duration of 22 s. The most important part of the seismic moment was released by a gentle northerly dipping thrust. The model is consistent with the compressive tectonics of the region and is in agreement with the aftershock distribution and the stress tensor deduced from the aftershocks. The focal mechanisms of the three largest aftershocks were also inverted from body-wave records. The April 29th (Ms = 6.1) and May 5th (Ms = 5.4) aftershocks have thrust mechanisms on roughly E-W-oriented planes, similar to the main shock. Surprisingly, the June 15th (Ms = 6.2) aftershock shows a thrust fault striking N-S. This mechanism is explained by the structural control of the rupture along the east-dipping geometry of the Dzirula Massif close to the Borzhomi-Kazbeg strike-slip fault. In fact, the orientation and shape of the stress tensor produce a thrust on a N

  1. Väliseestlased ja nende keel. Pidepunkte uurimisloost / A study of the Estonian language in diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jüri Viikberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The varieties of the Estonian language outside Estonia, differing from standard Estonian spoken in Estonia, are regional and generally oral language variants, influenced by local factors and variable intergenerational use. Containing loans from the dominant language, the oral language of the older generation still retains features either redundant or marginal in the current Estonian language geographic area. The first written documents on expatriate Estonians date back to the 19th century, but it was only after the Republic of Estonia was established in 1918 that a wider interest was taken in compatriots living abroad. In 1928, the Expatriate Estonian Society (Välis-Eesti Ühing was founded and the Expatriate Estonian Congress (Välis-Eesti kongress started to be held every five years. After Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, the word väliseestlane ’expatriate Estonian’ was used only in connection with Estonians living outside the Soviet Union. In the 1950s and 1960s, linguists became specifically interested in the Estonian settlements of Caucasus, Siberia and Ussuriland. Scholars, hoping to find in Siberia or Caucasus the archaic language of former settlers still alive, discovered that vernacular Estonian was not influenced so much by archaisms (caused by separation from the homeland as influences from long-term contact with other languages.Since the late 1990s, the study of the varieties of Estonian used outside Estonia has taken a new direction. This can be recognised by the increased interest in the varieties of Estonian in various new countries of residence (e.g. Denmark, Finland, Germany. The focus of interest moving to western countries did not mean a loss of interest in the areas of the former Soviet empire. In 1996, the Centre for Migration and Diaspora Studies was set up in the Tartu University Institute of Geography. Presently, one of the prestigious research projects (2010−2013 of Finno-Ugric languages, the EU

  2. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  3. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

  4. THE USE OF DRINKING WATER IN THE CONDITIONS OF MAINTAINING ECOLOGICAL BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Caucasus is an important transit place for the "Great Silk Road"; an important role in it is assigned to the Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line which is at finishing stage of its construction, and others. The countries of Central Caucasus can make a meaningful contribution to the construction of the "New Silk Road" with other untapped rich natural resources. Especially attractive for investors can be the Georgian underground artesian renewable, biologically clean drinking water reserves of international importance; an effective utilization of their small part can make a significant contribution to the resolving of high quality drinking water supply problem for millions of people in Europe and Asia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, independent post-Soviet Georgia has passed through the toughest period of reforms, conflicts and development. A significant part of its territory is still occupied, the economy is weak; the country is oriented to the European Union. In this light the country should use foreign experience and capabilities in the real sector (agriculture, mining industry .... In post-Soviet Georgia according to the current legislation, foreign investors enjoy the same rights as domestic ones. A large part of the world's population suffers from water shortages. In Georgia this resource is virtually untapped (only 0.01 is used. This resource will further rise in price on the world market of raw materials. Through the participation of foreign investors Georgia can make its contribution to the solving of the above-noted global problem in different directions: By the exploitation of freshwater resources Georgia should become a larger producer and exporter of drinking water until the problems of products transportation arise; the second part of underground water reserves should be provided to Europe and other countries through

  5. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  6. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  7. FCaZm intelligent recognition system for locating areas prone to strong earthquakes in the Andean and Caucasian mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Dzeboev, B. A.; Agayan, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The fuzzy clustering and zoning method (FCAZm) of systems analysis is suggested for recognizing the areas of the probable generation of the epicenters of significant, strong, and the strongest earthquakes. FCAZm is a modified version of the previous FCAZ algorithmic system, which is advanced by the creation of the blocks of artificial intelligence that develop the system-forming algorithms. FCAZm has been applied for recognizing areas where the epicenters of the strongest ( M ≥ 73/4) earthquakes within the Andes mountain belt in the South America and significant earthquakes ( M ≥ 5) in the Caucasus can emerge. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by the seismic-history type control experiments. The recognized highly seismic zones were compared with the ones previously recognized by the EPA method and by the initial version of the FCAZ system. The modified FCAZm system enabled us to pass from simple pattern recognition in the problem of recognizing the locations of the probable emergence of strong earthquakes to systems analysis. In particular, using FCAZm we managed to uniquely recognize a subsystem of highly seismically active zones from the nonempty complement using the exact boundary.

  8. UNDERGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cossetted deep underground, sheltered from cosmic ray noise, has always been a favourite haunt of neutrino physicists. Already in the 1930s, significant limits were obtained by taking a geiger counter down in Holborn 'tube' station, one of the deepest in London's underground system. Since then, neutrino physicists have popped up in many unlikely places - gold mines, salt mines, and road tunnels deep under mountain chains. Two such locations - the 1MB (Irvine/ Michigan/Brookhaven) detector 600 metres below ground in an Ohio salt mine, and the Kamiokande apparatus 1000m underground 300 km west of Tokyo - picked up neutrinos on 23 February 1987 from the famous 1987A supernova. Purpose-built underground laboratories have made life easier, notably the Italian Gran Sasso Laboratory near Rome, 1.4 kilometres below the surface, and the Russian Baksan Neutrino Observatory under Mount Andyrchi in the Caucasus range. Gran Sasso houses ICARUS (April, page 15), Gallex, Borexino, Macro and the LVD Large Volume Detector, while Baksan is the home of the SAGE gallium-based solar neutrino experiment. Elsewhere, important ongoing underground neutrino experiments include Soudan II in the US (April, page 16), the Canadian Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with its heavy water target (January 1990, page 23), and Superkamiokande in Japan (May 1991, page 8)

  9. Glacier volume response time and its links to climate and topography based on a conceptual model of glacier hypsometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. B. Raper

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Glacier volume response time is a measure of the time taken for a glacier to adjust its geometry to a climate change. It is currently believed that the volume response time is given approximately by the ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the glacier terminus. We propose a new conceptual model of glacier hypsometry (area-altitude relation and derive the volume response time where climatic and topographic parameters are separated. The former is expressed by mass balance gradients which we derive from glacier-climate modelling and the latter are quantified with data from the World Glacier Inventory. Aside from the well-known scaling relation between glacier volume and area, we establish a new scaling relation between glacier altitude range and area, and evaluate it for seven regions. The presence of this scaling parameter in our response time formula accounts for the mass balance elevation feedback and leads to longer response times than given by the simple ratio of glacier thickness to ablation. Volume response times range from decades to thousands of years for glaciers in maritime (wet-warm and continental (dry-cold climates, respectively. The combined effect of volume-area and altitude-area scaling relations is such that volume response time can increase with glacier area (Axel Heiberg Island and Svalbard, hardly change (Northern Scandinavia, Southern Norway and the Alps or even get smaller (The Caucasus and New Zealand.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL COMPOSITION OF CORIANDER ON ITS TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelipenko T. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates a fractional composition and quality indices of industrial raw materials of coriander in the North Caucasus economic zone of cultivation. It was found, that losses of essential oil in raw materials associated with the splitting of the fruit reach 23.4 %. Essential oil from split fruits is enriched with valuable components - linalool, geraniol, geranyl acetate. Changes of the component composition of essential oil from split fruits cause the following changes of organoleptic and physicochemical quality indicators in comparison with the oil from whole fruits: color from almost colorless intensifies to a pale yellow; in a spicy oil smell, similar to the smell of linalool, there appears a more intense shade of geraniol and geranyl acetate; acid degree value in oil from fruitlets and fruitlets without the shell increases, respectively, by 38.5 % and 65.4 %; ether index increases by 19.2 % and 97.5 %, respectively. It is recommended to use oil from split fruits to correct the composition of coriander essential oil in order to increase the content of linalool with a simultaneous decrease in the content of undesirable components – hydrocarbons and camphor, or, preferably, to separate valuable components – linalool, geraniol. It was proved expedient to separate split fruit factions during the post-harvest treatment, with their primary processing and intended use of the obtained essential oil

  11. New clustering methods for population comparison on paternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Z; Fehér, T; Bárány, G; Zalán, A; Németh, E; Pádár, Z; Pamjav, H

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this study is to show two new clustering and visualising techniques developed to find the most typical clusters of 18-dimensional Y chromosomal haplogroup frequency distributions of 90 Western Eurasian populations. The first technique called "self-organizing cloud (SOC)" is a vector-based self-learning method derived from the Self Organising Map and non-metric Multidimensional Scaling algorithms. The second technique is a new probabilistic method called the "maximal relation probability" (MRP) algorithm, based on a probability function having its local maximal values just in the condensation centres of the input data. This function is calculated immediately from the distance matrix of the data and can be interpreted as the probability that a given element of the database has a real genetic relation with at least one of the remaining elements. We tested these two new methods by comparing their results to both each other and the k-medoids algorithm. By means of these new algorithms, we determined 10 clusters of populations based on the similarity of haplogroup composition. The results obtained represented a genetically, geographically and historically well-interpretable picture of 10 genetic clusters of populations mirroring the early spread of populations from the Fertile Crescent to the Caucasus, Central Asia, Arabia and Southeast Europe. The results show that a parallel clustering of populations using SOC and MRP methods can be an efficient tool for studying the demographic history of populations sharing common genetic footprints.

  12. Calcioolivine, γ-Ca2SiO4, an old and New Mineral species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadov, A. E.; Gazeev, V. M.; Pertsev, N. N.; Gurbanov, A. G.; Gobechiya, E. R.; Yamnova, N. A.; Chukanov, N. V.

    2009-12-01

    Calcioolivine has been included into the MDI mineral database in the list of grandfathered minerals. Its history, together with related artificial compounds, is extremely complex: various minerals and compounds received this name, including natural orthorhombic Ca orthosilicate. In this paper, the crystal structure and properties of natural calcioolivine are described for the first time. The new mineral has been found at Mt. Lakargi, Upper Chegem Plateau, the northern Caucasus, Kabarda-Balkaria Republic, Russia. It has been identified in skarnified, primary carbonate xenoliths entrained by middle to late Pliocene silicic ignimbrites of the Upper Chegem caldera. These xenoliths of a few centimeters to a few meters in size are located close to the volcanic vent. Calcioolivine rims relics of larnite and occurs as relict grains among crystals of spurrite, rondorfite, wadalite or secondary hillebrandite, afwillite, thaumasite, and ettringite. Hillebrandite is the major product of alteration of calcioolivine; larnite is relatively more resistant to low-temperature alteration. Spurrite, larnite, tilleyite, kilchoanite, cuspidine, wadalite, rondorfite, reinhardbraunsite, lakargiite (CaZrO3), members of ellestadite series, afwillite, ettringite, katoite, and thaumasite are associated minerals. It is inferred that calcioolivine has been produced as a result of interaction of host carbonate rocks in xenoliths with volcanic lava and gases during eruption. The name calcioolivine was approved by the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names, International Mineralogical Association, September 6, 2007 (no. 07-B).

  13. 试析葛兰学校及其意义%Analysis of Gulen Schools and their Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱芳

    2014-01-01

    With the spread of the Gьlen movement on a global scale, a series of Gьlen institutions have been established, in-cluding media organizations, hospitals, banks, schools, non-profit organizations. Among them, in order to foster the"golden gen-eration"for the purpose of Gulen schools achieved worldwide attention, not only for Turkey but also for the cause of education and peace in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caucasus and the Balkans to make a positive contribution.%随着葛兰运动在全球范围内的传播,一系列葛兰机构也纷纷成立,包括传媒机构、医院、银行、学校、非营利性组织等。其中,以培育“黄金一代”为宗旨的葛兰学校取得了令世人瞩目的,它不仅对土耳,其也对中亚、东南亚、高加索以及巴尔干地区的教育事业与和平事业做出积极贡献。

  14. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  15. The Territory-Identity Nexus in the Conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh: Implications for OSCE Peace Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Milanova

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict over Nagorno Karabakh stands out as the most intractable on the territory of the South Caucasus as it represents a combination of separatism and irredentism and has exacerbated the relations between two neighbouring countries - Armenia and Ajerbaijan - whose geo-political orientation, subject to cross-cutting regional and external interests and influences, is still in the balance. Nagorno Karabakh is the first full-blown conflict where the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE has been primarily involved as a mediator and the first conflict related to the OSCE's concrete talks to operationalize its concept of peacekeeping. This article argues that the OSCE normative context is one of the factors that has made the conflict resolution a daunting task. Focus is placed on the effect international norms and principles have on the conflict dynamics and on conflict resolution efforts in general. The article further examines the main constraints on reconciling the adversarial ositions of the conflicting parties and concludes that there is a need for creating a framework to search for cooperative solutions based on common needs and interests.

  16. Fauna Europaea: Gastrotricha

    Science.gov (United States)

    d`Hondt, Jean-Loup; Kisielewski, Jacek; Todaro, M. Antonio; Tongiorgi, Paolo; Guidi, Loretta; Grilli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Gastrotricha are a meiobenthic phylum composed of 813 species known so far (2 orders, 17 families) of free-living microinvertebrates commonly present and actively moving on and into sediments of aquatic ecosystems, 339 of which live in fresh and brackish waters. The Fauna Europaea database includes 214 species of Chaetonotida (4 families) plus a single species of Macrodasyida incertae sedis. This paper deals with the 224 European freshwater species known so far, 9 of which, all of Chaetonotida, have been described subsequently and will be included in the next database version. Basic information on their biology and ecology are summarized, and a list of selected, main references is given. As a general conclusion the gastrotrich fauna from Europe is the best known compared with that of other continents, but shows some important gaps of knowledge in Eastern and Southern regions. PMID:26379467

  17. The beginning of metallurgy in the southern Levant: a late 6th millennium CalBC copper awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Yosef; Klimscha, Florian; Shalev, Sariel; Rosenberg, Danny

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to the region as early as the late 6th millennium CalBC. This paper examines the chemical composition of this item and reviews its context. The results indicate that it was exported from a distant source, probably in the Caucasus, and that the location where it was found is indicative of the social status of the buried individual. This rare finding indicates that metallurgy was first diffused [corrected] to the southern Levant through exchange networks and only centuries later involved local productionThis copper awl, the earliest metal artifact found in the southern Levant, indicates that the elaborate Late Chalcolithic metallurgy developed from a more ancient tradition.

  18. Viking voyages: the origin of multiple sclerosis? An essay in medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, C M

    1995-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is most frequently found in Scandinavia, Iceland, the British Isles and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, i.e. the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas, as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus, to the Black and Caspian Seas, and penetrated Persia, India and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that Empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  19. The dissemination of multiple sclerosis: a Viking saga? A historical essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, C M

    1994-12-01

    The highest prevalence rates for multiple sclerosis are found in Iceland, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, that is, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating the genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided in most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and southern Italy. They engaged in trade with the Arabs along the river routes to the Caucasus and to the Black and Caspian Seas and penetrated into Persia, India, and probably China. They also migrated to the East and established the Russian state. Under the name Varangians, they became part of the Byzantine army and were active in all of the military activities of the Byzantine Empire. They participated in the Crusades. Russians, many of Scandinavian origin, also constituted a regiment of the Mongol army and roamed throughout that empire as well. The custom of capturing and keeping or selling women and children, which was widespread in the early Middle Ages, as well as the flourishing slave trade in men, were important factors in this genetic dissemination.

  20. Monitoring with high temporal resolution to search for optical transients in the wide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, Grigory; Bondar, Sergey; Ivanov, Evgeny; Karpov, Sergey; Katkova, Elena; Pozanenko, Alexei; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Piccioni, Adalberto; Greco, Giuseppe; Molinari, Emilio; Covino, Stefano

    2008-02-01

    In order to detect and investigate short stochastic optical flares from a number of variable astrophysical objects (GRBs, SNs, flare stars, CVs, X-Ray binaries) of unknown localizations as well as near-earth objects (NEOs), both natural and artificial, it is necessary to perform the systematic monitoring of large regions of the sky with high temporal resolution. Here we describe the design of a system able to perform such a task, which consists of a wide-field camera with high time resolution able to detect and classify the transient events on a subsecond time scale, and a fast robotic telescope aimed to perform their detailed investigation. In a last few years we've created the prototype FAVOR wide-field camera, placed at North Caucasus near Russian 6-m telescope, and a complete two-telescope complex TORTOREM, combining TORTORA wide-field camera with REM robotic telescope and placed at La Silla ESO observatory. Its technical parameters and first results of operation are described.

  1. Tomography of X-Ray Binary CYG X-1 Based on the High-Resolution Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karitskaya, E. A.; Agafonov, M. I.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Sharova, O. I.

    2007-08-01

    We used the optical spectra with resolution R=13000 obtained in the course of Cyg~X-1 spectral monitoring over 2003-2004, carried out with the echelle spectrometer of the 2-m telescope of Peak Terskol Observatory (3100 m, Caucasus). The high-precision spectra show clearly the sequence of line profile variations with orbital phases. The Doppler images were reconstructed by an improved Doppler tomography method developed by Agafonov (2004) (radioastronomical approach) on the base of HeII λ4686Å profiles of 2003 ("soft" X-ray state) and of 2004 ("hard" X-ray state). The main features of the reconstruction are: de-convolution in the image space with the introduction of the synthesized beam (equivalent summarized transfer function) and the removal of the distortions on the summarized image (after back projecting) caused by the sidelobes of this beam using CLEAN algorithm. The method is developed specially for a small number of irregularly distributed observations. The Doppler images and Roche lobe model allowed putting a limitation on the black hole to supergiant mass ratio 1/4≤M[X]/M[O]≤1/3. The emission may come from the accretion disk outer regions heated by the hot supergiant emission, from the "hot line" discussed by Kuznetsov et al.(2001), or/and from the accretion stream (focused stellar wind).

  2. What is the role of Europe in the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard BUSEK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Unquestionably, the 20th century was a “European century”, but there are doubts whether the 21st century is a European one or not! This depends on Europe itself and the capacity to formulate its role. Obviously, we are in a new stage of Europe. History knows Europe in different stages. It makes no sense to define all periods, but for the influence of the past you may mention some of these on contemporary Europe: - We had the Europe of aristocracy partly until World War I, when some families dominated the continent. A lot of it remained especially in history and memory; - We have the Europe of Enlightenment, when the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars very much supported human rights, nation state as well as the development of nationalities. The downfall of Yugoslavia was the last step on this way in our continent; - We have the European decolonisation when, until after World War II, Great Britain and France deeply suffered the consequences. Whether nowadays Russia might be understood as a colonial power comprising Siberia, Caucasus and so on, or not remains an open question for the future; - We had a Europe of global catastrophes, like the two World Wars with the consequence of the movement towards unification or, at a lower level, towards a better continental cooperation; - We had the Europe of the East-West-Division, where afterwards some ways to integration were gone, but it was not the whole Europe and division lines still exist.

  3. Azerbaıjan in Serbıan Lıterature − Between Realıstıc Travelogue and Mystıcal Lure in Postmodern Lıterature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Bulatovic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a comparative method, the author of this paper intends to show Azerbaijan as a literary motif that inspired two representative Serbian writers. Both used different literary forms, opposite styles and belonged to different epochs. Ivo Andrć, Serbian Nobel Prize Winner, wrote the poetic travel writing From my trip through Azerbaijan (Literary Gazette, 1948. With great admiration he describes a celebration of the 800th anniversary of the birth of a great Azerbaijani poet Nezami Ganjavi, customs and virtues of the people who live there, their culture and rich literary tradition. Miomir Petrovic, one of the foremost writers of the younger generation, published the novel Persian Mirror (subheading: novel-arabesque in 2001. This novel has a complex structure with several genres exploited simultaneously, all imbued with lyrical intensity. Through a metaphysical adventure in the Middle East and the Caucasus, the hero of this novel finds the immortal verses of Nezami Ganjavi, whose poem Khusraw o Shirin gives answers to all his questions. The Azerbaijani cities of Baku and Ganja are key poetic toponyms in his quest.

  4. Status and prospects of the reproduction of the labour force in the North region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Grigoryevich Loginov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews reproduction of labour resources in the northern region of the Russian Federation on the example of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra. A retrospective analysis and an assessment were made, as well as a forecast of manpower in the autonomous region. Demographic factors such as population growth, employment structure by economic sectors, education and migration were investigated. Thus, migration includes shuttle trips due to inter-work in shifts, seasonal migration, illegal migration and internally displaced persons from the Russian Caucasus and Central Asia. In general, a young population structure is responsible for the positive nature of demographic processes in the region. The structure of the population acquires the features typical for a developed territory: high level of education, increased share of employment in industry and reduced share - in real estate development. It is expected that more jobs will be formed in the service sector and in the energy sector; by contrast, at the expense of productivity growth, there will be layoffs of workers.

  5. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia.

  6. Geoheritage sites with palaeogeographical value: Some geotourism perspectives with examples from Mountainous Adygeja (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnezdilova Victoria V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoheritage sites with palaeogeographical value are excellent venues for geotourism. These sites preserve information about ancient environments, ecosystems, and their dynamics that may be of interest to professionals, students, amateur scientists, and the general public. Palaeogeographical geoheritage sites (geosites can be used to successfully increase public awareness of past and future climate changes. However, because palaeogeographical information is typically complex and not directly visible, professional interpretation is necessary. Successful interpretive tools include posted signs and education activities that engage visitors in scientific research. Using modern analogues to help visitors visualize past environments and ecosystems may be particularly effective. Professional interpretation helps foster visitor awareness of a geosite’s value. We suggest that some geosites can be visited sequentially on a guided excursion and propose a route for observing five geosites that exemplify the geodiversity of Mountainous Adygeja (Western Caucasus, southwestern Russia. Guided geosite excursions would introduce visitors to a broad diversity of palaeoenvironments and deepen their understanding of palaeogeographical phenomena. However, carrying capacity should be evaluated seriously for any geosites that are incorporated into palaeogeographical tourist excursions.

  7. Contact and hybrid zone hotspots and evolution of birds in the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Middle East is an important contact zone for a considerable number of bird taxa from the western and eastern Palearctic and from the great Saharo-Sindian jesert belt. Using WORLDMAP software, we analyzed the geographical distribution of secondary contact zones for parapatric species pairs of birds in the Middle East. We identified 56 species (29 species pairs) that make contact in the Middle East. The species pairs belong to three orders, i.e. Falconiformes, Piciformes, and Passeriformes. Almost half (46%) of these species pairs hybridize in their contact zones. Although contact zones occur over a large part of northern Middle East, spatially they were not evenly distributed. Contact zone richness was highest in the mountain ranges south of the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus. The hottest hotspots, where up to nine bird species pairs occur sympatrically, are situated in north-eastern Iran and Azerbaijan. We discuss the relevance of these hotspots for improving our understanding of the biogeography and evolution of the avifauna in the Middle East.

  8. Unpulsed UBV Optical Emission from the Crab Pulsar

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, A; Beskin, G M

    1999-01-01

    Based on observations of the Crab pulsar using the TRIFFID high speed imaging photometer in the UBV bands using the Special Astrophysical Observatory's 6m telescope in the Russian Caucasus, we report the detection of pronounced emission during the so-called `off' phase of emission. Following de-extinction, this unpulsed component of emission is shown to be consistent with a power law with an exponent of alpha = -0.60 +/- 0.37, the uncertainty being dominated by the error associated with the independent CCD photometry used to reference the TRIFFID data. This suggests a steeper power law form than that reported elsewhere in the literature for the total integrated spectrum, which is essentially flat with alpha ~ 0.1, although the difference in this case is only significant at the ~ 2 sigma level. Deeper reference integrated and TRIFFID phase-resolved photometry in these bands in conjunction with further observations in the UV and R region would constrain this fit further.

  9. Microbiology and Development Review on Healthy Function of Tibet kefir%藏灵菇微生物学及保健功能研究开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜岸; 祁正华; 田小川; 邹芳华; 邹积宏

    2015-01-01

    藏灵菇(又称开菲尔粒)是来自于高加索和西藏地区民间乳品发酵剂,本文综述了藏灵菇改善肠道功能、抗感染、免疫调节、降血脂、抗氧化、防治肥胖、抗肿瘤等益生保健功能,结合藏灵菇生物特点总结和探讨研究开发的价值。为藏灵菇的深入研究及保健产品的开发提供了新思路。%Tibet kefir, also known as kefir grain, is used as the fermentation starter, which was initially found in Caucasus and Ti-bet China. In this review, the probiotic role of improving intestinal function, anti-infection, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic effect, anti-oxidation and anti-tumor were summarized. Furthermore, combining with the biological characteristics of Tibet kefir, we summa-rized and discussed the value of its research and development, which lay a foundation of further study on the development of Tibet kefir nutraceuticals.

  10. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Machado de Oliveira Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19th century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21th century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin.

  11. Market brief : natural gas in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey may soon become an important transit route to Europe for natural gas imported from the Caucasus, Iran, and other Middle Eastern countries. This market brief provided an overview of Turkey's natural gas market and industry, and examined investment and business opportunities for Canadian businesses. Consumption of natural gas in Turkey has grown by 14.8 per cent annually in the last decade. Transmission equipment expenditures total approximately $400 million annually. It is expected that the demand for environmental and engineering services for natural gas-related industries will grow by 15 per cent annually over the next decade. There are currently several opportunities for Canadian suppliers of equipment, engineering, and construction services. Turkey's expected full European Union (EU) membership will require Turkey to adopt EU environmental and emissions standards. Potential investors in Turkey require operating licences from Turkey's Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA). All state procurement is by tender, while BOTAS, the state-owned gas company dominates both imports and the transmission of gas. Market entry considerations were also presented. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Recent changes in a flickering variability of the black hole X-ray transient V616 Mon = A0620-00

    CERN Document Server

    Shugarov, S; Chochol, D; Gladilina, N; Kalinicheva, E; Dodin, A

    2016-01-01

    V616 Mon = A0620-00 is a prototype of black hole transient X-ray binaries. Our 2003-16 optical photometry of the object during X-ray quiescence, obtained by 50-250 cm telescopes in Crimea, Caucasus Mountains and Slovakia, consists of ~ 7660 CCD frames in Johnson-Cousins $V,R,R_C,I$ bands and the integral light. During 2003, 2008-9 and 2015-16 passive states, the phase light curve of the binary exhibited mainly variations caused by an ellipsoidal shape of the red dwarf component. During 2004-6 and 2009-14 active states a significant aperiodic broad-band variability (flickering) was present, arising in a black hole accretion disk and a bright spot, where the mass transfer stream hits the outer edge of the disk. Long term photometry of our minima times, together with available positions of superior conjunctions of the red dwarf found from spectroscopy, allowed us to refine the orbital period of V616 Mon to 0.32301407(5) days.

  13. Colloquium on Azerbaijan; Colloque sur l'Azerbaidjan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The main topics on this conference day were: - the power rise of Azerbaijan: encouraging economic indicators, creation of the oil fund supplied by part of the petroleum profits, rationalization of the governmental structure, privatization of numerous companies; - the action of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) in Azerbaijan: transition towards a market economy, investment in various sectors (petroleum, small and medium-size companies, agriculture..); - present day situation of Azerbaijan: economy, foreign investments, role of France; - status of the TRACECA program 10 years after (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia): investment, development of road, maritime and rail transport; - the oil and gas context in Azerbaijan: Caspian area, exploration and production, pipeline projects; - French experience of companies working in Azerbaijan; - reality of business in Azerbaijan; - geo-strategy of Azerbaijan. (J.S.)

  14. "Finding a way out": Case histories of mental health care-seeking and recovery among long-term internally displaced persons in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Namrita S; Jakhaia, Nino; Amonashvili, Nino; Winch, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Trajectories of illness and recovery are ongoing and incomplete processes cocreated by individuals, their informal support networks, formal care-givers and treatment contexts, and broader social systems. This analysis presents two case histories of care-seeking for, and recovery from, mental illness and psychosocial problems in the context of protracted internal displacement. These case histories present individuals with experiences of schizophrenia and depression drawn from a sample of adult long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Georgia, a country in the South Caucasus. Dimensions of care-seeking were compiled into a matrix for analysis. Interviews were open coded, and codes were linked with matrix dimensions to construct each case history. Findings illustrated that individuals moved cyclically among self-care, household support, lay care, and formal services domains to understand and manage their problems. Living with mental illness and within displacement are experiences that intersect at various points, including in the recognition and perceived causes of illness, stressors such as discrimination and isolation, the affordability and availability of services, and the capacity of social networks to provide informal care. Interventions are needed to support informal care-givers and build lay referral networks, as well as to identify intervention points within care-seeking processes. Interventions that target the mental health needs of displaced persons have the potential to contribute to the development of an innovative community mental health care system in Georgia. PMID:26698164

  15. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of a single heterogeneous lithospheric mantle source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Françoise Chalot-Prat; Petr Tikhomirov; Aline Saintot

    2007-12-01

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced during continental rifting periods some 600 km away from expected locations of active oceanic subduction zones. This paper reports a comparative geochemical study of the basaltic rocks, and views them as the best tracers of the involved mantle below the Eastern European Platform. The Late Devonian alkaline basic rocks differ from the calc-alkaline Triassic basic rocks by their higher alkali-silica ratio, their higher TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and FeO contents, their higher trace element contents, a higher degree of fractionation between the most and the least incompatible elements and the absence of Ta-Nb negative anomalies. These general features, clearly distinct from those of partial melting and fractional crystallization, are due to mantle source effects. With similar Nd and Sr isotopic signatures indicating mantle-crust mixing, both suites would originate from the melting of a same but heterogeneous continental mantle lithosphere (refertilized depleted mantle). Accordingly the Nd model ages, the youngest major event associated with mantle metasomatism occurred during Early Neoproterozoic times (∼650Ma).

  16. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  17. THE USE OF MOLECULAR BREEDING METHODS RESISTANCE TO NET BLOTCH OF BARLEY (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dontsova A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, due to the increasing aridity there was an increase in the frequency of epiphytoties leaf disease of barley. Therefore, we can see now how greatly increased the need for the creation of resistant grades. Introduction of the selection marker will significantly speed up the breeding process for resistance to pathogens. Employees of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection recommended three genes - Rpt 1b, Rpt 5, Rpt 6 to control the resistance to the pathogen Pyrenophora teres for use in breeding programs in the North Caucasus. Rpt 5 gene is one of the most efficient one, because it determines the resistance to the eight isolates of the fungus Pyrenophora teres of different origin. In 2011, Australian scientists have discovered microsatellite markers called Bmag0173 and HVM74, closely linked to the gene Rpt5, which are used very effectively in order to marker-assisted selection of resistant grades in Australia and Canada. Due to the urgency of creating new genotypes carrying resistance genes to net blotch, that would be effective in the Southern Federal Region, the staff of All-Russian Scientific-research institute of Grain Crops after I.G. Kalinenko and the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant after N.I. Vavilov has developed a practical strategy for the use of molecular techniques to create barley grades resistant to this pathogen, which is being successfully implemented

  18. Genetic distinctness of parthenogenetic forms of European Polydrusus weevils of the subgenus Scythodrusus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    tukasz Kajtoch; Boris Korotyaev; Dorota Lachowska-Cierlik

    2012-01-01

    Among eight species of Polydrusus weevils which belong to subgenus Scythodrusus,at least two possess parthenogenetic forms:P..(S.) inustus and P.(S.) pilifer.Both of these species consist of dioecious populations in the Caspian area and of parthenogenetic populations in Eastern Europe (P.(S.) inustus),the Caucasus region (both species) and Middle Asia (P.(S.) pilifer).The origin of parthenogenesis in this subgenus is unresolved;however some data suggest that the parthenogenetic forms are of hybrid ancestry.The genetic distinctness of parthenogenetic Scythodrusus was assessed on the basis of COII,ITS2,EF1-α and Wolbachia wsp,16S ribosomal DNA,ftsZ and hcpA sequence comparisons.Both taxa turned out to be monophyletic for all markers,which is an evidence against hybridization of their dioecious ancestors.On the other hand,a high frequency of heterozygous P.(S.) inustus females suggests an origin resulting from hybridization between genetically distinct dioecious representatives of this species.Very similar strains of Wolbachia supergroup A were found in both species,indicating that they have been either inherited from a common ancestor or were transmitted between parthenogenetic Scythodrusus weevils and probably spread randomly across their ranges.

  19. La Turquie et l’Union européenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Montabone

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article explore les évolutions possibles des relations entre la Turquie et l’Union européenne à l’horizon 2020. Il présente quatre scénarios géopolitiques : l’ancrage européen (scénario normatif, l’intégration à risque (scénario tendanciel, la diversification des partenaires (scénario alternatif et le renversement stratégique (scénario catastrophe. Dans tous les cas, l’accès aux hydrocarbures du Caucase et de la mer Caspienne joue une place centrale.This article investigates the various possible evolutions of the relations between Turkey and the European Union on the horizon 2020. Four resulting geopolitical scenarios are introduced: European anchoring (the normative scenario, Integration at risk (the trend line scenario, Diversification of partners (the alternate scenario, and at last Strategic overthrow (the nightmare one. In every case, the access to the hydrocarbons of Caucasus and Caspian Sea plays a key role.

  20. An overview of Cistus ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, O; Contu, M; Rinaldi, A C

    2006-09-01

    The genus Cistus comprises a group of about 20 shrub species found in wide areas throughout the whole Mediterranean region to the Caucasus. Being one of the main constituents of the Mediterranean-type maquis, this plant genus is peculiar in that it has developed a range of specific adaptations to resist summer drought and frequent disturbance events, such as fire and grazing. In addition, it can form both ectomycorrhizas and arbuscular mycorrhizas. In this paper, we review the information available on the ectomycorrhizal fungi of Cistus across its entire geographic range, as gathered and critically sifted from both published literature sources and personal observations. Although the resulting data matrix was based primarily on accounts of sporocarp inventories in the field, existing knowledge on the features of Cistus natural and synthesized ectomycorrhizas was also included and discussed. In total, more than 200 fungal species belonging to 40 genera have been reported so far to be associated with Cistus. An analysis of the pattern of ectomycorrhizal diversity and host specificity revealed that members of the Cortinariaceae and Russulaceae make the most of both Cistus-aspecific and Cistus-specific mycobionts. Further studies are needed to expand our preliminary knowledge of the mycorrhizal ecology and biology of Cistus and its fungal associates, focusing on topics such as mycobiont diversity, host specificity, fungal succession, mycorrhizal influence on stress tolerance, and impact of disturbances, while comparing the findings with those from other ecosystems. PMID:16896800

  1. Astronomy Over the Former Soviet Territory: 15 Years after the USSR Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, N. G.

    2006-08-01

    During the post-Soviet period, the main infrastructure of astronomy over the territory of FSU was kept saved, in spite of dramatic decreasing of financial support. The overall situation in FSU astronomy is stable. In Latvia, the 32-m radio-dish is put into working order that allows it's joining VLBI programs and handed over to the Venspils University. In Russia, all the three 32-meter radio dishes of the QUASAR VLBI system are put in operation, as well as the 2-m telescope with a high-resolution spectrograph (up to resolution R≈500000) and the horizontal solar telescope (R= 320000) of the Russian-Ukrainian Observatory on Peak Terskol (Caucasus, altitude 3100 m). But the situation with the observatory is worrying, because of the regional authorities attempt to privatize its infrastructure. The process of equipping a number of CIS (including Russian) observatories with CCD-cameras is in progress. To solve the staff problems Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan have begun to prepare national specialists in astronomy and Baltic States, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine continue to prepare astronomers. Teaching of astronomy at schools is obligatory in Ukraine and Baltic Countries only. To maintain a "common astronomical space" Eurasian Astronomical Society (EAAS) continues the program of reduced-price subscription to Russian-language astronomical journals and magazines over the territory of FSU, organization of international conferences and Olympiads for school students, lectures for school teachers and planetarium lecturers, etc.

  2. Detection of an oscillatory phenomenon in optical transient counterpart of GRB090522C from observations on Peak Terskol

    CERN Document Server

    Zhilyaev, B E; Sergeev, A V; Petkov, V B

    2007-01-01

    22 Sep 2005 Swift-BAT triggered and located GRB050922C. The light curve shows the intense broad peak with $T_{90}$ of $(5 \\pm 1)$ s. The Nordic Optical Telescope has obtained spectra of the afterglow with several absorption features corresponding to a redshift of $z = 2.17 \\pm 0.03$. Observation of optical transient of GRB050922C was carried out in the R-band with the 60-cm telescope equipped with a CCD on Peak Terskol (North Caucasus). The OT magnitude was fading from R $\\approx 16$ to $\\approx 17.5$. Detection of an oscillatory phenomenon in the R post-burst light curve is described in this work. Analysis of the R data reveals coherent harmonic with a period of $0.0050 \\pm 0.0003$ days (7.2 min) during observing run of about 0.05 days ($\\sim 70$ min). Amplitude of oscillations is about 0.05 magnitude. The simplest model suggests that GRB050922C may result from tidal disruption of a white dwarf star by a black hole of about one thousand solar mass. The periodicity in the light curve can be identified with re...

  3. Variation of soil magnetism across the Russian steppe: its significance for use of soil magnetism as a palaeorainfall proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, B. A.; Alekseev, A.; Alekseeva, T.

    2002-08-01

    Modern soils across the Chinese Loess Plateau exhibit strong but disputed correlation between their pedogenic magnetic content and annual rainfall. A soil magnetism/rainfall transfer function could provide a quantitative proxy of Quaternary rainfall for this region. However, some argue that 'magnetic dilution', through spatially varying fluxes of weakly magnetic dust, controls the soil magnetic properties. Here, we test the soil magnetism/rainfall couple by examining 22 Russian steppe soils (free of present dust accumulation) across a climatic transect. From the semi-arid Caspian region to the more humid Caucasus, the soils display systematic increases in topsoil ferrimagnetic concentrations. With the exception of climate (and its co-variant, vegetation), soil-forming factors are essentially constant across this stable area. Hence, the soil magnetic variations dominantly reflect climate and from statistical analysis, principally rainfall. Further, the Russian steppe magnetic/rainfall relationship matches that observed for the Chinese Loess Plateau. These independent data thus substantiate the soil magnetism/rainfall climofunction and, by inference, eliminate 'dust dilution' as a significant magnetic factor.

  4. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs.

  5. Late Paleogene terrestrial fauna and paleoenvironments in Eastern Anatolia: New insights from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, Grégoire; Sen, Sevket; Sözeri, Koray; Peigné, Stéphane; Varol, Baki

    2015-08-01

    In Eastern Turkey, relatively little work has been undertaken to characterize the sedimentologic and stratigraphical context of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin until now. Extending across the Turkey-Armenian border, this basin documents the syn- and post-collisional evolution of Eastern Anatolia, resulting from the closure of the Neotethyan Seaways and the final collision of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the lithology and depositional environment of the Late Paleogene Alhan Formation located on the western bank of the Aras River. This sequence of terrestrial clastics rests directly and unconformably onto the ophiolitic mélange, and it documents several depositional sequences deposited in alluvial plain and lacustrine environments. At this stage, the age of the Alhan Formation can only be calibrated by fossil evidence. Several stratigraphic levels yielding fossil data along the section have been identified, but these poor assemblages of fauna and flora hamper extensive comparisons with roughly contemporaneous localities of Central and Southern Asia. Carnivorous and ruminant mammal remains are reported for the first time from the supposed Late Oligocene Güngörmez Formation. The identified fossil mammal taxa reveal biogeographic affinities between Central Anatolia and southern Asia, thus suggesting dispersal between these areas during the Oligocene or earlier. Further studies of the fossil assemblages from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin and other basins of Eastern Anatolia and lesser Caucasus regions are needed to better constrain the paleobiogeographic models.

  6. Glacier volume response time and its links to climate and topography based on a conceptual model of glacier hypsometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. B. Raper

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Glacier volume response time is a measure of the time taken for a glacier to adjust its geometry to a climate change. It has been previously proposed that the volume response time is given approximately by the ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the glacier terminus. We propose a new conceptual model of glacier hypsometry (area-altitude relation and derive the volume response time where climatic and topographic parameters are separated. The former is expressed by mass balance gradients which we derive from glacier-climate modelling and the latter are quantified with data from the World Glacier Inventory. Aside from the well-known scaling relation between glacier volume and area, we establish a new scaling relation between glacier altitude range and area, and evaluate it for seven regions. The presence of this scaling parameter in our response time formula accounts for the mass balance elevation feedback and leads to longer response times than given by the simple ratio of glacier thickness to ablation at the terminus. Volume response times range from decades to thousands of years for glaciers in maritime (wet-warm and continental (dry-cold climates respectively. The combined effect of volume-area and altitude-area scaling relations is such that volume response time can increase with glacier area (Axel Heiberg Island and Svalbard, hardly change (Northern Scandinavia, Southern Norway and the Alps or even get smaller (The Caucasus and New Zealand.

  7. Humic acid from Shilajit – a physico-chemical and spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURAJ P. AGARWAL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Shilajit is a blackish–brown exudation, consisting of organic substances, metal ions and minerals, from different formations, commonly found in the Himalayan region (1000–3000 m from Nepal to Kashmir. Shilajit can also be collected throughout the mountain regions in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, Bajkal, throughout Ural, Caucasus and Altai mountains also, at altitudes between 1000 to 5000 m. The major physiological action of shilajit has been attributed to the presence of bioactive dibenzo-α-pyrones together with humic and fulvic acids, which act as carrier molecules for the active ingredients. In this work, the aim was to extract humic acid from Shilajit from various sources and characterised these humic acids based on their physicochemical properties, elemental analysis, UV/Vis and FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern and DSC thermograms. The spectral features obtained from UV/Vis, FTIR, XRD and DSC studies for samples of different origins showed a distinct similarity amongst themselves and in comparison to soil humic acids. The surfactant properties of the extracted fulvic acids were investigated by determining the effect of increasing concentration on the surface tension of water. The study demonstrated that humic acids extracted from shilajit indeed possessed surfactant properties.

  8. Crystal structure of low-symmetry rondorfite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of an aluminum-rich variety of the mineral rondorfite with the composition Ca16[Mg2(Si7Al)(O31OH)]Cl4 from the skarns of the Verkhne-Chegemskoe plateau (the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the Northern Caucasus Region, Russia) was solved in the triclinic space group with the unit-cell parameters a = 15.100(2) Å, b = 15.110(2) Å, c = 15.092(2) Å, α = 90.06(1)°, β = 90.01(1)°, γ = 89.93(1)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P1. The structural model consisting of 248 independent atoms was determined by the phase-correction method and refined to R = 3.8% with anisotropic displacement parameters based on all 7156 independent reflections with 7156 F > 3σ(F). The crystal structure is based on pentamers consisting of four Si tetrahedra linked by the central Mg tetrahedron. The structure can formally be refined in the cubic space group (a = 15.105 Å, sp. gr. Fd 3 bar , seven independent positions) with anisotropic displacement parameters to R = 2.74% based on 579 reflections with F > 3σ(F) without accounting for more than 1000 observed reflections, which are inconsistent with the cubic symmetry of the crystal structure.

  9. Consistent system of oscillator strengths of A$^{2}\\Delta$ -- X$^{2}\\Pi$ (0, 0) and B$^{2}\\Sigma^{-}$ -- X$^{2}\\Pi$ (0, 0) bands of CH molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Weselak, T; Gnaciński, P; Krełowski, J

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of intensity ratios of unsaturated methylidyne (CH) A--X and B--X bands suggests consistency of the recently published oscillator strengths of A$^{2}\\Delta$ -- X$^{2}\\Pi$ (0, 0) -- 4300~\\AA\\ and B$^{2}\\Sigma^{-}$ -- X$^{2}\\Pi$ (0, 0) -- (3878, 3886 and 3890~\\AA) bands (ie. 506, 107, 320 and 213$\\times$10$^{-5}$ respectively). This result is based on extremely high S/N ratio spectra of 45 stars, acquired with three high-resolution spectrographs, situated in Chile: ESO LaSilla (HARPS), ESO Paranal (UVES) and Las Campanas (MIKE) and MAESTRO instrument situated in Northern Caucasus (Russia). The calculated methylidyne column densities, obtained using the consistent system of the oscillator strengths toward the observed targets, are given as well. We verify oscillator strengths of the CH+ A-X (0, 0) and (0, 1) bands at 4232~\\AA\\ and 3957~\\AA\\ equal to 545 and 342$\\times$10$^{-5}$ respectively. We also confirm the lack of correlation between abundances of neutral CH and CH$^{+}$ which the fact dem...

  10. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia's Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of 'non-traditional' Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  11. Muslims in Contemporary Russia: Russia’s Domestic Muslim Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yılmaz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Islam and Muslim population is a fact of the Russian Federation. Today, a considerable number of Muslim people live in Russia mainly in Moscow, Volga region and North Caucasia. In addition, there are a large number of Muslim migrants coming mainly from Central Asian countries and North Caucasus in some of the Russian cities. Statistics show that while the general population of Russia has been in decline, that of the Muslims has been steadily increasing. According to some Russian politicians, this situation is an alarming one and poses a threat to the country. Russian government officially supports the traditional (loyal/official Islam represented by Council of Muftis of Russia. On the other hand, unofficial Islam, generally defined in terms of ‘non-traditional’ Salafi practice and movements, is viewed as the most significant threat to the integrity of the Russian state. Although there is a growing sentiment of xenophobia and Islamophobia among ethnic Russians, Russian government and its leaders do not approve this and frequently express their support for traditional Islam by stating that it is an indispensible component of Russian civilization.

  12. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MUSLIM LAW AND ITS MAIN SOURCES, INFLUENCE OF WESTERNIZATION ON LEGAL SYSTEMS OF MUSLIM COUNTRIES AND ISLAMIZATION OF ROMANGERMANIC AND ANGLO-SAXON LEGAL FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the Genesis of Islam and its role in the development of Muslim law family, highlights the main sources of Muslim law legal families. It is noted an important role of standards in Islamic law developed by the theologians of the activities in the process of interpretation in filling gaps in the law. All this has led to the emergence of different schools or sects, which contributed to the creation of many ideologically warring with each other Muslim sects. The followers of these movements convince their supporters that the rest courses are false. The article notes that currently, in general, the Muslim law has not lost its position. Modern Islamic community of the world has about a billion and a half followers. The Muslim law has not only maintained its position, but also extends its sphere of influence. Islam – the youngest world religion - enters the countries whose people earlier professed Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, etc., the Followers of Islam, moving to other countries, almost do not assimilate. So, the Islamic community in Europe is practically not subjected to European influence. Some of the legal institutions in a number of non-Muslim countries are subjected to Islamization. In some countries, Islamic law is not considered as legally valid, but it works in fact. This happens in the Muslim enclaves of Europe, it is happening in Russia, particularly in the republics of the North Caucasus

  13. Electric field of thunderclouds and cosmic rays: evidence for acceleration of particles (runaway electrons)

    CERN Document Server

    Khaerdinov, N S; Petkov, V B; 12th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity

    2004-01-01

    We present the data on correlations of the intensity of the soft component of cosmic rays with the local electric field of the near-earth atmosphere during thunderstorm periods at the Baksan Valley (North Caucasus, 1700 m a. s. l.). The large-area array for studying the extensive air showers of cosmic rays is used as a particle detector. An electric field meter of the "electric mill" type (rain-protected) is mounted on the roof of the building in the center of this array. The data were obtained in the summer seasons of 2000-2002. We observe strong enhancements of the soft component intensity before some lightning strokes. At the same time, the analysis of the regression curve "intensity versus field" discovers a bump at the field sign that is opposite to the field sign corresponding to acceleration of electrons. It is interpreted as a signature of runaway electrons from the region of the strong field (with opposite sign) overhead.

  14. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the April 8-10 of 2014 an International Conference “Birds of Prey in the North Caucasus and Adjacent Regions: distribution, ecology, population dynamics, protection” was held in Sochi National Park, Sochi, Russia. The Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Global Action Plan (SakerGAP has been presented at the 11th Meeting of the Parties of the Bonn Convention (CMS, which took place in Quito (Ecuador on 4-9 November 2014. On the December 17 of 2014 a meeting between inspectors of Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”, police of Khakasia Republic and experts of Siberian Environmental Center was held in the Nature Reserve “Khakasskiy”. On the December 20 of 2014 an annual meeting of members of Siberian Environmental Center (SEC was held in Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk, Russia. Project leaders presented reports on the main activities and achievements gained in 2014. The Long-eared Owl (Asio otus became the Bird of the Year announced by the public organization "APB-BirdLife Belarus". The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 will be held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia.

  15. IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION OF RARE AND ENDANGERED GEOPHYTES OF THE HIRKAN NATIONAL PARK (AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBADLI Oruc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hirkan National Park consists of natural region of Talish Mountains characterized with their unique natural complex. This research was carried out from 2004 to 2007 in order to study the floristic and taxonomical composition of geophytes, elaborate optimal measures of biosafety and their sustainable use. According to floristic composition of the National Park it is a valuable forest which includes 150 endemic species of trees and bushes out of 435 species of trees and bushes. As a result of researches for the first time were found that more than 15 geophyte species are endemic plants of Caucasus or Azerbaijan. Some geophyte species are Allium lenkoranicum Miscz. ex Grossh., A. talyschense Miscz. ex Grossh., Bellevalia fominii Woronow, Ornithogalum hyrcanum Grossh., Fritillaria grandiflora Grossh., Crocus caspius Fisch. & C. A. Mey., Iris helena (C. Koch C. Koch, Himantoglossum formosum (Stev. C. Koch, Ophrys oestrifera M. Bieb., etc. among many others. Isolation of a geographical position of Talish, which vegetation differ a variety of life forms, allows considering geophytes as a group of independent bioecological value. 92 species of geophytes identified and registered in the Hirkan National Park is grouped into 21 families and 46 genera, including 33 rare and endangered species, of which 11 species are included into the “Red Data Book” of Azerbaijan.

  16. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  17. A Genome-Wide Study of Modern-Day Tuscans: Revisiting Herodotus's Theory on the Origin of the Etruscans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Amigo, Jorge; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background The origin of the Etruscan civilization (Etruria, Central Italy) is a long-standing subject of debate among scholars from different disciplines. The bulk of the information has been reconstructed from ancient texts and archaeological findings and, in the last few years, through the analysis of uniparental genetic markers. Methods By meta-analyzing genome-wide data from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature, we were able to compare the genomic patterns (>540,000 SNPs) of present day Tuscans (N = 98) with other population groups from the main hypothetical source populations, namely, Europe and the Middle East. Results Admixture analysis indicates the presence of 25–34% of Middle Eastern component in modern Tuscans. Different analyses have been carried out using identity-by-state (IBS) values and genetic distances point to Eastern Anatolia/Southern Caucasus as the most likely geographic origin of the main Middle Eastern genetic component observed in the genome of modern Tuscans. Conclusions The data indicate that the admixture event between local Tuscans and Middle Easterners could have occurred in Central Italy about 2,600–3,100 years ago (y.a.). On the whole, the results validate the theory of the ancient historian Herodotus on the origin of Etruscans. PMID:25230205

  18. A Refined Methodology for Modelling Climate Change Impacts on Snow Sports Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiroglu, O. Cenk; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; An, Nazan; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2015-04-01

    Nature-based tourism is one of the most vulnerable sectors of the economy against climate change. Among its types, winter tourism stands out as the most critical due to the relatively high exposure and sensitivity of snow cover to the anthropogenic warming trends. In this study, we aim at improving previous works by Ozturk et al. where snow reliability of ski resorts have been examined through projections based on regional climate model outputs downscaled from various GCMs. Major improvements to these studies will be related to increasing the resolution, obtaining snow depth values from snow-water equivalent outputs, and hourly, instead of the daily, calculations of wet bulb temperatures. Daily snow depth values will be utilized for 100-days rule that looks for at least 100 days of snow cover at a minimum of 30 cm in order for a ski resort to be viable, whereas the wet bulb temperatures below -7 oC will indicate the snowmaking capacity. The domain of analysis will be the Balkans, the Middle East and the Caucasus. Therefore the spatial gap in the mostly Euro- and Amero-centric literature will also be improved. The domain will be modelled through RegCM 4.4.2 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics basing its resolution on MPI-ESM-MR of Max Planck Institut für Meteorologie and the concentration scenario RCP 4.5 for a realistic tourism development future of 2020-2050.

  19. 101 questions about energy; 101 questions sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furfari, S. [Commission Europeenne, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  20. RESISTANCE OF KARST CAVERNS NITROGEN-FIXING BACTERIA TO EXTREME FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashyrev O. B.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the studied bacteria resistance quantitative parameters of extreme factors such as toxic metals (Cu2+, organic xenobiotics (p-nitrochlorobenzene and UV-irradiation were the aim of the research. Six strains of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from clays of two caverns Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia and Azotobacter vinelandii УКМ В-6017 as a reference strain have been tested. For this purpose the maximum permissible concentration of Cu2+ and p-nitrochlorobenzene in the concentration gradient and lethal doses of UV by the survival caverns have been determined. Maximum permissible concentrations for strains were as 10 ppm Cu2+, 70–120 ppm of p-nitrochlorobenzene. The maximum doses of UV-irradiation varied in the range of 55–85 J/m2 (LD99.99. It is shown that three classes of extreme factors resistance parameters of karst caverns strains are similar to the strain of terrestrial soil ecosystems. The most active studied strains reduce the concentration of p-nitrochlorobenzene in the medium in 13 times. The ability of nitrogen-fixing bacteria to degrade p-nitrochlorobenzene could be used in creation new environmental biotechnology for industrial wastewater treatment from nitrochloroaromatic xenobiotics. Isolated strains could be used as destructors for soils bioremediation in agrobiotechnologies and to optimize plants nitrogen nutrition in terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. The rights and freedoms gradient of health: evidence from a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent eBezo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the combined influences of national levels of socioeconomic status, social capital, and rights and freedoms on population level physical and mental health outcomes. Indicators of mental health were suicide rates, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Indicators of physical health included life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and prevalence of HIV. Using pathway analysis on international data from a selected sample of European, North American, South American and South Caucasus countries, similar models for mental health and physical health were developed. In the first model, the positive effects of socioeconomic status and social capital on physical health were completely mediated via rights and freedoms. In the second model, the positive effect of socioeconomic status on mental health was completely mediated, while the impact of social capital was partially mediated through rights and freedoms. We named the models, the rights and freedoms gradient of health in recognition of this latter construct’s crucial role in determining both physical and mental health.

  2. Transformation of the Concept "Crusade" in the Socio-political Context of World History of Modern and Contemporary age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Dudarev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Crusades are among the most significant events of the European and world history. Crusades made the indelible impression on the contemporaries and the generations to come, which is evidenced by the fact that such concepts as "crusade", "knight-crusader", etc. entered into many European languages. However, it is notable that in the XIX – early XXI centuries these concepts lose their original meaning. Whenever the phrase "crusade" occurs in the literature of modern and contemporary period of time, it sounds in various political, historical and cultural context. The article examines some interpretations of the term applied to a number of events in the XIX – early XXI century through the example of several authors’ texts (the war in the Caucasus in the XIX c., the Spanish Civil War, World War II, the political events in the Middle East in the late XX – early XXI century. The author concludes that the term "crusade" in the scientific, literary and political vocabulary of the last two centuries is a kind of coding for the action aimed at the protection of (real or imaginary values.

  3. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Rafael; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. For the Mollusca-Bivalvia, data from 5 families (Margaritiferidae, Unionidae, Sphaeriidae, Cyrenidae, Dreissenidae) containing 55 species are included in this paper. European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbiculafluminea) and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissenapolymorpha). Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  4. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  5. Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia – Part 1: Numerical modelling and validation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Payne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The mountain environments of mid-latitude Europe and Arctic Russia contain widespread evidence of Late-Quaternary glaciers that have been prescribed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. This glacial-geological record has yet to be used to quantitatively reconstruct the LGM climate of these regions. Here we describe a simple glacier-climate model that can be used to derive regional temperature and precipitation information from a known glacier distribution. The model was tested against the present day distribution of glaciers in Europe. The model is capable of adequately predicting the spatial distribution, snowline and equilibrium line altitude climate of glaciers in the Alps, Scandinavia, Caucasus and Pyrenees Mountains. This verification demonstrated that the model can be used to investigate former climates such as the LGM. Reconstructions of LGM climates from proxy evidence are an important method of assessing retrospective general circulation model (GCM simulations. LGM palaeoclimate reconstructions from glacial-geological evidence would be of particular benefit to investigations in Europe and Russia, where to date only fossil pollen data have been used to assess continental-scale GCM simulations.

  6. Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia – Part 1: Numerical modelling and validation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Allen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The mountain environments of mid-latitude Europe and Arctic Russia contain widespread evidence of Late-Quaternary glaciers that have been attributed to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. This glacial-geological record has yet to be used to quantitatively reconstruct the LGM climate of these regions. Here we describe a simple glacier-climate model that can be used to derive regional temperature and precipitation information from a known glacier distribution. The model was tested against the present day distribution of glaciers in Europe. The model is capable of adequately predicting the spatial distribution, snowline and equilibrium line altitude climate of glaciers in the Alps, Scandinavia, Caucasus and Pyrenees Mountains. This verification demonstrated that the model can be used to investigate former climates such as the LGM. Reconstructions of LGM climates from proxy evidence are an important method of assessing retrospective general circulation model (GCM simulations. LGM palaeoclimate reconstructions from glacial-geological evidence would be of particular benefit to investigations in Europe and Russia, where to date only fossil pollen data have been used to assess continental-scale GCM simulations.

  7. Microbiological, technological and therapeutic properties of kefir: a natural probiotic beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Leite, Analy Machado; Miguel, Marco Antonio Lemos; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Silva, Joab Trajano; Paschoalin, Vania Margaret Flosi

    2013-01-01

    Kefir is a fermented milk beverage produced by the action of bacteria and yeasts that exist in symbiotic association in kefir grains. The artisanal production of the kefir is based on the tradition of the peoples of Caucasus, which has spread to other parts of the world, from the late 19(th) century, and nowadays integrates its nutritional and therapeutic indications to the everyday food choices of several populations. The large number of microorganisms present in kefir and their microbial interactions, the possible bioactive compounds resulting of microbial metabolism, and the benefits associated with the use this beverage confers kefir the status of a natural probiotic, designated as the 21(th) century yoghurt. Several studies have shown that kefir and its constituents have antimicrobial, antitumor, anticarcinogenic and immunomodulatory activity and also improve lactose digestion, among others. This review includes data on the technological aspects, the main beneficial effects on human health of kefir and its microbiological composition. Generally, kefir grains contain a relatively stable and specific microbiota enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. Microbial interactions in kefir are complex due to the composition of kefir grains, which seems to differ among different studies, although some predominant Lactobacillus species are always present. Besides, the specific populations of individual grains seem to contribute to the particular sensory characteristics present in fermented beverages. This review also includes new electron microscopy data on the distribution of microorganisms within different Brazilian kefir grains, which showed a relative change in its distribution according to grain origin. PMID:24294220

  8. SOME CONSTRAINTS ON INTERSPECIFIC CROSSING OF DURUM WHEAT WITH AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONS SCREENED UNDER WATER-DEFICIT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Inagaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 accessions of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (goat grass collected from western Asia and the Caucasus were screened for the productive tillering capacity under rain-fed field conditions with the aim of developing new, synthetic hexaploid wheats having enhanced drought adaptation. Of these, 23 Ae. tauschii accessions were selected for interspecific crossing with two durum wheat varieties ‘Belikh-2’ and ‘Jennah Khetifa’. Fifteen of the selected accessions were of Pakistani origin and exhibited early ear-emergence and low cross-compatibility, and five accessions were from Iran and Turkmenistan and exhibited high cross-compatibility. A wide variation among accessions in cross-compatibility might be related to their region of origin. Successful hybridization resulted in the formation of immature embryos, which are capable of regenerating to plants on culture medium. The Ae. tauschii accession ig 47219, of Turkmenistan origin, gave the highest frequency of embryos in crosses with both wheat varieties, but regeneration from the crosses with ‘Belikh-2’ failed due to the occurrence of hybrid necrosis. Thus, a high frequency of embryo production did not always result in the satisfactory development of hybrid plants. Treatment of the hybrid plants with colchicine was essential for the successful set of hexaploid seeds on the newly-synthesized plants. These constraints were discussed for the efficient development of new, synthetic hexaploid wheats.

  9. The Trans-Caspian energy route: Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: f.guliyev@jacobs-university.de; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided.

  10. The Trans-Caspian energy route. Cronyism, competition and cooperation in Kazakh oil export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guliyev, Farid; Akhrarkhodjaeva, Nozima [School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, Campus Ring 1, D-28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The article delineates the major national, regional and international level stakeholders in the westward Trans-Caspian transportation of Kazakh oil, supplemented with a discussion of the prospect of expansion of the Trans-Caspian/South Caucasus corridor in light of the presumably harmful effect of the war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. It demonstrates that while foreign companies have been backed by their respective governments, national firms have also enjoyed considerable state support, partly due to their close links to the interests of state elites in Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. It appears that most companies along the shipping line either belong to the governments of Kazakhstan or Azerbaijan, directly or indirectly (through subsidiaries), or enjoy favoritism and a near monopoly in their markets (crony capitalism). Some of these firms are privately owned but registered in offshore tax havens, while some others have rather obscure ownership structures and corporate profiles. It suggests that cronyism and state capture comprise that politico-economic environment within which the future of Caspian transport systems will have to be decided. (author)

  11. Multi -risk assessment at a national level in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar; Amiranashvili, Avtandil; Tsereteli, Emili; Elizbarashvili, Elizbar; Saluqvadze, Manana; Dolodze, Jemal

    2013-04-01

    Work presented here was initiated by national GNSF project " Reducing natural disasters multiple risk: a positive factor for Georgia development " and two international projects: NATO SFP 983038 "Seismic hazard and Rusk assessment for Southern Caucasus-eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and EMME " Earthquake Model for Middle east Region". Methodology for estimation of "general" vulnerability, hazards and multiple risk to natural hazards (namely, earthquakes, landslides, snow avalanches, flash floods, mudflows, drought, hurricanes, frost, hail) where developed for Georgia. The electronic detailed databases of natural disasters were created. These databases contain the parameters of hazardous phenomena that caused natural disasters. The magnitude and intensity scale of the mentioned disasters are reviewed and the new magnitude and intensity scales are suggested for disasters for which the corresponding formalization is not yet performed. The associated economic losses were evaluated and presented in monetary terms for these hazards. Based on the hazard inventory, an approach was developed that allowed for the calculation of an overall vulnerability value for each individual hazard type, using the Gross Domestic Product per unit area (applied to population) as the indicator for elements at risk exposed. The correlation between estimated economic losses, physical exposure and the magnitude for each of the six types of hazards has been investigated in detail by using multiple linear regression analysis. Economic losses for all past events and historical vulnerability were estimated. Finally, the spatial distribution of general vulnerability was assessed, and the expected maximum economic loss was calculated as well as a multi-risk map was set-up.

  12. Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Elumeeva, Tatiana G; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Shidakov, Islam I; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Khubiev, Anzor B; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2013-11-01

    Predicting climate change impact on ecosystem structure and services is one of the most important challenges in ecology. Until now, plant species response to climate change has been described at the level of fixed plant functional types, an approach limited by its inflexibility as there is much interspecific functional variation within plant functional types. Considering a plant species as a set of functional traits greatly increases our possibilities for analysis of ecosystem functioning and carbon and nutrient fluxes associated therewith. Moreover, recently assembled large-scale databases hold comprehensive per-species data on plant functional traits, allowing a detailed functional description of many plant communities on Earth. Here, we show that plant functional traits can be used as predictors of vegetation response to climate warming, accounting in our test ecosystem (the species-rich alpine belt of Caucasus mountains, Russia) for 59% of variability in the per-species abundance relation to temperature. In this mountain belt, traits that promote conservative leaf water economy (higher leaf mass per area, thicker leaves) and large investments in belowground reserves to support next year's shoot buds (root carbon content) were the best predictors of the species increase in abundance along with temperature increase. This finding demonstrates that plant functional traits constitute a highly useful concept for forecasting changes in plant communities, and their associated ecosystem services, in response to climate change. PMID:24145400

  13. A Short Assessment of Select Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2007-06-01

    At the invitation of the National Academies, Roy Gephart traveled to Russia with an eight-member U.S. team during June, 2008 to participate in a workshop hosted by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences on radiation contamination and remediation issues in the former Soviet Union. Cleanup problems were assessed by the American participants for six Russian sites: Kurchatov Institute, Lakes 10 and 11 at Mayak, Andreev Bay, Krasnokamensk Mining Enterprise (Siberia), Almaz Mining Enterprise (North Caucasus), and one site for testing peaceful nuclear explosions. Roy lead the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute review session and wrote an assessment of key cleanup issues. Kurchatov is the leading institute in the Former Soviet Union devoted to military and civilian nuclear programs. Founded in 1943 in the outskirts of Moscow, this 100 hectare site of nearly undeveloped, prime real estate is now surrounded by densely populated urban and business districts. Today there are growing concerns over the public safety and environmental security of the site resulting from increasingly obsolete nuclear facilities and a legacy of inadequate waste management practices that resulted in contaminant releases and challenging remediation problems. In addition, there is growing concern over the presence of nuclear facilities within urban areas creating potential targets for terrorist attacks.

  14. Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Elumeeva, Tatiana G; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Shidakov, Islam I; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Khubiev, Anzor B; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2013-11-01

    Predicting climate change impact on ecosystem structure and services is one of the most important challenges in ecology. Until now, plant species response to climate change has been described at the level of fixed plant functional types, an approach limited by its inflexibility as there is much interspecific functional variation within plant functional types. Considering a plant species as a set of functional traits greatly increases our possibilities for analysis of ecosystem functioning and carbon and nutrient fluxes associated therewith. Moreover, recently assembled large-scale databases hold comprehensive per-species data on plant functional traits, allowing a detailed functional description of many plant communities on Earth. Here, we show that plant functional traits can be used as predictors of vegetation response to climate warming, accounting in our test ecosystem (the species-rich alpine belt of Caucasus mountains, Russia) for 59% of variability in the per-species abundance relation to temperature. In this mountain belt, traits that promote conservative leaf water economy (higher leaf mass per area, thicker leaves) and large investments in belowground reserves to support next year's shoot buds (root carbon content) were the best predictors of the species increase in abundance along with temperature increase. This finding demonstrates that plant functional traits constitute a highly useful concept for forecasting changes in plant communities, and their associated ecosystem services, in response to climate change.

  15. Occurrence of exotic carriers arbovirus fevers – new insufficiently estimated biological threat to southern regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Sergiev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of originators of infectious and parasitic illnesses on new territories can pass by means of mosquitoes which in modern conditions extend quickly. Getting on new territories they take roots and provide transfer of this or that originator. Or they provide initial case rate, and then viruses start to circulate among mosquitoes – natural representatives of local fauna. As it was with virus Denge delivered to Greece with mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. This kind of a mosquito by 1950 has been destroyed at the Black Sea coast of Caucasus. In the beginning of 21 centuries this kind again began to be found out in earlier free territories. Occurrence after 50-years absence of an effective carrier in the south of Russia is serious biological threat to epidemic well-being of the country in case of delivery of originators arbovirus infections.

  16. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollegioni, Paola; Woeste, Keith E; Chiocchini, Francesca; Del Lungo, Stefano; Olimpieri, Irene; Tortolano, Virginia; Clark, Jo; Hemery, Gabriel E; Mapelli, Sergio; Malvolti, Maria Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Common walnut (Juglans regia L) is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan), where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history. PMID:26332919

  17. Assessment of risk factors in pollution of coastal zone and river basins by numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant radiation and Thechnogenic catastrophes and frequent natural disasters unequivocally point at necessity for organization of ecological control system for preparedness for possible catastrophic situations in both global and local ranges, and for envisaging their far etched outcomes. Important stage of such investigations implies provision of reliable system of verification information on possible sources of pollution of a territory, and a level of radioactivity concentration and chemical pollutants, with maximal accessibility of the data for the users of various range and level of qualification. The Kura River with its tributaries covers almost the whole territory of the Southern Caucasus and represents its major life-sustaining artery. The waters of this basin flow into the Caspian Sea, the shores of which are bordered by three additional countries - Turkmenistan, Iran, and Azerbaijan. Various non-controllable production activities in this region, as well as specific geological and geochemical structure, determine significant chemical and radiological pollution of the Caspian basin, in a whole. Epidemiological and ecological situation in the basin deteriorated especially after crushing of the former USSR and establishment of new independent states (NIS), because of the lack of respective monitoring over pollution of environment within the states, as such, and especially at the borders between the states. These processes created a prerequisite for further worsening of political tension and economical instability in above-mentioned countries. The strong anthropogenic impact on the territory of South Caucasus results in intense pollution of the waters and soil. Existing purification plants provide efficient purification of 5-10% only of the polluted water. In the meantime, ecological state of the Caspian Sea basin is one of the gravest in the world, while Kura River and its tributaries summarily long ago exceeded the third class of moderate

  18. Tecnocrazia e politica in Italia dalla crisi del 1907 al Primo Dopoguerra = Technocracy and political crisis in Italy from 1907 till the early after World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Benegiamo

    2014-12-01

    of 1907, which showed all the limits of the economic structure of Italy, the Italian industrial capitalism developed a program that continued until the early after World War, which was taking into account the establishment of a government of technocrats. This should had to take the country out of crisis, establish an economical plan and turn it into a major industrial power, with strong imperialist characteristics.  Signals in this direction were also recorded in the previous decades, from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, when a process of concentration of the main groups of entrepreneurs and capitalists began in the steel and mechanical industry. A path anyway enhanced by more and more orders from the government (Galli Della Loggia, 1970; Battilossi, 1999; Amatori and Colli, 1999; Boldrini, 2002. The industrial and financial crisis of 1907 and the global recession that followed, accelerated the technocratic solution, which were looking for a more or less closer alliance, with a part of the political class and going into war. Soon after the war, the political power of the technocrats in Italy seemed to grow significantly, especially when the Government developed a program of economic expansion in the regions of the Caucasus, Balkans and on the countries of the ex East Ottoman, these territories could provide raw materials and, with respect of an internal market completely saturated, to absorb the exceeding Italian production. The collaboration within the world of business, banking and politics did not produce the desired result. The fall of the Nitti´s Government and the pro German and destabilizing role of the Italian Commercial Bank in Eastern Europe and on the Caucasus were the major drivers against the launch of the technocratic project, inducing a though reaction by the Perrone brothers leading the group Ansaldo.

  19. Il Corporativismo: un paradosso della politica economica dello stato fascista = Corporativism: a paradox of the economic policy of the fascist state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Ridolfi

    2014-12-01

    of 1907, which showed all the limits of the economic structure of Italy, the Italian industrial capitalism developed a program that continued until the early after World War, which was taking into account the establishment of a government of technocrats. This should had to take the country out of crisis, establish an economical plan and turn it into a major industrial power, with strong imperialist characteristics.  Signals in this direction were also recorded in the previous decades, from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, when a process of concentration of the main groups of entrepreneurs and capitalists began in the steel and mechanical industry. A path anyway enhanced by more and more orders from the government (Galli Della Loggia, 1970; Battilossi, 1999; Amatori and Colli, 1999; Boldrini, 2002. The industrial and financial crisis of 1907 and the global recession that followed, accelerated the technocratic solution, which were looking for a more or less closer alliance, with a part of the political class and going into war. Soon after the war, the political power of the technocrats in Italy seemed to grow significantly, especially when the Government developed a program of economic expansion in the regions of the Caucasus, Balkans and on the countries of the ex East Ottoman, these territories could provide raw materials and, with respect of an internal market completely saturated, to absorb the exceeding Italian production. The collaboration within the world of business, banking and politics did not produce the desired result. The fall of the Nitti´s Government and the pro German and destabilizing role of the Italian Commercial Bank in Eastern Europe and on the Caucasus were the major drivers against the launch of the technocratic project, inducing a though reaction by the Perrone brothers leading the group Ansaldo.

  20. Intra population polymorphism of Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans from the North-Western Coast of the Azov Sea (oological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dubinina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a long term study of nesting colonies of the Caspian gull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811 on the islands of the Molochniy Liman and in Obitochnaya Bay (Azov Sea, in the South of Ukraine (Zaporizhia region, conducted between 1988 and 2013. A description of the size and coloring of eggs of Caspian gull was conducted by generally accepted methods. We measured 1000 eggs from 5 colonies of Caspian gulls. The background coloration of the eggs’ shells was classified into 7 types, the pattern of markings on the surface of the shells was classified into 4 types. In the nesting colonies, comprising different nesting settlements, the study tested differences in the distribution of typical and atypical coloring types and patterns on the surface of the shells. The background color and character of the shell marking patterns is dominated by eggs of phenotypes 3 and 4: gray-green, with a pattern of spots, of medium size (5–60% and brown, with a pattern of large spots (2–40%. In different settlements the Caspian gull egg sizes vary in length and diameter of 54.5–86.3 x 39.2–60.4 mm, volume 61.7–113.7 cm3 and index of roundness 63.6–85.3%. The study revealed that the linear dimensions of eggs also depend on the number of birds in the nesting colonies. We found that morphological and dimensional characteristics of Caspian gull eggs can vary at certain intervals and characterize individual colonies, settlements and populations. Based on cluster analysis, conducted in terms of the average of the linear sizes of eggs of Caspian gull from several populations within the range of the species, the study identified three groups of colonies – Danube-Sivash, Azov-Black Sea and Caucasus-Caspian. In region of the Azov-Black Sea, the greatest similarity was shown between the settlements of Sivash and the South of Crimea, which in turn is similar to Lebiyazhyi Islands and Kaniv Nature Reserve (river Dnipro. A related link

  1. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)

  2. The analysis of security with dentists in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifonova N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to carry out the analysis of security with dentists in the country in new conditions of reforming. Materials and methods. In work the complex of methods of collecting and the analysis of materials of research is used: bibliographic, analytical, documentary (fragment of data from medical documentation, epidemiological, mathematical and statistical, current supervision. Results. The used integrated approach to tasks allowed to assess a situation on security with the orthopedic stomatologic help and its demand in a section of subjects of the country. The carried-out analysis showed that in general across Russia and in a number of its districts, coverage by routine inspections of the population has the resistant tendency to decrease which is especially expressed in the Volga Federal District (-15,8%. It led to reduction of number of the patients needing sanitation and received sanitation (it is maximum — in Ural federal district (-16,9%. According to official statistics the smallest number of the patients who received the orthopedic stomatologic help — inhabitants of North Caucasus federal district, maximum — Central Federal District. Conclusion. Thus, the analysis of a condition of stomatologic help in the country from 2006 to 2012 let us establish the highest attendance of experts in Volga (108,2% in 2006, 101,3% in 2012 and Central (100,3%-2006, 102,1 %-2012 federal districts, growth of attendance in North Caucasian (for 66,2% and Far East (for 22% federal districts. Coverage by routine inspections of the population by stomatologists had the resistant tendency to decrease which is especially expressed in the Volga Federal District (-15%. Decrease in possibility of identification of the patients needing in sanitation and number of the patients who received it was most expressed in Ural federal district: — 16,9%.

  3. Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

  4. Structural geology of the North and Middle Caspian sea on the new geophysical data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text:A structural and tectonic map of the North and Middle Caspian Sea is made on the basis of seismic and other geological and geophysical data analysis. According to the plotting results the total amplitude range of the heterogeneous basement depths are in the North Caspian Sea (Ukatnensky depression-over 12 km and Prorva depression-over 16 km). In the middle Caspian Sea the deppest basement point is supposed in Sulak basin (over 12 km). The least basement depths are marked in Karpinsky ridge,Buzachinky and Karabogazsky arches (1-3 km). On the whole the morphology and structure of the basement confirms the conclusion previously made by many researches that the Caspian Sea is a heterogeneous depression superimposed on the junction of regional tectonic elements of various ages.The ancient East-European platform represented by Pricaspiisky depression (Donetsko-Astrakhanskaya fault system limits the latter in the south) is situated on the North. The middle Caspian Sea is occupied with the offshore continuation of Terek-Caspian foredeep is represented by Sulak basin clearly limited in the south by a system of upthrusts and thrusts falling under North Caucasus foreland.Geological interpretation of the Yuzhmorgeologiya Center new geophysical data allows making an assumption about the biohermexistence within TriassicSea sediments on Kuma-Manychsky depression offshore continuation. Seismic exploration works show strike-slip faults and thrust structure development within the sedimentary cover on the offshore continuation of Karpinsky ridge.Some strike-slipped blocks are separated by left-side shifts of the northeast stretch.The pool location at the left-side (east) blocks of the shift areas is marked.

  5. The Ukrainian community of Western Siberia: specific features of formation and development in the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The agrarian crisis in the European part of the Russian Empire in the middle of the 20th century seriously impeded agricultural progress. Agrarian overpopulation and peasants deprived of land in the course of the peasant reform of 1861 further aggravated the negative situation in the governorates of Central Russia, Belarus, and left-bank Ukraine. These factors provided fertile soil for migratory sentiments among peasants. It was resettlement in vacant lands in the Asiatic Russia and North Caucasus, which allowed most of them to preserve their homesteads. In the 2nd half of the 19th – early 20th century, Ukrainian peasants were actively engaged in the migration movement which was supported by the state. One of the main placement areas became Western Siberia where a large Ukrainian peasant community was formed. The history of research on the Ukrainian community in Western Siberia is fragmentary, as many aspects remain unstudied. Hence, the article focuses on the following questions: causes of the Ukrainian migration to the border lands of the Russian Empire; stages in the migration; main areas where Ukrainians resided in Siberia; population dynamics of the Ukrainian community; adaptation patterns specific for Ukrainian migrants in their new places of residence; their role in the economic life of Siberia in the early 20th century. This article utilizes primary data from the All-Russian Agricultural and Land Census of 1917, which have been introduced for scientific use for the first time. As the methodological basis, the study draws on the system approach combining regional, neo-imperial and comparative principles.

  6. Quality assurance and quality control procedures in river water radioecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For recent decades the issue of radioactive pollution of environmental components has acquired a global character as a result of nuclear weapon testing, accidents in NPPs, development of nuclear technologies and so on. A study object of this research is river water as it is known to be radionuclide transport and accumulation mediums and radioactive elements in river water are available as radioactive salts and mechanic and biological pollutants. Moreover, river water is widely used for various economic and commercial purposes and serves a drinking water supply source as well. The ongoing research is performed in the frame of a NATO/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring'. The topicality of the problem dictates a necessity of getting credible and compatible results. For adequate radioactive pollution assessment, decisive are the application and keeping standard QA/QC procedures at all the stages of radioecological monitoring. In our research we apply the following ISO standard-based QA/QC procedures: sampling (emphasizing sample identification: sample collection site, date and method), sample transportation (keeping sample conservation and storing requirements), sample treatment and preparation in the lab, radiometric measurements of samples with regard for the time that past from sampling moment to analysis, control and calibration of analytic instruments, control analysis of samples. The obtained data are processed through standard statistic methods of QC to check measurement errors. Gamma-spectrometric measurements are maid using a Genie-2000 (Canberra) software that includes a separate program for measurement QC. The ultimate outcomes are arranged in special protocols (analysis and sampling tasks protocols, sampling task form, field measurement protocol, sample chain of custody form, sample analysis protocol) and compiled in appropriate databases

  7. Economic development strategies of regions of Russia: system crisis and new economic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Borisovich Gusev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the strength of internal economic space of Russia and the positiveness of the interregional economic relations, the paper investigates the types of economic interaction of federal districts by means of “predator-prey” models. The strategic economic breaks between the European and East parts of the country are revealed. The accelerated economic growth of East part of the country is predicted that will allow to reach about the same volume of Gross Regional Product (GRP as GRP in the European part of Russia by 2020. With the help of model constructions the typology of integration crises of federal districts with each other is revealed: back-to-back paralyzing of economic activity (A crisis; mutual destruction (B crisis; economic indifference (C crisis; transition of a role of «predator» to the economically weak territories (D crisis. Macroeconomic threat and challenge to the territorial integrity of Russia is proved due to the state support of regions of the North Caucasus Federal District without involvement of intro regional sources of economic growth, and due to the accelerated economic development of the Far East Federal District. The limited opportunities of the Ural Federal District to support the national economy during a crisis at the expense of export of energy carriers is concluded. The thesis about the low sensitivity of the economy of Russia to the increase of the oil world prices, and about sensitivity to the negative external economic conditions are reasonable. Estimates of the GRP decrease in Russia at the various levels of decrease in the world prices for oil (up to 50 US dollars for barrel are received and given. The package of measures on response to the threats revealing to the internal economic space and territorial integrity of the country is presented.Keywords: regional economy, regional economic integration, federal districts, “predator-prey” model

  8. Study of Seismic Activity Using Geophysical and Radio Physical Equipment for Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvavadze, N.; Tsereteli, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most dangerous and destructive natural hazards are earthquakes, which is confirmed by recent earthquakes such as Nepal 2015, Japan and Turkey 2011. Because of this, study of seismic activity is important. Studying any process, it is necessary to use different methods of observation, which allows us to increase accuracy of obtained data. Seismic activity is a complex problem and its study needs different types of observation methods. Two main problems of seismic activity study are: reliable instrumental observations and earthquake short-term predictions. In case of seismic risks it is necessary to have reliable accelerometer data. One of the most promising field in earthquake short-term prediction is very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic wave propagation in ionosphere observation. To study Seismic activity of Caucasus region, was created observation complex using Accelerometer, Velocimeter and VLF electromagnetic waves received from communication stations (located in different area of the world) reflected from low ionosphere. System is created and operates at Tbilisi State University Ionosphere Observatory, near Tbilisi in Tabakhmela 42.41'70 N, 44.80'92 E, Georgia. Data obtained is sent to a local server located at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, TSU, for storage and processing. Diagram for complex is presented. Also data analysis methods were created and preliminary processing was done. In this paper we present some of the results: Earthquake data from ionosphere observations as well as local earthquakes recorded with accelerometer and velocimeter. Complex is first in 6 that will be placed around Georgia this year. We plan on widening network every year.

  9. Spatio-temporal modelling and assessment of within-species phenological variability using thermal time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R.; Clark, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    Phenological observations of flowering date, budding date or senescence provide very valuable time series. They hold out the prospect for relating plant growth to environmental and climatic factors and hence for engendering a better understanding of plant physiology under natural conditions. The statistical establishment of associations between time series of phenological data and climatic factors provides a means of aiding forecasts of the biological impacts of future climatic change. However, it must be kept in mind that plant growth and behaviour vary spatially as well as temporally. Environmental, climatic and genetic diversity can give rise to spatially structured variation on a range of scales. The variations extend from large-scale geographical (clinal) trends, through medium-scale population and sub-population fluctuations, to micro-scale differentiation among neighbouring plants, where spatially close individuals are found to be genetically more alike than those some distance apart. We developed spatio-temporal phenological models that allow observations from multiple locations to be analysed simultaneously. We applied the models to the first-flowering dates of Prunus padus and Tilia cordata from localities as far apart as Norway and the Caucasus. Our growing-degree-day approach yielded a good fit to the available phenological data and yet involved only a small number of model parameters. It indicated that plants should display different sensitivities to temperature change according to their geographical location and the time of year at which they flower. For spring-flowering plants, we found strong temperature sensitivities for islands and archipelagos with oceanic climates, and low sensitivities in the interiors of continents.

  10. The Dust in Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) during Its Disintegration: Narrow-Band Images, Color Maps, and Dynamical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, T.; Jockers, K.; Petrova, E.; Delva, M.; Borisov, G.; Ivanova, A.

    2002-12-01

    Comet C/1999 S4 was observed with the 2m-telescopes of the Bulgarian National Observatory and Pik Terskol Observatory, Northern Caucasus, Russia, at the time of its disintegration. Maps of the dust brightness and color were constructed from images obtained in red and blue continuum windows, free from cometary molecular emissions. We analyze the dust environment of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) taking into account the observed changes apparent in the brightness images and in plots of Afρ profiles as function of the projected distance ρ from the nucleus. We also make use of the syndyne-synchrone formalism and of a Monte Carlo model based on the Finson-Probstein theory of dusty comets. The brightness and color of individual dust particles, which is needed to derive theoretical brightness and color maps of the cometary dust coma from the Monte Carlo model, is determined from calculations of the light scattering properties of randomly oriented oblate spheroids. In general, the dust of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) is strongly reddened, with reddening values up to 30%/1000 Å in some locations. Often the reddening is higher in envelopes further away from the nucleus. We observed two outbursts of the comet with brightness peaks on July 14 and just before July 24, 2000, when the final disintegration of the comet started. During both outbursts an excess of small particles was released. Shortly after both outbursts the dust coma "turns blue." After the first outburst, the whole coma was affected; after the second one only a narrow band of reduced color close to the tail axis was formed. This difference is explained by different terminal ejection speeds, which were much lower than normal in case of the second outburst. In particular in the second, final outburst the excess small particles could originate from fragmentation of "fresh" larger particles.

  11. Genetics of food preferences: a first view from silk road populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Robino, Antonietta; Lanzara, Carmela; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Esposito, Laura; Tepper, Beverly J; Gasparini, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Food preferences are the main factor driving food intake and choice. There are good reasons to suspect some genetic influence on food acceptance, not least because genetic factors are implicated in a number of factors that are likely to be related to food choice. In addition, some food dislikes show themselves early in life, before there is any evidence for aversive experiences. Although taste has been widely studied in regards of pure tastes such as bitter or sweet perception, the relationship between taste-related genes and food preferences has seldom been explored. In this work we investigated relationship of 37 taste-related genes with food preferences. The study was carried out during a scientific expedition through Caucasus and Central Asia (Silk Road) analyzing more than 400 samples from 5 different countries. A food preference questionnaire was administered to each participant and a DNA sample was obtained. Other information, such as age, sex, life style and anthropometrical measures, were also collected. We found significant associations with variants of: (1) TAS1R2 [Correction added after initial online publication on 27 Aug 2012. TAS1R3 was changed to TAS1R2.] gene and liking of Vodka (P= 1.6 × 10(-3)), white wine (P= 4.0 × 10(-4)) and lamb meat (P= 1.6 × 10(-3)); (2) PCLB2 gene and preference for Hot Tea (P= 8.0 × 10(-4)); (3) TPRV1 gene and beet liking (P= 3.8 × 10(-5)); and (4) ITPR3 gene and liking of both lamb meat (5.8 × 10(-4)) and sheep cheese (8.9×10(-4)). These findings give a new insight on a better understanding, of genetic factors influencing food preferences which is critical to the development of effective dietary interventions, especially for people that may be genetically not predisposed for liking specific nutrients. PMID:22888812

  12. Preventing radiological threat in the Republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Azerbaijan is a developing and transit country in the Caucasus, connecting East and West. In addition, Azerbaijan is neighboring countries with pronounced political instability, some of which have extensive nuclear infrastructure or try to develop nuclear infrastructure. Furthermore, in the recent past fundamentalist religious terrorism has taken roots in some of these countries. Therefore, in spite of the fact that the Republic of Azerbaijan has no nuclear facilities or nuclear materials in its own territory, it could be interesting for terrorist groups trying to develop a crude radiological dispersal device using radioactive sources that are widely used in everyday life especially in such areas as oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches. The issues of reduction and prevention of both radiological and nuclear terrorism threat are one of the main global challenges around the world. The Republic of Azerbaijan is a part of world community and so we are concerned that radioactive sources used for peaceful applications could be stolen by the terrorist groups and used in the development of radiological dispersal devices sometimes referred to as a 'dirty bomb'. It is obvious that using highly radioactive materials in radiological dispersal devices could be very disruptive to society, causing panic, environmental contamination, and large financial losses. One of the ways for reduction and prevention of radiological threat for the countries like Azerbaijan with underdeveloped nuclear security and radiation safety infrastructure is closely participation in the international cooperation programs. As an example of such cooperation, I would like to present the United States Department of Energy's International Radiological Threat Reduction (IRTR) Program. Good progress has made in the field of radiological security within the framework of this program that was started 2003. Actually, in comparison with any IAEA programs, the progress reached by

  13. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under earthquake excitation using nonlinear finite element analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatih Goktepe; H Serdar Kuyuk; Erkan Celebi

    2014-04-01

    Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- Eastern Turkey energy corridors are formed by several key pipelines carrying crude oil and natural gas from Azerbaijan, via Georgia, to world markets through Mediterranean Sea. Many project accomplished recently and construction of new corridors are still going on. They should be protected from earthquake disaster especially when they pass through high seismicity zones. The installation of wave impeding barriers (WIB) below the vulnerable infrastructures as pipelines established in soft soil can be used to reduce the effect of the earthquake induced ground borne vibrations. In this paper, a WIB as artificial bedrock based on the cut-off frequency of a soil layer over bedrock is proposed as isolation measurement in order to mitigate the dynamic response of the buried pipelines under earthquake strong ground motion. The computational simulation of the wave propagation problem is directly achieved by employing nonlinear 2D finite element modelling for prediction of screening performance of WIB on the dynamic response of vibrating coupled soil-pipeline system. Energy absorbing boundaries along the truncated interfaces of the unbounded nature of the underlying soil media are implemented in the time domain along with Newmark’s integration. An extensive parametric investigation and systematic computations are performed with different controlling parameters. The obtained numerical results point out that WIB can be very promising as an isolator to protect pipelines when they establish for a certain depth.

  14. Paleotethys geo dynamics of the Caspian-Caucasian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Character of the spread of the plate-tectonic structures of Paleotethys and its oceanic basins including plan and age of the deformation as well as relation between Paleotethys and Mesotethys and the other issues are urgent debatable problems of the Paleozoic-Triassic geology in the region. As a result of complex geologic, magmatic, tectonic, paleo bio geographic, geophysical and cosmotectonic studies in the Caucasus, Zacaspian and Iran there were constructed geo dynamic maps on the paleo tectonic basis for certain time sections starting from the Cambrian transition stage till the Triassic models of Paleotethys evolution for two near-meridional geo traverses Arabian margin of Gondwana and in the north it crosses the East-European platform. In the Cambrian the change of the carbonaceous facies by the arkosicsandstones and quartzites in the Gondwana and in the East-European platforms is associated with the absolute elevation and washout of the Caspian-Caucasian shield. This is a precursor of more significant events and processes. There probably occurred a large structural reconstruction in the boundary of the Cambrian and the Ordovician associated with the beginning of the opening of the Caucasian, Turkestan and Ural pale oceans. As a result of the continental riftogenesis that in the next stage is transformed from the rifting into the spreading of the oceanic crust the double deep-water basins of Paleotethys were separated. The closure of neo-Paleotethys in the late Triassic was preceded by the crack of Gondwana and location of a system of the branching rifting and spreading of Mesotethys

  15. Genetics of food preferences: a first view from silk road populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, Nicola; Robino, Antonietta; Lanzara, Carmela; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Esposito, Laura; Tepper, Beverly J; Gasparini, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Food preferences are the main factor driving food intake and choice. There are good reasons to suspect some genetic influence on food acceptance, not least because genetic factors are implicated in a number of factors that are likely to be related to food choice. In addition, some food dislikes show themselves early in life, before there is any evidence for aversive experiences. Although taste has been widely studied in regards of pure tastes such as bitter or sweet perception, the relationship between taste-related genes and food preferences has seldom been explored. In this work we investigated relationship of 37 taste-related genes with food preferences. The study was carried out during a scientific expedition through Caucasus and Central Asia (Silk Road) analyzing more than 400 samples from 5 different countries. A food preference questionnaire was administered to each participant and a DNA sample was obtained. Other information, such as age, sex, life style and anthropometrical measures, were also collected. We found significant associations with variants of: (1) TAS1R2 [Correction added after initial online publication on 27 Aug 2012. TAS1R3 was changed to TAS1R2.] gene and liking of Vodka (P= 1.6 × 10(-3)), white wine (P= 4.0 × 10(-4)) and lamb meat (P= 1.6 × 10(-3)); (2) PCLB2 gene and preference for Hot Tea (P= 8.0 × 10(-4)); (3) TPRV1 gene and beet liking (P= 3.8 × 10(-5)); and (4) ITPR3 gene and liking of both lamb meat (5.8 × 10(-4)) and sheep cheese (8.9×10(-4)). These findings give a new insight on a better understanding, of genetic factors influencing food preferences which is critical to the development of effective dietary interventions, especially for people that may be genetically not predisposed for liking specific nutrients.

  16. Using DNA barcodes for assessing diversity in the family Hybotidae (Diptera, Empidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan T Nagy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empidoidea is one of the largest extant lineages of flies, but phylogenetic relationships among species of this group are poorly investigated and global diversity remains scarcely assessed. In this context, one of the most enigmatic empidoid families is Hybotidae. Within the framework of a pilot study, we barcoded 339 specimens of Old World hybotids belonging to 164 species and 22 genera (plus two Empis as outgroups and attempted to evaluate whether patterns of intra- and interspecific divergences match the current taxonomy. We used a large sampling of diverse Hybotidae. The material came from the Palaearctic (Belgium, France, Portugal and Russian Caucasus, the Afrotropic (Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Oriental realms (Singapore and Thailand. Thereby, we optimized lab protocols for barcoding hybotids. Although DNA barcodes generally well distinguished recognized taxa, the study also revealed a number of unexpected phenomena: e.g., undescribed taxa found within morphologically very similar or identical specimens, especially when geographic distance was large; some morphologically distinct species showed no genetic divergence; or different pattern of intraspecific divergence between populations or closely related species. Using COI sequences and simple neighbour-joining tree reconstructions, the monophyly of many species- and genus-level taxa was well supported, but more inclusive taxonomical levels did not receive significant bootstrap support. We conclude that in hybotids DNA barcoding might be well used to identify species, when two main constraints are considered. First, incomplete barcoding libraries hinder efficient (correct identification. Therefore, extra efforts are needed to increase the representation of hybotids in these databases. Second, the spatial scale of sampling has to be taken into account, and especially for widespread species or species complexes with unclear taxonomy, an integrative approach has to be used to

  17. Using DNA barcodes for assessing diversity in the family Hybotidae (Diptera, Empidoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán T; Sonet, Gontran; Mortelmans, Jonas; Vandewynkel, Camille; Grootaert, Patrick

    2013-12-30

    Empidoidea is one of the largest extant lineages of flies, but phylogenetic relationships among species of this group are poorly investigated and global diversity remains scarcely assessed. In this context, one of the most enigmatic empidoid families is Hybotidae. Within the framework of a pilot study, we barcoded 339 specimens of Old World hybotids belonging to 164 species and 22 genera (plus two Empis as outgroups) and attempted to evaluate whether patterns of intra- and interspecific divergences match the current taxonomy. We used a large sampling of diverse Hybotidae. The material came from the Palaearctic (Belgium, France, Portugal and Russian Caucasus), the Afrotropic (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the Oriental realms (Singapore and Thailand). Thereby, we optimized lab protocols for barcoding hybotids. Although DNA barcodes generally well distinguished recognized taxa, the study also revealed a number of unexpected phenomena: e.g., undescribed taxa found within morphologically very similar or identical specimens, especially when geographic distance was large; some morphologically distinct species showed no genetic divergence; or different pattern of intraspecific divergence between populations or closely related species. Using COI sequences and simple Neighbour-Joining tree reconstructions, the monophyly of many species- and genus-level taxa was well supported, but more inclusive taxonomical levels did not receive significant bootstrap support. We conclude that in hybotids DNA barcoding might be well used to identify species, when two main constraints are considered. First, incomplete barcoding libraries hinder efficient (correct) identification. Therefore, extra efforts are needed to increase the representation of hybotids in these databases. Second, the spatial scale of sampling has to be taken into account, and especially for widespread species or species complexes with unclear taxonomy, an integrative approach has to be used to clarify species

  18. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  19. Cu-Mo-Au mineralization in Qarachilar area, Qaradagh batholith (NW Iran): Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies and Re-Os dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen

    2015-04-01

    The Qaradagh batholith is located in NW Iran, neighboring the Meghri-Ordubad granitoid in southern Armenia. This magmatic complex is emplaced in the northwestern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc, which formed through north-eastward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the central Iranian domain in the late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic and hosts most of the porphyry copper deposits and prospects in Iran, such as Sarcheshmeh and Sungun. The Qaradagh batholith is comprised of Eocene-Oligocene intrusive rocks occurring as multi-episode stocks, where the dominant rock type is granodiorite. Hydrothermal alterations have also occurred in these rocks including potassic, phyllic-sericitic, argillic and propylitic alterations and silicification. These alterations are accompanied by vein-type and disseminated Cu, Mo and Au mineralization. The Qarachilar area is located in the central part of the Qaradagh batholith, which hosts mono-mineralic and quartz-sulfide veins and veinlets (several mm to isotope studies of O, H and S on the quartz and sulfide samples taken from quartz-sulfide veins-veinlets reveal a magmatic origin for the ore-bearing fluid and its sulfur content. The δ18O values for quartz and fluid are about 11.13-12.47 ‰ and 5.78-6.89 ‰ (SMOW), respectively, the δD values are about -93 and -50 ‰ and the δ34S values of sulfide minerals are about -1.37-0.49‰ (VCDT). Re-Os model ages calculated for molybdenite samples range between 25.19±0.19 and 31.22±0.28 Ma, referring to middle-late Oligocene, contemporaneous with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (especially Kadjaran and Paragachai PCDs in South Armenian Block).

  20. [Rate of microsuccessions: Structure and floristic richness recovery after sod transplantation in alpine plant communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipkeev, A M; Cherednichenko, O V; Tekeev, D K; Onipchenko, V G

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal transplantations of sod pieces have been conducted in alpine plant communities of the northwestern Caucasus. During 25 years, the changes in floristic richness and successional rates have been registered. Study objects were chosen to be. plant communities located along the toposequence from ridges to hollows with gradient of snow. cover thickness increase and vegetation period decrease, namely alpine lichen heath (ALH), Festuca varia grasslands (FVG), Geranium-Hedysarum meadows (GHM), and snow bed communities (SBC). The results of the study confirm the hypothesis about floristic richness of transplanted pieces to come closer to that of a background acceptor community. It is shown that during succession the variability reduces if sod pieces from different communities are transplanted into a common one. In particular, this is evident in case of SBC, where floristic richness of sod pieces transplanted from ALH and GHM has reduced noticeably. Also, it is evident from the results that the more different are donor and acceptor communities the higher is the rate of their changing. However, the assumption of higher succession rate in more productive communities has not been affirmed. On the opposite, communities with initially low productivity turned out to change faster than those with high productivity. It is found out that sod pieces transplanted to upper areas of the toposequence have had higher rate of alteration in comparison with those transplanted to lower areas. The reason behind this, as it may be suggested, is a longer growth season, which means a more prolonged period of high functional activity, and, accordingly, more time for the effects of competition, bringing seeds over, etc. In whole, the rate of succession decreases as the time from the moment of transplantation.increases, especially in communities with low productivity. PMID:26852571

  1. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. PMID:27220555

  2. Petrogenesis and geodynamics of plagiogranites from Central Turkey (Ekecikdağ/Aksaray): new geochemical and isotopic data for generation in an arc basin system within the northern branch of Neotethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Serhat; Toksoy-Köksal, Fatma; Göncüoglu, M. Cemal

    2016-09-01

    In the Late Cretaceous, throughout the closure of the Neotethys Ocean, ophiolitic rocks from the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean branch were overthrusted the northern margin of the Tauride-Anatolide Platform. The ophiolitic rocks in the Ekecikdaǧ (Aksaray/Central Turkey) region typify the oceanic crust of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan branch of Neotethys. The gabbros in the area are cut by copious plagiogranite dykes, and both rock units are intruded by mafic dykes. The plagiogranites are leucocratic, fine- to medium-grained calc-alkaline rocks characterized mainly by plagioclase and quartz, with minor amounts of biotite, hornblende and clinopyroxene, and accessory phases of zircon, titanite, apatite and opaque minerals. They are tonalite and trondhjemite in composition with high SiO2 (69.9-75.9 wt%) and exceptionally low K2O (<0.5 wt%) contents. The plagiogranites in common with gabbros and mafic dykes show high large-ion lithophile elements/high-field strength element ratios with depletion in Nb, Ti and light rare-earth elements with respect to N-MORB. The plagiogranites together with gabbros and mafic dykes show low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70419-0.70647), high ƐNd(T) (6.0-7.5) values with 206Pb/204Pb (18.199-18.581), 207Pb/204Pb (15.571-15.639) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.292-38.605) ratios indicating a depleted mantle source modified with a subduction component. They show similar isotopic characteristics to the other supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites in the Eastern Mediterranean to East Anatolian-Lesser Caucasus and Iran regions. It is suggested that the Ekecikdaǧ plagiogranite was generated in a short time interval from a depleted mantle source in a SSZ/fore-arc basin setting, and its nature was further modified by a subduction component during intra-oceanic subduction.

  3. Geology of the Çaldıran Fault, Eastern Turkey: Age, slip rate and implications on the characteristic slip behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selçuk, Azad Sağlam; Erturaç, M. Korhan; Nomade, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    The Çaldıran Fault is a strike slip fault with a dextral slip in East Anatolia. The activity on this fault was marked by the November, 24 1976 earthquake (Mw: 7.1) which produced an ~ 50 km long surface rupture and caused 3840 fatalities, which was close to half of the population living along the fault at that time. Together with the North Tabriz Fault in Iran, it is regarded as the southern boundary of the Caucasus Block. The fault has an average annual slip rate of 8.1 from 10.8 mm yr- 1, as derived from elastic block modelling. We present results from a detailed morphotectonic survey along the fault. The Çaldıran Fault is comprised of three segments, each of which is eparated by bend structures that bend towards the SW with a total change in strike of 20° from east to west. The offsets of lithological contact markers show that the long-term geological slip rate for the Çaldıran fault is approximately 3.27 ± 0.17 mm yr- 1for a duration of approximately 290 ka. The cumulative offset of the fault was determined from an analysis of a dome-shaped rhyolitic volcano which constrained the age of the fault to the Middle-Late Pleistocene. An analysis of small-scale morphological offset markers indicates a characteristic slip behaviour of the Çaldıran Fault for the last 3 events with an average offset of 2.6 m.

  4. Phytochemical and Antioxidant Investigation of the Aerial Parts of Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnavazi, Mohammad-Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Delazar, Abbas; Ajani, Yousef; Tavakoli, Saeed; Yassa, Narguess

    2015-01-01

    Dorema glabrum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (Apiaceae) is a monocarpic perennial plant distributed in southern Caucasus. In Azerbaijan Republic folk medicine, the gum-resin of this species is used as a diuretic and anti-diarrheal agent. It is also traditionally used for the treatment of bronchitis and catarrh. In the present study, chemical constituents of the essential oil and extract of D. glabrum aerial parts were investigated and their free radical scavenging potentials were assessed. GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of the plant essential oil resulted in identifying twenty compounds, out of which elemicin (38.6%) and myristicin (14.3%) were main compounds. Seven compounds including daucosterol (1), chlorogenic acid (2), a mixture of cynarin (3) and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), isoquercetin (6) and astragalin (7) were also isolated from the ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. glabrum aerial parts using different chromatographic methods on silica gel (normal and reversed-phase) and sephadex LH20. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using UV and (1)H, (13)C-NMR spectrain comparison with those reported in respective published data. Antioxidant activities of the crude extract, fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay method. Among the fractions, methanol fraction (IC50=53.3 ±4.7μg mL(-1)) and among the isolated compounds, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity (IC50= 2.2-2.6 μg mL(-1)). PMID:26330882

  5. [Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perova, I B; Zhogova, A A; Poliakova, A V; Éller, K I; Ramenskaia, G V; Samylina, I A

    2014-01-01

    10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150-400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate-Smith method, varied from 20-25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80-430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg/100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0-80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1-75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130-400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6-94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (cherries was represented by fructose (2,2-3,8%) and glucose (2,5-7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5-932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits. PMID:25816631

  6. Evaluation of hemostaseological status of pigs experimentally infected with African swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Karalova, Elena; Voskanyan, Henrik; Ter-Pogossyan, Zarine; Nersisyan, Narek; Hakobyan, Astghik; Saroyan, David; Karalyan, Zaven

    2014-11-01

    African swine fever is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Hemorrhages are the most frequently reported lesions in acute and subacute forms of ASF. Hemorrhagic lesions are accompanied by impaired hemostasis, which includes thrombocytopenia and changes in the coagulation system. In the present study, experimental infection was conducted to elucidate whether a highly virulent ASFV genotype II circulating in the Trans-Caucasus and Eastern Europe affects the hemostasis of infected pigs. Platelet count changes and platelet size, as well as coagulation parameters were evaluated upon experimental infection. In contrast to other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II showed a significant decrease in the number of platelets from 3rd dpi onwards. Furthermore, a decrease in platelet size was observed throughout the entire period of experiment. A significant increase in the number of platelet aggregates was observed from the beginning of infection. Unlike other ASFV strains, ASFV genotype II induced a slight shortening of an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) throughout the experiment. Thrombin time (TT) was prolonged from day 5 onwards, whereas no changes in prothrombin time (PT) were found upon infection. The level of d-dimers was permanently higher than in control with a peak on day 3 post-infection. ASFV induced a significant decrease in the level of fibrinogen from day 5 till the end of experiment. Thus, it can be concluded that ASFV genotype II isolated in Armenia affects the hemostasis of infected pigs and causes changes that differ from that of other ASFV strains described previously.

  7. Jinneography: Post-Soviet passages of traumatic exemplarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Khashayar

    2016-04-01

    While Russia has historically and geographically close ties with Islam, the second most-practiced religion in its vast territories, the collapse of the USSR changed the terms of this relationship in significant ways. One key shift is the emergence of new immigration patterns between Russia and former Soviet states. Traversing distant lands from the peripheries of the Caucasus and Central Asia to mainland Russia in search of work, migrants have come to recognize each other as fellow Muslims dispersed in a theological geography on the ruins of the universal comradeship dreamed by the Soviet utopia. I propose to study the Islamic pedagogical practice of ibra in the context of sociohistorical dynamics of education and migration between Russia and Central Asia to further locate and analyze this shift in relation to current debates on post-Soviet subjectivity. By discussing the case of a spirit possession of a Tajik national performed in Russia, I argue that the collective participation in the session pedagogically invokes, ciphers, and extends the post-Soviet terrains of history as ibra, or exemplary passage of worldly events. To do so, I first locate the Quranic concept of ibra as a pedagogical paradigm in Islamic traditions as well as an ethnographic lens in the context of educational campaigns for the Muslims of Eurasia and then apply the concept to my analysis of the possession session in order to show that in the ritualistic incarnations of ghosts, or jinns, the civil war of Tajikistan and its continuing cycle of terror is ciphered into a desire for learning, as well as a focus on approximation to the divine. PMID:25969502

  8. IAEA/EU joint action - Partnership in improving nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2003, the European Council adopted the European Union Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, under which - beginning 2004 - four Joint Actions have been contracted between the European Community, represented by the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA by signing a special Contribution Agreement for each Joint Action. Three Joint Actions were successfully completed by the end of 2008. The purpose of the EU Joint Actions is to support IAEA efforts to assist States, on request, in strengthening their nuclear security infrastructure and implementation. The programme - with a budget for all three completed Joint Actions was Euros 14 238 000, making the EU of one of the biggest contributors to the Nuclear Security Fund - assists countries and includes both Member States and non-member States of the IAEA. These three Joint Actions provided support and assistance to 47 of 73 eligible countries in South-Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus, the Middle East and Africa. The fourth Joint Action with a budget of Euros 7 703 000 started in October 2008 and includes, additionally, eleven countries in South East Asia. Under the three Joint Actions, 209 different tasks have been implemented on legislative and regulatory matters, the strengthening of security and control and other radioactive material, the physical protection of nuclear material, nuclear facilities, radioactive material in nonnuclear applications, safeguards (additional protocols) and the strengthening of States' capabilities for detection and response to illicit trafficking. Technical assistance includes equipment installation, expert consultations, missions, training, and assistance in developing legal and regulatory national infrastructure. (author)

  9. TERRITORIAL ENCLAVES OF FORMER USSR IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. SHTURBA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines Russia's relations with the territories of post-Soviet, Pro-Russian oriented in its political, economic and socio-cultural areas of development. Analyzes the military capabilities of these enclave regions from the point of view of creating arcs of safety in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus with the aim of countering NATO expansion to the East. The issue of national security has consistently revealed during the study of external threats to Russia in the early 1990s, the consequences of the USSR collapse, and conceptual approaches to the formation of a new foreign policy course of Russia. Examines the military-political situation in Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and the breakaway territories of Ukraine from the position of loyalty to Russian politics. The participation of Russia in conflict resolution in the post-Soviet space is given to explain the position that the government took in terms of constitutional crisis, draws a parallel with public sentiment and support for the breakaway territories by broad segments of the population, including Russian Cossacks. The authors analyzes the concept of soft power from the point of view of impact on migration flows and ethnic diasporas, the conclusion is that the instrument has not been used and utilized to the full extent that did little possible Russia's influence on the political and humanitarian processes in the world and particular countries of post-Soviet space. The diplomatic efforts of Russia on normalization of relations in the self-proclaimed and partially recognized republics of the former USSR has shown that before the military intervention of Georgia in South Ossetia in 2008, Russia supported the international legal principle of territorial integrity of States. doi: 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-26-36, [en; ru

  10. Development of vaccines against Ornithodoros soft ticks: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Obolo-Mvoulouga, Prosper; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-04-01

    Ticks are parasites of great medical and veterinary importance since they are vectors of numerous pathogens that affect humans, livestock and pets. Among the argasids, several species of the genus Ornithodoros transmit serious diseases such as tick-borne human relapsing fever (TBRF) and African Swine Fever (ASF). In particular, Ornithodoros erraticus is the main vector of these two diseases in the Mediterranean while O. moubata is the main vector in Africa. The presence of these Ornithodoros ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments may greatly hinder the eradication of TBRF and ASF from endemic areas. In addition, there is a constant threat of reintroduction and spreading of ASF into countries from where it has been eradicated (Spain and Portugal) or where it was never present (the Caucasus, Russia and Eastern Europe). In these countries, the presence of Ornithodoros vectors could have a tremendous impact on ASF transmission and long-term maintenance. Therefore, elimination of these ticks from at least synanthropic environments would contribute heavily to the prevention and control of the diseases they transmit. Tick control is a difficult task and although several methods for such control have been used, none of them has been fully effective against all ticks and the problems they cause. Nevertheless, immunological control using anti-tick vaccines offers an attractive alternative to the traditional use of acaricides. The aim of the present paper is to offer a brief overview of the current status in control measure development for Ornithodoros soft ticks, paying special attention to the development of vaccines against O. erraticus and O. moubata. Thus, our contribution includes an analysis of the chief attributes that the ideal antigens for an anti-tick vaccine should have, an exhaustive compilation and analysis of the scant anti-soft tick vaccine trials carried out to date using both concealed and salivary antigens and, finally, a brief description of the

  11. "The Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant" (ISIL In The System Of Threats To The National Security Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Agapov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors analyze political, economic, military and many other aspects of the "Islamic State of Iraq and Levant" activity as essential factor of the destabilization in the region of the Middle East. Authors investigate destructive consequences of this terrorist religious group's positions strengthening for the national security of the Russian Federation and border states. Authors note that actions in Syria and Iraq have indirect, but transnational effect, pose threat to the interests of the national security of Russia, especially including one, conducted in Crimea with the use of Islamic radicals for this purpose, who are on the peninsula and territory of the Ukraine. In the present article authors note that every year in the process of the population's psychological fatigue strengthening, new losses among the military personnel and the intelligence services staff and also death of peaceful citizens, their positions will only amplify. "Defeatism" will become a powerful political force. Problem of the international legal aspect of the counteraction to the threat from the actions of foreign fighters-terrorists who are hired or accepted with ISIL, al-Nusra Front and other groups and organizations of the terrorist orientation is connected with the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014 made on September 24, 2014. It’s main objective – development of the nonviolent ways of the conflicts prevention and settlement for the purposes of the radicalization to the level generating terrorism risk degree decrease. In the conclusion authors argument that it is especially actual for the Russian regions, which is extremely vulnerable to extremism (North Caucasus, Volga Region.

  12. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  13. ANALYSIS OF RUSSIA‟S FOREIGN POLICY IN THE CHINESE DIRECTION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of Russian foreign policy in the Chinese direction at the beginning of the XXI century. Nowadays, rise of the eastern regions deepening of integration into the political and economic space of the Pacific Rim countries and development of internal cooperation, especially with the People's Republic of China (PRC are on current interest for Russia‟s development. Since 2000 to the present time there is development of bilateral relations, cultural and humanitarian contacts and exchanges, more intensive cooperation in education, culture, health, sports, tourism, media, film industry, archives on the basis of the Russian Federation Foreign Policy Concept, the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness, friendship and cooperation between the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China and other normative legal documents. It is noted that the parties have expressed their intention to continue increasing comprehensive cooperation and enhancing mutual support in protecting national sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of each other, maintenance of international peace and stability and building a new, more just, sustainable and democratic world order. An important component of the Russian-Chinese strategic cooperation is mutual support in the fundamental interests of both countries concerning with the issues of state sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity. The Russian side confirms strong support for the principled ground of the Chinese government on the Taiwan issues, Tibet and Xinjiang, the Chinese policy in the protection of the national unity and territorial integrity of China. At the same time, the People's Republic reaffirms its support for protecting Russia‟s fundamental interests and promoting regional peace and stability in the Caucasus region and in the CIS. The article shows the view of Chinese scholars, political scientists on the problems of cooperation between China and Russia.

  14. Regional Priorities of Green Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to transforming the economy of Russian regions to a green economy, which is an essential factor for the sustainable development. This is important not only for Russia but the whole world because our country has the great natural capital and provides important environmental services that support the planet biosphere. Based on the analysis of economic, social and ecological statistical data and Human Development Index (HDI we have shown that the development of Russian Federal Districts is very unbalanced and each Russian region has its own way to new economic model. For instance, it is necessary to increase the well-being in the North Caucasus Federal District, it is important to reach higher life expectancy at birth in the Siberian and the Far Eastern Districts. It is necessary to move from the «brown» economy to a green one by using the human capital (building a knowledge economy, by applying Best Available Technologies (Techniques, by investing in efficiency of use of natural resources and by increasing energy efficiency. The transition to a green economy will help to achieve social equity and the development of human potential; it helps to move from the exploitation of non-renewable natural capital to renewable human capital. All these socio-economic measures should give decoupling effect, make risks lower, reduce the exploitation of natural capital, stop the environmental degradation and prevent the ecological crisis. Transition to the green economic model has to be accompanied by new economic development indicators, which take into account social and environmental factors.

  15. Observation of the activity of selected Oort Cloud comets with perihelia at large distances from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyk, Iryna; Rousselot, Philippe; Korsun, Pavlo

    2016-10-01

    Many comets exhibit considerable level of activity at large distances from the Sun, where sublimation of crystalline water ice cannot account for observable comae. Different patterns of physical activity already observed at large heliocentric distances may be related to the primordial differences in the composition of comet nuclei. Therefore, monitoring of physical activity in the wide range of heliocentric distances can potentially contribute to understanding of internal structure of comet-like bodies. We have observed ten long periodic comets with orbital perihelia lying beyond the "water ice sublimation zone" to quantify the level of physical activity in the wide range of heliocentric distances. Pre-perihelion observations were made when targets moved between 16.7 and 6.5 au from the Sun; post perihelion activity was monitored between 5.2 and 10.6 au. The bulk of the data were gathered with the 2-m Robotic Liverpool Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain). Some targets were observed with the 2-m RC Telescope located at Peak Terskol Observatory and the 6-m Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Northern Caucasus, Russia). Since most of recently obtained spectra of distant active objects are continuum dominated, we use B, V, R images to estimate dust production rates, an upper limit on nucleus radii, and color indices of near nucleus region. The comets C/2005 L3 (McNaught) and C/2006 S3 (Boattini), which exhibit the considerable level of activity, have been repeatedly observed. This enables us to infer the heliocentric dependence of dust production rates, perihelion brightness asymmetries, and color variations over the comae caused possibly by small changes in dust particle properties.

  16. Proglacial lake sediments – a basis for uninterrupted chronicles of the Holocene glacier variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Alexandrin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the origin of paleolimnological method in glaciology, concerns the theoretical background of the approach, and focuses on the principal methods of analysis of the lake sediments and creating the sedimentary age-depth models. Lake sediments can provide a basis for creating uninterrupted reconstructions of the Holocene glacier variations with high resolution. The fundament of paleolimnological method is based on the differences between glacial and non-glacial components of the bottom sediments of proglacial lakes. The glacial signal in the lake sediments was originally distinguished by measuring the organic content of the sediment (normally with loss-on-ignition and the magnetic properties of the sediment. Subsequent methods of analysis could yield more precision and normally include geochemical composition (with the use of high-resolution scanning x-ray fluorescence analysis, use of biogenic indicators (such as pollen and diatoms contained in the sediment and more. Obtaining the most accurate age of the sediment is a crucial question in subsequent application of the sediment parameters for reconstruction of glacier variability. The article covers various methods of dating the lake sediment – radiocarbon, Cs- and Pb-isotope dating, varve counting. Techniques of creating age-depth models are taken into account. A state-of-the-art application of sedimentary properties in paleoglaciology yields a reconstruction of a former equilibrium line altitude – ELA. The article focuses on the basis of the ELA reconstruction approach. Successful examples of reconstructions of glacier variations based on the lake sediments can be found throughout the majority of the glaciated regions of the planet. The article states the most prominent of them and gives an update on the current progress in paleolimnological research in the Caucasus Mountains.

  17. 丝绸之路经济带与中亚发展%The Silk Road Economic Belt and Central Asia Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡什巴耶夫·卡尤哈克; 塔季扬娜·费利波娃

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the current state and prospects of economic cooperation between China and the central Asia countries, especially the corporation between China and Kazakhstan, and points out the differences between the old Silk Road and modern Silk Road economic belt which is built under complicated conditions. The tremendous program of Silk Road economic belt covers quite a few areas, including the northwest provinces of China, central Asia, Caucasus and central and east Europe. It concludes that the world is no longer single-polarized and the multi-polarization has intensified the competitions between leading countries of global economy, such as the United States of America, China, Russia and the European Union.%该文分析出中国与中亚国家之间经济合作的现状和前景,重点探讨了中国与哈萨克斯坦之间的合作,并指出古丝绸之路与现代复杂条件下建立的丝绸之路经济带新格局之间的差异.丝绸之路经济带这一新的经济巨型项目,包括许多区域——中国西北部省份,中亚、高加索和欧洲中东部.该文得出结论:世界不再单极化,多极化加剧了全球经济主导国家之间的竞争,诸如美国、中国、俄罗斯,也包括欧盟在内.

  18. Late Palaeozoic to Triassic evolution of the Turan and Scythian platforms: The pre-history of the Palaeo-Tethyan closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal'in, Boris A.; Şengör, A. M. Celâl

    2005-08-01

    A number of en échelon-arranged, southwest-facing arc fragments of Palaeozoic to Jurassic ages, sandwiched between two fairly straight east-northeast trending boundaries, constitute the basement of the Scythian and the Turan platforms located between the Laurasian and Tethyside units. They have until now largely escaped detection owing to extensive Jurassic and younger cover and the inaccessibility of the subsurface data to the international geological community. These units are separated from one another by linear/gently-curved faults of great length and steep dip. Those that are exposed show evidence of strike-slip motion. The arc units originally constituted parts of a single "Silk Road Arc" located somewhere south of the present-day central Asia for much of the Palaeozoic, although by the late Carboniferous they had been united into a continental margin arc south of the Tarim basin and equivalent units to the west and east. They were stacked into their present places in northern Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Caucasus and the northern Black Sea by large-scale, right-lateral strike-slip coastwise transport along arc-slicing and arc-shaving strike-slip faults in the Triassic and medial Jurassic simultaneously with the subductive elimination of Palaeo-Tethys. This gigantic dextral zone ("the Silk Road transpression") was a trans-Eurasian structure and was active simultaneously with another, similar system, the Gornostaev keirogen and greatly distorted Eurasia. The late Palaeozoic to Jurassic internal deformation of the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen was also a part of the dextral strain in southern Europe. When the emplacement of the Scythian and Turan units was completed, the elimination of Palaeo-Tethys had also ended and Neo-Tethyan arcs were constructed atop their ruins, mostly across their southern parts. The western end of the great dextral zone that emplaced the Turan and Scythian units horsetails just east of north Dobrudja and a small component goes along the

  19. A population-based approach to study the impact of PROP perception on food liking in populations along the Silk Road.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Robino

    Full Text Available Taste is one of the main factors determining food choices. Differences in PROP bitter taste perception have been implicated in individual differences in food preferences and selection. The present study examined associations between, PROP phenotypes, self-reported food liking and TAS2R38 polymorphisms, the major gene implicated in PROP bitterness, in six different populations of the Caucasus and Central Asia, located along the ancient Silk Road. Differences in the distribution of PROP phenotypes across populations were detected, with a higher frequency of super tasters in Tajikistan (31.3% and Armenia (39.0% and a higher frequency of non tasters in Georgia (50.9%. While no relationships were observed between PROP phenotypes and food liking using standard statistical tests, we used an approach based on comparison of distance matrices derived from these data. The first matrix compared the food liking ratings of each population to all others pairwise using the Kruskal-Wallis test (at p<0.00063, and the second one compared the distribution of PROP phenotypes across all populations in a similar manner calculating the chi-square statistic as a distance measure. A strong correlation between the two matrices was found (Mantel test: r = 0.67, p-value = 0.03, suggesting that the pattern of food liking across populations was closely related to the distribution of PROP phenotypes. This same relationship was not observed when TAS2R38 genotypes were substituted for PROP phenotypes in this analysis. Our data suggest that a population-based approach utilizing distance matrices is a useful technique for detecting PROP-related differences in food liking and can be applied to other taste phenotypes.

  20. Environmental assessment in countries in transition: evolution in a changing context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherp, A

    2001-08-01

    Over the last fifteen years, Environmental Assessment systems of transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia have undergone dramatic change from appraisals integrated into centrally planned economies to formal procedures aimed to ensure interdisciplinary analysis of environmental impacts and linked to publicly accountable decision-making. In most Central European nations, EA systems have been radically reformed to approximate the procedures used in developed countries, particularly in the European Union. In contrast, EA in most of the former Soviet republics has been reformed more gradually and is still based on the so-called State Environmental Review procedure inherited from the USSR and substantially different from 'Western' EA. About one-third of the transitional countries (in the Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia) have, so far, failed to establish functioning EA systems. Throughout the region, there has been a gap between EA legislation and practice, especially concerning interdisciplinary analysis of environmental impacts, public participation, and utilisation of EA findings in decision-making. A key driving force in the reform of EA systems has been the change in their societal context, the so-called 'process of transition'. Three main policy agendas--environmental protection, reforms of decision-making, and conforming to international requirements--along with the institutional context of EA regulations and practice have influenced both the change of EA systems over time and the regional variations in the patterns of their evolution. This study suggests that an effective reform of an EA system should be context-sensitive, or be 'in gear' with the political and economic transition. Future EA research should consider their changing societal contexts and focused on practical effects of applying EA procedures.

  1. DNA Barcoding of Birds at a Migratory Hotspot in Eastern Turkey Highlights Continental Phylogeographic Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Bilgin

    Full Text Available The combination of habitat loss, climate change, direct persecution, introduced species and other components of the global environmental crisis has resulted in a rapid loss of biodiversity, including species, population and genetic diversity. Birds, which inhabit a wide spectrum of different habitat types, are particularly sensitive to and indicative of environmental changes. The Caucasus endemic bird area, part of which covers northeastern Turkey, is one of the world's key regions harboring a unique bird community threatened with habitat loss. More than 75% of all bird species native to Turkey have been recorded in this region, in particular along the Kars-Iğdır migratory corridor, stopover, wintering and breeding sites along the Aras River, whose wetlands harbor at least 264 bird species. In this study, DNA barcoding technique was used for evaluating the genetic diversity of land bird species of Aras River Bird Paradise at the confluence of Aras River and Iğdır Plains key biodiversity areas. Seventy three COI sequences from 33 common species and 26 different genera were newly generated and used along with 301 sequences that were retrieved from the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD. Using the sequences obtained in this study, we made global phylogeographic comparisons to define four categories of species, based on barcoding suitability, intraspecific divergence and taxonomy. Our findings indicate that the landbird community of northeastern Turkey has a genetical signature mostly typical of northern Palearctic bird communities while harboring some unique variations. The study also provides a good example of how DNA barcoding can build upon its primary mission of species identification and use available data to integrate genetic variation investigated at the local scale into a global framework. However, the rich bird community of the Aras River wetlands is highly threatened with the imminent construction of the Tuzluca Dam by the government.

  2. ПОЛИТИКА НАЦИСТСКОЙ ГЕРМАНИИ ПО «ВОЗРОЖДЕНИЮ» КООПЕРАТИВОГО ДВИЖЕНИЯ НА СЕВЕРНОМ КАВКАЗЕ В ПЕРИОД ФАШИСТСКОЙ ОККУПАЦИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Печалова, Лариса

    2009-01-01

    В статье отражены отдельные данные из комплексного анализа деятельности кооперации на Северном Кавказе в период фашистской оккупации региона. По мнению автора, особую актуальность данная проблематика приобретает в год 65-летия победы Советского союза в Великой Отечественной и Второй мировой войнах.The article focuses on some data from the complex analysis of co-operative societies' activity in Northern Caucasus during the Great Patriotic War. The problem becomes especially actual on the thres...

  3. Variscan orogeny in the Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Aral I.; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-09-01

    Two Gondwana-derived Paleozoic belts rim the Archean/Paleoproterozoic nucleus of the East European Platform in the Black Sea region. In the north is a belt of Paleozoic passive-margin-type sedimentary rocks, which extends from Moesia to the Istanbul Zone and to parts of the Scythian Platform (the MOIS Block). This belt constituted the south-facing continental margin of the Laurussia during the Late Paleozoic. This margin was deformed during the Carboniferous by folding and thrusting and forms the Variscan foreland. In the south is a belt of metamorphic and granitic rocks, which extends from the Balkanides through Strandja, Sakarya to the Caucasus (BASSAC Block). The protoliths of the metamorphic rocks are predominantly late Neoproterozoic granites and Paleozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks, which were deformed and metamorphosed during the Early Carboniferous. There are also minor eclogites and serpentinites, mostly confined to the northern margin of the BASSAC Block. Typical metamorphism is of low pressure-high temperature type and occurred during the Early Carboniferous (Visean, 340-330 Ma) coevally with that observed in the Central Europe. Volumetrically, more than half of the crystalline belt is made up of Carboniferous-earliest Permian (335-294 Ma) granites. The type of metamorphism, its concurrent nature over 1800 km length of the BASSAC Block and voluminous acidic magmatism suggest that the thermal event probably occurred in the deep levels of a continental magmatic arc. The BASSAC arc collided with Laurussia in the mid-Carboniferous leading to the foreland deformation. The ensuing uplift in the Permian resulted in the deposition of continental red beds, which are associated with acidic magmatic rocks observed over the foreland as well as over the BASSAC Block. In the Black Sea region, there was no terminal collision of Laurussia with Gondwana during the Late Paleozoic and the Laurussia margin continued to face the Paleo-Tethyan ocean in the south.

  4. The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayazit Yunusbayev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language's expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM, an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01 compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors.

  5. THE APTIAN STRATIGRAPHY OF SOUTHERN TUARKYR (NW TURKMENISTAN, CENTRAL ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO CECCA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The ammonite successions of Turkmenistan, particularly those of the Greater Balkhan and Tuarkyr areas, are considered references for the Aptian Stage. Six sections across the uppermost Barremian - basal Upper Aptian interval were studied in the Tuarkyr desert in October 1997,and ammonites and bivalves were collected. Data are compared with those from a section sampled by a Russian team in 1959. The stratigraphic distribution of the faunas in the sections is discontinuous, as the fossiliferous levels intercalate with terrigenous sediments. The ammonite faunas, at least in the intervals sampled, show low diversity and are dominated by the genus Deshayesites in the lower Aptian and the genus Epicheloniceras, associated with the less common Caspianites, in the basal upper Aptian. The Turkmenistan sections contain species present also in the Caucasus, England, Germany, France and Switzerland, indicating that the Turkmenian faunas reflect impoverishement rather than geographic isolation. The chronologic equivalence between the Turkmenian Epicheloniceras subnodosocostatum Zone and the Epicheloniceras martinioides Zone in England seems questionable because the Epicheloniceras-bearing beds of the Tuarkyr correspond to the upper part of the E. martinioides Zone, i. e. the Epicheloniceras buxtorfi Subzone. The bivalve fauna consists mainly of pteriids, Exogyrinae oysters and trigoniids. These groups undoubtedly indicate a very shallow, fairly warm and fully marine environment, typical of the Tethyan Lower Cretaceous. The heterodonts are too rare to give further bathymetric indications. None of the taxa indicate deep burrowing and all are assumed to be ?? littoral. The bivalve fauna shows strong affinities with that of the English Lower Greensand. 

  6. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Mustafayev, Eldar; Candresse, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus) and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV) for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina) from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV) has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus) in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus) may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070. PMID:26086395

  7. Ancient genomes link early farmers from Atapuerca in Spain to modern-day Basques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2015-09-22

    The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe--one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory--is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers. The proportion of hunter-gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665

  8. The genetic legacy of the expansion of Turkic-speaking nomads across Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Valeev, Albert; Litvinov, Sergei; Valiev, Ruslan; Akhmetova, Vita; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Dalimova, Dilbar; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Tambets, Kristiina; Fedorova, Sardana; Barashkov, Nikolay; Khidiyatova, Irina; Mihailov, Evelin; Khusainova, Rita; Damba, Larisa; Derenko, Miroslava; Malyarchuk, Boris; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Kivisild, Toomas; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Villems, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Turkic peoples represent a diverse collection of ethnic groups defined by the Turkic languages. These groups have dispersed across a vast area, including Siberia, Northwest China, Central Asia, East Europe, the Caucasus, Anatolia, the Middle East, and Afghanistan. The origin and early dispersal history of the Turkic peoples is disputed, with candidates for their ancient homeland ranging from the Transcaspian steppe to Manchuria in Northeast Asia. Previous genetic studies have not identified a clear-cut unifying genetic signal for the Turkic peoples, which lends support for language replacement rather than demic diffusion as the model for the Turkic language's expansion. We addressed the genetic origin of 373 individuals from 22 Turkic-speaking populations, representing their current geographic range, by analyzing genome-wide high-density genotype data. In agreement with the elite dominance model of language expansion most of the Turkic peoples studied genetically resemble their geographic neighbors. However, western Turkic peoples sampled across West Eurasia shared an excess of long chromosomal tracts that are identical by descent (IBD) with populations from present-day South Siberia and Mongolia (SSM), an area where historians center a series of early Turkic and non-Turkic steppe polities. While SSM matching IBD tracts (> 1cM) are also observed in non-Turkic populations, Turkic peoples demonstrate a higher percentage of such tracts (p-values ≤ 0.01) compared to their non-Turkic neighbors. Finally, we used the ALDER method and inferred admixture dates (~9th-17th centuries) that overlap with the Turkic migrations of the 5th-16th centuries. Thus, our results indicate historical admixture among Turkic peoples, and the recent shared ancestry with modern populations in SSM supports one of the hypothesized homelands for their nomadic Turkic and related Mongolic ancestors. PMID:25898006

  9. High-Precise Gravity Observations at Archaeological Sites: How We Can Improve the Interpretation Effectiveness and Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity investigations are comparatively rarely used for searching of hidden ancient targets (e.g., Eppelbaum, 2013). It is caused mainly by small geometric size of the desired archaeological objects and various types of noise complicating the observed useful signal. At the same time, development of modern generation of field gravimetric equipment allows to register microGal (10-8 m/s2) anomalies that offer a new challenge in this direction. Correspondingly, an accuracy of gravity variometers (gradientometers) is also sharply increased. How we can improve the interpretation effectiveness and reliability? Undoubtedly, it must be a multi-stage process. I believe that we must begin since nonconventional methodologies for reducing topographic effect and terrain correction computation. Topographic effect reducing The possibilities of reducing topographic effects by grouping the points of additional gravimetric observations around the central point located on the survey network were demonstrated in (Khesin et al., 1996). A group of 4 to 8 additional points is located above and below along the relief approximately symmetrically and equidistant from the central point. The topographic effect is reduced to the obtained difference between the gravity field in the center of the group and its mean value for the whole group. Application of this methodology in the gold-pyrite deposit Gyzyl-Bulakh (Lesser Caucasus, western Azerbaijan) indicated its effectiveness. Computation of terrain correction Some geophysicists compare the new ideas in the field of terrain correction (TC) in gravimetry with the 'perpetuum mobile' invention. However, when we speak about very detailed gravity observations, the problem of most optimal computation of surrounding relief influence is of a great importance. Let us will consider two approaches applied earlier in ore geophysics. First approach A first method was applied in the Gyzyl-Bulakh gold-pyrite deposit situated in the Mekhmana ore region of

  10. Genetic structure and differentiation of Psathyrostachys huashanica populations detected with RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; YANG Juan; GUO Jing; ZHAO Guifang

    2007-01-01

    Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng is a perennial grass and belongs to genus Psathyrostachys under Triticeae.sathyrostachys is found in the center of Middle Asia and the Caucasus Mountain,while P.huashanica,a species endemic to China,is only located in Mt.Hua in the Shaanxi province,China.At present,the population of this species is decreasing,and reaching the edge of extinction.Due to the limitation in distribution and the importance as breeding material for germplasm storage,it has been considered as first class among the national protected rare plants.For this reason,the present study is significant in probing plant flora,origin and evolution of Triticeae,and crop breeding.Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)markers were used to analyze the genetic structure and differentiation of P.huashanica populations sampled in three valleys (Huangpu,Xian,and Huashan Valleys)in Mr.Hua.One hundred and twenty-two RAPDfragments were obtained in all 266 individuals with 20 primers with a mean of 6.1 (2-10)fragments per primer.The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPB)was 60.66%in Huangpu Valley,90.98%in Xian Valley,95.08%in Huashan Valley,and the total PPB was 95.08%,which indicated a highly genetic variability of P.huashanica.The Shannon's Information index and GST were 0.3306 and 0.3263,respectively,indicating that there were more genetic variations within the subpopulations than those among the subpopulations.The gene flow among the subpopulations of P.huashanica (Nm=1.0322)was much less than that of the common anemophytes (Nm=5.24).Mean genetic distance is 0.1571(range:0.0022-0.2901).The highest value of genetic distance was found between the subpopulation (hp1)of Huangpu Valley and the highest altitude subpopulation (h8)of Huashan Valley.Correlation analysis detected significant correlation between genetic distance and vertical distance of altitude.Clustering analysis and principal coordinate analysis revealed the genetic differentiation among the populations of P

  11. [Ethnic conflicts and environmental degradation in Central Asia. The Ferghana valley and northern Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, B

    1996-01-01

    This work seeks to demonstrate that the combination of ecological degradation, demographic pressure, and ethnic heterogeneity in Central Asia constitute a serious threat to the future stability of the region. The predominantly rural Ferghana Valley and Northern Kazakhstan suffer from shortages of water and land and from unemployment that leads to extensive out-migration to cities suffering from decline in their Soviet-era industries. The problem in the Ferghana Valley began with Tsarist conquest of the valley in 1876 and the subsequent imposition of cotton cultivation, which was greatly expanded by the Soviet Union. The Ferghana Valley, despite being a natural unit, was divided between Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan in the 1920s and 1930s, and remains divided between the independent states. The current population of 11 million is ethnically diverse, with Uzbeks in the majority and increasing most rapidly. Immigration from the Caucasus since 1950 added to the tension. Future peace will depend on such factors as whether the neo-Communist political regime chooses to incite ethnic hostilities, the manner in which land is redistributed, and the outcome of struggles for control of the flourishing narcotics trade. The northern Kazakhstan region was designated a pioneer wheat-growing region by Soviet planners in 1954. Russian and Ukrainian migrants established between 1954 and 1956 are today the predominant population sector, but feel their privileged position threatened by nationalist policies making Kazakh the official language and giving preference in employment to Kazakhs. Resettlement of Kazakhs from Mongolia, China, and Afghanistan in the region and the high Kazakh birth rate increase tensions. Grain production initially grew rapidly, but the mediocre soil and erosion-inducing constant dry winds have caused production to stagnate or decline. Regional disputes within Kazakhstan complicate the situation. Northern Kazakhstan, with its industrial development, is

  12. Poverty and Perseverance: The Jesuit Mission of Isfahan and Shamakhi in Late Safavid Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthee, Rudi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the presence and activities of the Jesuits in early modern Iran, a topic that, to date, has received little attention in English-language scholarship. It examines their motives for wanting to establish a permanent mission in Safavid territory in the mid-seventeenth century—a desire to bring Iran’s Gregorian Armenians under papal jurisdiction and, in part, their search for an overland route to India and China free from Portuguese influence—and discusses these in the context of Iranian concerns and interests. The study’s particular focus is the role of French and Polish Jesuits in the establishment of a mission in Isfahan and the subsequent creation of an outpost in Shamakhi, located in the Safavid-held part of the Caucasus, on the trade route between Iran and Russia. It concludes by evaluating their (meager accomplishments despite perseverance in the face of poverty and loneliness.Este trabajo estudia la presencia y las actividades jesuitas en Irán a comienzos de la época moderna, tema que hasta ahora ha recibido poca atención por parte de la investigación anglosajona. Se examinan algunos de los motivos que tuvieron los jesuitas por establecer una misión permanente en territorio Safaví a mediados del siglo XVII: el deseo de integrar a los Armenios Gregorianos de Irán bajo el dominio papal y buscar una ruta terrestre hacia India y China libre de influencia portuguesa. Estos motivos son discutidos en este trabajo teniendo en cuenta, sobre todo, los intereses y preocupaciones iraníes. Este estudio está dedicado, sobre todo, a estudiar el papel que jugaron los jesuitas franceses y polacos en el establecimiento de una misión en Isfahán, así como la posterior creación de un puesto en Shamakhi, situado en la parte Safaví del Cáucaso, en la ruta comercial entre Irán y Rusia. Este trabajo concluye con una evaluación de los exiguos logros obtenidos en esas misiones, a pesar de la perseverancia de sus actores

  13. An integrated, open-source set of tools for urban vulnerability monitoring from Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Aurelio Galeazzo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Aim: The paper introduces an integrated set of open-source tools designed to process medium and high-resolution imagery with the aim to extract vulnerability indicators [1]. Problem: In the context of risk monitoring [2], a series of vulnerability proxies can be defined, such as the extension of a built-up area or buildings regularity [3]. Different open-source C and Python libraries are already available for image processing and geospatial information (e.g. OrfeoToolbox, OpenCV and GDAL). They include basic processing tools but not vulnerability-oriented workflows. Therefore, it is of significant importance to provide end-users with a set of tools capable to return information at a higher level. Solution: The proposed set of python algorithms is a combination of low-level image processing and geospatial information handling tools along with high-level workflows. In particular, two main products are released under the GPL license: source code, developers-oriented, and a QGIS plugin. These tools were produced within the SENSUM project framework (ended December 2014) where the main focus was on earthquake and landslide risk. Further development and maintenance is guaranteed by the decision to include them in the platform designed within the FP 7 RASOR project . Conclusion: With the lack of a unified software suite for vulnerability indicators extraction, the proposed solution can provide inputs for already available models like the Global Earthquake Model. The inclusion of the proposed set of algorithms within the RASOR platforms can guarantee support and enlarge the community of end-users. Keywords: Vulnerability monitoring, remote sensing, optical imagery, open-source software tools References [1] M. Harb, D. De Vecchi, F. Dell'Acqua, "Remote sensing-based vulnerability proxies in the EU FP7 project SENSUM", Symposium on earthquake and landslide risk in Central Asia and Caucasus: exploiting remote sensing and geo-spatial information management, 29-30th January 2014

  14. [Structural variability of the lithorheophile macrobenthos communities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoprud, M V

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the abundance of taxa and life forms of lithorheophile macrobenthos and its variability were studied based on 200 quantitative samples from six territories of the Palaearctic (Moscow province, northwestern Caucasus, eastern Carpathians, northern Karelia, South Urals, and Altai mountains). The set of taxa predominant in the communities and their ecology are described. It is found that community structure varies strongly, depending on the characteristics of each region, on the size of the watercourse, and on the season. Six types of biocenoses are recognized by means of the Braun-Blanquet method, each characterized by its peculiar set of predominant life forms and families rather similar in different territories. The differences between these types are related to the size and the hydrological conditions of the watercourse. Biocenosis 1 is typical to smal brooks (up to 0.01-0.1 m3/s), characterised by the predominance of detritophagous animals non-specific to the type of food (Gammarus, Nemoura, Limnephilidae). In biocenosis 2a (large brooks with water flow 0.03-0.3 m3/s and velocity 0.1-0.3 m/s), almost immobile shell scrapers (Ancylus, Silo, Agapetes, Glossosoma) are predominant. Biocenosis 2b (large brooks with velocity 0.3-0.5 m/s) have a more or less balanced set of fundamental lithorheophile life forms. Biocenosis 2c (large mountain brooks with velocity 0.5-1 m/s) is characterised by specialized scrapers of the rapids (Epeorus and Diomesa) and filterers (Simuliidae). In biocenosis 3 (small rivers), sedentary filterers (Hydropsychidae, Simulliidae) are predominant; scrapers also play a significant role. Biocenosis 4 (rivers with water flow more than 3 m3/s, thick incrustations, and silted stones on the bottom) has predominant filterers (Hydropsychidae) and vermiform algophagous animals inside the incrustations (Orthocladius, Psychomyia). Significant variability in community structure unrelated to the environmental factors is revealed

  15. Active NE-SW Compressional Strain Within the Arabian Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, M. A.; ArRajehi, A.; King, R. W.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R. E.; Douad, M.; Sholan, J.; Bou-Rabee, F.

    2012-12-01

    Motion of the Arabian plate with respect to Eurasia has been remarkably steady over more than 25 Myr as revealed by comparison of geodetic and plate tectonic reconstructions (e.g., McQuarrie et al., 2003, GRL; ArRajehi et al., 2010, Tectonics). While internal plate deformation is small in comparison to the rate of Arabia-Eurasia convergence, the improved resolution of GPS observations indicate ~ NE-SW compressional strain that appears to affect much of the plate south of latitude ~ 30°N. Seven ~ NE-SW oriented inter-station baselines all indicated shortening at rates in the range of 0.5-2 mm/yr, for the most part with 1-sigma velocity uncertainties < 0.4 mm/yr. Plate-scale strain rates exceed 2×10-9/yr. The spatial distribution of strain can not be resolved from the sparse available data, but strain appears to extend at least to Riyadh, KSA, ~ 600 km west of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt that forms the eastern, collisional boundary of the Arabian plate with Eurasia (Iran). Geodetic velocities in the plate tectonic reference frame for Arabia, derived from magnetic anomalies in the Red Sea (Chu and Gordon, 1998, GJI), show no significant E-W motion for GPS stations located along the Red Sea coast (i.e., geodetic and plate tectonic spreading rates across the Red Sea agree within their resolution), in contrast to sites in the plate interior and along the east side of the plate that indicate east-directed motions. In addition, NE-SW contraction is roughly normal to ~ N-S striking major structural folds in the sedimentary rocks within the Arabian Platform. These relationships suggest that geodetically observed contraction has characterized the plate for at least the past ~ 3 Myr. Broad-scale contraction of the Arabian plate seems intuitively reasonable given that the east and north sides of the plate are dominated by active continental collision (Zagros, E Turkey/Caucasus) while the west and south sides are bordered by mid-ocean ridge spreading (Red Sea and Gulf of

  16. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of individual

  17. Prediction of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroups Within a Recently Settled Turkish Population in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Serkan; Doğan, Gŭlşen; Ašić, Adna; Besić, Larisa; Klimenta, Biljana; Hukić, Mirsada; Turan, Yusuf; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution is widely used when investigating geographical clustering of different populations, which is why it plays an important role in population genetics, human migration patterns and even in forensic investigations. Individual determination of these haplogroups is mostly based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located in the non-recombining part of Y-chromosome (NRY). On the other hand, the number of forensic and anthropology studies investigating short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) increases rapidly every year. During the last few years, these markers have been successfully used as haplogroup prediction methods, which is why they have been used in this study. Previously obtained Y-STR haplotypes (23 loci) from 100 unrelated Turkish males recently settled in Sarajevo were used for the determination of haplogroups via 'Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor' software. The Bayesian probability of 90 of the studied haplotypes is greater than 92.2% and ranges from 51.4% to 84.3% for the remaining 10 haplotypes. A distribution of 17 different haplogroups was found, with the Y- haplogroup J2a being most prevalent, having been found in 26% of all the samples, whereas R1b, G2a and R1a were less prevalent, covering a range of 10% to 15% of all the samples. Together, these four haplogroups account for 63% of all Y-chromosomes. Eleven haplogroups (E1b1b, G1, I1, I2a, I2b, J1, J2b, L, Q, R2, and T) range from 2% to 5%, while E1b1a and N are found in 1% of all samples. Obtained results indicate that a large majority of the Turkish paternal line belongs to West Asia, Europe Caucasus, Western Europe, Northeast Europe, Middle East, Russia, Anatolia, and Black Sea Y-chromosome lineages. As the distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups is consistent with the previously published data for the Turkish population residing in Turkey, it was concluded that the analyzed population could also be recognized as

  18. Present Situation of GPS Observations and Seismicity in and around Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Salah

    2016-07-01

    Egypt has suffered from a numerous of destructive earthquakes such as Aswan earthquake (1981, Mag 5.4) near the High dam, Dahshour earthquake (1992, Mag 5.9) near Cairo city and Aqaba earthquake (1995, Mag 7.2). As the category of earthquake damage includes all the phenomena related to the direct and indirect damages, the Egyptian authorities do a great effort to mitigate the earthquake disasters. The seismicity especially at the zones of high activity is investigated in details in order to obtain the active source zones not only by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) but also by the local seismic networks. Studies of crustal movements in Egypt started as early as 1983 following the occurrence of Aswan earthquake in 1981. The first program for monitoring the crustal deformation has been started in Aswan area during the winter of 1983. Since the year of 1994 till now (currently 24 CORS stations), the geodetic observations by means of Space Technique (GPS) were applied instead of the terrestrial ones to cover some other regions of the country. These regions include Sinai, Gulf of Suez, Greater Cairo, Aswan and the Middle part on the River Nile. Data adjustment and analysis of the repeated GPS campaigns from the different networks prevailed significant movements which may help in more understanding the geodynamics of these regions. In the meantime, GPS measurements of crustal motions for 189 sites extending east-west from the Caucasus Mountains to the Adriatic Sea and north-south from the southern edge of the Eurasian plate to the northern edge of the African plate were carried out to Estimate the plate motions at stations located at different plates. From the previous results, we could find there are some correlations between the computed surface deformation and the earthquake occurrences in Local and regional scales. In the regional scales, the Hellenic arc is the region which shows very well this correlation. While in the Local scales, there are some

  19. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  20. Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, N.; Arabidze, V.; Varazanashvili, O.; Gugeshashvili, T.

    2012-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment at a national level in Georgia Nino Tsereteli, Vakhtang Arabidze, Otar Varazanashvili, Tengiz Gugeshashvili The risk always exists when cities are built on. Population growth in cities and urbanization in natural hazard-prone zones leads to infrastructure expansion. The goal of the society is to construct natural hazards resistant infrastructure and minimize the expected losses. This is a complicated task as there is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard and vulnerability. Assessment of vulnerability is vital in risk analysis, as vulnerability is defined in many different ways. Work presented here mostly deals with assessment of infrastructure's and population vulnerability at national level in Georgia. This work was initiated by NATO SFP project "seismic Hazard and Risk Assessment for Southern Caucasus - Eastern Turkey Energy Corridors" and the two work packages WP4 (seismic risk) and WP5 (city scenarios) of risk module of EMME (Earthquake Model of the Middle East Region) project. First step was creation databases (inventory) of elements at risk in GIS. Element at risk were the buildings, population, pipelines. The inventories was studied and Created in GIS for the following categories: Building material, number of stories, number of entrances, condition of building, building period. For pipelines pipe tipe (continous or segmented), material, pipe diameter. Very important is to estimate the initial cost of building for assessment of economic losses. From this purpose the attempt was done and the algorithm of this estimation were prepared taking into account obtained the inventory. Build quality, reliability and durability are of special importance to corresponding state agencies and include different aesthetic, engineering, practical, social, technological and economical aspects. The necessity that all of these aspects satisfy existing normative requirements becomes evident as the building and structures come into exploitation

  1. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  2. [A phylogenetic analysis of plant communities of Teberda Biosphere Reserve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulakov, A A; Egorov, A V; Onipchenko, V G

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of communities is based on the comparison of distances on the phylogenetic tree between species of a community under study and those distances in random samples taken out of local flora. It makes it possible to determine to what extent a community composition is formed by more closely related species (i.e., "clustered") or, on the opposite, it is more even and includes species that are less related with each other. The first case is usually interpreted as a result of strong influence caused by abiotic factors, due to which species with similar ecology, a priori more closely related, would remain: In the second case, biotic factors, such as competition, may come to the fore and lead to forming a community out of distant clades due to divergence of their ecological niches: The aim of this' study Was Ad explore the phylogenetic structure in communities of the northwestern Caucasus at two spatial scales - the scale of area from 4 to 100 m2 and the smaller scale within a community. The list of local flora of the alpine belt has been composed using the database of geobotanic descriptions carried out in Teberda Biosphere Reserve at true altitudes exceeding.1800 m. It includes 585 species of flowering plants belonging to 57 families. Basal groups of flowering plants are.not represented in the list. At the scale of communities of three classes, namely Thlaspietea rotundifolii - commumties formed on screes and pebbles, Calluno-Ulicetea - alpine meadow, and Mulgedio-Aconitetea subalpine meadows, have not demonstrated significant distinction of phylogenetic structure. At intra level, for alpine meadows the larger share of closely related species. (clustered community) is detected. Significantly clustered happen to be those communities developing on rocks (class Asplenietea trichomanis) and alpine (class Juncetea trifidi). At the same time, alpine lichen proved to have even phylogenetic structure at the small scale. Alpine (class Salicetea herbaceae) that

  3. Stability versus Optimality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanloo, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is considered to be the largest inland body of water in the world, which located between the Caucasus Mountains and Central Asia. The Caspian Sea has been a source of the most contentious international conflicts between five littoral states now borders the sea: Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. The conflict over the legal status of this international body of water as an aftermath of the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since then the parties have been negotiating without coming up with any agreement neither on the ownerships of waters, nor the oil and natural gas beneath them. The number of involved stakeholders, the unusual characteristics of the Caspian Sea in considering it as a lake or a sea, and a large number of external parties are interested in the valuable resources of the Sea has made this conflict complex and unique. This paper intends to apply methods to find the best allocation schemes considering acceptability and stability of selected solution to share the Caspian Sea and its resources fairly and efficiently. Although, there are several allocation methods in solving such allocation problems, however, most of those seek a socially optimal solution that can satisfy majority of criteria or decision makers, while, in practice, especially in multi-nation problems, such solution may not be necessarily a stable solution and to be acceptable to all parties. Hence, there is need to apply a method that considers stability and acceptability of solutions to find a solution with high chance to be agreed upon that. Application of some distance-based methods in studying the Caspian Sea conflict provides some policy insights useful for finding solutions that can resolve the dispute. In this study, we use methods such as Goal Programming, Compromise Programming, and considering stability of solution the logic of Power Index is used to find a division rule that is stable negotiators. The results of this study shows that the

  4. Estimating the Locking Depth of the North Anatolian Fault in Eastern Turkey form InSAR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalie, O.; Jonsson, S.

    2010-12-01

    The eastern Mediterranean area is a zone of complex tectonics associated with interactions between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia, as well as the smaller Anatolian plate. The collision of Arabia into Eurasia in eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and the Zagros and a westward movement of the Anatolian plate dominate the tectonics in this region. Major right-lateral transform motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and a left-lateral transform motion along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) result from this setting. In the Southwest, the tectonics is dominated by the subduction of the African oceanic lithosphere along the Hellenic arc and extension in western Turkey, the Aegean and Greece. Geodetic data have been used to model the driving forces of the westward motion of Anatolia, with GPS measurements being the main source of information about the ongoing deformation. The GPS network is particularly dense around the NAF, where seismic hazard is high and becomes less dense in the mountains and the remote areas. In this study, we focus on the deformation of the eastern part of Turkey, close to the triple junction where the EAF and the NAF meet. We use InSAR data to obtain a much better spatial resolution of the deformation than is currently available by GPS. We used the Envisat archive from two descending tracks and three ascending tracks, which at this location includes about 30 acquisitions from each descending track, but only about 10 images from each ascending track. The main limitation of using InSAR in this area is phase decorrelation due to temporal changes of the ground scattering, in particular due to winter snow cover. In our analysis, we exclude winter scenes and increase the signal to noise ratio and the phase coherence by multilooking the interferograms. Moreover, we correct produced interferograms for a stratified tropospheric delay assuming that this delay depends linearly on elevation. To detect the tectonic signal associated with the EAF

  5. InSAR observations and modeling of plate behavior involved in the eastern Anatolia deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean area is a zone of complex tectonics associated with interactions between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia, as well as the smaller Anatolian plate. The collision of Arabia into Eurasia in eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and the Zagros and a westward movement of the Anatolian plate dominate the deformation in this region. Major right-lateral transform motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and a left-lateral transform motion along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) result from this setting. In this study, we focus on the deformation of the eastern part of Anatolia, around the triple junction where the EAF and the NAF meet. We use InSAR data to obtain higher spatial resolution of the deformation than is currently available by GPS. In particular, we are interested in mapping in details of how the Anatolian plate behaves at the triple junction where it is clamped between Arabia and Eurasia. For this purpose, we used SAR data from three adjacent descending tracks and two ascending tracks of the Envisat archive, which at this location includes about 30 acquisitions for each descending track, but only about 10 images for the ascending tracks. The main limitation of using InSAR in this region is phase decorrelation due to temporal changes of the ground scattering, in particular due to winter snow cover. To reduce the phase coherence loss, we adopt a small baseline approach in limiting both the spatial and temporal baseline of the interferograms, and we also exclude images acquired in winter. Moreover, we correct produced interferograms for the stratified part of the atmospheric delay using the global atmospheric model, ECMWF. Corrected interferograms are then combined together to infer the time series of the ground surface displacement via a least square method. In order to model the Anatolian plate movement, we assume a constant velocity during the observation period. We use an interseismic back-slip model in a homogeneous, elastic

  6. The strategic importance of the English military bases in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyalp Tamçelik

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the primary goal of this research is to display Cyprus's political significance and the strategic merit of its military bases for the United Kingdom.While Englishmen have explained the strategic importance of the island, they have indicated that Cyprus has taken on a highly significant role within the rather complex region of the Middle East, the Caucasus, Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean. In this situation, in order to become more dominant either in the Eastern Mediterranean or in the Middle East, the English have been against the existence of an issue known as the Cyprus question. After all, it is for sure that stable peace in Cyprus which is directly related to issues such as the route of the oil pipelines, the Arab-Israeli peace process and the determination of Iraq's future, will suit the United Kingdom's interests the most. Therefore, it is necessary for stable peace to be maintained urgently in Cyprus.Actually, the United Kingdom's strategic interest in Cyprus could be evaluated from two angles. The first angle is to minimize or if possible, to eliminate the effectiveness and opportunities of powers which could prevent their national interests in this region. The second is to clearly take advantage of the island through the means of the dominant military bases.However, the existence of these military bases, established after the Second World War, has failed to be thoroughly discussed until now. Yet, as much as the existence of the Turkish troops on the island, the existence of the military bases is also a matter which should be brought to the agenda. But, by directing all the reactions received from world public opinion to the existence of the Turkish troops in the North, the English have prevented the discussion of the absolute domination of the English military bases on the island.Based on this reality, the research is composed of two main sections. The first section has dealt with and examined the geopolitical

  7. Uus-babüloonia kroonika ja vana-pärsiakeelne raidkiri Artaxerxes III Ochose valitsemisajast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sazonov

    2011-04-01

    of Macedonia invaded with his victorious Greek-Macedonian army and during 4–5 years (334–330/329 destroyed the Persian Empire andafterwards conquered the whole of the Middle East from the Hellespont to the Indus Valley, from Egypt to the Caucasus, and died in Babylon 323 BC, when he was only 32 years old.

  8. From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? Game of chess of the world power between preventive war and futurable raw material politics in the age of the greenhouse; Von kalten Energiestrategien zu heissen Rohstoffkriegen? Schachspiel der Weltmaechte zwischen Praeventivkrieg und zukunftsfaehiger Rohstoffpolitik im Zeitalter des globalen Treibhauses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roithner, T. (comp.)

    2008-07-01

    The 24th international summer academy, held in Stadtschlaining (Burgenland, Austria) between 8th July and 13th July, 2007, is engaged with the reasons to the conflicts and military conflicts at the end of the fossil energy age. The following lectures are held: (a) From cold power strategies to hot wars about raw materials? (Thomas Roithner); (b) Inauguration of the 24th international summer academy 2007 (Gerald Mader); (c) A change of consciousness also changes unconsciously the being (Hans Lukits); (d) Oil in fire - Conflicts of resources as a fuel for global discord (Wolfgang Sachs); (e) Safety discourses on both sides of the Atlantic - in times o peak oil and climatic change (Elmar Altvater); (f) From energy security to the war of resources: the resource politics of China, Russia and India (Andreas Zumach); (g) Why is there no alternative to the retreat from Afghanistan? (Peter Strutynski); (h) Do ''Peak Oil'' and nuclear energy solve the climate problem? (Helga Kromp-Kolb, Wolfgang kromp); (i) Water - the material from that conflicts consist? (Juerg Staudenmann, Karin Scheurer); (j) US strategy for the regions of Middle East and Caucasus in the unipolar world order (Matin Baraki); (k) What are the influences of oil on the conflict with Iran? (Udo Steinbach); (l) Geopolicy and resources: The grasp of the USA at Africa (Werner Ruf); (m) New colonization of Africa: China, USA and Europe in the struggle for resources (Karin Kneissl); (n) Securing resources and energy politics in Latin America: US politics, EU politics or independent world politics (Peter Stania); (o) More scarcely becoming raw materials - a source for armament and war planning? (Luehr Henken); (p) Battle groups - intervening groups for securing resources (Gunther Hauser); (q) Organization of the globalization as fateful question - which future lies before us? (Franz-Josef Radermacher); (r) No peace without change of renewable resources (Hermann Scheer); (s) Peaceable, forced or

  9. The Research of Antioxidant Activity of the Endemic Species of Onopordum Anatolicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. TAŞDELEN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As is the case elsewhere in the world, Turkish people have long utilized plants as remedies, food, fuel, and dye, as well as for furniture, ornamentation, agricultural tools, and construction materials. Onopordum is a valuable medicinal plant that is widely used in traditional medicine in Europe. The application of Onopordum as food is limited and its main importance is due to medicine utilization. Because of having flavonoid compositions, Onopordum is an important plant. The Genus Onopordum L. (Asteraceae includes about 38 species. The representatives of the genus are native to Europe, Northern Africa, the Canary Island, the Caucasus, Southwest and Central Asia. In Turkey, this genus is represented with 20 species, 6 of which are endemic. Onopordum (cotton thistle, also known as Scots or Scotch thistle species are biennials herbaceous plants with branched, spinose winged stems. They have application in medical practice as a bactericide, cardiotonic, and hemostatic agent and are used against hypotonicity. In this study antioxidant activities of ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzen extracts of some endemic Onopordum anatolicum (Boiss. Boiss. & Heldr. ex Eig seeds which are in Denizli were examined. DPPH and β-carotene-Linoleic acid methods were used in order to determinethe antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity (77% was seenin the extract which is obtained by using methanol catalyst. The lowest activity of antioxidant of the extracts is acetone (5%. In terms of impact, the strenght of antioxidant depends on the phenolic amount of it. For that purpose, O. anatolicum total fenolic content was calculated in terms of mg/ml gallic acid in the experiment performed by using Folin-Ciocaltaeu medhod. According to these values, the highest amount of phenolic compounds are in methanol and the lowest amount of phenolic compounds are in benzen. According to the results of the experiment performed by using DPPH method, it is obvious that the

  10. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing concern about extreme mass movements from combined ice-rock avalanches in glaciated environments areas in the light of increasing settlement activities in mountains and their forelands. Recent devastating events, such as those from Huascaran (Peru) in 1970 or Kolka (Caucasus) in 2002, have been an eye-opener in terms of the large run-out-distances and their hazard potential. At the same time there is a variety of topographic settings and distinct triggers of ice and rock failures, which leads in turn to a broad spectrum of multi-phase processes, such as the possible propagation of rock-ice-masses onto glacial surfaces with subsequent debris flows. These events are often not directly observable, and a sound interpretation of the sedimentary record is needed. However, the origin and process dynamics of giant debris accumulations in different mountain regions of the world is discussed increasingly controversially. In the last decade a lot of debris accumulations, which were classified formerly as moraines, were reinterpreted as products of mass movements. In this context, the study presented here, focuses on a case example from the upper Chapursan Valley at the Afghan-Pakistan border (Karakoram Range, Pakistan). The Chapursan Valley floor and the adjacent sediment cones are covered with an outstanding hummocky debris landscape over a length of about 10 km and a width of up to 1 km with individual hummocks reaching about 10 m in height. These landforms overlap with the zone of permanent settlement. According to local legends and reports of early travelers in this region, one of the largest settlement concentrations formerly occurred in the upper Chapursan Valley and was destroyed by a natural disaster. Geomorphological field investigations, sedimentological studies, a comparison of satellite images, an analysis of historical data and interviews with the local inhabitants were carried out to unravel the origin of the hummocky terrain. The results show

  11. Assurance of risk assessment and protection distant transportation and fall out of pollutants under large anthropogenic on nuclear power stations due to mountainous regional peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    experimental determination formalized so called 'climatic-regional parameters of finding out- transportation' Preliminary division into districts of the regions according to these parameters and for investigation according to designed strategies of experimental determination climatic-regional parameters of finding out-transportation raises reliability and speed of forecasting schemes that gives possibility to ensuring of location of polluted places. In case of realization of necessary measures greatly is reducing a risk and real damage. Introduced 'parameters' contain information about characteristics of transportation as well as real anthropogenic-ecologic load on environment and community. This gives possibility not only to consider geo-ecological peculiarities of the regions but also to determine the integral risks. Realized methodologies are verified in various scenarios in mountainous regions of South Caucasus, Central Asia

  12. 21世纪初波兰的东方政策及其制约因素%Poland’s Eastern Policy and Its Restricting Factors in the Early 21st Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳霞; 唐更田

    2013-01-01

      21世纪初,随着波兰“入约加盟”,东方问题开始凸显,积极活跃的东方政策遂成为波兰的优先外交政策。地缘政治与现实利益、历史积淀与文化传统以及精英集团的政策理念与公众情绪等各种复杂的国内外因素,决定21世纪波兰的东方政策仍以对俄政策为核心,防范俄罗斯对波兰的威胁是其主要战略意图,并以此为基础在一定程度上决定着波兰对乌克兰、白俄罗斯和南高加索等东欧中亚国家的政策。而欧盟、美国则成为波兰推行东方政策的主要借助力量,实现欧盟东方政策的“波兰化”是波兰实现东方政策的最理想方式。%In the early 21st century, with Poland’s accession to NATO, Eastern problem became prominent. An active eastern policy became a prior foreign policy. In the 21st century, Poland’s eastern policy still kept Russia as the center, which was decided by complex factors at home and abroad like geopolitics, practical interests, historical accumulation, cultural tradition, elite crew’s policy principle and public mood. Preventing Russian threaten was the main strategic idea, which also decided Poland’s policies toward Ukraine, Belarus and the Southern Caucasus, and other Central Asian Eastern Europe countries. EU and U.S.A. became Poland’s main relay powers to push“eastern policy”. Therefore, the“Polonization”of EU’s“eastern policy”was the best way to realize its own“eastern policy”.

  13. Present-day Stress Pattern of Turkey from Inversion of Updated Earthquake Focal Mechanism Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özacar, A.

    2011-12-01

    characterized by active crustal compression are; the northern tip of Bitlis Suture, Lesser Caucasus and Northern Zagros in the east; the Florence Rise, island of Crete and Cyprus in the west. Crustal extension is mainly limited to the Western Anatolia which displays multi-directed extension near Isparta Angle. Moreover, stress inversions of intermediate depth earthquakes related to African plate subduction indicate compression beneath Antalya Basin and deep strike-slip deformation near island of Rhodes supporting the presence of an active slab tear likely formed due to fast Aegean slab rollback.

  14. The Operation “Big Saturn”: Plan and Implementation Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochirov Utash Borisovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the plan of one of the most important operations of a radical turning point in the course of the Great Patriotic War. Initially, the plan, conceived as the development of Operation “Uranus” and resulted in the encirclement of the 6th Army headed by Field Marshall Paulus at Stalingrad, was called “Saturn”. However, after creating a shortened version of the name “Small Saturn”, it was called “Big Saturn”. The main purpose of “Saturn” was to conduct the strategic offensive with the help of four or five armies from middle Don and Chir towards Rostov-on-Don to withdraw the enemy Army Group “Don” and Army Group “A” from the Caucasus. The enemy army groups consisted of almost a third of the units of the Wehrmacht and its allies, who fought against the Soviet Union and their defeat or delay on the Taman Peninsula where there was no port capacity for rapid evacuation of such a large group of people, equipment and supplies, could significantly change the balance of forces on the Eastern front. Unfortunately, the Сhief of the General Staff of the Red Army Alexander Vasilevsky, who was initially in charge of the “Saturn” operation as the representative of Stavka (General Headquarters, was appointed by Stalin in late November as a coordinator of the Soviet troops, achieving the encirclement of the surrounded Paulus’s grouping. Vasilevsky, using his authority, managed to transfer a significant part of the strategic reserves from the middle Don direction firstly to the Stalingrad direction and then to the Kotelnikovsky direction against unlocking grouping of Manstein. The analysis of the forces of the Stalingrad Front, given in the article, shows that there were enough troops to repulse an attack. The transferred strategic reserves proved to be redundant, and their offensive on Rostov failed, while their usage according to the plan “Saturn” would have led to undeniable success. As a result, Manstein

  15. Active tectonics within the NW and SE extensions of the Pambak-Sevan-Syunik fault: Implications for the present geodynamics of Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Jeff; Avagyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, M.; Nazari, H.; Blard, P. H.; Karakhanian, A.; Philip, H.; Balescu, Sanda; Mahan, Shannon; Huot, Sebastien; Münch, P.; Lamothe, M.

    2016-01-01

    Caucasus-Kura-South Caspian region and brings a new insight into the present geodynamics of Armenia.

  16. New trend in endoscopic surgery: transvaginal appendectomy NOTES (Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabutsadze, T; Kipshidze, N

    2009-03-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery is a new method of mini invasive surgery, which involves passing surgical instruments, and a tiny camera, through a natural orifice, such as the mouth, vagina, urethra or rectum, what provides the access to the desired organ. The procedure is approved due to its benefits - less pain, quicker recoveries, fewer complications and no scar - as it lets us avoid major incisions through the skin, muscle and nerves of the abdomen. Besides that the transluminal access is considered to be the most safe and feasible for clinical application. Here are discussed the two operations of Transvaginal Appendectomy performed in Caucasus - Academician N. Kipshidze University Hospital in Tbilisi. The first patient - a 28-year woman, weight - 72 kg, height - 180 cm, married, has one child - was submitted to the hospital with anamnesis of 48 hours acute appendicitis, typical clinical semiotics and laboratory records. In the second case the patient was a 22-year old woman, height - 170 cm, weight - 68 kg, married, with 2 children. She was hospitalized with 24 hours acute appendicitis anamnesis and typical clinical semiotics and laboratory records. Both operations were performed under general anesthesia, using Karl Storz GmbH & Co. equipment. The duration of the first procedure was 76 minutes and the second operation lasted for 88 minutes. The operations were made without any technical difficulties or complications. None of the patients had the need of non-narcotic analgesia during the post-operational period. No gynecological or surgical problems or any complications were detected during the observation period. The patients had superior postoperative evolution, so the stationary stay made up 36 hours after the first operation and 30 hours after the second. Essentially NOTES is a new trend in endoscopic surgery - the non-scar surgery with major advantages compared to the conventional - the NOTES takes endoscopic surgery one step further in

  17. Prediction of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroups Within a Recently Settled Turkish Population in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Serkan; Doğan, Gŭlşen; Ašić, Adna; Besić, Larisa; Klimenta, Biljana; Hukić, Mirsada; Turan, Yusuf; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution is widely used when investigating geographical clustering of different populations, which is why it plays an important role in population genetics, human migration patterns and even in forensic investigations. Individual determination of these haplogroups is mostly based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located in the non-recombining part of Y-chromosome (NRY). On the other hand, the number of forensic and anthropology studies investigating short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) increases rapidly every year. During the last few years, these markers have been successfully used as haplogroup prediction methods, which is why they have been used in this study. Previously obtained Y-STR haplotypes (23 loci) from 100 unrelated Turkish males recently settled in Sarajevo were used for the determination of haplogroups via 'Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor' software. The Bayesian probability of 90 of the studied haplotypes is greater than 92.2% and ranges from 51.4% to 84.3% for the remaining 10 haplotypes. A distribution of 17 different haplogroups was found, with the Y- haplogroup J2a being most prevalent, having been found in 26% of all the samples, whereas R1b, G2a and R1a were less prevalent, covering a range of 10% to 15% of all the samples. Together, these four haplogroups account for 63% of all Y-chromosomes. Eleven haplogroups (E1b1b, G1, I1, I2a, I2b, J1, J2b, L, Q, R2, and T) range from 2% to 5%, while E1b1a and N are found in 1% of all samples. Obtained results indicate that a large majority of the Turkish paternal line belongs to West Asia, Europe Caucasus, Western Europe, Northeast Europe, Middle East, Russia, Anatolia, and Black Sea Y-chromosome lineages. As the distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups is consistent with the previously published data for the Turkish population residing in Turkey, it was concluded that the analyzed population could also be recognized as

  18. Study on the Late Permian Claraia in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Fengqing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Nakazawa, K., On Claraia of Kashmir and Iran, J. Paleont. Soc. Idia., 1977, 20: 194-204.[2]Kulikov, M. V., Tkachuk, G. A., On finding of Claraia (Bivalvia) in Upper Permian deposits of Northern Caucasus,Doklady Akad. Nauk. USSR, 1979, 245(4): 905-908.[3]Yin. H. F.. Uppermost Permian (Changxingian) Pectinacea from South China, Riv. Ital. Paleont., 1982, 88(3): 337-386.[4]Yin. H. F.. Bivalves near the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China, J. Paleo.,1985, 59(3): 572-600.[5]Yang. Z. Y.. Yin H. F., Wu, S. B. et al., Permian-Triassic Boundary Stratigraphy and Fauna of South China (in Chinese).Geological Memoirs, Ser. 2, No. 6, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987, 56-57, 236-237.[6]Guo. F. X.. Bivalves Fossil of Yunnan (in Chinese), Kunming: Yunnan Technology Press, 1985.[7]Fang. Z. J., Discussion on Late Permian “Claraia”, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese),1993, 2(6):653-661.[8]Zhang. Z. M.. Discussion on the ligament structure of Claraia and its evolution, Act. Palaeo. Sini. (in Chinese), 1980,19(6): 433-443.[9]Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Academia Sinica, The Bivalves of China (in Chinese), Beijing: Science Press, 1976.[10]Zhou. Z. R.. Two ecological types of Permian Ammonoids, Science in China (in Chinese), Ser. B, 1985, (7): 648-657.[11] Stanley. S. M., Relation of shell form to life habitats of the Bivalvia (Mollusca), Geol. Soc. Amer., 1970, 125: 1-496.[12]Stanley, S. M.. tunctional morphology and evolution of byssally attached bivalve mollusks, J. Paleont, 1972, 46(2): 165-207.[13]Yin, H. F.. Ding, M. H., Zhang, K. X. et al., Late Permian-Middle Triassic Ecostratigraphy of the Yangtze Platform and Its Margins, Beijing: Science Press, 1995, 69-76.[14]Leonardi, E. Trias inferiore delle Venezie, Mem. Inst. Geol. Univ. Padova., 1935, II, 1-136.[15]Ichikawa. K. Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Triadischen Pteriidae (Lamellibranch), Palaeotog., 1958, III, A, 132-212.

  19. The Glinka Memorial Soil Monolith Collection: a treasure of Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, C. C.; Spaargaren, O.; Hartemink, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    The first World Congress of Soil Science, held in 1927 in Washington DC, USA, had as one of its highlights the exposition of soils from all over the world. The Russian delegation had planned the presentation of 50 soil monoliths. The soil profiles were collected under the supervision of Konstantin D. Glinka, then director of the Leningrad Agricultural Institute. The soil profiles included a geographical sequence form St Petersburg to the Caucasus and soils from Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Amu Darya region and the Siberian Far East. Due to shipping problems they did not arrive on time for the congress, and ended up in an USDA storage facility, where they remained untouched in their original wooden boxes. At first congress Glinka gave a lecture on Dokuchaev's ideas and the Russian developments on soil science, and joined the transcontinental field trip of 30 days that followed the congress. At that congress, Glinka was elected president of the International Soil Science Society, and was in charge to organize the next congress in Russia. However, he passed away a few months after the congress. In the 1970s, after a consultation with Wim Sombroek, then director of the International Soil Museum (ISM) in the Netherlands, the collection was donated to ISRIC by the US Soil Conservation Service. The soil profiles were shipped over in 1980 to become part of the collection of the Museum. The collection was named as "Glinka Memorial Collection" in agreement with the Dokuchaev Soil Institute, Moscow and the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Washington. The monoliths were treated with a sugar solution by the Russians before shipment to the USA, this way keeping a good preservation quality. They were aimed for a single exhibition and for that they were poorly documented and lacked additional samples. In the early 1990s a project for revisit the sites was set up and six sites around St Petersburg were sampled for a comparative study of the soils within a time span of 70

  20. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a