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Sample records for caucasus

  1. Colloquium on Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  2. Geopolitical Risks in the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya M.Goryushina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the geopolitical risks in the Caucasus, as well as the scope of sources dedicated to the identification of geopolitical risks in the region. The advantages and disadvantages of geopolitical analysis and risks are described. The sources dealing with the research subject which has been actualized on a background of Crimean events 2014, is also provided. In that period, many experts talked again about the revival of geopolitical confrontation in the world and returned to the rhetoric of the Cold War. The author touched upon the issue of the lack of highly specialized analytical reports on the North Caucasus in the context of geopolitical risks and the risks of international terrorism. Therefore, special attention is paid to terrorism as one of the most important geopolitical risks in the context of the ongoing Syrian crisis, and the active role of the “Islamic state”.

  3. Earthquake Catalogue of the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Gok, R.; Tvaradze, N.; Tumanova, N.; Gunia, I.; Onur, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350 (Ms˜7.0, Io=9); and the Alaverdi earthquake of 1742 (Ms˜6.8, Io=9). Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088 (Ms˜6.5, Io=9) and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899 (Ms˜6.3, Io =8-9). Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; Racha earthquake of 1991 (Ms=7.0), is the largest event ever recorded in the region; Barisakho earthquake of 1992 (M=6.5); Spitak earthquake of 1988 (Ms=6.9, 100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of the various national networks (Georgia (˜25 stations), Azerbaijan (˜35 stations), Armenia (˜14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. In order to improve seismic data quality a catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences/NSMC, Ilia State University) in the framework of regional joint project (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, USA) "Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) in the Caucasus. The catalogue consists of more then 80,000 events. First arrivals of each earthquake of Mw>=4.0 have been carefully examined. To reduce calculation errors, we corrected arrivals from the seismic records. We improved locations of the events and recalculate Moment magnitudes in order to obtain unified magnitude

  4. Colloquium on Caucasus; Colloque sur le Caucase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of a colloquium organized by the French senate on Caucasus. Caucasus encompasses three countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. In their presentations, the different participants stress on some particular political-economical aspects of this region: present day economic status, role in the development of central Asia, political stability of South Caucasus, influence of foreign countries (Russia, USA), relations with the European Union, the energy, road and rail paths, the stakes of Azerbaijan on the petroleum scene (hydrocarbons production and transit), hydrocarbons exploitation in Azerbaijan (regional cooperation, foreign investments, profits), experience of foreign companies working in Caucasus countries (beverage industry), juridical framework of investments made in Caucasus countries, business reality in these countries. (J.S.)

  5. The North Caucasus Insurgency: Dead or Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    has spread to embrace virtually all of the North Caucasus, as Mos- cow fights a self-proclaimed jihadi organization, the Caucasus Emirate (CE). In...crowded subway stations in Mos- cow were targeted by suicide bombers, resulting in 3 the deaths of 40 civilians. In January 2011, a bomb ex- ploded in...sibly even thousands of individuals have later joined local Salafi-jihadist groups. This, in turn, has created 24 a vicious cycle of retaliation and

  6. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Marabyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  7. State building and conflict resolution in the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, C.

    2010-01-01

    State building processes in the Caucasus are influenced by the culture of the Caucasus, and previous experiences with state building after World War I. The conflicts which erupted at the time have influenced territorial claims. The role of foreign powers as Russia, the United States, Turkey, Germany

  8. Tectonic comparisons of Caucasus and California cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhern, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    Many parallels exist between the Caucasus region, shaped as the Eurasian and Arabian-African plates converged during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny, and California, where the North American and Pacific plates interact. The Forecaucasian platform hosts many large oil and gas fields in molasse-filled foredeeps of high heat flow. Production is from Permian to Pliocene tight anticlines on reverse faults, diapiric structures, shoe-string sands of the prolific Maikop series, and Tertiary fanglomerates and sand lenses. Although not an exact parallel, this production suggests potential in Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine and Tertiary fanglomeratic, tuffaceous, and fluvial sediments in basins of the sparsely drilled Basin and Range. The Greater Caucasus, like the Sierra Nevada, show Paleozoic-Mesozoic geosynclinal sedimentation, subduction, and granitic magmatism. The former have undergone much folding, thrusting, and Quaternary volcanism. Jurassic bituminous limestone is exposed, a source for the petroliferous Transcaucasian Intermontane depression. The latter is filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic flysch and molasse and, like California's Great Valley forearc basin, orogenic terrane and permeable soils favor enology. Sources also include Eocene and Miocene diatomaceous and bituminous clays. Reservoirs include prolific Pliocene sands, Eocene olistostromes, fractured tuffaceous rocks, and Cretaceous-Miocene sandstones in anticlines and stratigraphic traps. Migration to basin flanks was aided by compression. The Lesser Caucasus, a continuation of the main ophiolite foldbelt of Turkey, shares a subduction and accretionary history with the Franciscan melange. This microplate was obducted to Eurasia as the prong-shaped Arabian plate moved it and other microplates of the east Mediterranean in several directions (the Turkish microplate dextrally along the North Anatolian transform fault) and deformed wide areas.

  9. Potential Russian Nuclear Contingencies in the Caucasus: Implications for NATO

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...; and a conflict involving Turkey. The Caucasus is the region in which it is most plausible that Russia might resort to nuclear weapons in extreme circumstances This region has been in turmoil since the collapse of the Soviet Union...

  10. Radioecological monitoring of south Caucasus - main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S; Chazaradze, R.E.; Katamadze, N.M.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Chxartishvili, A.G.; Gugushvili, B.S.; Tsitskishvili, N.B.; Saneblidze, O.I.

    2002-01-01

    Basing in surrounding ambience at present radioactive on its origin possible to split into two main groups: artificial and natural radioactive. How is obvious from the most names, natural based in the nature nearly with first days of its shaping and are its by the component. Artificial - not existed or not saved in the nature - having radioactive characteristics isotopes 'appeared' as a result artificial doing atoms. Getting into surrounding ambience as a result person activity artificial (systematically or episodic detectable there) possible conditionally split into three subgroups. Artificial radioactive isotopes, got into surrounding natural ambience as a result anthropogenic activity, in principal (ecological) are distinguished from the natural radioactive isotopes by fetters and particularities to migration on ecological chains, but, consequently, and nature 'influence'. Sufficiently remind that if in biosphere practically no ecological niches, in which goes an accumulation natural, capable to give significant dozing effect; for the artificial (isotopes of iodine, isotopes a strontium, caesium) exactly ability be accumulated in separate 'niches' ecological chain or in separate organs or weaving an organism (thyroid gland for the iodine) do artificial radioisotopes hygienic extremely dangerous. Location of Caucasus in the area of approximate location of firing ranges of test, (after the series 1961-1962 conducted by USSR in the North hemisphere this were test China) and damages on Chernobyl, in the area of most intensity stratosphere - troposphere exchange, manifests themselves: 1. Early approach spring-year maximum; 2. More clear maximum in the seasonal move; 3. The Greater fallout levels in contrast with other regions of country; 4. The Greater 'sensitivity' to 'fresh' products. Structure of global fallout on the under investigation region is stipulated: 1. Decreasing the fallout levels from the north on the south. 2. Vertical fallout levels (growth with the

  11. COMPOSITION AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAMMALS OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batchiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Subject, theme, aim of the work. The Caucasus is a mountainous country with very rich natural environment, which defines a large variety of wildlife in the region, the complexity of its fauna. On this basis, the aim of the work was to study the composition of each mammal species fauna and selection on this basis mammals of the Caucasus, the structure of each species area and selection on this basis the ecological and faunal groups, types of mammalian fauna of the Caucasus, in the integration of them in zoogeographical complexes. It was made the attempt to conduct an objective zoogeographical analysis of Caucasus theriofauna at the present material.Methods. The main research method was a zoogeographical method. We studied the composition, distribution of Caucasus theriofauna species, determined the habitat optimum and the geometric center of the area, the ecological specificity of each species, and its compliance with the optimum selected habitat conditions. On this basis and taking into account the history of the fauna formation and its genetic makeup, we distinguished the ecological faunal groups that served as the basis for the allocation of fauna types and combining them into zoogeographical complexes.Results. It has been identified a total species composition and it has been obtained an objective picture of the Caucasus mammals distribution on the established ecological and faunal groups on the basis of the environmental features analysis of the species needs, revealing their locations and the optimum concentration of population in the area of distribution. Three new ecological and faunal groups of mammals has been proposed to use in the Caucasus, one of which is a Caucasian mountain-steppe, for the first time. The list of endemic and relict theriofauna of the Caucasus has been defined. The basis for a complete analysis of theriofauna zoogeographical region has been prepared. The area of results application. The

  12. FOREIGN POLICY ON THE SLOPES OF CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila IAKOB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The past years showed to the world and to the European Union that classical approaches are not enough to be a power breaker in the Caucasian region, where the overlap of history, myth, and cultures creates a unique geopolitical context marked by century old grudges and imaginary or real socio-economical issues. It is clear that concepts like “ring of friends” or Eastern Partnership need a rebranding and an upgrade due to contemporary context changes. Russian expansion, Turkish political shifts, Ukrainian crisis, Iranian ambitions, Kurd issues, energy policies and socio-economical convulsions are defining the new shape of the geographical areas on both side of the Caucasus Mountain. In this context the European leadership needs to rethink the foreign policy approach to the region and to create a new set of actions in this context. This difficult task is needed not only from the perspective of Europe’s energetic security but from the point of regional stability, because Europe and its global development depend on its involvement in the neighboring regions. From this perspective our paper would like to analyze and create a realistic image on the dynamic of the relations of EU with the countries in this region and the perspectives in the contemporary context where the overlapping geopolitical interests are making this region a key one for several future issues.

  13. Eight millennia of matrilineal genetic continuity in the South Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaryan, Ashot; Derenko, Miroslava; Hovhannisyan, Hrant

    2017-01-01

    The South Caucasus, situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, geographically links Europe with the Near East and has served as a crossroad for human migrations for many millennia [1–7]. Despite a vast archaeological record showing distinct cultural turnovers, the demographic events that shaped...... documented cultural shifts in the South Caucasus across this time period, our results strongly favor a genetic continuity model in the maternal gene pool. This has implications for interpreting prehistoric migration dynamics and cultural shifts in this part of the world.......The South Caucasus, situated between the Black and Caspian Seas, geographically links Europe with the Near East and has served as a crossroad for human migrations for many millennia [1–7]. Despite a vast archaeological record showing distinct cultural turnovers, the demographic events that shaped...

  14. Active tectonics of central-western Caucasus, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, N.; Tibaldi, A.; Alania, V.; Gventsadse, A.; Enukidze, O.; Varazanashvili, O.; Müller, B. I. R.

    2016-11-01

    This work contributes to a better knowledge of potentially seismogenic faults of the Georgia Greater and Lesser Caucasus by evaluating the distribution of earthquake foci, active tectonic stress field, kinematics and geometry of main fault planes. We consider all the information coming from field structural geology, geomorphology, seismological data from historical and instrumental catalogues, seismic reflection sections, as well as new focal mechanism solutions. These data enable recognizing some active ENE-WSW reverse faults in the core of the Greater Caucasus that are parallel to the mountain range. At the southernmost front of the Greater Caucasus, a series of main thrusts dipping towards NNE are active, with up to hundreds-km-long segments; along this thrust zone, a potentially locked segment is present, about 90 km long. The studied section of the Lesser Caucasus has active structures along the northern front given by south-dipping thrusts, as well as in the central core where strike-slip and oblique faults coexist. The Transcaucasian depression between the two mountain ranges shows an ongoing inversion tectonics of the central part of the Rioni Basin where active N- to NE-dipping reverse faults are present, accompanied by clear evidence of uplift of a wide area. The data are coherent with a N-S to NNE-SSW contraction of the central-western Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus. Although in general the seismicity decreases westward in terms of number of earthquakes and magnitude, seismological and geological structural data in the Rioni Basin indicate here a Quaternary propagation of deformation towards the west.

  15. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalillosoltan, N.

    2001-01-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  16. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Greater Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saintot, A.N.; Brunet, M.F.; Yakovlev, F.; Sébrier, M.; Stephenson, R.A.; Ershov, A.V.; Chalot-Prat, F.; McCann, T.

    2006-01-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) fold-and-thrust belt lies on the southern deformed edge of the Scythian Platform (SP) and results from the Cenoozoic structural inversion of a deep marine Mesozoic basin in response to the northward displacement of the Transcaucasus (lying south of the GC subsequent to the

  17. Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovsky, Oleg; Dibirova, Khadizhat; Dybo, Anna; Mudrak, Oleg; Frolova, Svetlana; Pocheshkhova, Elvira; Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel; Schurr, Theodore; Haak, Wolfgang; Kuznetsova, Marina; Radzhabov, Magomed; Balaganskaya, Olga; Romanov, Alexey; Zakharova, Tatiana; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Zalloua, Pierre; Koshel, Sergey; Ruhlen, Merritt; Renfrew, Colin; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Balanovska, Elena

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 40 SNP and 19 STR Y-chromosomal markers in a large sample of 1,525 indigenous individuals from 14 populations in the Caucasus and 254 additional individuals representing potential source populations. We also employed a lexicostatistical approach to reconstruct the history of the languages of the North Caucasian family spoken by the Caucasus populations. We found a different major haplogroup to be prevalent in each of four sets of populations that occupy distinct geographic regions and belong to different linguistic branches. The haplogroup frequencies correlated with geography and, even more strongly, with language. Within haplogroups, a number of haplotype clusters were shown to be specific to individual populations and languages. The data suggested a direct origin of Caucasus male lineages from the Near East, followed by high levels of isolation, differentiation and genetic drift in situ. Comparison of genetic and linguistic reconstructions covering the last few millennia showed striking correspondences between the topology and dates of the respective gene and language trees, and with documented historical events. Overall, in the Caucasus region, unmatched levels of gene-language co-evolution occurred within geographically isolated populations, probably due to its mountainous terrain. PMID:21571925

  18. Military co-operation with South Caucasus countries / Rafal Seniuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seniuch, Rafal

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Poola ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelisest sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  19. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  20. CHROMOSOMAL COMPLEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF A WOLF (CANIS LUPUS L. IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chromosomal complement of a Canis lupus L. in the North Caucasus is described for the first time in this work. The data about modern distribution of a wolf in this territory taking into account mountain ecosystems of caucasus is also cited. The data about number of Canis lupus L., on its regulation in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems of the North Caucasus is cited.

  1. Aspects regarding the security environment in South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Lupu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transitions from Soviet authoritarianism and planned economies to democracy and market economies have not been successfully completed in any of the three states from South Caucasus. This region continues to be characterized by high instability and insecurity due the absence of solutions to the protracted or „frozen” conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan – over the territory of Nagorno-Karabakh – and between Georgia and Russia – over the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Finding common ground upon which all parties can agree has proven to be an impossible task. Protracted or „frozen” conflicts present a challenge for the stability and security of South Caucasus.

  2. Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Social Quality Model; Satisfaction with Life; Central Asia; Caucasus; ... Much of the research on the Russian Federation has demonstrated that the ..... Free to travel. 82.5. 67.3. 72.7. 81.2. Free to join any organisation. 67.3. 62.0. 75.4. 79.1. Afraid illegal arrest. 57.5. 52.2. 43.0. 35.1. Can take an interest in politics.

  3. The millipede family Polydesmidae in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei; Evsyukov, Aleksandr; Reip, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The family Polydesmidae is represented in the Caucasus by two genera and 11 species: Polydesmus abchasius Attems, 1898, P. lignaui Lohmander, 1936, P. muralewiczi Lohmander, 1936 and P. mediterraneus Daday, 1889 (all confined to the NW and W Caucasus, but of which only the former three are endemic to the region, whereas the latter species is an introduction), as well as Brachydesmus assimilis Lohmander, 1936 (endemic to most of the region, except Hyrcania), B. pigmentatus Attems, 1951 (= B. pereliae Golovatch, 1976, syn. n.) (subendemic to Hyrcania), B. superus Latzel, 1884 (a cosmopolitan introduction), B. furcatus Lohmander, 1936 (= B. furcatus exiguus Strasser, 1970, syn. n.) (endemic to the NW Caucasus), B. kalischewskyi Lignau, 1915 (= B. karawajewi Lohmander, 1928, = B. ferrugineus Lohmander, 1936, = B. talyschanus Lohmander, 1936, = B. bidentatus Golovatch, 1976, all syn. n.) (a highly polymorphous and widespread species, apparently in a stage of active speciation, subendemic to the entire region), B. kvavadzei sp. n., from Ajaria, Georgia, and B. simplex sp. n., from Abkhazia and Sochi, Krasnodar Province, Russia. All known Caucasian species of Polydesmidae are described in due detail, abundantly illustrated and keyed, and their distributions mapped.

  4. Unified scaling law for earthquakes in Crimea and Northern Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, A. K.; Kossobokov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    This study continues detailed investigations on the construction of regional charts of the parameters of the generalized Guttenberg-Richter Law, which takes into account the properties of the spatiotemporal seismic energy scaling. We analyzed the parameters of the law in the vicinity of the intersections of morphostructural lineaments in Crimea and Greater Caucasus. It was shown that ignoring the fractal character of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the southern part of the Russian Federation can lead to significant underestimation of the seismic hazard in the largest cities of the region.

  5. Russia’s backyard – unresolved conflicts in the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnleitner Dominik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus played a prominent role in the Russian foreign policy for a long time, which has not changed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Beginning with four general hypothesis about Russia’s interests in its “near abroad” the essays gives an insights in the current status and developments in the relations between Russia and its southern neighbors Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan. A special focus is on the frozen conflicts in South Ossetia and Naghorno-Karabakh and Russia’s role in these conflicts.

  6. Demographic manipulation in the Caucasus (with special reference to Georgia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, B G

    1995-01-01

    The author discusses political developments in the Caucasus region since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The focus is on the events in Georgia that led to the war in South Ossetia (particularly in Abkhazia), and the author suggests that this development is the latest in a 200-year history of demographic manipulation of minority peoples by the region's two major powers, Russia and Georgia. Parallels are drawn between the Georgian war in Abkhazia and Russia's war in Chechenia. The author questions the value of the principle of territorial integrity, and suggests that alternative principles safeguarding the rights of ethnic minorities would be more appropriate in these circumstances.

  7. Relic and endemic elements in the fauna of tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae of the Big Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence and distribution of endemit and relic fauna of the Big Caucasus are considered in the paper. The greatest role in occurence of xerophilic endemits of the Northern Caucasus (genera Calyptopsis, Hedyphanes, Caenoblaps, Nalassus have subarid intermountain hollows and isolated xerophitic valleys of the East and Central Caucasus. Endemit xerophilic fauna is not presented on southern spurs of the Big Caucasus because of absence of subarid hollows. Wood mesophilic endemics are presented by species of Nalassus and Laena. They are distributed onthe Northern Caucasus from the Black Sea coast to isolated woods of Northern Ossetia. Endemit and mesophil species of southern slopes of the Big Caucasus are distributed to its east part. Hyrcan relic species are distributed in relic woods of Northeast Azerbaijan and Southern Dagestan: Laena hirtipes, Formicidae (Panerinae. The ist of endemits and relic Tenebrionidae of the Big Caucasus submitted in the work. The name Cylindronotus czercazzorum Abdurakhmanov, 1988 is nomen nudum.

  8. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2018-01-01

    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  9. Crustal structure movement of the Northern Caucasus from the continuous GNSS network observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Ovsyuchenko, Aleksandr; Steblov, Grigory

    2017-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of four Northern Caucasian Republics: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Dagestan, and Stavropol region of the Russian Federation. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This excessive horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. The result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. On the background of general compression of the Northern Caucasus expansion in the eastern part of the region in combination with shear deformation in the central and eastern parts are revealed too.

  10. Military-political Processes in the Caucasus Region and the Security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Vilovatykh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unipolar world breaking and the tightening of geopolitical struggle led to destructive military-political processes in different regions of the world. In conditions of instability along the perimeter of Russia's borders the significance of the Caucasus region increases, especially in geo-strategic and geoeconomic perspectives. The efforts of world politics actors for the transformation of the region environment increase substantially. As a result the dynamics and the scope of the proceeding military-political processes in the Caucasus are complicated. The failures in the assessment and the prediction of the processes development influence on the safety of Russia. Wrong gradation of existing threats and challenges can lead to disastrous and irreversible consequences for state security. Designated circumstances caused the need for the expert survey on assessing the impact of the current military-political processes in the Caucasus region on the security of the Russian state and necessity for the concretization of military dangers and threats, due to political and military developments in the Caucasus. An expert survey was conducted in June 2014. During it authors interviewed 40 Russian and foreign experts representing Federal and regional authorities, academic community, research centers, analytical structures. Implementation of the survey allowed to identify the experts positions and the degree of their coherence on the military-political processes in the Caucasus region and their impact on the modern Russia security. As a result the degree of destructiveness of the regional military-political processes was fixed. We conclude that anti-Russian processes in the countries of the Caucasus continue to determine the overall geopolitical situation, including in the military-political sphere. The reason is mainly seen in interests clashing of Russia and countries of the "Atlantic world." Analysis of the military-political processes in the Caucasus

  11. SPIDERS (ARANEI IN HEPRETOBIONT MESOFAUNA OF THE NORTHWEST CAUCASUS

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    A. V. Ponomarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. We discussed in previous work a herpetobiont fauna of arachnids (Arachnida from the isolated yewboxwood wood, located in the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve, 20 km near Sochi (Ponomarev, Chumachenko, 2007. The aim of the paper is to summarize available data about herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus. Location. Republic of Adygea, Russia.Methods. Material was collected in 2009 on north macroslope of Main Caucasian Ridge within the territory of the Caucasian State Biosphere Reserve between 1000–1820 m. The following plant communities are studied: beech-silver fir (assotiation Abieti-Fagetion orientalis Korotkov et Belonovskaya 1987, maple forest (assotiation Petasito albae-Abietetum nordmannianae subassotiation Aceretosum trautvetteri Francuzov 2006, subalpine meadow (assotiation Poa longifolii – Calamagrostietum arundinaceae Semagina, 1992. Soil traps were used for collection of spiders.Results and main conclusions. During the period of study 100 species of spiders from 19 families are registered. Most diverse araneofauna of subalpine meadows includs 54 species belonging to 14 families. The least diverse araneofauna is in maple forest (24 species of 7 families. In beech-silver fir includes 45 species of 16 families of spiders. Only 3 species (Pireneitega ovtchinnikovi, Cybaeus abchasicus, Tenuiphantes mengei were found in all surveyed habitats. These 3 species clearly tend to forest habitats. Herpetobiont araneofauna of the Northwest Caucasus characterized by high taxonomic diversity with clear predominance of representatives of the family Linyphiidae. Specificity of araneofauna in different types of plant communities is high.

  12. The Greater Caucasus Glacier Inventory (Russia, Georgia and Azerbaijan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielidze, Levan G.; Wheate, Roger D.

    2018-01-01

    There have been numerous studies of glaciers in the Greater Caucasus, but none that have generated a modern glacier database across the whole mountain range. Here, we present an updated and expanded glacier inventory at three time periods (1960, 1986, 2014) covering the entire Greater Caucasus. Large-scale topographic maps and satellite imagery (Corona, Landsat 5, Landsat 8 and ASTER) were used to conduct a remote-sensing survey of glacier change, and the 30 m resolution Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM; 17 November 2011) was used to determine the aspect, slope and height distribution of glaciers. Glacier margins were mapped manually and reveal that in 1960 the mountains contained 2349 glaciers with a total glacier surface area of 1674.9 ± 70.4 km2. By 1986, glacier surface area had decreased to 1482.1 ± 64.4 km2 (2209 glaciers), and by 2014 to 1193.2 ± 54.0 km2 (2020 glaciers). This represents a 28.8 ± 4.4 % (481 ± 21.2 km2) or 0.53 % yr-1 reduction in total glacier surface area between 1960 and 2014 and an increase in the rate of area loss since 1986 (0.69 % yr-1) compared to 1960-1986 (0.44 % yr-1). Glacier mean size decreased from 0.70 km2 in 1960 to 0.66 km2 in 1986 and to 0.57 km2 in 2014. This new glacier inventory has been submitted to the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) database and can be used as a basis data set for future studies.

  13. Decoupling of modern shortening rates, climate, and topography in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Adam M.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rossi, Matthew W.

    2016-09-01

    The Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountains and their associated foreland basins contain similar rock types, experience a similar two-fold, along-strike variation in mean annual precipitation, and were affected by extreme base-level drops of the neighboring Caspian Sea. However, the two Caucasus ranges are characterized by decidedly different tectonic regimes and rates of deformation that are subject to moderate (less than an order of magnitude) gradients in climate, and thus allow for a unique opportunity to isolate the effects of climate and tectonics in the evolution of topography within active orogens. There is an apparent disconnect between modern climate, shortening rates, and topography of both the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus which exhibit remarkably similar topography along-strike despite the gradients in forcing. By combining multiple datasets, we examine plausible causes for this disconnect by presenting a detailed analysis of the topography of both ranges utilizing established relationships between catchment-mean erosion rates and topography (local relief, hillslope gradients, and channel steepness) and combining it with a synthesis of previously published low-temperature thermochronologic data. Modern climate of the Caucasus region is assessed through an analysis of remotely-sensed data (TRMM and MODIS) and historical streamflow data. Because along-strike variation in either erosional efficiency or thickness of accreted material fail to explain our observations, we suggest that the topography of both the western Lesser and Greater Caucasus are partially supported by different geodynamic forces. In the western Lesser Caucasus, high relief portions of the landscape likely reflect uplift related to ongoing mantle lithosphere delamination beneath the neighboring East Anatolian Plateau. In the Greater Caucasus, maintenance of high topography in the western portion of the range despite extremely low (<2-4 mm/y) modern convergence rates may be related

  14. GPS velocity field across the Ossetia region of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Steblov, Grigory; Drobishev, Valery; Hubaev, Hariton; Kusraev, Anatoliy; Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    The Ossetia part of the Great Caucasus is located within the Trans-Caucasian uplift. According to modern understanding this large structure is the northern ending of the planetary-scale structure - the East-African-Trans-Caucasus rift zone. This region, being one of the most tectonically active regions of the Caucasus, was not covered by satellite geodetic measurements made in the Caucasus and surrounding areas since the early 1990s. This work presents results of the development of the network of survey-mode sites and GPS velocity field of this region, which is also part of the international project under leadership of R. Reilinger (MIT) for studying geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus. The network established during the campaigns of 2010-2013 crosses from north to south the main tectonic structures of the Ossetia part of the Great Caucasus: the northern and southern slopes of the Great Caucasus ridge, the Tibsky thrust fault, the Northern Caucasian step, the Orkhevsky thrust fault, the Georgian block. The main profile of the network is oriented from north-east to south-west. The other two profiles are transverse to the main one and are oriented from west to east. The first of them is located along the southern and northern borders of the Orkhevskii thrust fault, covering the area of the Racha 1991 earthquake, with release to the Gagra-Dzhava zone. The second of them passes along the northern slope of Great Caucasus Ridge. The GPS data included 25 sites were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software. Velocity uncertainties for many sites are less then 1 mm/year. GPS velocities are presented in two reference systems: ITRF08 and fixed Eurasia. In terrestrial system of coordinates ITRF08 the horizontal motions of Ossetia region are characterized by the steady north-east trend with velocities of 25-30 mm/year, that as a whole coincides with velocities estimation of modern movements of the North Caucasus. With respect to Eurasia one can note the

  15. Convergence between the Georgian Lesser and Greater Caucasus: Implications for seismic risk around Tbilisi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Michael; Godoladze, Tea; King, Robert; Cowgill, Eric; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Hahubia, Galaktion; Reilinger, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The Caucasus region, including the Lesser and Greater Caucasus Mountains and intervening Rioni, Kartli and Kura basins, defines the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia continental collision between the Black and Caspian Seas. Although geodetic, geologic and seismological data attest to active crustal shortening in the region, both the structures accommodating this deformation and the potential seismic hazards they pose remain unclear. Here we present and interpret newly determined site motions derived from GPS observations made at 21 campaign sites and 4 continuous GPS stations in the Republic of Georgia from 2008 through 2015. The sites are located along two, 160 km-long, range-perpendicular profiles crossing the Lesser-Greater Caucasus boundary zone. The Racha profile in the west spans the Rioni Basin and epicentral area of the 1991 Mw6.9 Racha earthquake. To the east, the Tbilisi profile crosses near the capital city of Tbilisi, with a population of 1.2 million. To estimate site velocities, we processed the GPS observations using the GAMIT/GLOBK software package, and then combined new and previously published velocities in a common Eurasian reference frame. Both profiles indicate 3 mm/yr of shortening between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. On the Racha profile, the locus of shortening roughly coincides with the Main Caucasus Thrust Fault as defined by the location of the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, on the Tbilisi profile shortening is concentrated 40-60 km further south, in the vicinity of the Lesser Caucasus Thrust Fault (locally, the Adjara-Trialeti Fault). Simple elastic models of planar faults in an elastic half-space indicate that convergence along the Racha profile is consistent with strain accumulation on a north-dipping thrust fault rooting beneath the Greater Caucasus, generally consistent with the coseismic fault parameters for the 1991 Racha earthquake. In contrast, principal convergence along the Tbilisi profile appears to be associated

  16. 76 FR 30987 - In the Matter of the Designation of Caucasus Emirate aka Imarat Kavkaz aka Imirat Kavkaz aka...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Matter of the Designation of Caucasus Emirate aka Imarat Kavkaz aka Imirat Kavkaz aka Islamic Emirate of... Imarat Kavkaz, also known as Imirat Kavkaz, also known as Islamic Emirate of the Caucasus, poses a significant risk of committing acts of terrorism that threaten the security of U.S. nationals or the national...

  17. The ecological features of the areal structure of the spieces population of the mammal of the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Dzuev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological analyses of spatial structure of species population of Caucasus mammals were performed in this article. On the basis of the analyses types of natural habitats and modern trends of their anthropogenic transformation were exposed (researched Practical recommendation (advice of keeping rare and endangered species of mammals of Caucasus fauna are consisting in this work.

  18. Risk assessment in the North Caucasus ski resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton Y.; Seliverstov, Yury G.; Glazovskaya, Tatyana G.; Turchaninova, Alla S.

    2016-10-01

    Avalanches pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of Russia. The constant growth of economic activity, and therefore the increased avalanche hazard, in the North Caucasus region lead to demand for the development of large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments.The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation (Federal Law 21.12.1994 N 68-FZ, 2016). However, Russian guidelines (SNIP 11-02-96, 2013; SNIP 22-02-2003, 2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. Thus, we discuss these problems by presenting a new avalanche risk assessment approach, with the example of developing but poorly researched ski resort areas. The suggested method includes the formulas to calculate collective and individual avalanche risk. The results of risk analysis are shown in quantitative data that can be used to determine levels of avalanche risk (appropriate, acceptable and inappropriate) and to suggest methods to decrease the individual risk to an acceptable level or better. The analysis makes it possible to compare risk quantitative data obtained from different regions, analyze them and evaluate the economic feasibility of protection measures.

  19. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  20. European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ХХ Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Tamarashvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

  1. The Crisis of the Post-Soviet Teaching Profession in the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the status of the teaching profession has begun to erode in the Caucasus and Central Asia as evidenced in such indicators as a teacher shortage, the feminization of the profession, an over-aged teaching force, a low transition rate from teacher education graduation to professional service, and a…

  2. Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus | Abbott | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with four countries that, like Rwanda, suffered economic and social collapse in the early 1990s. It develops a sociologically informed understanding of what influences the well-being of people living in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan (Central Asian Republics) and Armenia and Georgia ( the Caucasus), four of ...

  3. Immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus Region: Differential Drug Use, Infectious Disease, and Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Rawson, Richard A.; Hasson, Albert

    2009-01-01

    This study examined drug use patterns, HIV/AIDS, and related outcomes among former Soviet Union (FSU) immigrants from Russia, Ukraine and the Caucasus mountain region in Israel who reported heroin use. A total of 253 FSU heroin users were interviewed from 2002 to 2007 as part of a large drug use surveillance study in Israel. Individuals were…

  4. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

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    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  5. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both

  6. ANALYSIS OF ENDEMISM OF THE XEROPHILOUS FLORA IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

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    M. A. Taysumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to study the endemics of the xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus in connection with the matter of knowing the genesis.Methods. The study is based on the field research expeditions.Findings. The presence of endemic species in flora is an indicator of its originality, and the degree of originality is determined by the extent of the endemic species. In general, according to our geographic analysis, the number of endemic species in xerophilous flora of the Russian Caucasus accounts for 32% (326 species, of which 25% of all endemic species have natural habitats within entire Caucasus, 66% are widespread in the Greater Caucasus, and 9% in the Pre-Caucasian region.Conclusion. Endemic species of xerophytes of the flora, in their overwhelming majority, are euxerophytes, and most steno-endemics also belong to this group of xerophytes. In a systematic aspect, the leading family, containing the largest number of endemic species, is Asteraceae (in percentage terms - Lamiaceae and Jurinea is a leading genus (in percentage terms - Psephellus. In relation to the substrate, calcixerophytes are the dominants and most saturated endemics in quantitative terms are the belt of mountain xerophytes. The predominant biomes are hemicryptophytes; as compared with the number of biomorphes, among chamaephytes there is the biggest quantity of endemics. 

  7. Could Baltic experiences be applicable to the countries of South Caucasus? / Kristian Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Taani kaitseministri Kristian Fischeri ettekanne Taani ja Balti riikide vahelisest kaitsealasest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  8. Lithospheric Velocity Structure of the Anatolain plateau-Caucasus-Caspian Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gok, R; Mellors, R J; Sandvol, E; Pasyanos, M; Hauk, T; Yetirmishli, G; Teoman, U; Turkelli, N; Godoladze, T; Javakishvirli, Z

    2009-04-15

    Anatolian Plateau-Caucasus-Caspian region is an area of complex structure accompanied by large variations in seismic wave velocities. Despite the complexity of the region little is known about the detailed lithospheric structure. Using data from 29 new broadband seismic stations in the region, a unified velocity structure is developed using teleseismic receiver functions and surface waves. Love and Rayleigh surface waves dispersion curves have been derived from event-based analysis and ambient-noise correlation. We jointly inverted the receiver functions with the surface wave dispersion curves to determine absolute shear wave velocity and important discontinuities such as sedimentary layer, Moho, lithospheric-asthenospheric boundary. We combined these new station results with Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment results (29 stations). Caspian Sea and Kura basin underlained by one of the thickest sediments in the world. Therefore, short-period surface waves are observed to be very slow. The strong crustal multiples in receiver functions and the slow velocities in upper crust indicate the presence of thick sedimentary unit (up to 20 km). Crustal thickness varies from 34 to 52 km in the region. The thickest crust is in Lesser Caucasus and the thinnest is in the Arabian Plate. The lithospheric mantle in the Greater Caucasus and the Kura depression is faster than the Anatolian Plateau and Lesser Caucasus. This possibly indicates the presence of cold lithosphere. The lower crust is slowest in the northeastern part of the Anatolian Plateau where Holocene volcanoes are located.

  9. Energy security and competition over energy resources in Iran and Caucasus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrouz Abolhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy security as a dominant factor in international stability is of great importance for major economies. The global energy market with its current level of supply and demand relies on energy sources in the Middle East, Caucasus, Central Asia and Russia. After the Fukushima disaster nuclear powers in Europe view renewable energy sources as a serious alternative. Europe’s energy vulnerability has deteriorated due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict. However, renewable energy sources are not large enough to replace nuclear power completely. This trend will continue with climbing demand especially in the natural gas sector as clean energy. In this research, Caucasus and Iran are considered the main sources and routes for energy transmission to the global market, including Europe. Caucasus plays a key role in bridging Europe and Asia. Also, Iran is an alternative for energy transmission to Europe after lifted sanctions. As part of the European active supply diversification policy Iran has capacity to reduce Europe’s energy dependency on Russia. However, changes in US new administration America First Policy is harmful for the EUs energy security. Caucasus aims to catch a large share of the European energy market since the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has started operations and Iran is also trying to expand its market to become a sustainable source of energy for major consumers. Therefore, Iran and Caucasus are considered reliable energy suppliers for Europe. In this regard, we analyze the best motivation for changing the direction new suppliers’ energy policies towards Europe and suggest alternative solutions to compete with rival countries in order to enhance energy security.

  10. EU Humanitarian Programs and regional identity in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still

  11. New data on the genus Wiedemannia Zetterstedt (Diptera: Empididae) from the Caucasus with description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustov, Semen; Zherebilo, Danil

    2015-10-19

    Currently, 17 species of aquatic dance flies of the genus Wiedemannia are known from the Caucasus including four new species: W. ivkovicae sp. nov. (South Ossetia), W. nartshukae sp. nov. (South Ossetia), W. ossetiana sp. nov. (South Ossetia) and W. pseguashae sp. nov. (Georgia, South Ossetia). Wiedemannia (Chamaedipsia) lota Walker 1851 (Russia; Georgia) is recorded from the Caucasus for the first time. The inaccuracies in species records from the different countries of the Caucasus have been eliminated. Nine species are recorded for the first time from the territory of Georgia, five species for Abkhazia and one for Russia. The new species are described, all species illustrated and distribution listed. A key to species of Wiedemannia from the Caucasus is provided.

  12. Modern geodynamical motion of the Northern Caucasus from data of GPS/GLONASS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Zharov, Vladimir; Mironov, Alexey; Myasnikov, Andrey; Kaufman, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The northern part of the Greater Caucasus is one of the most geodynamically active regions of Russia. This is a zone of complex tectonics resulting from interaction between two of the Earth's major lithospheric plates, Arabia and Eurasia. Therefore, the region as a whole is characterized by a complex system of faults, with meridional and diagonal structures. The first GPS and absolute gravity campaign in the Black Sea and Northern Caucasus regions was carried out between 1993 and 1994 as part of the SELF project. One of the points of the GPS measurements was transformed in the stationary station. This station is located in Karatchay-Cherkessia Republic of the Russian Federation. Since 1997 the Zelenchukskaya station has been part of the European Reference Frame (EUREF) GPS network with a code ZECK. Within the last few years we have established three new stationary GPS/GLONASS stations in the Northern Caucasus. The first (site code TRSK) is located in the Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, near the Elbrus volcano. It began to operate in 2005. The second one is located in Karatchay-Cherkessia Republic (site code KISL). This station has been in operation since 2006. The third is located in Vladikavkaz, the capital of North Ossetia Republic (site code VLAD). The continuous GPS measurements began in 2008. These four stationary stations form the base for the regional Northern Caucasus GPS network, which can be called the Northern Caucasus Deformation Array (NCDA). We analyse the GPS data using BERNESE 5.0 GPS software. As a reference site we use the Mendeleevo station, located in the Moscow region (IGS site code MDVJ). The striking aspect of the velocity field of the Northern Caucasus derived from the NDCA stations is the rapid motion in the north-east direction with almost equal velocities of about 28 mm/yr. The motion of the feducial site MDVJ (Moscow region) is characterised by a similar velocity value (25 mm/yr) in the same direction. Therefore the motion of the Northern

  13. The Deep Structure and 3D Thermo-geodynamics of the Caucasus by Geophysical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelidze, T.; Gugunava, G.; Gamkrelidze, N.; Mindeli, P.; Kiria, J.; Ghonghadze, S.; Janovskaya, O.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasus is a continental collision zone, representing a connecting link between the Western and Eastern parts of the Alpine-Himalayan Belt. The structure and geodynamics have been studied rather well in both of the above mentioned segments of Alpine-Himalayan Belt, but remained problematic on the Caucasus. Compilation of detailed digital geophysical data bases and their numerical interpretation by modern methods are needed for the quantitative solution of the problem of structure and tectonics of the Caucasus. The first steps in these directions are made in this paper. The Caucasus is crossed by deep seismic sounding profiles "Gali-Safaraliev" (from the West of East) and "Bakuriani-Stepnoe" (from The North to South). Besides, there are the measurements of gravitational and magnetic fields at different heights along these lines. Integrated interpretation of the set of these geophysical fields by modern geophysical technique supplemented by the existing geological data allows approaching closely the solution of problems, related to structure and evolution of Caucasus. Three-dimensional stationary and non-stationary geothermal and thermo-elastic models of the Caucasus and the Black and Caspian seas areas are developed and their geological interpretation is given. The temperature field has been defined for the period 410 Ma on the basis of the stationary model of the investigated region. The thermo-elastic equations were solved and both horizontal and vertical thermo-elastic displacements have been calculated on the basis of the thermal field using Hook's rheology. These models revealed a number of interesting features in the geodynamics of the region. Nevertheless, they did not give us an opportunity to consider the dynamics of models, taking into account the process of sedimentation. That is why afterwards, computations were carried out on the basis of a non-stationary thermal model beginning from the period of the sedimentary cover formation. Such approach

  14. Colobognatha millipedes in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Polyzoniida, Platydesmida, Siphonocryptida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatch, Sergei; Evsyukov, Aleksandr; Reip, Hans S

    2015-06-11

    The superorder Colobognatha is represented in the Caucasus by three genera and species, one each in the orders Polyzoniida, Platydesmida and Siphonocryptida. Hirudisoma roseum (Victor, 1839) (Hirudisomatidae, Polyzoniida) is especially widespread, ranging from S Russia, Abkhazia, Georgia (with a neotype designated and described from Kakhetia, E Georgia) and NW Azerbaijan to E Turkey, and also including H. ponticum (Lohmander, 1939) (junior subjective synonym, syn. nov.). Fioria hyrcana Golovatch, 1980 (Andrognathidae, Platydesmida) is endemic to the Hyrcanian parts of the Republic of Azerbaijan and NW Iran along the western and southern coasts of the Caspian Sea. Due to the finding of Hirudicryptus abchasicus sp. nov. (Siphonocryptidae, Siphonocryptida), from a single locality in Abkhazia, NW Caucasus, the order Siphonocryptida is new to the fauna of the region. A key to all four species of the trans-Palaearctic genus Hirudicryptus is given. All three Caucasian species of Colobognatha are described in due detail and abundantly illustrated, and their distributions mapped.

  15. Institutional Factors Affecting the North Caucasus Region in Connection to its Russian Identification

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    Abdullakh Abdulgamidovich Mallakurbanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the general problems of development of the North Caucasus region and various aspects of its investigation. This theme was not easy for scientists and analysts at all times, and it cannot be understood in a one-dimensional measurement. In general the Caucasus has provided and continues to exert considerable influence on the formation and development of the Russian identity and this is both theoretical and practical importance for us. Therefore much attention is paid to the present situation in Russian society, its ability to meet the challenges of the times in a rapidly changing world and changes in domestic and foreign policy on its southern borders. The paper presents different approaches to analysis and different comments on them. But all Russian researchers are united in one thing - in the understanding and preservation of this unique region as an integral part of the Russian state and Russian identity.

  16. Mountainous terrain and violent conflict in the post-Soviet Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, F. D. W.; Linke, A. M.; Holland, E.; O'Loughlin, J.

    2015-12-01

    What are the connections between mountainous terrain and violent conflict in the post-Soviet Caucasus? Political science and international relations research often use simplistic metrics to characterize terrain and its relation to conflict. We examine linkages between environmental conditions and conflict using fine-resolution spatially disaggregated data for violent events occurring in five wars in the broader Caucasus region: between the Russian state and separatists in Chechnya and the neighboring republics (1999-2002); the Russian state and Islamists in the North Caucasus (2002-2015); between Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Nagorno-Karabakh (1990-2015); and between Georgia and separatists in South Ossetia (1991-2008) and Abkhazia (1992-2008). For environmental conditions, we consider land use, elevation, and slope to identify profiles of violence intensity within each of the five cases. Data include forest cover derived from Landsat imagery, slope data calculated from a digital elevation model, and land cover derived from MODIS imagery. The Landsat imagery provide consistent 30 meter information on percent forest cover across the multiple study regions. We use GIS (buffers around conflict points) to create categorical summary statistics. The "operational costs of context" vary dramatically across regions within the study area and by the actor who initiates subsets of violent events. Our empirical focus is on Russia's south and the neighboring countries of the South Caucasus but we leverage comparisons between the five wars to generalize outward to other world regions and to contribute to research on conflict propensity in regions of rugged and mountainous terrain.

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF STUDY OF PLANTS OF HEDYSARUM L. FLORAE OF THE CAUCASUS

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    D. R. Imachuyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the ecological-botanical research and the current state of knowledge of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.The aim of the study was the review of the information contained in open sources about the basic ecological and Botanical characteristics, geographic specie of habitat and phytocoenotic specie of species of the genus Hedysarum growing in the Caucasus.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, RGB, VINITI, SOCIONET, ReseachGate, PubMed, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, RNMJ.RU, UlrichsWEB, EBSCO, Scientific library of the Botanical Institute of RAS as well as the results of our research.Results: the review study of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.Conclusion: the results of the analysis of regional floras, morphological characteristics, the main ecological and botanical characteristics of these 16 species, the geographic specie of habitat, phytocenotic specie are presented.

  18. Strike-slip and extrusion tectonics of the Greater Caucasus-Kopetdagh region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In the Paleogene-Early Miocene, the areas of the modern Greater Caucasus and Kopetdagh were occupied by marginal seas (parts of the Paratethys intracontinental sea) inheriting the Cretaceous back-arc basins. In the Early Miocene, a collisional compression of the seas began at the time when the Arabian plate detached from Africa to move northward. The compression proceeded in a good accordance with the Arabia movement that was manifested in a general synchroneity of the Late Alpine orogenies in the Caucasus and Kopetdagh with the rifting and spreading phases in the Aden Gulf and the Red Sea. The earliest orogeny was the Styrian one of the terminal Early Miocene. It corresponds to the initial stage of the rift opening and was mostly pronounced in the east, in Kopetdagh and East Iran, where a recent structure has been formed by the initial Middle Miocene. In the Greater Caucasus, the Styrian deformations occurred in its central part only (i.e., in front of the Arabian plate northern tip) where the main Caucasian thrusts and conjugate asymmetrical megaanticline of the Central Caucasus were formed. An essential feature of the earliest, Styrian, structure of the whole Caucasus-Kopetdagh region was a series of regional right-lateral strike-slip faults. In the Kopetdagh, the strike-slips have no submeridional but northwestern direction although they occurred in the northern continuation of the submeridional right-lateral strike-slip faults framing the Lut block. In the Caucasus, they became even sublatitudinal, in parallel with the North Anatolian fault, thus constituting a single domain with the latter. So, the right-lateral strike-slip faults of East Iran, Kopetdagh, and the Caucasus compose an extensive arc convex to the north and appeared probably as a result of the right-lateral shear caused by the known counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian lithospheric plate. The Middle Miocene was characterized by a tectonic pause both in the Red Sea-Aden rift system and in the

  19. Human security paradigms and economic crisis in first year of the North Caucasus Federal District

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    Tiago Ferreira Lopes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in insecurity in the North Caucasus during the first eight years of the 21st century was achieved with the help of federal money used to amnesty soldiers and to pacify ethnic leaders' ambitions. But circumstances changed after Dmitry Kozak's announcement that the federal budget for the entire region would decrease significantly. As all the republics in the North Caucasus are dependent on federal aid of no less than 50% (in Ingushetia, Chechnya and Dagestan dependence is superior to 80%, such cut represented a politically potential danger. The main goal of the article is to present a deeper understanding of the potential link between the international and regional economic dynamics and the current acceleration of social disruption in the North Caucasus region. The paper explains how ethno-political and transition studies can benefit from the inclusion of the economic dimension into the analysis, and so it clarifies the importance of a bi-level analysis using two concepts: economic society and economic security. The paper employs the concepts of economic security and economic society to perform a richer and innovative analysis.

  20. New data on Callovian (Middle Jurassic belemnites and palynomorphs from the Northern Caucasus, southwest Russia

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    Dzyuba Oksana S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontological data on the Caucasus are highly important for large-scale stratigraphical and palaeobiogeographical assessment of the northern Tethyan margin, but this information is often scarce and not available in English. Field studies in the Northern Caucasus have now permitted to amass some new data. Two belemnite species are described from the stratotype section of the Kamennomostskaja Formation (Callovian, Middle Jurassic near the town of Kamennomostskij in Adygeja (Northern Caucasus. These are Belemnopsis subhastata (von Zieten, 1831 and Rhopaloteuthis ominosa Gustomesov, 1968. The latter is a rare species, and the present find allows new insights into its taxonomy. A palyno-logical analysis of the belemnite-bearing sample was carried out, and a diverse assemblage of dinocysts, acritarchs and prasinophytes, plus pollen and spores recognised. The most abundant palynomorphs are Micrhystridium and Classopollis. Data on belemnites coupled with those on palynomorphs indicate the early Callovian age of the sample level. This interpretation differs slightly from previous conclusions based on ammonites and dinocysts. If this age is correct, the degree of condensation of Callovian deposits in the section studied was lesser than previously assumed.

  1. Thematic dimension of geological heritage: An evidence from the Western Caucasus

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    Plyusnina Ekaterina E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The geodiversity hotspot comprising 14 geological heritage sites is located on the territory of Mountainous Adygeja in the Western Caucasus (southwestern Russia. The geosites represent some lengthy intervals of the geological history from the Precambrian to the Quaternary, as well as changes in the palaeotectonical affinity of the Greater Caucasus. Visitors of this territory can observe rocks, fossils, and facies, which are typical for the geological periods, especially the Permian, the Triassic, and Jurassic, and the Cretaceous. The same geosites permit to trace shift of the Greater Caucasus Terrane from the Gondwanan margin, where it was before the Devonian, to Laurussia and then Laurasia. Therefore, the geosites can be grouped thematically to facilitate arrangement of geoconservation and geotourism activities. This approach permits to increase the scientific and educational values of the geological heritage in Mountainous Adygeja and to make it more attractive for geotourists. However, such a thematic treatment of the regional geological heritage should not lead to underestimation of the other geological features.

  2. Data Archived for Events in the Caucasus for the CauSINCollaboration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoladze, T; Hunt, D; Aliyev, F; Arakelyan, A; Kalafat, D; Javakhishvil, Z; Panahi, B; Arzumanyan, V; Hutchings, L J; Vergino, E

    2007-08-17

    The Causin project is a joint effort between the countries in the Caucasus region to develop a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. To that end, we have compiled a database of all available network data in the region. The information contained in the database is from four countries: Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey and from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). Table 1 lists the networks from which data were obtained. Figure 1 shows the locations of stations, and Figure 2 shows ray paths for event locations of the archived data. An ongoing effort in the region is the Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) is an international scientific project enabling the countries and scientists of the region to: better understand the seismicity of the greater Caucasus; develop new monitoring networks to support the scientific understanding; provide access to seismic data from local networks in the participating countries; and develop a probabilistic seismic hazards assessment for the region enabling the governments in the region to better mitigate the damaging effects from large earthquakes. In parallel with this effort, training has been conducted on modern techniques for probabilistic hazards assessment. CauSIN is also an ongoing effort to promote cooperation in the geosciences between Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, European Union and the United States. The DOE supports the American team from New England Research, Inc. (NER), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Boston College, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  3. Large scale obduction of preserved oceanic crust: linking the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolian ophiolites and implications for the formation of the Lesser Caucasus-Pontides Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassig, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Sosson, Marc; Galoyan, Ghazar; Sahakyan, Lilit; Topuz, Gultelin; Farouk Çelik, Omer; Avagyan, Ara; Muller, Carla

    2014-05-01

    During the Mesozoic, the Southern margin of the Eurasian continent was involved in the closure of the Paleotethys and opening Neotethys Ocean. Later, from the Jurassic to the Eocene, subductions, obductions, micro-plate accretions, and finally continent-continent collision occurred between Eurasia and Arabia, and resulted in the closure of Neotethys. In the Lesser Caucasus and NE Anatolia three main domains are distinguished from South to North: (1) the South Armenian Block (SAB) and the Tauride-Anatolide Platform (TAP), Gondwanian-derived continental terranes; (2) scattered outcrops of ophiolite bodies, coming up against the Sevan-Akera and Ankara-Erzincan suture zones; and (3) the Eurasian plate, represented by the Eastern Pontides margin and the Somkheto-Karabagh Arc. The slivers of ophiolites are preserved non-metamorphic relics of the now disappeared Northern Neotethys oceanic domain overthrusting onto the continental South Armenian Block (SAB) as well as on the Tauride-Anatolide plateform from the north to the south. It is important to point out that the major part of this oceanic lithosphere disappeared by subduction under the Eurasian Margin to the north. In the Lesser Caucasus, works using geochemical whole-rock analyses, 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts and gabbro amphiboles and paleontological dating have shown that the obducted oceanic domain originates from a back-arc setting formed throughout Middle Jurassic times. The comprehension of the geodynamic evolution of the Lesser Caucasus supports the presence of two north dipping subduction zones: (1) a subduction under the Eurasian margin and to the south by (2) an intra-oceanic subduction allowing the continental domain to subduct under the oceanic lithosphere, thus leading to ophiolite emplacement. To the West, the NE Anatolian ophiolites have been intensely studied with the aim to characterize the type of oceanic crust which they originated from. Geochemical analyses have shown similar rock types as in

  4. SOCIO-ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION IN THE DEVELOPMENT EDUCATIONAL SYS TEM

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    I. Daurbekov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is socio-economic relations that are associated with the development and formation of the system of education in the North Caucasus Federal district. The purpose of work is development of scientific problems of development of regional socio-economic systems of North Caucasus Federal district in conditions of modernization of the education system, defining the imperatives and directions of development of institutions of educational services in the region.Objectives: to examine the specificity of the socio-economic potential of the North Caucasus region in the development of the education system district; to define the scientific approaches to the systematization of regional socio-economic problems using theoretical fundamentals of regional development; to define the role of education in terms of modernization in the system of regional economy of the North Caucasus Federal district; analyze and identify areas of development NCFD in the functioning of the education system in the regions; to Express the strategic objectives in the justification of the conceptual foundations of modernization of the education system regional development of the NCFD.Methodology. When writing the article applied differential methods and approaches used in economic studies: analysis and synthesis, analytical, comparative, induction and deduction, settlement-constructive, economic-statistical methods (observations, summary, group, absolute and relative values, table. Results. The ongoing modernization of the education system in the Russian Federation should be considered in the aspect of two antagonistic processes: the first globalization (in the creation of a unified educational space, the rise of the universal role of human capital in the global economic system, the second specificity region (in the formation of educational space regional socio-economic system, to take them into account climatic, geographical and national and other

  5. The influence of late Miocene exhumation on the petroleum systems of the greater Caucasus foreland basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andy, A.; Colin, D.; Sally, H.; Simon, O.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Northwards impingement of Arabia during the Cenozoic led to the inversion of the Mesozoic Greater Caucasus Basin and the associated development of areas of enhanced subsidence. However, there is great debate regarding the timing of initiation of thrusting and uplift in the Caucasus region.Traditionally, ages ranging from Middle Eocene through to Middle Miocene have been proposed.More recently. It has become clear that although deformation and flexural subsidence may have initiated during the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift and exhumation did not begin until the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift event have been identified.The late Miocene to Pliocene event influenced a broad region and had important implications for reservoir rock deposition and the generation,migration,trapping and preservation of hydrocarbons in the surrounding basins (e.g. Indolo-Kuban,Terek-Caspian, South Caspian, Kura-Kartli, Rion, Black Sea).One area of particular interest is the development of the Stavropol Arch through time,since foreland basins are presently restricted to the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian Sub-basins.The Stavropol Arch lies immediately north of the central, most elevated parts of the Caucasus Mountains and separates the main areas of enhanced foreland subsidence.Although in most palaeogeographic reconstructions of the area, the Stavropol Arch is shown as an uplifted massif during much of the Mesozoic and Lower Cenozoic, it seems likely from recent studies that it is a feature of Late Miocene to Pliocene exhumation.One major potential implication is that an Oligocene to Miocene (foreland) succession developed in a major basin across the whole region north of the Greater Caucasus.Much of this was subsequently eroded from the Stavropol Arch during uplift and exhumation, separating the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian foreland basins.From qualitative section balancing we

  6. EVALUATION OF GLACIER MELT CONTRIBUTION TO RUNOFF IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS ALPINE CATCHMENTS USING ISOTOPIC METHODS AND ENERGY BALANCE MODELING

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    E. Rets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and intensity of river floods rise observed in the North Caucasus during last decades is considered to be driven by recent climate change. In order to predict possible future trends in extreme hydrological events in the context of climate change, it is essential to estimate the contribution of different feed sources in complicated flow-forming processes in the alpine part of the North Caucasus. A study was carried out for the Djankuat River basin, the representative for the North Caucasus system. Simultaneous measurements of electrical conductivity, isotopic and ion balance equations, and energy balance modeling of ice and snow melt were used to evaluate the contribution of different sources and processes in the Djankuat River runoff regime formation. A forecast of possible future changes in the Djankuat glacier melting regime according to the predicted climate changes was done.

  7. Geodynamics and Stress State of the Earth's Crust in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus (Azerbaijan) collision region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Akhmedova, Elnare; Babayev, Elvin

    2017-04-01

    The current study researches the present-day stress state of the Earth's crust within the territory of Azerbaijan by using the database of the international research project "World Stress Map" (WSM). The present stress state was also assessed by exploring the effects of the contemporary topographic properties of Caucasus in three-dimensional frame. Aiming to explore the relative roles of regional tectonic conditions in the definition of stress state of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, stress distribution model was developed by the earthquake data (1998-2016) and by the standard techniques of stress field calculation. The results show that the stress orientations are influenced also by the combination of topography and crust thickness distribution even at very large depth. Stress data and earthquake focal mechanisms indicate that the stress state of the Earth's crust of the Greater and Lesser Caucasus is characterized by the compression predominantly oriented across the regional strike. The model results suggest that the Lesser Caucasus and Kur depression are rotating coherently, with little or no internal deformation in a counter-clockwise rotation located near the north-eastern corner of the Black Sea. Orientation of stress axes well consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms revealed that within Upper and Lower Crusts, earthquakes are predominantly thrust-faulting with a number of normal-faulting and some strike-slip faulting. The map of the focal mechanisms and stress distribution suggests that the research area is characterized by the thrust of horizontal compression trending north-north-east in the western part of the southern Caucasus. In the western part of Azerbaijan, the compression takes place between the Main Caucasus Fault and the Kur depression, which strikes south along the northern margin of the mountain range. In addition, a clear transition from the left-lateral strike slip to the predominantly right-lateral strike slip is observed in the southern of

  8. Caucasus and the petroleum stakes of Caspian Sea; Le Caucase et les enjeux petroliers de la Mer Caspienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalillosoltan, N. [Universite de Franche Comte, 25 - Montbeliard (France); Faculte de Droit de Besancon, 25 (France)

    2001-07-01

    The splitting of the former USSR block in 1991 has generated a shock wave in the Caucasus area with the will of all ex-soviet republics to reach their complete independence. Because of the historical and geographical complexity of Caucasus, both geopolitical and human, this disorder has generated even more hazardous results, enhanced by the coveted oil and gas reserves of the Caspian Sea. This article analyses the petroleum stakes as factors of rivalry and instability (sovereignty of oil and gas fields, rivalries about the exploitation and transport of hydrocarbons), but also as factors of cooperation and re-composition. (J.S.)

  9. Khadum Formation of Pre-Caucasus region as potential source of oil shales: geology and geochemistry

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    N.Sh. Yandarbiev1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main modern aim for oil industry is the development of hydrocarbon extraction technologies from «oil shale». In Russia there are kerogen-saturated carbonate-clayey-siliceous deposits of the Bazhenov Formation, carbonate rocks of the Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora oil and gas bearing basins and clayey Maikop series of Pre-Caucasus region. The Khadum Formation is lower part of the Maikop series represented by carbonate-clay and clayey deposits. On the basis of long-term field and laboratory investigation conducted by specialists of the Oil and Gas Department from Geological Faculty of the Lomonosov Moscow State University. a comprehensive study of the lithological composition, structure, geochemical, hydrogeological and hydrodynamic characteristics of the Paleogene section and monitoring of the drilled wells, the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Khadum deposits of the Oligocene in the Eastern Pre-Caucasus oil and gas bearing basin were estimated. 11 gas and 19 oil deposits are discovered within the Khadum deposits, and they are confined to the sand layers and lenses, but most of the Khadum section belongs to «unconventional» sources of hydrocarbons. Based on the integrated approach, a map of oil and gas potential prospects for the Khadum deposits was constructed. Highly prospective territories for drilling for oil, areas with small and medium perspectives, and gas prospecting areas have been singled out. Recommendations are given for drilling and technology for the development of the Pre-Caucasus oil shales, based on the world experience in the development of such formations.

  10. Spiritual Literature of the Peoples of the North Caucasus and the Culture of the East

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    Abdul-Kadyr Yu. Abdullatipov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article poses the problem of connection between the spiritual culture of the peoples of the North Caucasus and the culture of the East. The authors show the historical predetermination of this process, their aim is to solve the problem of forming the North Caucasian literary tradition as a whole, to characterize some of its aspects, in particular, such as the originality of distribution of the Arabic language, the development of Arabic-language literature, its role and character in the process of strengthening the Middle East Caucasian, North Caucasian contacts, North Caucasian literature in Arabic (mainly, Persian, Turkic languages, the formation and development of its genre forms. The authors note that the driving forces of the Arab-Muslim culture - the Arabic language and Islam - have penetrated into Dagestan and the North Caucasus along with the Arab campaigns. The Arabic language and Islam became an integral part of the culture of many Dagestani and North Caucasian peoples. Islam was one of the main, but not the only factor that determined the prospects for cultural interaction. The ethnic and linguistic diversity of Dagestan and the North Caucasus facilitated the wide dissemination of the Arabic language as a communication mean accessible to a large part of the population, in particular, to the clergy. The process of intraregional interaction of literatures is gaining momentum. Therefore, this influence has gradually created the local original literature in the Arabic language in Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, and in part of Kabarda and Circassia. The authors of this article trace the ideological and aesthetic originality of this regional national literature.

  11. Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan

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    Harpending Henry C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near the junction of three major continents, the Caucasus region has been an important thoroughfare for human migration. While the Caucasus Mountains have diverted human traffic to the few lowland regions that provide a gateway from north to south between the Caspian and Black Seas, highland populations have been isolated by their remote geographic location and their practice of patrilocal endogamy. We investigate how these cultural and historical differences between highland and lowland populations have affected patterns of genetic diversity. We test 1 whether the highland practice of patrilocal endogamy has generated sex-specific population relationships, and 2 whether the history of migration and military conquest associated with the lowland populations has left Central Asian genes in the Caucasus, by comparing genetic diversity and pairwise population relationships between Daghestani populations and reference populations throughout Europe and Asia for autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal markers. Results We found that the highland Daghestani populations had contrasting histories for the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome data sets. Y-chromosomal haplogroup diversity was reduced among highland Daghestani populations when compared to other populations and to highland Daghestani mitochondrial DNA haplogroup diversity. Lowland Daghestani populations showed Turkish and Central Asian affinities for both mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal data sets. Autosomal population histories are strongly correlated to the pattern observed for the mitochondrial DNA data set, while the correlation between the mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome distance matrices was weak and not significant. Conclusion The reduced Y-chromosomal diversity exhibited by highland Daghestani populations is consistent with genetic drift caused by patrilocal endogamy. Mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal phylogeographic comparisons indicate a common Near Eastern

  12. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  13. Mass balance of Djankuat Glacier, Central Caucasus: observations, modeling and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Oleg; Mariia, Kaminskaia; Stanislav, Kutuzov; Ivan, Lavrentiev; Polina, Morozova; Victor, Popovnin; Elena, Rybak

    2017-04-01

    Djankuat is a typical valley glacier on the northern slope of the main Caucasus chain. Its present day area is approximately 2.5 square km with the characteristic ice thickness of several tens of meters. As well as other glaciers in the region, Djankuat has been shrinking during the last several decades, its cumulative mass balance in 1968-2016 was equal to -13.6 m w.e. In general, Caucasus' glaciers lost approximately one-third of their area and half of the volume. Prediction of further deradation of glaciers in changing environment is a challenging task because rivers fed by glacier melt water provide from 40 to 70% of the total river run-off in the adjacent piedmont territories. Growing demand in fresh water is rather critical for the local economy development and for growing population, motivating elaboration of an effitient instrument for evaluation and forecasting of the glaciation in the Greater Caucasus. Unfortunately, systematic observations are sparse limiting possibilities for proper model development for the most of the glaciers. Under these circumstances, we have to rely on the models developed for the few well-studied ones, like Djankuat, which is probably one of the most explored glaciers in the world. Accumulation and ablation rates have been observed here systematically and uninterruptedly since mid 60-ies using dense stake network. Together with the mass balance components, changes in flow velocity, ice thickness and geometry were regularly evaluated. During the last several ablation seasons, direct meteorological observations were carried out using an AMS. Long series of meteorological observations at the nearest weather station allow making assessment of the glacier response to climate change in the second half of the 20th century. Abundant observation data gave us the opportunity to elaborate, calibrate and validate an efficient mathematical model of surface mass balance of a typical glacier in the region. Since many glaciers in the Caucasus

  14. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF THE CAUCASUS AND THE AIMS OF MODELING OF SUSTAINABLE FUTURE OF THE REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhaidze, N.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Tsitskishvili, M.; Japaridze, L.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological crisis, the main alternative of the progress of modern civilization, has posed a number of problems, including educational ones, to the developing world community. In this work, the basic criteria of differentation of ecology from other natural sciences - the existence and the indissoluble unity of ''ecological triad'' are formulated; the basic problems of ecology of the Caucasus are revealed, and hence the basic aims of environmental protection for achievement of sustainable development of the region are formulated. (author)

  15. The post-cold war decade in the Caucasus: the wars in Chechnya

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    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the conflict in Chechnya, its origins, development and international repercussions within the context of the Russian Federation and the more general context of the Caucasus, which since the end of the cold war has experienced the appearance of new conflicts and the re-emergence of old ones, largely as a result of the economic and strategic value given to the region due both to the region’s lying on the most direct route between the Caspian and Black Seas and well as to its natural gas and petroleum reserves.

  16. Laws of distribution of the snow cover on the greater Caucasus (Soviet Union)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtovaya, Y. Y.; Sulakvelidze, G. K.; Yashina, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The laws of the distribution of the snow cover on the mountains of the greater Caucasus are discussed. It is shown that an extremely unequal distribution of the snow cover is caused by the complex orography of this territory, the diversity of climatic conditions and by the difference in altitude. Regions of constant, variable and unstable snow cover are distinguished because of the clearly marked division into altitude layers, each of which is characterized by climatic differences in the nature of the snow accumulation.

  17. Censorship and Printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries

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    Pavel N. Biriukov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of censorship and printing in the Caucasus at the end of XIX – early XX centuries. The special attention is given to censorship during the First Russian revolution (1905-1907 years. Among the materials are the archival documents from the national archives of Georgia, as well as materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals and legislation dedicated to this issue. The scientific publications are important too. The authors come to the conclusion that in the late of XIX – early XX centuries in the Caucasus, as in the whole of the territory of the Russian Empire, there was a sharp rise of printing and publishing periodicals – magazines. With the growth of revolutionary events there was a need in the institute of censorship to control over the printed word. Especially the role of this institution was high during the First Russian revolution. Despite the small number of states and different problems, the censorship has contributed to the stabilization of the political and crime situation in the territory of the Caucasian viceroyalty.

  18. The Personnel of the Russian Army in the Caucasus in 1830–1840-ies

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    Vladimir B. Karataev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the personnel structure of the Russian army in the Caucasus in the period of 1830-1840-ies. The attention is paid to the problems of recruitment, and the study of everyday service of soldiers and officers. There are used the materials of the regional and local archives, namely the State archive of the Krasnodar Krai and the Archival department of administration of Sochi city (Russian Federation, as well as sources of a personal origin (memoirs. The work is widely used the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern russian literature. The study methods are the principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, integrated consideration of socio-subjective in the subject of study. In conclusion, the authors note that despite of the difficulties of manning the army units in the Caucasus (the flight of the soldiers, crimes, etc. the military situation and competent management of units, and equally significant terms of service allowed to melt antisocial composition of the number of recruits into combat-ready joint. Russian officers played a significant role in the training and re-recruiting of the masses.

  19. Dysferlinopathy in the Jews of the Caucasus: a frequent mutation in the dysferlin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshinsky-Silver, E; Argov, Z; Rozenboim, L; Cohen, S; Tzofi, Z; Cohen, Y; Wirguin, Y; Dabby, R; Lev, D; Sadeh, M

    2007-12-01

    Dysferlin encoding gene (DYS) is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorders Miyoshi myopathy, Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B) and distal anterior compartment myopathy, causing dysferlin deficiency in muscle biopsy. Three ethnic clusters have previously been described in Dysferlinopathy: the Libyan Jewish population originating in the area of Tripoli, Italian and Spanish populations. We report another cluster of this muscular dystrophy in Israel among Jews of the Caucasus region. A genomic analysis of the dysferlin coding sequence performed in patients from this ethnic group, who demonstrated an absence of dysferlin expression in muscle biopsy, revealed a homozygous frameshift mutation of G deletion at codon 927 (2779delG) predicting a truncated protein and a complete loss of functional protein. The possible existence of a founder effect is strengthened by our finding of a 4% carrier frequency in this community. These findings are important for genetic counseling and also enable a molecular diagnosis of LGMD2B in Jews of the Caucasus region.

  20. Phylogeography of the land snail genus Circassina (Gastropoda: Hygromiidae) implies multiple Pleistocene refugia in the western Caucasus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiber, Marco T; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Caucasian land snail genus Circassina was reconstructed using multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Diversification within the group started with a divergence of populations from the western Lesser Caucasus from those of the Greater Caucasus during the late Miocene. Distinct AFLP clusters and major mitochondrial clades separated by long internal branches lend evidence to the hypothesis of separate glacial refuges in the Lesser and Greater Caucasus during the Pleistocene. High genetic distances across low geographic distances and admixture analysis revealed a phylogeographic boundary running through the Colchis lowlands, which may have been established and maintained in part by repeated transgressions of the Black Sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Localities in Ciscaucasia were probably colonised through long-distance dispersal across the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus. The phylogeny implies multiple independent losses of accessory genital organs, i.e. dart sac and mucus glands, within Circassina. None of the anatomically defined (sub-) species distinguished so far is monophyletic and there is gene flow between the two main population groups across the Colchis lowlands. Thus, we propose to classify these population groups as subspecies of a single species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Southern Caucasus in Perspective. The scholarly debate through the pages of Seminarium Kondakovianum and Skythika (1927-1938)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovino, Francesco

    -, Supplementum (2016), s. 36-51 ISSN 2336-3452 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : art and archaeology historiography * Seminarium Kondakovianum * Michail Rostovtzeff * Stefan Przeworski * Georgij Čubinašvili * Caucasus * church of Saint George in Samtsevrisi * animal style * bronze statuettes Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. How the EU can contribute to security and stability in South Caucasus? / Harri Kämäräinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kämäräinen, Harri

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" käsitleb Euroopa Liidu eesmärke ja programme Lõuna-Kaukaasias, mille täitmist koordineerib Euroopa Liidu eriesindaja, suursaadik Heikki Talvitie

  3. Multidimensional Mantle Convection Models in Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, E.; Shahnas, H.; Pysklywec, R.; Gogus, O.; Eken, T.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Anatolia, the North Arabian Platform, and Caucasus regions show many features of collisional tectonics with different convergence rates and shortening from south to north. The volcanism, sediment provenience, and thermochronological data suggest that the shortening and exhumation in the Greater Caucasus started during the Eocene-Oligocene synchronously with the collision between Arabia-Bitlis-Pötürge Massif in the south. Previous works indicate that the uplift (up to 2 km) in Eastern Anatolia related to upwelling mantle following the deformation of the Arabian oceanic lithosphere ( 11 Ma) during the ongoing Greater Caucasus closure is the dominant tectonic processes in the center of the region. However, there is no integrated geodynamic model that explains the deformation mechanisms of the region -and their possible interactions with each other -under the dynamic forces. In this study, we use multidimensional mantle-lithosphere convection/deformation models to quantify the geodynamic processes as constrained by the geological/geophysical observations in the region. For the models, seismic studies provide the high-resolution images of the upwelling mantle beneath Eastern Anatolia and the presence -and the locations- of the seismically fast structures associated with the relic/subducted slabs at varying depths such as the Bitlis slab in the south, and the Pontide and Kura slabs in the north. Fast polarization directions observed from splitting analyses exhibit an overall NE-SW oriented mantle anisotropy and a comparison between Pn and SKS derived fast wave azimuths indicates a crust-mantle coupling most likely implying vertically coherent deformation to the north of the study area. For the geodynamic models, we modify the mantle and lithosphere rheology as well as the thermal state. We interpret the estimated uplift and subsidence anomalies related to lithospheric variations (ranging from 54 km to 211 km) and subducting slab behavior with observed

  4. THE REACTION OF FISHT GLACIER (WESTERN CAUCASUS TO CURRENT CLIMATE CHANGE

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    A. V. Pogorelov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have generalized observation data on Fisht Glacier – the most western glacier in the Caucasus located at elevation 2450–2750 m asl. Considering location of Fisht Glacier we might сonsider it one of the most sensitive to climate change glaciers in the Caucasus. We used the following materials: sketch map (1909, aerial photos (1954, topographic map (1957, detailed map (1:5000, 1982, LIDAR survey data (2010 and finally UAV data (2015. We have noted considerable shrinkage of glacier area from 0.9±0.1 to 0.5±0.01 km2 in 1909–2015, retreat of glacier termini was assessed as 200±20 m (eastern snout and 350±20 m (western snout. We consider that during 1982–2010 the glacier was close to equilibrium, but during 2010–2015 the glacier surface elevation lowering up to 15–20 m was accompanied by an abrupt decrease of glacier area at about 15 %. Rapid glacier downwashing in 2010–2015 could be explained by a significant decrease of October-May (accumulation season precipitation and snow thickness accompanied by an increase of June-September (ablation season air temperature in comparison to 1982–2010. During 2010– 2015 mean ablation was about 800 mm w.e. more than during 1982–2010. Basing on geodetical data on glacier change in 1982–2010 and ablation values assessed using DDF (4600 mm w.e. we have roughly estimated mean accumulation at Fisht Glacier as 4500 mm w.e. In 2010–2015 mean accumulation was at least 600 mm w.e. lower than in 1982–2010. As a result in 2010–2015 Fisht Glacier lost at least 1500 mm w.e. more than in 1982–2010.Basing on obtained results we could adjust regional pattern of the glacier response to climate change in the Caucasus. Rarely applied in Russia both LIDAR and UAV techniques are recognized as precise tools for mapping glacier surface in high mountains. 

  5. New insights and questions about the Meso-Cenozoic Tectonic evolution of Eastern Black Sea and Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosson, Marc; Rolland, Yann; Hässig, Marc; Meijers, Maud; Smith, Brigitte; Muller, Carla; Adamia, Shota; Melkonian, Rafael; Kangarli, Talat; Sahakyan, Lilit; Sadradze, Nino; Avagyan, Ara; Galoyan, Ghazar; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onice; Sheremet-Korniyenko, Yevgeniya; Yegorova, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Since last decade a lot of new field researches (supported by MEBE and DARIUS programmes) were carried out in order to clarify the tectonic evolution of the South Caucasus and Eastern Black Sea regions. A summary of these improvements are as following: 1. Evidence of only one suture zone in the Lesser Caucasus: the Sevan-Akera suture zone as the eastward continuity of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan one. 2. Timing and modalities of the Upper Cretaceous obduction process of the Sevan-Akera back-arc basin. 3. Paleolatitude reconstruction of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenia microplate (TASAM) since the Late Cretaceous 4. Paleocene to Miocene tectonic evolution of the collision zone between Eurasia and the TASAM. 5. Structures and propagation of the Lesser Caucasus and Greater Causasus foreland basins from Paleocene to Miocene. 6. Structures of the inverted Paleocene-Eocene Adjara-Trialeti basin of the Eurasian margin and timing of deformations from Lesser Caucasus to Greater Caucasus. 7. New stratigraphic data from the Crimea Mountain which argues for a Lower Cretaceous rifting of the Eastern Black Sea. According to aforementioned results and previous studies, this widespread zone (from the Eastern Black Sea to the Lesser Caucasus) appears act as a large puzzle of heterogeneous lithospheres (continental, oceanic, arc, back-arc basins) since the Early Cretaceous. This is probably why this area has differently reacted in time and space to the northward collision of the TASAM with Eurasia since the Late Cretaceous and then of Arabian plate since the Oligo-Miocene. It seems that some lithospheres which have cold mantellic behavior (especially the Black Sea) react as rigid blocks, while others with a continental origin, reheated by magmatism, (as the Taurides-Anatolides) were extruded to the west or bended as an orocline (as the Lesser Caucasus, the Pontides). This is why some main questions remain, are not solved and are still debated. 1. The continuity of main structures

  6. Natural radionuclides in rocks and soils of the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvarova, T. A.; Abdulaeva, A. S.; Magomedov, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the radioecological survey in the high-mountain regions of the Great Caucasus at the heights from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l. are considered. This survey encompassed the territories of Dagestan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Chechnya, Northern Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, and the Stavropol and Krasnodar regions. The natural γ background radiation in the studied regions is subjected to considerable fluctuations and varies from 6 to 40 μR/h. The major regularities of the migration of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, and 40K in soils in dependence on the particular environmental conditions (the initial concentration of the radionuclides in the parent material; the intensity of pedogenesis; the intensity of the vertical and horizontal migration; and the geographic, climatic, and landscape-geochemical factors) are discussed.

  7. Buried vertic paleosols of the North Caucasus in the third millennia BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. V.; Kovda, I. V.; Belinskii, A. B.; Lyakhov, S. V.; Demkin, V. A.

    2008-05-01

    Paleosols buried under kurgans dating back to the Yamnaya, Catacomb, and Post-Catacomb cultural epochs of the Bronze Age (4600 3900 BP) on the territory of the Stavropol Upland (the North Caucasus) in the area occupied by vertic chernozems were studied. It was found that solonchakous and deeply solonchakous and solonetzic chestnut soils and solonetzes proper predominated in the study area during the Bronze Age. The solonetzic process was the leading pedogenetic process in the automorphic paleosols of the second half of the third millennium BC. The vertic features were weakly developed in the automorphic paleosols; they were better manifested in the paleosols developed on the floodplains. The paleosol data were used to reconstruct the environmental conditions in the region during the Bronze Age. The climatic conditions of that period were more arid and with less sharp contrasts between wet and dry seasons in comparison with the modern climate.

  8. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  9. Investigation of the temporal fluctuations of the 1960–2010 seismicity of Caucasus

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    L. Telesca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-clustering behaviour of the seismicity of the Caucasus spanning from 1960 to 2010 was investigated. The analysis was performed on the whole and aftershock-depleted catalogues by means of the method of Allan Factor, which permits the identification and quantification of time-clustering in point processes. The whole sequence is featured by two scaling regimes with the scaling exponent at intermediate timescales lower than that at high timescales, and a crossover that could be probably linked with aftershock time activiation. The aftershock-depleted sequence is characterized by higher time-clustering degree and the presence of a periodicity probably correlated with the cyclic earth surface load variations on regional and local scales, e.g. with snow melting in Caucasian mountains and large Enguri dam operations. The obtained results were corroborated by the application of two surrogate methods: the random shuffling and the generation of Poissonian sequences.

  10. THE HALOPHILICITY OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SALINE SOILS OF SOUTH CAUCASUS

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    Kvesitadze E.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the isolation, purification, determination of taxonomical characteristics and application in soil improvement and other biotechnological processes halophilic microscopic fungi strains isolated from saline soils of Eastern Georgia (middle part of South Caucasus, where their existence is maximally supposed. In all soilclimatic zones the dominate forms of spread fungi are genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, followed by Trichoderma and Mucor. Other genera are met less intensively. The genera Aspergillus is widely spread in chestnut soils and in chernozem, in green forest soils the genera Penicillium is prevailing. The salinity of soil, lake or any other objects from which the isolation of microscopic fungi is performed greatly determines halophilisity of isolated strains. Finally, the collection of halophilic microscopic fungi has been created accounting 96 isolates of extreme halophiles, halophiles and week halophiles.

  11. The problems of rational land use in the mountainous regions of the Caucasus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorontsov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of a study of the region's land resources, the processes of soil erosion and poor territoral assimilation were determined to be widespread. The intensive processes of water erosion began to become apparent on the mountain inclines in the Caucasus which have a gradient of 1 to 5 degrees. Erosion causes the loss of productive soil, and aids in the destruction of river banks and the formation of precipices and landslides. In abkhazia, one hectar of poorly cultivated land loses 200-500 tons of soil a year. The soil productivity of gradient land can be preserved only through timely use of agricultural practices and land reclamation measures. Integral to preventing erosion is the process of monitoring the asimilated territories and the condition and operating capacity of hydraulic engineering works. The steamed sod system of soil cultivtion is recognized as a highly effective method of mountain agriculture in the battle against erosion.

  12. Analysis of the lactic acid bacteria microflora in traditional Caucasus cow's milk cheeses

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    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 157 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from three hand-made cheeses taken from different households in the region of the Caucasus Mountains. The cheeses were manufactured from cow's milk without the addition of a starter culture. The isolates of LAB were characterized by subjecting them to phenotypic and genotypic tests. The results of identification of LAB indicate that the examined cheeses contained 10 species, viz., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. The strains within the species L. plantarum, L. arizonensis, L. paraplantarum, L. farciminis, and L. pseudomesenteroides showed good proteolytic activity.

  13. Degradation of water protection function of the Western Caucasus mountain oakeries as a result of fellings

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    Nikolay A. Bitukov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effect of fellings for primary use on the disturbance of the water protection function of sessile oak (Quercus petraea forests in the Western Caucasus. The study is based on long-term monitoring of spring runoff in catchments with experimental fellings in the Forest and Hydrological Station «Gorsky» (Tuapse District, Krasnodarsky Krai. It has been established that over a 28-year period after the experimental fellings, the stabilisation of runoff conditions has never come. The runoff in oak forests is mostly impacted by clear-cuttings with tractor harvesting technology. Over 30 years after clear-cutting, the spring runoff has increased on an average by 1.46 times, with a maximum increase (by 2.5 times being observed for the first two years after cutting. In areas with group fellings, the runoff regime is generally similar to that of the control catchment for the same period.

  14. Geophysical Investigations in the Caucasus (1925 - 2012): Initial, Basic and Modern Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.

    2012-04-01

    The Caucasian Mountains occupy an area of about 440,000 km2. A number of important mineral resources are concentrated there. Geophysical data on the geological structure of Caucasus can shed light on the basic principles of evolution of the Earth, the distribution of minerals and seismic activity. However, geophysical surveys under complex conditions are generally riddled by poor accessibility to certain mountainous regions, the unevenness of observation surfaces, as well as by a great variety and frequent changes of tectonic structures and geological bodies with variable physical properties. These factors either restrict geophysical surveys in difficult environments or confine the scope of useful information drawn from the results obtained. This has led to the development of special techniques in geophysical surveys, data processing and interpretation that draws heavily on the experience accumulated in the specific conditions of these mountainous regions. First applied geophysical observations in the Caucasus region - thermal measurements in boreholes - were carried out by Bazevich (1881) in the Absheron Peninsula. At the same time, start of the initial stage is usually referred to as the mid 20-s of the XX century, when the rare, but systematic geophysical observations (mainly gravity and magnetic) were begun in some Caucasian areas. Somewhat later began to apply the resistivity method. Mid 30-s is characterized by the beginning of application of borehole geophysics and seismic prospecting. The marine seismics firstly in the former Soviet Union was tested in the Caspian Sea. In general, the initial stage is characterized by slow, but steady rise (except during World War II) lasted until 1960. A basic stage (1960-1991) is characterized by very intensive employment of geophysical methods (apparently, any possible geophysical methods were tested in this region). At this time the Caucasus region is considered in the former Soviet Union as a geophysical polygon for

  15. Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi (Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferring, Reid; Oms, Oriol; Agustí, Jordi; Berna, Francesco; Nioradze, Medea; Shelia, Teona; Tappen, Martha; Vekua, Abesalom; Zhvania, David; Lordkipanidze, David

    2011-06-28

    The early Pleistocene colonization of temperate Eurasia by Homo erectus was not only a significant biogeographic event but also a major evolutionary threshold. Dmanisi's rich collection of hominin fossils, revealing a population that was small-brained with both primitive and derived skeletal traits, has been dated to the earliest Upper Matuyama chron (ca. 1.77 Ma). Here we present archaeological and geologic evidence that push back Dmanisi's first occupations to shortly after 1.85 Ma and document repeated use of the site over the last half of the Olduvai subchron, 1.85-1.78 Ma. These discoveries show that the southern Caucasus was occupied repeatedly before Dmanisi's hominin fossil assemblage accumulated, strengthening the probability that this was part of a core area for the colonization of Eurasia. The secure age for Dmanisi's first occupations reveals that Eurasia was probably occupied before Homo erectus appears in the East African fossil record.

  16. Plant and fungal use in Tusheti, Khevsureti, and Pshavi, Sakartvelo (Republic of Georgia, Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer W. Bussmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we documented traditional plant use in Tusheti, Khevsureti, and Pshavi and hypothesized that (i plant use knowledge in general would be higher in isolated high elevation communities, and that (ii use of home gardens would be much more restricted to lower elevation settings. Fieldwork was conducted in Khevsureti, Pshavi, and Tusheti. Interviews using semi-structured questionnaires were conducted with 74 participants. In the present study, we encountered 317 plant species belonging to 203 genera of 80 families being used in the research region. Of these, 197 species were exclusively wild-harvested, 73 were grown in homegardens, and 47 were both grown in gardens and sourced in the wild. The ordinations in plant-space and in use-space were significantly fit by elevation of informant community, and community itself. Age and gender did not significantly fit the distribution of informants across either plant-space or use-space, respectively. Number of use-reports was highest across all communities in the food and medicinal use-categories, and informant consensus. Species with especially high use-diversity (UD tended to be woody species although. Species with high use-value (UV were mostly managed/domesticated species from home orchards, gardens, or farms. Plant species, and uses, found in our study, showed clear relations to the wider Eurasian cultural complex. The species number found was, however, far higher than in any published study from either the region or the wiser Mediterranean and Eurasia. The maintenance of home gardens in Georgia serves as socio-ecological memory. While the great variety of plant species used in the Georgian Caucasus might provide a reservoir for food security climate change is starting to affect both natural floristic diversity and gardens both in the Caucasus as well as continent wide.

  17. EVALUATION OF PROSPECTS OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS REGION

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    A. B. Alkhasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to assess the prospects for the integrated development of geothermal resources in the North Caucasus region.Methods. Technological solutions are proposed for integrated development of hightemperature hydrogeothermal resources of the North Caucasus region. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies was carried out with the use of physico-mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and physico-chemical experimental studies.Findings. Were estimated the prospects of complex processing of highly parametrical geothermal resources of the Eastern Ciscaucasian artesian basin (ECAB with conversion of thermal energy into electric power in a binary GeoPP and subsequent extraction of dissolved chemical compounds. The most promising areas for the development of such resources were indicated. In connection with the exacerbated environmental problems, it was shown the need for the firstpriority integrated development of associated high-mineralized brines of the South Sukhokum group of gas-oil wells in North Dagestan. At present, associated brines with a radioactive background exceeding permissible standards are discharged to surface filtration fields; technological solutions for their decontamination and integrated development were proposed.Conclusions. The comprehensive development of high-temperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new direction in geothermal energy, which will significantly increase the production of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal industry at a higher level with the implementation of energy-efficient advanced technologies. Large-scale development of brines will solve significant problems of energy supply in the region and import substitution, fully meeting Russia's needs for food and technical salt and other rare elements. 

  18. Problems modern radiobiology in valeilogy and ecology aspects of regions Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskisvili, M.S.; Cxartisvili, A.Q.; Tsitskisvili, L.B.; Maqradze, Q.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Ecological and hygienic aspects in studying radiation background leaves far off for frames radiation ecologies and radiation hygiene. From a time of openings of phenomena of radioactivity pass slightly more one age. Huge source of energy in the manner of the nucleus disintegration, but else more - a making a nucleus weapon, capable to destroy all alive, for the first time have forced will be conceived all mankind on fetters of technical progress, on the further fate and development to modern civilizations. Evaluations of doses of irradiating a population of Caucasus were systematically conducted from the end 50-h s both organs of Ministry of public healths, and Commission on isotopes and radiating an Academy of sciences. Relatively well was contributed of natural radioactivity, variation natural background, questions of using the mineral baths. With the appearance artificial toxigenic radionuclides were accumulated data on direct dose measurements of external irradiation. Done attempts of evaluation of doses of professional irradiating certain contingent of medical work mans, as well as doses of internal irradiating, to the account of different ways of penetration an radionuclides different genesis in the organism of person. The first attempts of complex evaluations of doses of external and internal irradiating are connected with performing the special studies at the beginning initially 60-h s of past age. It was evaluated contribution of the different sources and different ways of irradiation. Hereto, time pertain attempts of dozes evaluations from global fallout. Finished form of these attempts of evaluation of dozes load levels have taken by the end of 80-h s only. To a period of catastrophes on Chernobyl hygienic evaluations of contribution of contamination were founded on given special gamma-analyses SVO 'Typhon'. Series of studies published by US 'Radiation studies', manage real to value scales of soiling a region Caucasus. It was shown that levels

  19. Challenges to the South Caucasus regional security aftermath of Russian–Georgian conflict: Hegemonic stability or new partnership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely K. Kakachia

    2011-01-01

    And the question is now how to handle this delicate situation in a strategically and geopolitically important region. So by controlling Georgia (in case Russia reaches abovementioned aims, Russia actually will be able to cut off Central Asia and Caspian resources. It means Russia would be able to isolate and cut off Azerbaijan and Central Asian countries and it will significantly strengthen its energy monopoly over Europe with all results coming out from that fact. So it’s about major shift in the energy policy and major shift in geopolitics based on this energy policy and Russian energy monopoly. The August war in Georgia demonstrated some risks associated with the functioning of the transit energy corridor in the southern Caucasus. It also demonstrated the need for broader security guarantees for a region that is vital to European and global energy security. Paper deals with economic damage inflicted by the Russo-Georgian war in South Caucasus and its implications for regional security.

  20. An Analysis of the Style of Male Caftans And Female Dresses of the Alans from the North Caucasus

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    Orfinskaya Olga V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the variation in the style of clothing of the Alans populating the territory of the North Caucasus in 8th – 13th centuries. An analysis of pattern drawings allowed the author to assume that the style of Alan clothing was based on the essential pattern of the Oriental type with a soft line between the body and the sleeves. The analysis revealed that the pattern changed together with the variation of the sewing material used by the Alans of the North Caucasus from felt fabric with a certain width and length. As a result of research performed by the author, a series of issues remained unresolved. However, the article demonstrates a new direction of analysis of the style of sewn archaeological clothing, which can be used during the reconstruction of historical costumes.

  1. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

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    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  2. Notes on the distribution and ecology of the genus Stenelmis Dufour, 1835 (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, Maksim I; Prokin, Alexandr A; Palatov, Dmitry M; Kovalev, Alexey V

    2015-12-03

    The distribution of the genus Stenelmis (Elmidae) of the Caucasus is reviewed based on materials collected by the authors and examined specimens stored in accessible collections. One of the two species present in this region, represented by the subspecies Stenelmis consobrina consobrina Dufour, 1835, is recorded for the first time in Krasnodar Krai and possibly in Armenia; Stenelmis puberula Reitter, 1887 is recorded for the first time in Russia (Krasnodar Krai and the Republic of Adygea) and Abkhazia.

  3. Trade unions in the independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus: present state, problems, and prospects

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    Ergashev, Bakhodyr

    2011-01-01

    The trade unions that operate in the independent states of Central Asia and the Caucasus have had to adjust to the world financial and economic crisis and its repercussions, rising unemployment, increasing informal employment, illegal trade migration, etc. They must to show more efficiency when dealing with social and labor conflicts, find new and more efficient forms of cooperation between employers and employees, and learn to coordinate their efforts. The events which shook the world trade ...

  4. The Establishment of the System of Public Education in the Caucasus (1802–1917 years: the Characteristic Features

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    Natalya A. Shevchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the establishment of the system of public education in the Caucasus in 1802-1917 years. The article proposed a periodization of the process of formation; the attention is paid to the number of pupils in the educational institutions, as well as the ethnic composition. In writing this article, the authors made use of statistical reports and descriptions, the materials of pre-revolutionary periodicals, normative-legal sources, as well as the modern scientific literature. There were used such scientific methods as analysis and synthesis, concretization, generalization while solving the research tasks. In addition, the paper used the historical-situational method, involving the study of historical facts in the context of the period under review in conjunction with the "neighboring" events and facts. In conclusion, the authors stated that that the system of public education in the Caucasus was faced with the numerous difficulties. The ambitious project, 1829 – the Regulation on the Transcaucasian colleges, the establishment of 20 district schools in the region was implemented only in the 1873 year, that is, it took 40 years for its realization. In addition to overcome the lack of understanding by the local population, the Caucasian administration was forced to change frequently the curriculum and to include the discipline of a regional component. However, by the beginning of XX century the system of public education in the Caucasus reached the level of full-fledged secondary school, and on the agenda stood the issue of higher education.

  5. Thorium Energy Resources and its Potential of Georgian Republic, The Caucasus

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    Gogoladze, Salome; Okrostsvaridze, Avtandil

    2017-04-01

    Energy resources, currently consumed by modern civilization, are represented by hydrocarbons - 78-80 %, however these reserves are exhausting. In light of these challenges, search of new energy resources is vital importance problem for the modern civilization. Based on the analysis of existing energy reserves and potential, as the main energy resources for the future of our civilization, the renewable and nuclear energy should be considered. However, thorium has a number of advantages compared to Uranium (Kazimi, 2003; et al.): It is concentrated in the earth crust 4-5 times more than uranium; extraction and enrichment of thorium is much cheaper than uranium's; It is less radioactive; complete destruction of its waste products is possible; thorium yields much more energy than uranium. Because of unique properties and currently existed difficult energetic situation thorium is considered as the main green energy resource in the 3rd millennium of the human civilization (Martin, 2009). Georgia republic, which is situated in the central part of Caucasus, poor of hydrocarbons, but has a thorium resource important potential. In general the Caucasus represents a collisional orogen, that formed along the Eurasian North continental margin and extends over 1200 km from Caspian to Black Sea. Three major units are distinguished in its construction: the Greater and Lesser Caucasian mobile belts and the Transcaucasus microplate. Currently it represents the Tethyan segment connecting the Mediterranean and Iran-Himalayan orogenic belts, between the Gondvana-derived Arabian plate and East European platform. Now in Georgian Republic are marked thorium four ore occurrences (Okrostsvaridze, 2014): 1- in the Sothern slope of the Greater Caucasus, in the quartz -plagioclases veins (Th concentrations vary between 51g/t - 3882 g/t); 2- in the Transcaucasus Dzirula massif hydrothermally altered rocks of the Precambrian quartz-diorite gneisses (Th concentrations vary between 117 g/t -266 g

  6. Initiation and evolution of the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the Caucasus region constrained by detrital zircon geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Niemi, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Greater Caucasus (GC) mountain range is composed of thrust sheets of Paleozoic (Pz) - Mesozoic (Mz) flysch. Crystalline basement is exposed in the western part of the range, but not in the eastern. Detrital zircon ages from Eocene - recent foreland strata to the south of the western GC in Georgia suggest sediment sourcing from GC basement or Pz strata since Eocene time, requiring significant exhumation prior to or coincident with the onset of Arabia-Eurasia collision 30 Ma. We sampled foreland basin sedimentary rocks and modern river sands whose catchment areas together span the potential source rocks exposed in the western Greater Caucasus (GC) in Georgia. We find that GC basement rocks and lower Pz strata contain a diagnostic 450 Ma zircon population that is absent from the upper Pz and Mz sedimentary strata that are exposed throughout most of the range. These 450 Ma zircons are from an unknown source with an age distinct from the Hercynian ( 300 Ma) and Pan-African ( 600 Ma) orogens. Despite their absence in late Pz and Mz strata, the 450 Ma zircons are prevalent in Eocene - recent foreland basin deposits, whose ages were determined biostratigraphically [1]. Paleocurrent directions also indicate a GC source for Eocene strata [2], necessitating early Cenozoic exposure of GC basement or Pz strata. Exposing GC basement or Pz strata during Eocene time requires erosional removal of >3500 m of Mesozoic and late Paleozoic strata [1]. The detrital zircon age observations suggest that erosional removal of these strata took place prior to the initiation of the Arabia-Eurasia collision at 30 Ma and well before the ongoing episode of rapid GC exhumation and erosion from 5 Ma - present. Foreland basin detrital zircon ages also reveal a lack of input from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene volcanism of the Adjara-Trialet zone. This finding is consistent with the existence of a Paleogene ocean basin between the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus wide enough to prevent

  7. Mudflow Hazards in the Georgian Caucasus - Using Participatory Methods to Investigate Disaster Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Valentina; McCall, Michael; Gaprindashvili, George

    2014-05-01

    The Caucasus form an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia in terms of geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. These processes, especially mudflows, frequently result in considerable damage to the settlements, farmlands and infrastructure facilities. The occurrence intervals between mudflows are becoming significantly shorter, therefore the most populated areas and infrastucture need to be included in risk zones. This presentation reviews the case of the mudflow problem in Mleta village in the region of Dusheti where the mudflow risk is critical. The villages of Zemo Mleta (Higher Mleta) and Kvemo Mleta (Lower Mleta) are entirely surrounded by unstable slopes where mudslides, landslides and floods are often generated. These hazards occur at least twice per year and sometimes result in severe events. In 2006 and 2010 in Mleta village a very severe mudflow event occurred creating heavy damage. This paper focuses on the recognition of the importance of cooperating with the local communities affected by these disasters, in order to get useful information and local knowledge to apply to disaster prevention and management. In October 2010, the EU-financed MATRA Project (Institutional Capacity Building in Natural Disaster Risk Reduction) in Georgia included fieldworks in several locations. Particular attention was given to Mleta village in the Caucasus Mountains, where the activities focused on institutional capacity-building in disaster risk reduction, including modern spatial planning approaches and technologies and the development of risk communication strategies. Participatory methods of acquiring local knowledge from local communities reveal many advantages compared to traditional survey approaches for collecting data. In a participatory survey and planning approach, local authorities, experts and local communities are supposed to work together to provide useful information and eventually produce a plan for Disaster Risk Reduction

  8. SOCIOCULTURAL INTEGRATION AS A TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT RESOLUTION: THE CASE OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    M. E. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to research of sociocultural integration as a tool for resolving regional conflicts. The modern theory of conflict resolution focuses on the ability of the sociocultural integration in the transformation of destructive identity-based conflicts into conflicts of interest. The author considers the systemic factors of the identity-based conflicts and emphasizes destabilizing role of the politicization of ethnicity. Ethnic mobilization, social inequalities, economic polarization and civic identity crisis are structural factors that determine the acuity of ethnic tension and escalation of regional identity conflicts as a result. Contradictions between the modernization system and social disintegration are the primary source of identity conflicts in theNorth Caucasus. Regionalization takes conflictogenic form in this case, i.e. the specifics of regional conflicts is associated with a conflict of static (traditionalization and dynamic (modernization types of social propagation. Structurally, escalation of violence in regional conflicts is determined by the intensity and scope of ethnic mobilization and social dissatisfaction as necessary conditions of a collision. Regional conflicts affect existentially meaningful collective values and group identities, that is why the participants are involved emotionally into identification conflicts; due to their emotional charge and irrationality, identity conflicts are no longer a means of overcoming social frustrations, but a destructive goal in itself, i.e. ethnicity polarization and negative cultural stereotypes in perceiving “the others” play a key role in initiating such conflicts. The following must be considered for discussing anti-conflict mechanisms of sociocultural integration in theNorth Caucasus. First, sociocultural integration is a political project with its content determined to a wide extent by defense challenges of the polyethnic Russian society. Second, development of the

  9. Sovereignty issues in the Caucasus: contested ethnic and national identities in Chechnya, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia

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    Vasili Rukhadze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty issues in the Caucasus: contested ethnic and national identities in Chechnya, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia The issue of sovereignty has been at the forefront of regional politics in the Caucasus since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. In particular, the Russian government has approached various—seemingly similar cases—in very different ways. Although each specific region examined—Chechnya, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia—is unique, the nature of ethnic and national identity has been framed differently by the Russian government. In Chechnya, the Putin administration has framed any outstanding separatist claims in conjunction with terrorism and national security issues. In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the Putin administration has instead noted the need for “liberation.” The outcome has been to stifle secessionist desires in Chechnya, while supporting those same secessionist desires outside of Russia’s borders, in Abkhazia and South Ossetia.   Kwestia suwerenności na Kaukazie: kontestowane tożsamości etniczne i narodowe w Czeczenii, Abchazji i Osetii Południowej Kwestia suwerenności wysunęła się na czołowe miejsce w polityce regionalnej na Kaukazie z chwilą rozpadu Związku Sowieckiego w 1991 roku. W istocie rząd rosyjski do poszczególnych, pozornie podobnych, przypadków podszedł w odmienny sposób. Aczkolwiek każdy z interesujących nas tutaj regionów – Czeczenia, Abchazja i Osetia Południowa – jest unikatowy, to charakter tożsamości etnicznej i narodowej został ujęty przez rząd rosyjski w inne ramy. W Czeczenii administracja Putina wiązała wysuwane tam roszczenia separatystyczne z terroryzmem i kwestiami bezpieczeństwa narodowego. Z kolei w Abchazji i Osetii Południowej Rosja dostrzegła potrzebę „wyzwolenia”. W efekcie nastąpiło stłumienie aspiracji do secesji w Czeczenii, podczas gdy poza granicami Rosji, w Abchazji i Osetii Południowej, te same dążenia secesjonistyczne zyska

  10. Characteristics of mineral aerosol deposited on the glaciers of Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzov, Stanislav; Shahgedanova, Maria; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Ginot, Patrick; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Popov, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Records of mineral aerosol (desert dust) stored in glaciers provide data on frequency and intensity of deposition events, source regions and atmospheric pathways of mineral dust. We present and discuss a chronology of dust deposition events recorded in the shallow firn and ice cores extracted on the Western Plateau, Mt. Elbrus (5150 m a.s.l.), Caucasus Mountains, Russia and covering the period of 2009-2013. Particle size distribution and chemical analysis (major ions, trace elements) were peformed using Coulter Counter Multisizer III, Abacus particle counter, IC and ICPMS analysis. Sampling was performed using continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. Annual average dust flux (264 μg/cm2 a-1) and average mass concentration (1.7 mg/kg) over the period 2007-2013 were calculated for the first time for this region. A combination of satellite imagery (MSG SEVIRI), trajectory models (FLEXTA, HYSPLIT) and meteorological data were used to accurately date each of the dust layers observed in shallow cores and investigate provenance of the dust and its pathways. Desert dust originating from the Middle East and Sahara was deposited on the Caucasus glaciers 3-6 times a year. Although less frequent, Saharan events are characterized by considerably higher dust loads than the more frequent Middle Eastern events. The mass median diameter of dust particles ranged between 2 and 9 μm. The deposition of dust resulted in elevated concentrations of most ions, especially Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and sulphates. Dust originated from or passing over the Middle East was characterised by the elevated concentrations of nitrates and ammonia. This may be related to dust emissions from agricultural fields which, if abandoned due to droughts, become important sources of dust. By contrast, samples of the Saharan dust originated from natural sources showed lower concentrations of ammonium. The mean values of crustal enrichment factors for the measured trace elements including metals were calculated. Overall

  11. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF WILLOW TRIANDRA (SALIX TRIANDRA L., GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  12. High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the demographic history of human populations from the Caucasus and surrounding regions, we used high-throughput sequencing to generate 147 complete mtDNA genome sequences from random samples of individuals from three groups from the Caucasus (Armenians, Azeri and Georgians), and one group each from Iran and Turkey. Overall diversity is very high, with 144 different sequences that fall into 97 different haplogroups found among the 147 individuals. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of population size change through time show a population expansion around 40-50 kya, followed by a constant population size, and then another expansion around 15-18 kya for the groups from the Caucasus and Iran. The BSP for Turkey differs the most from the others, with an increase from 35 to 50 kya followed by a prolonged period of constant population size, and no indication of a second period of growth. An approximate Bayesian computation approach was used to estimate divergence times between each pair of populations; the oldest divergence times were between Turkey and the other four groups from the South Caucasus and Iran (~400-600 generations), while the divergence time of the three Caucasus groups from each other was comparable to their divergence time from Iran (average of ~360 generations). These results illustrate the value of random sampling of complete mtDNA genome sequences that can be obtained with high-throughput sequencing platforms.

  13. Muscovy and the Crimea in the Historical Destinies of the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the second half of the XVI century

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    Aleksandr A. Kudryavtsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the XVI century Moscow state, defeating Kazan (1552 and Astrakhan (1556 khanate, came to the Caspian sea to the North Caucasus, where he encountered opposition from two very strong opponents: Turkey and the Crimean khanate. The Ottoman Empire, which included Northern Caspian and the Caucasus in the number of its geopolitical interests, sought power and diplomatic means to subdue the mountain and nomadic population, their power and actively opposed their rapprochement with Russia. One of the main performers and conductors of Turkish policy in the region were dependent vassal of Turkey, the Crimean khanate. The peoples of the North Caucasus, first of all Nogai, the Kabardians and the representatives of several other Circassian tribes, seen in Moscow state protection from the expansive aspirations of the Crimea and Turkey and actively supported the Russian fortification construction and anticrime military operations of the Russian North Caucasus. Military and diplomatic successes of the Russian state in the North Caucasus and the Caspian sea in the second half of the XVI century contributed to the development of international Eastern trade along the Volga-Caspian route and the strengthening of the authority of Moscow in the region and in the international arena.

  14. Grasslands of intermontane basins of Central Caucasus: land use legacies and present-day state

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    Belonovskaya Elena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain semi-natural grasslands of intermontane basins of Central Caucasus, North Ossetia-Alania and the history of its land use were studied. It was found that post-forest, meadow-steppe and partially subalpine grasslands in the study area had been used as croplands for centuries and have been transformed into grazing lands about 60 years ago. In the last 20 years, the grasslands have been underused. It was revealed that current spatial distribution of grasslands is different from the classic scheme of natural climate-induced vegetation distribution. Species composition of meadow steppes is similar in different locations and does not reflect climatic differences of “dry” leeward and “wet” windward slopes of the intermontane basins. Present-day soils reflect parent material differences and erosion degree, but not topography-induced local climate specificity. However, discovered buried soils showed contrasting soil diversity on the southern and northern slopes. It is assumed that the present convergence of soil cover and vegetation is a result of long homogenising human impact and relatively short grassland development.

  15. Addressing the burden of post-conflict surgical disease - strategies from the North Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Lunze, Fatima I

    2011-01-01

    The 2004 terror attack on a school in Beslan, North Caucasus, with more than 1300 children and their families taken hostage and 334 people killed, ended after extreme violence. Following the disaster, many survivors with blast ear injuries developed complications because no microsurgery services were available in the region. Here, we present our strategies in North Ossetia to strengthen subspecialty surgical care in a region of instable security conditions. Disaster modifies disease burden in an environment of conflict-related health-care limitations. We built on available secondary care and partnered international with local stakeholders to reach and treat victims of a humanitarian disaster. A strategy of mutual commitment resulted in treatment of all consenting Beslan victims with blast trauma sequelae and of non disaster-related patients. Credible, sustained partnerships and needs assessments beyond the immediate phases after a disaster are essential to facilitate a meaningful transition from humanitarian aid to capacity building exceeding existing insufficient standards. Psychosocial impacts of disaster might constitute a barrier to care and need to be assessed when responding to the burden of surgical disease in conflict or post-conflict settings. Involving local citizen groups in the planning process can be useful to identify and access vulnerable populations. Integration of our strategy into broader efforts might strengthen the local health system through management and leadership.

  16. Oribatid mite communities along an elevational gradient in Sairme gorge (Caucasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumladze, Levan; Murvanidze, Maka; Maraun, Mark; Salakaia, Meri

    2015-05-01

    Many aboveground animals and plant communities have been studied along elevational gradients whereas studies on soil animals are scarce. Here, we studied oribatid mite community distribution along an elevational gradient from 600 to 2200 m in forest ecosystems of the Western Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Georgia. Overall, 86 oribatid mite species were found at the study sites. Oribatid mite densities were generally low (~9800 ind./m(2)), and 74% of all species reproduced sexually indicating that resource conditions at the study sites are generally poor. Oribatids mainly comprised Brachypylina (76%), Mixonomata (13%), Desmonomata (6%) and Enarthronota (5%). Oribatid mite community structure changed along the elevational gradient and the changes correlated with temperature, pH, litter thickness and density of the herb layer. The dominance of sexually reproducing taxa and low overall abundance indicate that the studied elevational gradient is characterized by poor resource conditions for soil microarthropods. Oribatid mite species richness and density declined with elevation suggesting that decreasing temperature in concert with resource limitation is a main driver of oribatid mite communities whereas stochastic factors (such as mid-domain effects) are of minor importance.

  17. Agrobiodiversity and genetic erosion of crop varieties and plant resources in the Central Great Caucasus

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    Maia Akhalkatsi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kazbegi Municipality is located in the Central Great Caucasus at an altitude between 1250 and 5047 m a.s.l. Agriculture of this area is extreme internal variability and complexity, with a multiplicity of highly localized providing the habitats and agricultural lands for much genetic erosion of crop varieties, animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for wild plant resources. Historically, Kazbegi producers had begun cultivating the land to prepare for planting in of distribution local varieties of wheat, barley, rye, oats, etc. In the only cereals, legumes, herbs and some fruits are cultivated in alpine zone as the upper limit till the location of 2160 m a.s.l. Genetic erosion has been determined historically of aboriginal crops from sheep and cattle grazing problem and reached extreme levels from 1970s in Kazbegi Municipality and causes a problem to maintain agriculture. Plant resources remained in forests and subalpine grasslands and shrub lands. The problems of these materials are habitat degradation by disturbance in many forest types with destroyed and burned. Tree seedlings are grazing by animals and forest is not restoring naturally. Forest planting is good relation for restoration of plant wild species resources. Investigation on exchange on mountain agriculture and plant resources will now be rapidly accelerated in the vital interests of mountain communities.

  18. Drastic underestimation of amphipod biodiversity in the endangered Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katouzian, Ahmad-Reza; Sari, Alireza; Macher, Jan N; Weiss, Martina; Saboori, Alireza; Leese, Florian; Weigand, Alexander M

    2016-03-01

    Biodiversity hotspots are centers of biological diversity and particularly threatened by anthropogenic activities. Their true magnitude of species diversity and endemism, however, is still largely unknown as species diversity is traditionally assessed using morphological descriptions only, thereby ignoring cryptic species. This directly limits evidence-based monitoring and management strategies. Here we used molecular species delimitation methods to quantify cryptic diversity of the montane amphipods in the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus biodiversity hotspots. Amphipods are ecosystem engineers in rivers and lakes. Species diversity was assessed by analysing two genetic markers (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA), compared with morphological assignments. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that species diversity and endemism is dramatically underestimated, with 42 genetically identified freshwater species in only five reported morphospecies. Over 90% of the newly recovered species cluster inside Gammarus komareki and G. lacustris; 69% of the recovered species comprise narrow range endemics. Amphipod biodiversity is drastically underestimated for the studied regions. Thus, the risk of biodiversity loss is significantly greater than currently inferred as most endangered species remain unrecognized and/or are only found locally. Integrative application of genetic assessments in monitoring programs will help to understand the true magnitude of biodiversity and accurately evaluate its threat status.

  19. Gene flow between wolf and shepherd dog populations in Georgia (Caucasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaliani, Natia; Shakarashvili, Maia; Gurielidze, Zurab; Qurkhuli, Tamar; Tarkhnishvili, David

    2014-01-01

    We studied the distribution of the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes at 8 loci in 102 gray wolves, 57 livestock guarding dogs, and 9 mongrel dogs from Georgia (Caucasus). Most of the studied dogs had mitochondrial haplotypes clustered with presumably East Asian dog lineages, and most of the studied wolves had the haplotypes clustered with European wolves, but 20% of wolves and 37% of dogs shared the same mitochondrial haplotypes. Bayesian inference with STRUCTURE software suggested that more than 13% of the studied wolves had detectable dog ancestry and more than 10% of the dogs had detectable wolf ancestry. About 2-3% of the sampled wolves and dogs were identified, with a high probability, as first-generation hybrids. These results were supported by the relatedness analysis, which showed that 10% of wolves and 20% of dogs had closest relatives from an opposite group. The results of the study suggest that wolf-dog hybridization is a common event in the areas where large livestock guarding dogs are held in a traditional way, and that gene flow between dogs and gray wolves was an important force influencing gene pool of dogs for millennia since early domestication events. This process may have been terminated 1) in areas outside the natural range of gray wolves and 2) since very recent time, when humans started to more tightly control contacts of purebred dogs.

  20. Presumable incipient hybrid speciation of door snails in previously glaciated areas in the Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eva L; Neiber, Marco T; Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Homoploid hybrid speciation, speciation by hybridization without a change in chromosome number, may be the result of an encounter of closely related species in a habitat that is different from that usually occupied by these species. In the northwestern Caucasus the land snail species Micropontica caucasica and M. circassica form two distinct entities with little admixture at low and intermediate altitudes. However, at higher altitudes in the Lagonaki plateau, which were repeatedly glaciated, Micropontica populations with intermediate characters occur. Admixture analyses based on AFLP data demonstrated that the populations from the Lagonaki plateau are homoploid hybrids that now form a cluster separate from the parental species. The Lagonaki populations are characterized by a mtDNA haplotype clade that has been found in the parental species only once. The fixation of this haplotype clade in most hybrid populations suggests that these haplotypes are better adapted to the cooler conditions in high altitude habitats and have replaced the haplotypes of the parental species in a selective sweep. The fixation of a presumably adaptive mitochondrial haplotype clade in the Lagonaki populations is an important step towards speciation under the differential fitness species concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender saturation in the Southern Caucasus: family composition and sex-selective abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garenne, Michel; Hohmann, Sophie

    2014-11-01

    The study investigates the complex relationships between sex-selective abortion and family composition in two countries of the Southern Caucasus: Armenia and Azerbaijan. Data were drawn from maternity histories recorded in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs). In both countries, the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of girls already born changed from negative to positive after 1992, when sex-selective abortion became prevalent. In Azerbaijan, but not in Armenia, a similar change was noticed for the relationship between the sex ratio of the next birth and the number of boys already born, this time from positive to negative. All changes in slopes were highly statistically significant. These findings indicate that sex-selective abortion was prevalent in both countries, and could work both ways in Azerbaijan. The results are interpreted in terms of 'gender saturation', that is a desire of families to better balance the composition of the family when too many children of the same sex are already born, which is consistent with opinion surveys indicating a preference for balanced families.

  2. Tectonic stages in Southern Greater Caucasus and Adjara Trialeti belt in Georgia: new results on timing and structures of inverted basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candaux, Zoé; Sosson, Marc; Adamia, Shota; Sadradze, Nino; Alania, Victor; Enukidze, Onise; Chabukiani, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus mountain belt is the result of a long live subduction process and collisions of continental microplates (e.g. Dercourt et al., 1986; Barrier and Vrielynck, 2008). The northward subduction of Tethys beneath Eurasian plate initiated a back-arc basin: the Greater Caucasus basin (e.g. Adamia et al., 1981; Zonenshain and Le Pichon, 1986; Roberston et al., 1996; Stephenson and Schellart, 2010 among others). It took place from Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. First compression stage started at the end of Cretaceous in the Lesser Caucasus (e.g. Rolland et al., 2010; Sosson et al. 2010, 2016) and Palaeocene-early Eocene in Crimean Mountains (northwestern continuation of the Greater Caucasus) (Sheremet et al., 2016). In southern Greater Caucasus (Georgian area) the age of deformation during the beginning of the collision is still a subject of debate: Oligocene-Lower Miocene at the frontal part (e.g. Adamia et al. 2010) or Eocene (Mosar et al., 2010). The deformation continues at Miocene, Pliocene and actual time in Kura and Rioni foreland basins (Forte et al., 2010; 2013; Mosar et al., 2010). The different timing is interpreted to be the result of the Taurides-Anatolides-South Armenian microcontinent collision with Eurasia, followed by the collision with Arabia. During the first collision, during Paleocene-Eocene, the so-called Adjara-Trialeti basin opened north of the volcanic arc. One question is if this local extension affect the timing of compression observed in the Greater Caucasus or not. In Georgia, we investigated new structural analyses, and considered unconformities and growth strata at the frontal part of deformations in Kura and Rioni forelands basins (in front of the Greater Caucasus). Our results evidence different tectonic stages and their timing. In Adjara-Trialeti, Kura and south Rioni basins deformation starts at Middle-Late Miocene. In northern Rioni basin Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleocene compression is evidenced. The structures

  3. Aude Merlin and Silvia Serrano (Ed., Ordres et désordres au Caucase [Orders and Disorders in the Caucasus

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    Giulia Prelz Oltramonti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is usually the full-intensity phases of conflicts that draw most scrutiny, and this is true for the conflicts of the Caucasus too. Much has been written on the wars that took place in Nagorno Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia in the early 1990s, on the two Chechen conflicts, and on the more recent (2008 conflict in Georgia. While a cessation of full-scale hostilities does not necessarily entail the establishment of order and stability, attention fades away. This is why the mechanisms t...

  4. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

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    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  5. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Fatima I.; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M.; Esenov, Constantin T.; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized

  6. Global surgery in a postconflict setting--5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Fatima I; Lunze, Karsten; Tsorieva, Zemfira M; Esenov, Constantin T; Reutov, Alexandr; Eichhorn, Thomas; Offergeld, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53%) and for indications not related to violence (47%). None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism) who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include specialized interventions such as microsurgery are integral

  7. ANALYSIS OF SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF SPECIES ALLIUM L. IN THE RUSSIAN CAUCASUS

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    V. A. Chadaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The main objective of this work is to analyze the survival strategies of 20 species of the Allium genus in the Russian part of the Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Dagestan.Methods. Life strategies of wild onions have been considered within the concept of L. Ramensky and J. Grime, using the most significant feature markers at the organismal and population-ontogenetic levels.Results. Studies have shown that all studied species are characterized by the mixed types of strategy with the presence of the patient strategy component. Often, even closely related morphologically similar species have a different set of mechanisms of stability when growing in similar conditions. Accordingly, the features of the formation of life strategies can be used as diagnostic taxonomic characters in distinguishing morphologically similar species. It has also been shown that under the effectiveness of life strategy it is appropriate to consider the maintenance of stability of coenopopulations as in stable conditions or gradual changes in the ecological and phytocoenotic environment, coenopopulations are resistant thanks to a particular component of survival strategies. Accordingly, when assessing the status of species in nature it is crucial to take into account the peculiarities of its life strategy, which involves carrying out complex investigations.Main conclusions. Thus, the analysis of plant species survival strategies provides a large amount of information important in differentiating morphologically similar species, determining their state in nature, identifying the functional role of species in ecosystems and their indicator values in assessing the degree of resilience of ecosystems as a whole.

  8. Global surgery in a postconflict setting - 5-year results of implementation in the Russian North Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima I. Lunze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Collaborations for global surgery face many challenges to achieve fair and safe patient care and to build sustainable capacity. The 2004 terrorist attack on a school in Beslan in North Ossetia in the Russian North Caucasus left many victims with complex otologic barotrauma. In response, we implemented a global surgery partnership between the Vladikavkaz Children's Hospital, international surgical teams, the North Ossetian Health Ministry, and civil society organizations. This study's aim was to describe the implementation and 5-year results of capacity building for complex surgery in a postconflict, mid-income setting. Design: We conducted an observational study at the Children's Hospital in Vladikavkaz in the autonomous Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, part of the Russian Federation. We assessed the outcomes of 15 initial patients who received otologic surgeries for complex barotrauma resulting from the Beslan terrorism attack and for other indications, and report the incidence of intra- and postoperative complications. Results: Patients were treated for trauma related to terrorism (53% and for indications not related to violence (47%. None of the patients developed peri- or postoperative complications. Three patients (two victims of terrorism who underwent repair of tympanic perforations presented with re-perforations. Four junior and senior surgeons were trained on-site and in Germany to perform and teach similar procedures autonomously. Conclusions: In mid-income, postconflict settings, complex surgery can be safely implemented and achieve patient outcomes comparable to global standards. Capacity building can build on existing resources, such as operation room management, nursing, and anesthesia services. In postconflict environments, substantial surgical burden is not directly attributable to conflict-related injury and disease, but to health systems weakened by conflicts. Extending training and safe surgical care to include

  9. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Bats from the Country of Georgia (Caucasus.

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    Ying Bai

    Full Text Available Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35% bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6-50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region. Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13% bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity. No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential.

  10. PECULIARITIES OF HUMUS AND NITROGEN ECOLOGICAL STATE FOR STEPPE ZONE CHERNOZEMS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    Aleksei Alekseevich Novikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper presented is to determine tendency and intensity for quantitative and qualitative changes in humus and nitrogen of chernozems. System approach to study natural objects is assumed as the basis for research methodology of humus and nitrogen state of soils. It is established that the depth typical values of chernozem humus horizons in the North Caucasus are 120–180 cm for South European facies of leached chernozem, 100–170 cm for modal chernozems, 70–160 cm for common chernozems, 70–120 cm for sothern chernozems; for East European facies of southern chernozems it is 55–70 cm. A distinctive ecological feature of soils is a low humus content in an arable layer, its deep distribution along the profile and. slight variability among each subtype. Nitrogen quantity in chernozems of the region variates in comparatively wide ranges: in South European facies of leached, modal and common chernozems 0,20–0,35%, in East european facies of southern chernozems 0,22–0,30%. Southern chernozems of South European facies contain least of all nitrogen 0,18–0,22%. Tota1 nitrogen composition is presented in the main with nonhydrolysed facies – 74,2–78,9%. The research materials are intended to design farming systems on the landscape basis for specialists who are busy with the problem of conservation and increase in soil fertility and environment protection. The results of research allow to realize purposeful impact on decision making to control humus and nitrogen state of soils and this will serve as the basis for conservation of bioecological potential of chernozems.

  11. FEATURES OF HUMUS AND NITROGEN ECOLOGICAL STATUS FOR STEPPE ZONE CHERNOZEMS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    Aleksei Alekseevich Novikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper presented is to determine tendency and intensity for quantitative and qualitative changes in humus and nitrogen status of chernozems. The system approach to study natural objects is assumed as the basis for research methodology of humus and nitrogen status of soils. It is established that the depth typical values of chernozem humus horizons in the North Caucasus are 120-180 cm for South European facies of leached chernozems, 100-170 cm for modal chernozems, 70-160 cm for common chernozems, 70-120 cm for southern chernozems; for East European facies of southern chernozems the value is 55-70 cm. A distinctive ecological feature of the soils is thought to be a low humus content in the arable layer, its deep distribution along the profile and slight variability among each subtype. Nitrogen quantity in chernozems of the region variates within a comparatively wide range: 0.20-0.35 % in South European facies of leached, modal and common chernozems, 0.22-0.30 % in East European facies of southern chernozems. Southern chernozems of South European facies contain least of all nitrogen, i.e., 0.18-0.22 %. Total nitrogen composition is mainly presented by non-hydrolysable facies, making 74.2-78.9 %. The research materials are intended to design farming systems on the landscape basis for specialists dealing with the issues of soil preservation, increasing soil fertility as well as environment protection. The results of the research may contribute to making a purposeful impact on decision making to control humus and nitrogen status of soils, thus serving as the basis for preservation of bioecological potential of chernozems.

  12. The Russian Orthodox Church in the occupied territories of the Caucasus in August 1942 — February 1943

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    Shishkin Evgenii, priest

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The status and activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1942-1943 is analysed on the material of the North Caucasus and the Kuban. Battle for the Caucasus and the Battle of Stalingrad — the crucial events of the World War II — were accompanied by the fi rst phase of the occupation of a large part of the South of Russia. We study both positive and tragic facets of church life in the occupied territories of the enemy. The process of spontaneous legalization of the clergy and parish communities, the Soviet government outlawed in the preceding period, traced the fate of the Orthodox pastors and churches — returning to serve and die at the hands of the Nazis, open to the service and destroyed by Hitler’s army. The internal problems of religious policy of the German Headquarters and especially its implementation in the region, as well as hierarchical and jurisdictional problems caused by the Renovationist schism, and their perspective in conditions of military everyday are examined. Marked combining processes in the church community and the formation at the local level prerequisites for overcoming the disunions ecclesiastic of the 1920s — 1930s.

  13. The Role and Place of “Circassian Question” on US, EU and Turkey' Politics in the North Caucasus

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    N S Belyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Circassian diaspora is the biggest North Caucasian diaspora whose members live in almost every continent. In some countries, “Сircassian question” has acquired an evident political tint in relation to the Olympic Games in Sochi in 2014. This article discusses come elements of the North Caucasian policy of the USA, EU and Turkey relation to the problems of the Circassian people. In the US and the EU “Circassian question” is usually used as a tool of negative pressure on Russia. In this regard, “Circassian question” is not the most important place in the politics of America and Europe, and is is activated only when it has to be used against Russia. In Turkey, the “Circassian question” has very important inner meaning, since there resides the largest Circassian diaspora. The Turkish authorities pay attention to this issue in connection with the problem of national identity of Turkish society. Also, “Circassian question” is used as a tool for rapprochement with the peoples of the North Caucasus in order to spread its influence and education of pro-Turkish population. In the Turkish policy “Circassian question” plays the role of a bridge between Turkey and the North Caucasus, and is an example of positive coexistence of titular nation and a national minority in a modern state.

  14. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

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    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  15. The structural framework and recent geodynamics of the Greater Caucasus Meganticlinorium in the light of new data on its deep structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhin, E. A.; Gorbatikov, A. V.; Stepanova, M. Yu.; Ovsyuchenko, A. N.; Andreeva, N. V.; Kharazova, Yu. V.

    2015-03-01

    Using the microseismic sounding method (MSM), deep sections along two profiles intersecting the central part of the Greater Caucasus in Ossetia and its northwestern part near the town of Tuapse have been compiled. The revealed heterogeneities of the lithosphere display close relationships to orogenic tectonic deformations and young volcanic activity. Along the profile in the Ossetian sector of the Greater Caucasus, three deep-seated bodies of the Earth's crust with characteristic properties and morphology have been identified beneath the mountain system. These are a near-vertical low-velocity body and two high-velocity bodies framing the latter in the north and the south. The low-velocity body is primarily situated beneath the axial zone of the Greater Caucasus Meganticlinorium, whereas the high-velocity bodies occur beneath its southern and northern limbs. The persistent horizontal roof of the low-velocity body is traced beneath the entire core of the fold edifice at a depth of approximately 10 km. In the Tuapse sector near the western pericline of the meganticlinorium, the contrast of the low-velocity body is much less pronounced. The most contrasting narrow low-velocity bodies are related to the boundary of the Caucasus (West Kuban) Foredeep with the mountain edifice and the Adygean ledge.

  16. Advanced research workshop "South Caucasus : making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Leedu Kaitseministeeriumi poolt 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses korraldatud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" arutati, kas ja kuidas on Lõuna-Kaukaasia regioonis võimalik rakendada Balti riikide julgeolekualase koostöö kogemusi

  17. Chronology of soil evolution and climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia, during the 3rd millennium BC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrovskiy, AL; van der Plicht, J; Belinskiy, AB; Khokhlova, OS

    2001-01-01

    Chrono-sequences of paleosols buried under different mounds of the large Ipatovo Kurgan, constructed during the Bronze Age, have been studied to reconstruct climatic changes in the dry steppe zone of the Northern Caucasus, Russia. Abrupt climatic and environmental changes in the third millennium BC

  18. Cavernicolous Arrhopalites abchasicus sp. nov. (Collembola: Symphypleona: Arrhopalitidae) from the West Caucasus with a key to the World species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargovitsh, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    A new troglobiont species of Collembola, Arrhopalites abchasicus sp. nov., from Psyrtskha Cave in Novy Afon (West Caucasus, Abkhazia) is described. Subdivision of the genus Arrhopalites on diversus, caecus and harveyi groups of species is proposed and identification key to the World species is provided.

  19. Petrological Features and evolution of Post-Collision Volcanism of the Central Part of the Caucasus Segment (within Georgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutberidze, Bezhan

    2013-04-01

    The study area is located in the central part of the Caucasus - Asia Minor segment of the Alpine folded belt. The subduction geodynamic situation in the Caucasus segment changed to a collision 11 Ma ago in conditions of convergence of the Africa -Arabian and Eurasian continental lithospheric plates, followed by the closure of the Mesezoic ocean Thetys with its oceanic type crust. The first powerful paroxysm of collision subareal volcanism in the central part of the Caucasus segment occured in the volcanic area of South Georgia at the end of the Miocene. The initial stage of its volcanic activity begins with the eruption of pyroclastic material and ends with the eruptions of lava material. The products range in composition from basalts to ryolite. Andesites and dacites are predominant. The second cycle of volcanic paroxysm begins in the Late Pliocene, starting with the eruption of thick areal doleritebasaltic lavas on the Javakheti Plateau - the volcanic area of South Georgia ends with the eruption of lavas of andesitic composition and their pyroclasts. The volcanic processes in the South Georgian volcanic area end in the Middle Pleistocene by the formation of dolerite-basaltic and andesitic lava flows. Volcanic activity in the folded system of the Lesser Caucasus started in the Late Pliocene with the eruption of basalts, andesitebasalts, andesites and their pyroclastic equivalents. Andesites are predominant. Late Miocene volcanism is manifested mainly in the Transcaucasian intermontane area. All volcanic products of the cited area correspond to subalkaline (rarely alkaline) basalts, being represented by short lava flows and their pyroclastic equivalents. The subalkaline basalts of the Transcaucasian intermontane area are close to continental lithospheric intraplate basalts. Volcanism in the folded system of the Greater Caucasus is confined to two enormous regions including the Kazbegi and Keli plateau provinces. The magmatism occurred in 5 episodes at: Late

  20. Environmental change and cultural adaptation in the southern Caucasus: latest results from Aghitu-3 Cave, Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Andrew; Gasparyan, Boris; Bruch, Angela; Nahapetyan, Samvel; Weissbrod, Lior

    2014-05-01

    The well stratified locality of Aghitu-3 Cave in the southern Caucasus provides a glimpse into the daily lives of the earliest known Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of Armenia. With three main phases of sedimentation serving as a backdrop to human settlement, the locality provides an excellent stratigraphic record documenting environmental change between about 40,000 and 24,000 cal BP. From the end of MIS 3 with its warm and humid climate, early modern humans made use of the cave with increasing frequency during the colder and drier MIS 2. People produced stone tools from obsidian and chert, hunted medium sized ungulates and equids, and used bone tools to make clothing. The archaeological finds from Aghitu-3 suggest that mobile groups of Upper Paleolithic people used this high altitude (1601 m) cave as a seasonal camp with increasing frequency over time. Carnivores and birds of prey also made use of the cave, likely when humans were not present. The paleoenvironmental indicators confirm a warmer and more humid climate during the first sedimentary phase between about 40,000 and 33,000 cal BP. At about 35,000 cal BP the pollen profile indicates a vegetation of mixed deciduous and steppic species. The presence of green algae supports the interpretation that more humid conditions prevailed. Geological analysis indicates uniform, fine-grained deposition along the banks of a slow moving stream. This and the general lack of rock falls confirm a warmer and more humid climate. The spectrum of micromammals shows a higher proportion of golden hamster, also supporting a favorable climate. However, starting about 33,000 cal BP, we observe a second phase of deposition characterized by coarser sediment with evidence of rill washing, cycles of erosion and frequent large basalt rock falls. These observations suggest a dramatic cooling trend as the climate began to deteriorate. The third depositional phase starts about 29,000 cal BP and is marked by mainly aeolian deposition

  1. The First Evidence of the Precambrian Basement in the Fore Range Zone of the Great Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Kamzolkin, V.; Vidjapin, Y.; Somin, M.; Ivanov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Within the Great Caucasus fold-thrust belt, the Fore Range zone has the most complicated structure, and the highest degree of metamorphism was found there. This zone consists of several salients with the different composition and the structural and metamorphic evolution. The largest Blyb salient includes the metamorphic basement covered by the pack of thrusts. According to the recent isotopic data the upper levels of the Blyb metamorphic complex (BMC) are supposed to be Middle-Paleozoic (Somin, 2011). We studied zircons from the granitic intrusions located in the metamorphic rocks of the BMC. The U-Pb dating (SHRIMP II, VSEGEI, Russia) of zircons from the large Balkan metadiorite massif yielded the ages of 549±7,4, 574,1±6,7, and 567,9±6,9 Ma. All studied zircons show the high Th/U ratios and likely have the magmatic origin. This data is the first confirmation of the presence of the Precambrian basement and Vendian magmatic activity in the Fore Range zone. Zircons from the Unnamed granodiorite massif from the south of the Blyb salient yielded the age of 319±3.8 Ma (the Early Carboniferous). This fact taken together with the low grade of metamorphism in this intrusion reveals the Late Paleozoic magmatic event in the Fore Range zone. We also suggest that the Precambrian basement of the BMC, including the Balkan intrusion, is covered by so-called Armovsky nappe. This is confirmed by the field data, Middle-Paleozoic U-Pb ages and the higher degree of metamorphism of the Armovsky gneisses and schists. Thus, the BMC is not uniform but includes the blocks of the different age and metamorphic grades. Finally, we measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of the Balkan metadiorites. The axes of AMS ellipsoid fix the conditions of the north-east compression, as well as the strain field reconstructed from the macrostructures orientation, which corresponds to the thrusts propagation. Therefore, the emplacement of the Balkan massif happened before the thrust

  2. The importance of the Gurian stage: magnetostratigraphic correlation of the Calabrian in the southern Caucasus and its paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirscher, Uwe; Oms, Oriol; Bruch, Angela A.; Shatilova, Ira; Chochishvili, Giorgi; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2017-04-01

    The precise chronostratigraphy of the Neogene-Quaternary period throughout Eurasia is still limited by several regional stages of local use. Such stages often have no independent and absolute age determinations. This makes accurate paleoclimatic reconstructions of areas like the Caucasus to be difficult. This is particularly important since the area is of crucial significance when trying to integrate climate variability and faunal interchange between Africa and Eurasia in the late Neogene-Quaternary. Quaternary sections from western Georgia have produced an important amount of paleoclimatic information. Unfortunately, these records do not have a clear chronology. This is the case of the Gurian stage which has been roughly correlated with the lower Pleistocene on the basis of poorly documented bio- and magnetostratigraphic data. In order to better date the Gurian stage and its boundary stages, a magnetostratigraphic study has been carried out in several sections. All main sections with with Gurian sediments in the former Rioni bay (a marine restricted area to the southeast of the Major Caucasus) have been the goal of magnetostratigraphic investigations. Our data confirm for the first time the strict equivalence between the Gurian and the Calabrian stages. Furthermore, the obtained results provides further information on the tectonic evolution of the Rioni bay during the Calabrian times in the area: (1) in the north, Gurian layers were unconformably deposited on older Meotian sediments in a piggy back basin, (2) in the south, Gurian strata are conformably overlying Kujalnician (Plio-Pleistocene) succession, (3) magnetostratigraphy of several correlated sections indicate important changes in sediment accumulation within the same basin, (4) rock magnetic data provide remarkable magnetomineralogical differences between Gurian and the older Miocene strata likely reporting a transition related to changes in oxic conditions, supply of terrigenous sediment and accumulation

  3. Characteristics of Dust Deposition at High Elevation Sites in Caucasus Over the Past 190 years Recorded in Ice Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzov, Stanislav; Ginot, Patrick; Mikhaenko, Vladimir; Krupskaya, Victoria; Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Suzanne; Polukhov, Alexey; Khairedinova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The nature and extent of both radiative and geochemical impacts of mineral dust on snow pack and glaciers depend on physical and chemical properties of dust particles and its deposition rates. Ice cores can provide information about amount of dust particles in the atmosphere and its characteristic and also give insights on strengths of the dust sources and its changes in the past. A series of shallow ice cores have been obtained in Caucasus mountains, Russia in 2004 - 2015. A 182 meter ice core has been recovered at the Western Plateau of Mt. Elbrus (5115 m a.s.l.) in 2009. The ice cores have been dated using stable isotopes, NH4+ and succinic acid data with the seasonal resolution. Samples were analysed for chemistry, concentrations of dust and black carbon, and particle size distributions. Dust mineralogy was assessed by XRD. Individual dust particles were analysed using SEM. Dust particle number concentration was measured using the Markus Klotz GmbH (Abakus) implemented into the CFA system. Abakus data were calibrated with Coulter Counter multisizer 4. Back trajectory cluster analysis was used to assess main dust source areas. It was shown that Caucasus region experiencing influx of mineral dust from the Sahara and deserts of the Middle East. Mineralogy of dust particles of desert origin was significantly different from the local debris material and contained large proportion of calcite and clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, palygorskite) associated with material of desert origin. Annual dust flux in the Caucasus Mountains was estimated as 300 µg/cm2 a-1. Particle size distribution depends on individual characteristics of dust deposition event and also on the elevation of the drilling site. The contribution of desert dust deposition was estimated as 35-40 % of the total dust flux. Average annual Ca2+ concentration over the period from 1824 to 2013 was of 150 ppb while some of the strong dust deposition events led to the Ca2+ concentrations reaching 4400 ppb. An

  4. Tectonic paleostress fields and structural evolution of the NW-Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintot, Aline; Angelier, Jacques

    2002-11-01

    The NW-Caucasus fold-and thrust belt essentially corresponds to the inverted western Flysch Zone of the Great Caucasus Mountains, a deep basin that developed from Late Jurassic to Eocene times between the Scythian Plate to the north and the Transcaucasian terranes to the south (the Shatsky Ridge, SW of the NW-Caucasus zone). The Flysch Basin was strongly affected by compression in Late Eocene times, when the characteristic WNW trending folds and thrusts of the NW-Caucasus belt developed (some authors regard the main compressive deformation as Miocene in age). By means of remote sensing analysis, we elucidate the geometry of major structures in the belt: WNW trending south-vergent thrusts and folds, and major vertical and transverse NNE-SSW to NE-SW deep fault zones. The later structures are interpreted as ancient faults that were active during the development of the Flysch Basin. Paleostress investigations reveal seven main tectonic episodes in the evolution of the NW-Caucasus since Late Cretaceous. Combining structural interpretation, remote sensing analysis and paleostress field reconstruction, we propose a model for the structural evolution of the belt. During the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, the western Caucasus zone was under transtensional regime with an E-W to NE-SW trending σ3 that generated oblique normal movements along NNE-SSW transverse faults and WNW-ESE margins of the Flysch Basin. This tectonism could correspond to rifting related to the formation of the Eastern Black Sea Basin. At the Paleocene-Eocene boundary, a transpressional event with an E-W to NW-SE trending σ1 developed and the NNE-SSW to NE-SW trending faults could have been inverted. This event could correspond to an attenuation in the Eastern Black Sea Basin formation or to the incipient accretion of the Transcaucasian terranes. During the Eocene, another E-W to NW-SE oblique extension (-transtensional event) affected the Flysch Basin that could be related to a known rifting phase in the

  5. [Antibacterial susceptibility/resistance of Vibrio cholerae eltor clinical strains isolated in the Caucasus during the seventh cholera pandemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savel'ev, V N; Babenyshev, B V; Savel'eva, I V; Vasil'eva, O V; Guseva, L V; Grizhebovskiĭ, G M; Kurbanov, Sh Kh; Asvarov, B M; Batyrova, B A; Doroshenko, I G; Antonenko, A D

    2010-01-01

    The data on antibacterial susceptibility and resistance of Vibrio cholerae eltor phenotypes with different sets of the susceptibility or resistance markers conditioning the outbreaks and sporadic cases of cholera in the Caucasus within 1970-1998 are presented. An increase of the number of the Vibrio cholerae phenotypes resistant to tetracycline and chloramphenicol usually used in the treatment of cholera was recorded in 1990-1994 vs. 1970-1989. The El Tor cholera vibrios stored on synthetic media lost some of their resistance markers, therefore the retrospective investigation of the antibioticograms was only of approximate prognostic value in the choice of the drugs for the etiotropic treatment of cholera in view of possible outbreak of the disease.

  6. Loss of traditional knowledge aggravates wolf-human conflict in Georgia (Caucasus) in the wake of socio-economic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikvidze, Zaal; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2015-09-01

    Reports of the damage from wolf attacks have increased considerably over the last decade in Georgia (in the Caucasus). We interviewed locals about this problem in two focal regions: the Lanchkhuti area (in western Georgia) and Kazbegi District (in eastern Georgia) where livestock numbers had increased by an order of magnitude owing to dramatic shifts in the local economies over the last decade. This coincided with expanding habitats for wolves (abandoned plantations, for example). We found that the perceived damage from wolves was positively correlated with a poor knowledge of wolf habits and inappropriate livestock husbandry practices. Our results suggest a loss of traditional knowledge contributes strongly to the wolf-human conflicts in Georgia. Restoring traditional, simple but good practices--such as protecting herds using shepherd dogs and introducing bulls into the herds-can help one solve this problem.

  7. On the Paleogene-Neogene boundary and age of the Alkun Formation in the North Caucasus and Ciscaucasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippova, N. Yu.; Beluzhenko, E. V.; Golovina, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    The problems related to age of the lower part of the Caucasian regional stage (Alkun Formation) and Paleogene-Neogene boundary in the North Caucasus and Ciscaucasia are discussed with analysis and generalization of the data on nannoplankton and dinocyst assemblages from Alkun sediments in their different areas. The new data obtained from the section of the Alkun Formation in the stratotypical area of the Caucasian regional stage (valley of the Kuban River middle reaches, Karamurzinskii village), including finds of the index species Triquetrorhabdulus carinatus and typical species of the zonal nannoplankton assemblage, confirm the belonging of Alkun sediments to Zone NN1. The composition and peculiar features of the Karamurzinskii nannoflora and dinocyst assemblages indicate their Neogene age. It is established that the Alkun sediments in the Kuban, North Ossetia, and Belorechensk areas are characterized by similar nannoplankton and dinocyst assemblages, which implies their synchronism in these localities. The dinocyst assemblages from the Alkun Formation exhibit significant similarity with their counterparts from the uppermost part of the "lower Krosno Subformation" and lower part of the "upper Menilite Subformation" of the Ukrainian Carpathians and from lower layers of the "Chernobaevka Formation" of the northern Black Sea region. The analysis of available data reveals that the Paleogene-Neogene boundary in the North Caucasus and Ciscaucasia corresponds to a narrow interval spanning from the upper layers of the Batalpasha Formation and its analogs to the lower layers of the Alkun Formation. Thus, it is shown that the Caucasian regional stage belongs practically in its entire volume, probably except for its basal layers, the age of which needs to be specified, to the lower Miocene. New data on hydrology and bionomy of the basin, vegetation, and climate of the Alkunian time are also considered.

  8. Specific weather biotrop factors in the mountain resorts of North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Key aspects of weather therapeutic action in the mountain resorts of the Northern Caucasus (RNC) are formed under the combined influence of global, regional and local atmospheric processes, picturesque landscape, vegetation which create specificity and attraction of the weather regime for the interests of resort rehabilitation, recreation and tourism practically during the whole year. They include high purity of surface atmosphere (background level of aerosols for the countryside, the transparency of the atmosphere 0.780 -0.890); natural hypo barium and hypoxia (5-10%); increased natural aeroionization (N+=400-1000 ion/cm3; N- = 600-1200 ion/cm3; KUI = 0.8 -1.0); the softness of temperature rate (± 600 W/m ); regime of solar radiation favourable for heliotherapy. Pathogenic effects in the mountains can occur both in front atmospheric processes and in conditions of relatively favorable weather. For example, in a stable anti-cyclonic air mass with the sunny weather, foehn effects can happen that are accompanied by excessively low air humidity (lower than 20-30%), the air temperature rises in the afternoon (in winter until 15- 20°C, in summer - up to 25-35°C). The situation can be worsened by ozone intrusion (O3) with the increase of its concentration by 20 ppb or more, temperature stratification change, formation of pollution accumulation conditions in the gorges and valleys where the resort towns are located. We can observe: the increase in the concentration of aerosol pollution from 1.78 to 4 and even up to 8-10 particles/cm (particle diameter is 500-1000 nm); the rise in mass concentration of submicron aerosol up to 75 mkg/m3 and the gas pollution (CO, COx, O3) of the surface atmosphere. Against this backdrop the effects of rapid changes in the chemical composition of natural ions due to the formation of positive nitrogen ions (often with a prevalence of positive over negative air ions) can be sometimes developed. In such situations people suffering from

  9. Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer

  10. Anthropocene and bioclimatic potential of mountain resorts in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Natalia; Chalaya, Elena; Povolotckaia, Nina; Senik, Irina; Slepykh, Victor

    2016-04-01

    There has been studied the influence of anthropocene (A) on natural curative resources (NCR) of the mountain resorts in the North Caucasus (MRNC) according to long-term monitoring (M) of NCR condition which is carried out by PRIC FMBA, aerosol M of IFA RAS, landscape M of SNP, and also references on the state of the environment (E). The healthcare effects of NCR were estimated from the position of the methods[1] accepted in balneology. Typification of anthropogenous factors of the surface atmosphere for MRNC is constructed on the basis of semirational analysis of rehabilitation properties of climate and landscape studied in the course of recovery treatment and health-improving rest of profile patients in clinics of PRIC FMBA taking into account the factors of aerosol pollution of the atmosphere by the technique[2]. In the development of A in the MRNC it is possible to allocate three conditional periods: - 1803 - 1880 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is almost not changed (10-20%), there were the first signs of influence A on E; - 1881-1970 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is slightly changed (21-70%), the formation of new forms of the resort landscape and town-planning, the development of mountain-sanitary control zone to decrease anthropogenic pollution of E. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2,35-2,75 points; 78-92%); - 1971-2015 - the natural ecosystem of MRNC is moderately transformed (71-85%), there is a consolidation of building of city and resort zones, signs of global climate change (the increase in the annual amount of precipitation by 10% (since 2002), episodes of excessive heat (Tmax >30°C) for 12.4%, thermal balance of the person is higher than +600 W/m2 for 11%. There have been revealed some new specific rehabilitation properties of NCR and there have been denoted some criteria of their protection. According to M the medical and health-improving potential of NCR is increased and high (2

  11. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    -ralstonite, and fluorite-identified in these metasomatic rocks for the first time. By analogy with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in Chile and the United States, the ore mineralization of the KOMS may be classified by composition and textural and structural attributes as a supraore level of porphyry copper genetic type. The volcanic rocks of the KOMS and the EVC as a whole are enriched in Ag, Mo, Zn, As, Sb, Se, and Ba. Judging from the scale of argillic alteration and taking into account the data on porphyry Cu-Mo ore-magmatic systems of the Greater Caucasus, veined Pb-Zn ore mineralization may be expected in the propylitic zone at a depth down to 1000 m from the present-day erosion level of the KOMS. Stringer-disseminated Au-Ag, Cu, and Cu-Mo ore mineralization of the upper part of the porphyry ore-magmatic system related to subvolcanic dacitic intrusions may be localized somewhat deeper.

  12. Model-based calculations of surface mass balance of mountain glaciers for the purpose of water consumption planning: focus on Djankuat Glacier (Central Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, O. O.; Rybak, E. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mountain glaciers act as regulators of run-off in the summer period, which is very crucial for economy especially in dynamically developing regions with rapidly growing population, such as Central Asia or the Northern Caucasus in Russia. In overall, glaciers stabilize water consumption in comparatively arid areas and provide conditions for sustainable development of the economy in mountainous regions and in the surrounding territories. A proper prediction of the glacial run-off is required to elaborate strategies of the regional development. This goal can be achieved by implementation of mathematical modeling methods into planning methodologies. In the paper, we consider one of the first steps in glacier dynamical modeling - surface mass balance simulation. We focus on the Djankuat Glacier in the Central Caucasus, where regular observations have been conducted during the last fifty years providing an exceptional opportunity to calibrate and to validate a mathematical model.

  13. Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Wittenberg, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    Giant hogweed, Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae), was introduced from the Caucasus into Western Europe more than 150 years ago and later became all invasive weed which created major problems for European authorities. Phytophagous insects were collected in the native range of the giant hogweed...... (Caucasus) and were compared to those found oil plants in the invaded parts of Europe. The list of herbivores was compiled from surveys of 27 localities in nine countries during two seasons. In addition, literature records for herbivores were analysed for a total of 16 Heracleum species. We recorded a total...... of 265 herbivorous insects on Heracleum species and we analysed them to describe the herbivore assemblages, locate vacant niches, and identify the most host-specific herbivores oil H. mantegazzianum. When combining our investigations with similar studies of herbivores on other invasive weeds, all studies...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE RURAL POPULATION TO THE RESULTS OF NATIONAL CENSUS 2002, 2010. IN THE REPUBLICS OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS: GIS APPROACHES AND METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Turun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the dynamics of the rural population of the North Caucasus republics in 1989–2010 analyzes the differences of census data with the results of the current account of the population over two intercensal period. For obtaining the most accurate data in the rural population applies a correction factor the results of the census are considered critical, given the problems of its implementation.

  15. To the question of the Georgian influence on architecture of mono-apsishall churches of the North Caucasus of the Medieval period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pishchulina Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mono-apsishall church – is the most popular temple type of the Medieval period in the North Caucasus. The transformations of their design in the North Caucasus during the considered period are connected both with the introduction of samples from Kartli, Abkhazia, Armenia, Albania and Svaneti in the XI-XII centuries, and development of Christian culture of Alania. Temples of this type in the North Caucasus can be divided into three big groups according to the character of their planning composition: three-part hall churches, churches with the entered apsis, churches with the projecting apsis. The first two types of temples are traditionally connected with the Georgian influence. As the composite type, this temple was created in Armenia where from the IXth century it is presented by a significant number of monuments. With nuance changes and additions made by the Georgian missionaries this type has found its way to Dvaletiya’s territory where it is presented by a large number of objects, and also to the kingdom Serir where only two temples of this composition remain. For Dvaletiya’s temples it is Kartli, for temples in Dido – not only Kartli, but also Armenia, for temples in the river basin of the Kuban – Abkhazia, but this region was also influenced by the Armenian architecture due involvement of craftsmen from Kafy.

  16. Taxonomic diversity dynamics of early cretaceous brachiopods and gastropods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus (Neo-Tethys Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontological data available from the Azerbaijanian domains (Somkhit-Agdam, Sevan-Karabakh, and Miskhan-Kafan tectonic zones of the Lesser Caucasus permit reconstruction of the regional taxonomic diversity dynamics of two groups of Early Cretaceous marine benthic invertebrates. Stratigraphical ranges of 31 species and 14 genera of brachiopods and 40 species and 31 genera of gastropods are considered. The total number of species and genera of brachiopods was low in the Berriasian-Valanginian and then rose to peak in the Barremian. Then, the diversity declined in the Aptian, and brachiopods are not known regionally from the Albian. Gastropods appeared in the Hauterivian and experienced a strong radiation in the Barremian. The diversity of species and genera declined in the Aptian (with a minor radiation in the Middle Aptian, and no gastropods are reported from the Albian. Globally, the number of brachiopod genera remained stable through the Early Cretaceous, and the number of gastropod genera increased stepwise with the maximum in the Albian. The regional and global patterns of the diversity dynamics differed for the both groups of marine benthic invertebrates. The Barremian maximum of the taxonomic diversity coincided with the regional flourishing of reefal ecosystems. The taxonomic diversity dynamics of brachiopods in the Azerbaijanian domains of the Lesser Caucasus is very similar to those of the Northern Caucasus, which is an evidence of proximity of these regions during the Early Cretaceous.

  17. The War which was not:Russian, Turkish and Western Historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Tsibenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we analysed in a historical perspective the formation of the key concepts concerning the military actions in the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century in Russian, Turkish and Western historiography. We didn't set before ourselves the task to find out, “what really happened in the western North Caucasus”, but rather how actually “what happened in the western North Caucasus” is interpreted in different historiographical traditions. Our study has shown that Russian, Turkish and Western historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century so strongly depends on local traditions that we can say about three separate historiographies. Current situation is noticeable for the development of Circassian ‘auto-historiography’ which is characterised by ethnocentrism and victimisation due to the trends of counter-history. In spite of interaction between Russian, Turkish and Western historiographies, each of them was formed according to own logic of development. Thus, the misunderstandings in the terminology on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century (in particular, with the term ‘Caucasian War’ lean on the differences of historiographical traditions leading to the conflicts of interpretations.

  18. A European Concern? Genetic Structure and Expansion of Golden Jackals (Canis aureus in Europe and the Caucasus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rutkowski

    Full Text Available In the first continent-wide study of the golden jackal (Canis aureus, we characterised its population genetic structure and attempted to identify the origin of European populations. This provided a unique insight into genetic characteristics of a native carnivore population with rapid large-scale expansion. We analysed 15 microsatellite markers and a 406 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Bayesian-based and principal components methods were applied to evaluate whether the geographical grouping of samples corresponded with genetic groups. Our analysis revealed low levels of genetic diversity, reflecting the unique history of the golden jackal among Europe's native carnivores. The results suggest ongoing gene flow between south-eastern Europe and the Caucasus, with both contributing to the Baltic population, which appeared only recently. The population from the Peloponnese Peninsula in southern Greece forms a common genetic cluster with samples from south-eastern Europe (ΔK approach in STRUCTURE, Principal Components Analysis [PCA], although the results based on BAPS and the estimated likelihood in STRUCTURE indicate that Peloponnesian jackals may represent a distinct population. Moreover, analyses of population structure also suggest either genetic distinctiveness of the island population from Samos near the coast of Asia Minor (BAPS, most STRUCTURE, PCA, or possibly its connection with the Caucasus population (one analysis in STRUCTURE. We speculate from our results that ancient Mediterranean jackal populations have persisted to the present day, and have merged with jackals colonising from Asia. These data also suggest that new populations of the golden jackal may be founded by long-distance dispersal, and thus should not be treated as an invasive alien species, i.e. an organism that is "non-native to an ecosystem, and which may cause economic or environmental harm or adversely affect human health". These insights into the

  19. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the alpine community of a lichen heath of the Northwestern Caucasus Region (the Teberda Reserve)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, M. I.; Malysheva, T. I.; Ermak, A. A.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Stepanov, A. L.; Menyailo, O. V.

    2011-12-01

    The symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by leguminous plants in the alpine community of a lichen heath at the Teberda State Biosphere Reserve is well adapted to low soil temperature characteristic for the altitude of 2800 m a.s.l. For the determination of the N fixation by isotopic methods (the method of the natural 15N abundance and the method of isotopic 15N dilution), Trifolium polyphyllum was taken as the control plant. This plant was used as it does not form symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the highlands of the Northern Caucasus Region. The contribution of the N fixation to the N nutrition of different leguminous plant species as determined by the natural 15N abundance method amounted to 28-73% at δ15N0 = 0‰ and 46-117% at δ15N0 = -1‰; for the determination of the N fixation by the method of the isotopic label's dilution, it was 34-97%. The best correlation of the results obtained by these two isotopic methods was observed for the natural fractionation of the N isotopes in the course of the N fixation in the range of -0.5 to -0.7‰. The determination of the nitrogenase activity of the roots by the acetylene method confirmed the absence of N fixation in T. polyphyllum and its different contribution to the N nutrition of different species of leguminous plants.

  20. СOMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VEGETATIVE ORGANS OF FILIPENDULA VULGARIS MOENCH. AND FILIPENDULA ULMARIA (L. MAXIM. FROM THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Study for raw sources of a phytogenesis to obtain biological active substances with expressed pharmacological activity, attracts undoubted interest for the development of modern pharmaceutics.Objective. To carry out a comparative morphological and anatomical research of two types of Filipendula species: Filipendula vulgaris Moench. and Filipendula ulmaria (L. Maxim., which grows in the North Caucasus.Methods. Samples of fresh-gathered plants were gathered (June, 2014-2015 in various areas of the North Caucasus to carry out a comparative micromorphological research (Pyatigorsk, a southwest slope of the mountain Mashuk, the open site of a meadow, Lermontov, the southern slope of Beshtau, an open meadow, KBR, the gorge of Bezengi, the right bank of Cherek Bezengiysky River, an inundated meadow, KBR, Dzhylysu Natural Boundary, a subalpine meadow, and also herb samples of a herbarium fund of department of botany and a pharmacognosy of the Pyatigorsk medico-pharmaceutical institute were taken. Studying of features of a micromorphological structure of both vegetative, and generative bodies of two types was carried out by reference techniques of microscopic and histochemical researches. Photography of fragments of a micromorphological structure of bodies was carried out by means of BIOMED-2 microscope with a photo of Digital microscope camera DMC-300.Results and discussion. Comparative morphological and anatomical researches of two types of the Filipendula species were conducted: Filipendula vulgaris Moench. and Filipendula ulmaria (L. Maxim., which in the North Caucasus. Signs of distinctions of micromorphological features which allow carrying out diagnostics of medicinal vegetable raw materials were revealed. Distinctive features are the anomocytic stomata, trichomes in the form of the lengthiest straight lines and arched monocelled hairs, a form of a stalk and a scape on a transverse section, existence of omission of a scape and stalk

  1. Assessment of historical and future extreme flood characteristics for Novorossiysk city on the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Olga; Kruchin, Maksim; Volkova, Nina; Lebedeva, Luidmila

    2014-05-01

    Several catastrophic floods have occurred in the North Caucasus region in recent years. One such, the dramatic flood in Krymsk in July, 2012 led to more than 160 deaths. Except for late warning, the main reason for damage and loss of lives is the unpreparedness of urban drainage systems and hydraulic structures to the increased intensity and volume of precipitation which has been observed in the region in recent years. This study aimed to assess flood characteristics and estimate possible inundation areas for Novorossiysk city, located at the Black Sea coast of the North Caucasus. The Cemes River which flows through the city originates on the north-east slopes of the Gudzev Mountain (425 m) and has a basin area about 83 km2. The study is conducted for the purpose of improving the city drainage system. The task of flood characteristic estimation is complicated by the lack of both hydrological and meteorological data. The Cemes River is ungauged and there are no operative precipitation gauges on the mountain slopes where most of the precipitation occurs. There is only one station located in the city on the coast. The assessment was conducted using several approaches. One is that the recommendations which are used in hydrological engineering practice were applied. They include the use of basin-analogous data and the application of regional formulas and maps to estimate maximum discharge of required exceedance probability (1% in this study). In this case where the shortage of observation data is combined with considerable changes in rainfall and land-use, the methods estimating runoff characteristics using the statistical approach of observation data extrapolation may yield incorrect results. As a result, the deterministic-stochastic (DS) modeling approach used herein is suggested as an alternative. Here the deterministic model distinguishes between the processes within catchments, while the stochastic model provides stochastic meteorological input and a framework to

  2. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  3. The specifics of operating minor deposits (as given by the examples of gas condensate deposits of the Northern Caucasus

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    Р. А. Гасумов

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important directions in upgrading well productivity in the process of mining hydrocarbons consists in fighting with salt formation and salt deposition. Solving that problem becomes especially actual when operating deposits that are in their final stage of exploitation in complex mining and geological conditions accompanied by deposition of salts in the well foot area of oil bed and their sedimentation on the sub-surface and surface equipment. It provokes a drop in well productivity and results in off-schedule repair works. Specifics are considered of exploiting minor gas condensate deposits of the Northern Caucasus that are operated under complicated mining and geological conditions of anomalously high bed pressures, high temperatures, strong depressions on the beds and inflow of mineralized water from water saturated seams.Processes are studied of salt deposition from heavy hydrocarbons in the well foot and the bed area surrounding it. Water sample analyses data from different wells have demonstrated that the main salts carrier is the associated water, and the principal sedimenting agents are corrosion products, as confirmed by the results of microscopic studies. The dynamics is presented of salt deposition in the “well foot – wellhead – separator” system retrieved from the results of studies of reaction products in the well foot zone of oil bed.It is demonstrated that the efficiency of struggling with salt deposition in the course of mining hydrocarbons depends on comprehensive approach to the problem, the principal thrust lying with prevention of such deposition.Possible ways are considered to prevent precipitation of ferric compounds in the course of operating gas condensate wells, a way is suggested to intensify gas inflow.

  4. Structural development and stress evolution of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system, southwestern Greater Caucasus, Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.; Russo, E.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    The southern front of the Greater Caucasus is quite rectilinear in plan view, with the exception of part of the Rioni Basin, where marine and continental deposits of Cretaceous-Neogene age were locally folded and uplifted; this resulted in the formation of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system that extends 45 km into the foreland. Although previous studies suggested that this system has developed only since Miocene times, our new detailed and systematic field measurements of brittle and ductile structures show a very complex history, consisting in four main phases of brittle deformation and folding, dated from Eocene to Quaternary times. We collected microtectonic data at 248 faults, and calculated the related paleostress tensors. The first two phases which we document here, predated folding and were characterised by dominant transcurrent faulting and subordinate reverse motions; the greatest principal stress σ1 was perpendicular and later parallel to the mountain belt. Afterwards, NW-SE, E-W and NE-SW trending, south-vergent asymmetrical folds started to form. In the western sector of the study area, folds are sinuous in plan view, whereas to the east they show a left-stepping, en-échelon geometry. Another two, brittle deformation phases took place after the folding, due to the activity of a set of right-lateral, strike-slip faults that strike NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively, as well as by left-lateral strike-slip faults, mostly striking NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. These two additional phases were produced by a NE-SW to N-S trending σ1. The arcuate belt is marked by along-strike variations in the tectonic regime and deformation geometry, plus belt-parallel stretching. Based on our field data, integrated with published analogue models, we suggest a possible explanation for the Rioni structure, in terms of the oblique, asymmetric indentation of an upper crustal blocks moving to the SSW.

  5. 3-D anatomy of an active fault-propagation fold: A multidisciplinary case study from Tsaishi, western Caucasus (Georgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Russo, E.; Bonali, F. L.; Alania, V.; Chabukiani, A.; Enukidze, O.; Tsereteli, N.

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing deformation processes combining fault propagation and folding are the cause of diffuse seismicity in many areas of the world. A detailed understanding of the structural evolution of tectonically active folds is crucial for the evaluation of seismic hazard. This paper proposes an integrated analysis of an active fold, consisting in the development of a 3D model by combination of geomorphological observations, field geological-structural data and seismic reflection sections. Our case study is the Tsaishi anticline, located at the southwestern tip of the Rioni Basin uplifted area, at the foothill of Greater Caucasus (Western Georgia). We recognized that the fold started to form since the beginning of the middle Miocene, although preliminary data suggest the possibility of initial local uplift in the Oligocene. Folding process continues up to nowadays giving rise to a south-vergent anticline, as shown by upwarped late Quaternary river deposits. The fold backlimb is affected by three main back-thrusts, whereas at the foot of the forelimb a main north-dipping thrust comes very close to the surface based on seismic sections. Here, field data show the presence of a 13-km-long fault scarp (or fold scarp). Along the scarp is located the epicenter of the strongest earthquake to date: the MS 6.0 Tsaishi earthquake that struck the area in 1614 CE. Based on our results, we propose that the overall structure can be classified as an active fault-propagation fold. The recognition of its very recent growing associated with a major, underlying active fault, represents also a major contribution to the seismic hazard assessment of this populated area.

  6. Genetic Variability of the Grey Wolf Canis lupus in the Caucasus in Comparison with Europe and the Middle East: Distinct or Intermediary Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Dąbrowski, Michał J.; Hayrapetyan, Vahram; Yavruyan, Eduard G.; Kopaliani, Natia; Tsingarska, Elena; Bujalska, Barbara; Kamiński, Stanisław; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous historical distribution of the grey wolf (Canis lupus) throughout Eurasia, the species displays considerable morphological differentiation that resulted in delimitation of a number of subspecies. However, these morphological discontinuities are not always consistent with patterns of genetic differentiation. Here we assess genetic distinctiveness of grey wolves from the Caucasus (a region at the border between Europe and West Asia) that have been classified as a distinct subspecies C. l. cubanensis. We analysed their genetic variability based on mtDNA control region, microsatellite loci and genome-wide SNP genotypes (obtained for a subset of the samples), and found similar or higher levels of genetic diversity at all these types of loci as compared with other Eurasian populations. Although we found no evidence for a recent genetic bottleneck, genome-wide linkage disequilibrium patterns suggest a long-term demographic decline in the Caucasian population – a trend consistent with other Eurasian populations. Caucasian wolves share mtDNA haplotypes with both Eastern European and West Asian wolves, suggesting past or ongoing gene flow. Microsatellite data also suggest gene flow between the Caucasus and Eastern Europe. We found evidence for moderate admixture between the Caucasian wolves and domestic dogs, at a level comparable with other Eurasian populations. Taken together, our results show that Caucasian wolves are not genetically isolated from other Eurasian populations, share with them the same demographic trends, and are affected by similar conservation problems. PMID:24714198

  7. “Keeping Solid Memoirs About the Performed Exploits”: a Case for the Caucasus Military-Historical Department’s Role in the Establishment of the Regimental Historiography in the Late XIX c

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    Tatyana A. Kolosovskay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider the experience of saving the military sector of the historical memory. It is particularly concern with the issue of the foundation of so-called ―regimental historiography‖ – a corpus of investigations, performed by the militaries about their regiment’s deeds. The article attempts to bring in a number of general questions, related to the history of the troops of the Caucasus Army of the XIX c. The investigation is devoted specifically to the role of the Military-Historical department of the Caucasus Military District General Stuff. The research is based on either newspapers (as the ―Caucasus Journal‖ or primary sources, collected in Federal and regional archives with a particular focus on published ―regimental histories‖ of certain troops. Based on the approach offered by research direction of the ―intellectual history‖, the author came to the conclusions, that all regiment histories were written by non-professional historians. Their historical plot was determined by the official ideological background and by the wish for keeping the memory about the war exploits and traditions of their regiment. The work existence depended not only on the author subjective will, but either on financial issues – money need for the papers printing. The Caucasus Military-Historical department’s participation in this process allowed achieving extremely high results. Many printed and edited papers contained much more than making the dry roll-call of battles and military events. They included either reviews of political, historical, cultural and ethnological context, making some shift to mastering the base for the further scientific Caucasus studies.

  8. Surface aerosol and rehabilitation properties of ground-level atmosphere in the mountains of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, Valentina; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotskaya, Nina; Abramtsova, Anna; Ischenko, Dmitriy; Senik, Irina; Slepikh, Victor

    2017-04-01

    The rehabilitative properties (RP) of ground-level atmosphere (GA) of Russian resorts are considered as natural healing resources and received state legal protection [1]. Due to global urbanization the chemical composition and particle size distribution of the surface aerosol are changing rapidly. However, the influence of surface aerosol on the RP of GA has been insufficiently studied. At the resort region of the North Caucasus complex monitoring (aerosol, trace gases NOx, CO, O3, CH4; periodically - heavy metals) is performed at two high levels (860 masl - a park zone of a large mountain resort, 2070 masl - alpine grassland, the net station). The results of the measurements are used in programs of bioclimatic, landscape and medical monitoring to specify the influence of aerosol on rehabilitation properties of the environment and human adaptative reserves. The aerosol particles of size range 500-1000 nm are used as a marker of the pathogenic effect of aerosol [2]. In the conditions of regional urbanization and complicated mountain atmospheric circulation the influence of aerosol on RP of GA and the variability of heart rhythm with the volunteers at different heights were investigated. At the height of 860 masl (urbanized resort) there have been noticed aerosol variations in the range of 0,04-0,35 particles/cm3 (slightly aerosol polluted), in mountain conditions - background pollution aerosol level. The difference of bioclimatic conditions at the specified high-rise levels has been referred to the category of contrasts. The natural aero ionization ∑(N+)+(N-) varied from 960 ion/cm3 to 1460 ion/cm3 in the resort park (860 m); from 1295 ion/cm3 to 4850 ion/cm3 on the Alpine meadow (2070 m); from 1128 ion/cm3 to 3420 ion/cm3 - on the tested site near the edge of the pinewood (1720 m). In the group of volunteers the trip from low-hill terrain zone (860 m) to the lower zone of highlands (2070 m) caused the activation of neuro and humoral regulation, vegetative and

  9. [Mineral springs on the north-east of Caucasus and its role in the treatment of soldiers of the Russian army in XIX--beginning XX c].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadov, T Z; Poddubnyĭ, M V

    2013-07-01

    The article is concerned to the history of formation of sanitary-treatment stations on the North Caucasus, in Chechnya (Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs) till 1917 year. The basis of the article are archive documents, scientific papers of contemporaries and official documents. Goryachevodsky and Mikhailovsky mineral springs were more than 70 years the one the best recreative base of the Caucasian standing army including the caucasian cossack troop. The sanitary-treatment stations were of great importance during the active military actions with Hill people within the territory of Chechnya and Dagestan, during the Crimean War (1853-1856), The Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the First World War (1914-1918), when the amount of the wounded and ill soldiers increased.

  10. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia. PMID:28632161

  11. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Schroeder

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia.

  12. [Principles of surgical care organization and structural characteristics of sanitary casualties in counter-terrorist operations in the Northern Caucasus (Report I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumanenko, E K; Samokhvalov, I M; Trusov, A A; Severin, V V

    2005-01-01

    Two operational-and-tactical factors had the main influence on organization of the surgical care rendered to the casualties on the Northern Caucasus: the fulminant and maneuverable nature of combat operations at the beginning of both armed conflicts and rather small territory of war theatre. The main special features of organization of surgical care to the casualties were the use of Medical Squads of Special Purpose in the combat conditions and maximal approximation of the specialized surgical care to the wounded by echelonment of medical units and wide use of helicopter evacuation. The structure of sanitary losses was characterized by the increase in the frequency of mechanical traumas, thermal and combined injuries, by the high share of the casualties with head injuries. Besides the number of seriously wounded and critical casualties has increased.

  13. Endogenous Retroviral Insertions Indicate a Secondary Introduction of Domestic Sheep Lineages to the Caucasus and Central Asia between the Bronze and Iron Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Oskar; Benecke, Norbert; Frölich, Kai; Peng, Zuogang; Kaniuth, Kai; Sverchkov, Leonid; Reinhold, Sabine; Belinskiy, Andrey; Ludwig, Arne

    2017-06-20

    Sheep were one of the first livestock species domesticated by humans. After initial domestication in the Middle East they were spread across Eurasia. The modern distribution of endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus insertions in domestic sheep breeds suggests that over the course of millennia, successive introductions of improved lineages and selection for wool quality occurred in the Mediterranean region and most of Asia. Here we present a novel ancient DNA approach using data of endogenous retroviral insertions in Bronze and Iron Age domestic sheep from the Caucasus and Pamir mountain areas. Our findings support a secondary introduction of wool sheep from the Middle East between the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age into most areas of Eurasia.

  14. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  15. The structure of Greater Caucasus in scales of sedimentary cover and crust, based on restored structural sections, which were obtained from study of fold-related strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Geological setting. Greater Caucasus (GC) belongs to a linear branch of the Alpine belt (Crimea, Caucasus, Kopet-Dag) which is not arc-like as the Alps. The main stripe of the Alpine deformations in GC occupies space about 1000 x 50 km between the Scythian plate and the Transcaucasian massif. Folded structure prevails and it is accompanied by almost total absence of thrust in a hinterland and by limited thrusts in forelands. The Paleozoic basement outcrops only in a northern half of this linear structure, occupying about 1/8 part of GC. Alpine sedimentary cover (J1 - Pg2) has 10-15 km thickness of flysch-like sequences of sands, argillites, limestones. These sediments formed numerous folds of 0.1 - 1.0 km width. Because each fold has information about strain, the existence of so rich material allows to restore geometry of a sedimentary cover from soil to its top. Method. Three regions were studied due based on 24 detailed structural sections of 510 km total actual length. Two kind of isometric objects of different scale were established: domains and structural cells. There were domains as associations of 2-5 folds; sections were split on 505 one. In these domains, three parameters of morphology were measured as elements of strain ellipsoid (ellipse): dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. It was possible to restore actual state of domain to its pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle) by sequence of three kinematic operations: by rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, by horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and by vertical flattening (pure shear). Pre-folded state of whole section is forming by aggregation of pre-folded states of domains. "Structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell for correct measuring of shortening value in scale of whole sedimentary cover; there were 78 for three regions. "Stratigraphic models" from bottom to top of cover for each cell

  16. The Devdorak ice-rock avalanche and consequent debris flow from the slope of Mt. Kazbek (Caucasus, Georgia) in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomorets, Sergey; Savernyuk, Elena; Petrakov, Dmitry; Dokukin, Mikhail; Gotsiridze, George; Gavardashvili, Givi; Drobyshev, Valery; Tutubalina, Olga; Zaporozhchenko, Eduard; Kamenev, Nikolay; Kamenev, Vladimir; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeffrey; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We have studied catastrophic glacial events of 2014 in the Kazbek-Dzhimaray massif, Caucasus Mts., Georgia. The first event is a so called "Kazbek blockage" of the Georgian Military Road, on 17 May 2014, which formed as a result of an ice-rock avalanche onto the Devdorak Glacier, and is similar to blockages which occurred in the same location in the 18th-19th century. The second event is a consequent debris flow on 20 August 2014. In May, June 2014 and September 2015 we conducted three field investigations of the disaster zone, which includes Devdorak Glacier, Amilishka and Kabakhi river valleys, the Terek River valley near the Kabakhi River mouth, and a temporary lake.We analyzed field research data, interpreted SPOT 6, Landsat-8 OLI, Terra ASTER, and Pleiades satellite imagery, as well as post-disaster helicopter imagery. To assess dynamic features of the ice-rock flow on 17 May 2014, we measured valley crossections with Bushnell laser ranger. In 2015 we have marked a 180-m baseline for ground stereosurvey and made a stereopair of the Devdorak glacier terminus from a distance of 700 m. The 17 May 2014 ice-rock avalanche initiated at 4500 m. a.s.l. It collapsed onto the tongue of the Devdorak Glacier which reaches down to 2300 m a.s.l. Downstream of the tongue, the avalanche transformed into an ice-rock "avalanche flow" which blocked the Terek River valley. The traffic on Military Georgian Road (part of E117 highway) which connects Russia with Georgia was stopped. 7 people were killed in their vehicles. The total length of the ice-rock avalanche and the subsequent flow was over 10 km. A temporary lake formed in the Terek river valley, reaching 300 m in length, and over 10 m in depth. For several hours, the lake was threatening another debris flow downstream the Terek river valley. According to field estimates at the Devdorak glacier tongue and in Amilishka, Kabakhi and Terek river valleys, the volume of the transported ice-rock avalanche mass, which deposited in

  17. High-resolution provenance of desert dust deposited on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus in 2009–2012 using snow pit and firn core records

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    S. Kutuzov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of dust deposition events on Mt. Elbrus, Caucasus Mountains derived from a snow pit and a shallow firn core is presented for the 2009–2012 period. A combination of isotopic analysis, SEVIRI red-green-blue composite imagery, MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, air mass trajectories derived using the HYSPLIT model and analyses of meteorological data enabled identification of dust source regions with high temporal (hours and spatial (ca. 20–100 km resolution. Seventeen dust deposition events were detected; fourteen occurred in March–June, one in February and two in October. Four events originated in the Sahara, predominantly in northeastern Libya and eastern Algeria. Thirteen events originated in the Middle East, in the Syrian Desert and northern Mesopotamia, from a mixture of natural and anthropogenic sources. Dust transportation from Sahara was associated with vigorous Saharan depressions, strong surface winds in the source region and mid-tropospheric southwesterly flow with daily winds speeds of 20–30 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Although these events were less frequent than those originating in the Middle East, they resulted in higher dust concentrations in snow. Dust transportation from the Middle East was associated with weaker depressions forming over the source region, high pressure centred over or extending towards the Caspian Sea and a weaker southerly or southeasterly flow towards the Caucasus Mountains with daily wind speeds of 12–18 m s−1 at 700 hPa level. Higher concentrations of nitrates and ammonium characterised dust from the Middle East deposited on Mt. Elbrus in 2009 indicating contribution of anthropogenic sources. The modal values of particle size distributions ranged between 1.98 μm and 4.16 μm. Most samples were characterised by modal values of 2.0–2.8 μm with an average of 2.6 μm and there was no significant difference between dust from the Sahara and

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON THE BIODIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE OF THE HELMINTHES OF DOMESTIC RUMINANTS IN THE SOUTHEAST OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS

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    A. M. Ataev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the research is to analyze the biodiversity of helminths of domestic ruminants in the south-east of the North Caucasus; indicators of infestation of cattle grazing on different types of pastures; environmental factors affecting their population structure and the formation of combined foci of bio and geo helminthiasis.Methods. We used classical research methods adopted in contemporary parasitology: helminth - larvoscopia, complete helminthological autopsy of animals and humans by KI Scriabin, cultivation of the larvae, opening of invertebrates, flotation, and feces washed successively.Results. 30 years of research revealed that the domestic ruminants in the south-east of the North Caucasus are infected by 64 species of helminthes: sheep 54, cattle 55, buffaloes 49. Common to domestic ruminants are 39 species of helminths. The causative agents zoonozis are Fasciola hepatica L., 1758, F. gigantica (Сobbold, 1856, Dicrocoelium lanceatum (Stiles et Hassal, 1896, Taeniarhynchus saginatus (Goeze, 1782 larvae, Echinococcus granulosus (Batsch, 1786 larvae, Trichostongylus axei (Cobbold, 1879, T. vitrinus Looss, 1905, Haemonchus contortus (Rud., 1803, and Gongylonema pulchrum (Molin, 1857.Conclusion. Infestation by helminthes of ruminants varies the extensity of invasion (EI 0,8-67,5%, intensity of invasion (II 1-1260 species. Animals are infected with helminthes in plain and foothill zones from April to the end of November, and in the mountains 2500 meters above sea level from July to the end of September. In the plain belt, ecological grassland can be divided into four types: steppe, semi-arid, saline, low-lying wet lands where we can find combined foci of helminthes with different quantitative and qualitative characteristics. The species composition of helminthes, their population is dependent on the environmental factors. In combined foci, ruminants are always infected with mixed invasions of helminthes, from 4 to 17

  19. Evaluation of genetic variability of wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) in Canada and the Caucasus region by chemical and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Josef; Nesvadba, Vladimír; Krofta, Karel; Henychova, Alena; Marzoev, Arkady Inalovic; Richards, Ken

    2010-07-01

    Wild hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are potential new germplasms to expand the variability of genetic resources for hop breeding. We evaluated Canadian (62 plants) and Caucasian (58 plants) wild hops by their chemical characteristics and with molecular genetic analyses using sequence-tagged site and simple sequence repeat markers, in comparison with European (104 plants) and North American (27 plants) wild hops. The contents of alpha and beta acids varied from 0.36% to 5.11% and from 0.43% to 6.66% in Canadian wild hops, and from 0.85% to 3.65% and from 1.22% to 4.81% in Caucasian wild hops, respectively. The contents of cohumulone and colupulone distinctly differed between European and North American wild hops: the cohumulone level in alpha acids was in the range 46.1%-68.4% among North American wild hops and in the range 13.6%-30.6% among European wild hops. The high content of myrcene and the low contents of humulene, farnesene, and selinenes were typical for wild hops from Canada, in contrast to wild hops from the Caucasus region. We compared the chemical characteristics with molecular genetic data. Chemical characteristics differentiated wild hops into North American and Eurasian groups. Molecular genetic analysis was able to separate Caucasian wild hops from European wild hops. We proved a hop phylogeny by means of wide molecular analysis.

  20. The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system in the western Caucasus; El sistema de cuevas Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya en el Caucaso occidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavlyudov, B. R.

    2016-07-01

    The Snezhnaya-Mezhennogo-Illyuziya cave system (SMI) is located within the Khipstinsky karstic massif, in the Western Caucasus. The cave is a branched, arborescent system of cave channels through which underground water streams flow and change in an upwards direction in sub-vertical shafts. Now 3 such shafts, which have a connection with the cave river, are being studied: the Snezhnaya (1970 m a.s.l.), the Mezhennogo (2 015 m a.s.l.) and the Illyuziya (2 389 m a.s.l.). The SMI cave system has been investigated since 1971 and the currently known depth of the system is 1 760 m, the extent of the galleries ≥32 km, the volume ≥2.7 million m3, the specific volume - 84 m{sup 3}/m. The size of the biggest cave chamber the Thronnyj - is 309x109x40 m. The average discharge of the underground river is about 500 l/s. The temperature in the cavity changes from 0 to 6.5 degree centigrade. Research on the SMI cave system continues. (Author)

  1. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    The Lesser Caucasus belongs to the Central segment of the Tethyan metallogenic belt and it is a key area to understand the metallogenic evolution between the Western & Central parts of the Tethyan belt and its extension into Iran. Zangezur is the most important mineral district in the southernmost Lesser Caucasus. It is a component of the South Armenian block, and it was generated during the convergence and collision of the southern margin of the Eurasian plate and the northern margin of the Arabian plate, and terranes of Gondwana origin (Moritz et al., in press). The Zangezur ore district consists of the Tertiary Meghri-Ordubad composite pluton, which is characterized by a long-lasting Eocene to Pliocene magmatic, tectonic and metallogenic evolution. It hosts major porphyries Cu-Mo and epithermal Au - polymetallic deposits and occurrences, including the giant world class Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit (2244 Mt reserves, 0.3% Cu, 0.05% Mo and 0.02 g/t Au). The Kadjaran deposit is hosted by a monzonite intrusion (31.83±0.02Ma; Moritz et al., in press). Detailed field studies of the porphyry stockwork and veins of the different mineralization stages, their crosscutting and displacement relationships and the age relationship between different paragenetic mineral associations were the criteria for distinction of the main stages of porphyry mineralization at the Kadjaran deposit. The economic stages being: quartz- molybdenite, quartz-molybdenite-chalcopyrite, and quartz-chalcopyrite. The main paragenetic association of the Kadjaran porphyry deposit includes pyrite, molybdenite, chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, pyrrhotite, covellite, sphalerite, and galena. Recent field observations in the Kadjaran open pit revealed the presence of epithermal veins with late vuggy silica and advanced argillic alteration in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the deposit. They are distributed as separate veins and have also been recognized in re-opened porphyry veins and in

  2. The Kolka-Karmadon rock/ice slide of 20 September 2002: an extraordinary event of historical dimensions in North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Zgraggen-Oswald, Sonja; Polkvoj, Alexander; Galushkin, Igor; Zotikov, Igor; Osokin, Nikolay

    On 20 September 2002, an enormous rock/ice slide and subsequent mud-flow occurred on the northern slope of the Kazbek massif, Northern Ossetia, Russian Caucasus. It started on the north-northeast wall of Dzhimarai-Khokh (4780 m a.s.l.) and seriously affected the valley of Genaldon/Karmadon. Immediate governmental actions, available scientific information, first reconstructions, hazard assessments and monitoring activities as well as initial expert judgments/recommendations are documented in order to enable more detailed analyses and modelling of the event by the wider scientific community. Among the most remarkable aspects related to this event are (1) the relation between the recent event and somewhat smaller but quite similar events that occurred earlier in historical times (1835, 1902), (2) the interactions between unstable local geological structures and complex geothermal and hydraulic conditions in the starting zone with permafrost, cold to polythermal hanging glaciers and volcanic effects (hot springs) in close contact with each other, (3) the erosion and incorporation of a debris-covered valley glacier largely enhancing the sliding volume of rocks, ice, firn, snow, water and probably air to a total of about 100 × 106 m3, and (4) the astonishingly high flow velocities (up to 300 km h-1) and enormous length of travel path (18 km plus 15 km of debris/mud-flow). This extraordinary case illustrates that large catastrophic events in high mountain regions typically involve a multitude of factors and require integrated consideration of complex chains of processes, a task which must be undertaken by qualified groups of experts.

  3. Chemical and mineralogical data and processing methods management system prototype with application to study of the North Caucasus Blybsky Metamorphic Complexes metamorphism PT-condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stanislav; Kamzolkin, Vladimir; Konilov, Aleksandr; Aleshin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    There are many various methods of assessing the conditions of rocks formation based on determining the composition of the constituent minerals. Our objective was to create a universal tool for processing mineral's chemical analysis results and solving geothermobarometry problems by creating a database of existing sensors and providing a user-friendly standard interface. Similar computer assisted tools are based upon large collection of sensors (geothermometers and geobarometers) are known, for example, the project TPF (Konilov A.N., 1999) - text-based sensor collection tool written in PASCAL. The application contained more than 350 different sensors and has been used widely in petrochemical studies (see A.N. Konilov , A.A. Grafchikov, V.I. Fonarev 2010 for review). Our prototype uses the TPF project concept and is designed with modern application development techniques, which allows better flexibility. Main components of the designed system are 3 connected datasets: sensors collection (geothermometers, geobarometers, oxygen geobarometers, etc.), petrochemical data and modeling results. All data is maintained by special management and visualization tools and resides in sql database. System utilities allow user to import and export data in various file formats, edit records and plot graphs. Sensors database contains up to date collections of known methods. New sensors may be added by user. Measured database should be filled in by researcher. User friendly interface allows access to all available data and sensors, automates routine work, reduces the risk of common user mistakes and simplifies information exchange between research groups. We use prototype to evaluate peak pressure during the formation of garnet-amphibolite apoeclogites, gneisses and schists Blybsky metamorphic complex of the Front Range of the Northern Caucasus. In particular, our estimation of formation pressure range (18 ± 4 kbar) agrees on independent research results. The reported study was

  4. Cultural and Domestic Arrangement of Migrant Kolkhozes and the Daily Life of Settlers in the North Caucasus Region in the Period of Collectivization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istyagin Vadim R.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article based on rare archival materials for the first time used in scientific circulation the author examines the issues of cultural and domestic arrangement of migrant kolkhozes (collective farms in the North Caucasus region in the period of agriculture collectivization. The author highlights the key activities of regional authorities in the sphere of cultural development within these collective farms. It is stated that cultural arrangement of resettlement of collective farms in the 1930s was far from ideal. But taking into account state importance of the resettlement campaign, the authorities managed to achieve certain positive changes. An integral part of the cultural life of the people of the red army was its political and ideological component, due to the high level of politicization of public life in the USSR in 1930s. The red army collective farms were equipped with schools, nurseries and kindergartens, clubs and cinemas but these institutions were poorly organized. The article points out that labour of the red army settlers had little common features with farms of the local people. Community production activities and everyday leisure are, on the contrary, marked by the similarity of lifestyle. The mass spread of literacy stimulated the reader’s interest – immigrants in their leisure hours read the newspapers, magazines and books, mainly fiction. The author examines the everyday life of immigrants, and it is largely substantiated by their social moods which contributed to the formation of the red army collective farms. The author came to the conclusion that the daily life of settlers was largely due to their social disadvantage. Food and accommodation, working conditions were at a very low level. For most of them, life and work in the Kuban Cossack villages was a daily test of their physical and moral forces and was not much different from the life of the Kuban collective farmers.

  5. A prototype system dynamic model of nuclear and radiological export controls in Central Asia and the Caucasus; enhancing the effectiveness of preventing illicit nuclear material trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguston, C.D.; Ouagrham, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    An urgent need calls out for improved border security and export control systems in the Central Asian and Caucasus regions to prevent illicit nuclear and radioactive materials trafficking. Effective nuclear and radiological exports controls are essential because these regions contain numerous nuclear facilities and radioactive materials as well as lie at the crossroads between seekers and suppliers of technologies that could be employed in nuclear and radiological weapons. Porous and unprotected borders compound these concerns. Moreover, the states within these regions are struggling with forming new regulations and laws, obtaining sufficient portal monitoring equipment, training customs and border security personnel, and coordinating these activities with neighboring states. Building this infrastructure all at once can severely task any government. Thus, unsurprisingly, most of these states have inadequate export control and border security systems. To enable each state in these regions determine how to better prevent illicit nuclear and radiological materials trafficking, the authors have developed a prototype system dynamics model focused on evaluating and improving of effectiveness of export controls. System dynamics modeling, a management tool that grew out of the field of system engineering and nonlinear dynamics, uses two structures: causal loop diagrams and stock and flow diagrams. The former shows how endogenous systematic factors interact with each other to produce feedback mechanisms that results in either balancing or reinforcing loops. A classic example is a arms race, modeled as a vicious cycle or reinforcing loop. In addition to interacting with each other, causal loops influence the flow of stock, which is material concern. In the export control system dynamics model, the stock represents nuclear and radioactive materials. System dynamics modelling is an iterative process that is continually modified by user input. Therefore, export control

  6. Quasy-3D models of restored folded sedimentary cover of Alpine Greater Caucasus and evidences of isostasy participation in processes of folding formation and of mountain building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Hinterland of Greater Caucasus (GC) has almost pure folded structure (stripe 1000x50 km) in alpine flysch-like sedimentary cover of 10-15 km thickness. Thin-layered sediments of hinterland formed relatively small folds (0.1-1 km width) and its strain allow to restore the structure in scale of whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed (1:10000, 1:100000) cross-sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used. Domains as 2-5 folds (totally 505) were selected. Strain inside of each domain (as ellipsoid) was described due to three measured parameters of domain geometry. There are value of shortening as interlimb angle, dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain [1, 2, 3]. Three kinematic operations allow to restore actual domain to pre-folded state (and the same - ellipse to circle): rotation, horizontal simple shear, flattening [1, 2]. Gathering of sequence of domains in its pre-folded states allows to compile pre-folded state of whole sections and of its parts. By aggregation of 5-10 domains, 78 "structural cells" were formed for study of structures in scale of sedimentary cover. Relation of actual and pre-folded lengths of cells gave its shortening values. Value of shortening, initial thickness of cover, its post-folded thickness, also as depth of sedimentary cover bottom and virtual air-position of its top (uplift or amplitude of "erosion") were found as result of observations, measurements and interpolations of cover thicknesses. Geological history was found as three stages: A) sedimentation (J1 - Pg2), B) pure folding/shortening (during of Pg3), C) pure neotectonic uplift (Miocene2-N2-Q). In regional aspect, results show certain regularities, and it may be used as initial material for study of some aspects of geodynamics. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for

  7. Faults in Paleozoic basement and their participation in Alpine deformation of Greater Caucasus – evidences from materials of restored (balanced) sections in folded sedimentary cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Fedor

    2015-04-01

    Method. As each fold has information about strain, numerous folds (0.1-1 km width) inside of hinterland (stripe about 1000 x 50 km) of Greater Caucasus (GC) allow to restore structure for whole sedimentary cover. Material of 24 detailed sections of 510 km total actual length in three regions was used for restoration of structure. These sections were split on 505 domains as associations of 2-5 folds. Three parameters of morphology were measured in these domains: dip of axial plain, dip of envelope plain, value of shortening as interlimb angle [1, 2, 3]. Because these parameters correlate with ellipsoid (ellipse) of strain for domain, sequence of three kinematic operations allow to restore actual state of domain to pre-folded state (from ellipse to circle): rotation to horizontal position of envelope plain, horizontal simple shear to vertical axial plain and vertical flattening (pure shear). Aggregation of chain of pre-folded domains is forming a pre-folded state of whole section, and it allows to calculate of shortening value. For correct detailing of strain study, 78 "structural cells" were formed by aggregation of 5-10 domains in each cell. Some additional observations and calculations allow to find initial and post-folded thickness of sedimentary cover, depth of cover bottom, virtual position of cover top (amplitude of erosion) for all tectonic cells. The received result for 78 cells allowed to understand the main features of GC structure, to see a distribution of basement top depth, to give behavior pattern of the basement and to find a role of faults in shortening of the basement and of sedimentary cover. Results. Three regions of GC were studied: North-Western Caucasus (NWC) [1], Chiaur tectonic zone in South Ossetia (ChZ) and two zones in South-Eastern Caucasus - Tfan Zone (TZ) and Shakhdag zone (ShZ) [3]. The shortening values for structural cells were found as 49% in average for ShZ (with deviations 37÷62%), 55% for TZ (36÷67%), 57% for ChZ (46÷67%) and

  8. The 2002 rock/ice avalanche at Kolka/Karmadon, Russian Caucasus: assessment of extraordinary avalanche formation and mobility, and application of QuickBird satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, C.; Zgraggen-Oswald, S.; Haeberli, W.; Kääb, A.; Polkvoj, A.; Galushkin, I.; Evans, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    A massive rock/ice avalanche of about 100x106m3 volume took place on the northern slope of the Kazbek massif, North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus, on 20 September 2002. The avalanche started as a slope failure, that almost completely entrained Kolka glacier, traveled down the Genaldon valley for 20km, was stopped at the entrance of the Karmadon gorge, and was finally succeeded by a distal mudflow which continued for another 15km. The event caused the death of ca. 140 people and massive destruction. Several aspects of the event are extraordinary, i.e. the large ice volume involved, the extreme initial acceleration, the high flow velocity, the long travel distance and particularly the erosion of a valley-type glacier, a process not known so far. The analysis of these aspects is essential for process understanding and worldwide glacial hazard assessments. This study is therefore concerned with the analysis of processes and the evaluation of the most likely interpretations. The analysis is based on QuickBird satellite images, field observations, and ice-, flow- and thermo-mechanical considerations. QuickBird is currently the best available satellite sensor in terms of ground resolution (0.6 m) and opens new perspectives for assessment of natural hazards. Evaluation of the potential of QuickBird images for assessment of high-mountain hazards shows the feasibility for detailed avalanche mapping and analysis of flow dynamics, far beyond the capabilities of conventional satellite remote sensing. It is shown that the avalanche was characterized by two different flows. The first one was comparable to a hyperconcentrated flow and was immediately followed by a flow with a much lower concentration of water involving massive volumes of ice. The high mobility of the avalanche is likely related to fluidization effects at the base of the moving ice/debris mass with high pore pressures and a continuous supply of water due to frictional melting of ice. The paper concludes with

  9. The 2002 rock/ice avalanche at Kolka/Karmadon, Russian Caucasus: assessment of extraordinary avalanche formation and mobility, and application of QuickBird satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huggel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A massive rock/ice avalanche of about 100x106m3 volume took place on the northern slope of the Kazbek massif, North Ossetia, Russian Caucasus, on 20 September 2002. The avalanche started as a slope failure, that almost completely entrained Kolka glacier, traveled down the Genaldon valley for 20km, was stopped at the entrance of the Karmadon gorge, and was finally succeeded by a distal mudflow which continued for another 15km. The event caused the death of ca. 140 people and massive destruction. Several aspects of the event are extraordinary, i.e. the large ice volume involved, the extreme initial acceleration, the high flow velocity, the long travel distance and particularly the erosion of a valley-type glacier, a process not known so far. The analysis of these aspects is essential for process understanding and worldwide glacial hazard assessments. This study is therefore concerned with the analysis of processes and the evaluation of the most likely interpretations. The analysis is based on QuickBird satellite images, field observations, and ice-, flow- and thermo-mechanical considerations. QuickBird is currently the best available satellite sensor in terms of ground resolution (0.6 m and opens new perspectives for assessment of natural hazards. Evaluation of the potential of QuickBird images for assessment of high-mountain hazards shows the feasibility for detailed avalanche mapping and analysis of flow dynamics, far beyond the capabilities of conventional satellite remote sensing. It is shown that the avalanche was characterized by two different flows. The first one was comparable to a hyperconcentrated flow and was immediately followed by a flow with a much lower concentration of water involving massive volumes of ice. The high mobility of the avalanche is likely related to fluidization effects at the base of the moving ice/debris mass with high pore pressures and a continuous supply of water due to frictional melting of ice. The paper

  10. Impact of Magmatism on the Geodynamic Evolution of Southern Georgia on the Example of the Lesser Caucasus Artvin-Bolnisi Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadradze, Nino; Adamia, Shota; Zakariadze, Guram; Beridze, Tamara; Khutsishvili, Sophio

    2017-04-01

    The Georgian region occupies the central part of the collisional zone between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian continents and is actually a collage of lithospheric fragments of the Tethyan Ocean and its northern and southern continental margins. Magmatic evolution is an important event in the formation and development of the geological structure of Southern Georgia, where several reliably dated volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formations are established. The region represents a modern analogue of continental collision zone, where subduction-related volcanic activity lasted from Paleozoic to the end of Paleogene. After the period of dormancy in the Early-Middle Miocene starting from the Late Miocene and as far as the end of the Pleistocene, primarily subaerial volcanic eruptions followed by formation of volcanic highlands and plateaus occurred in the reigon. The Upper Miocene to Holocene volcanic rocks are related to the transverse Van-Transcaucasian uplift and belong to post-collisional calc- alkaline basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite series. A system of island arc and intra-arc rift basins (Artvin-Bolnisi and Achara-Trialeti) have been interpreted as characteristic of the pre-collisional stage of the region development, while syn- post-collisional geodynamic events have been attributed to intracontinental stage. Outcrops of the postcollisional magmatic rocks are exposed along the boundaries of the major tectonic units of the region. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit forms the northwestern part of the Lesser Caucasus and represents an island arc domain of so called the Somkheto-Karabakh Island Arc or Baiburt-Garabagh-Kapan belt. It was formed mainly during the Jurassic-Eocene time interval on the southern margin of the Eurasian plate by nort-dipping subduction of the Neotethys Ocean and subsequent collision to the Anatolia-Iranian continental plate. The Artvin-Bolnisi unit, including the Bolnisi district, was developing as a relatively uplifted island arc-type unit

  11. Revision of the genus Odocnemis Allard, 1876 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Helopini) from Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran with observations on feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabozhenko, Maxim; Keskin, Bekir

    2016-12-01

    A revision of the genus Odocnemis of Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran is presented. Thirty species and four subspecies are distributed in this territory. The following 20 new species and subspecies are described: O. dichroa sp. n., O. allardi sp. n., O. merkli sp. n., O. seducta sp. n., O. aegaeica sp. n., O. euritopica sp. n., O. subtuberculigera sp. n., O. subtuberculigera thracica subsp. n., O. erseni sp. n., O. molecularica sp. n., O. shokhini sp. n., O. inornata sp. n., O. altimontana sp. n., O. amanosica sp. n., O. cordiformis sp. n., O. kakunini sp. n. O. evestigata sp. n., O. torosica sp. n., O. torosica subangulata subsp. n., Odocnemis hakkariensis sp. n. The name of the genus is feminine, therefore all species names are transformed from masculine to feminine. Almost all new taxa are described from Turkey; O. amanosica sp. n. is additionally recorded from Syria, O. allardi sp. n.-from Armenia, Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan) and Iran, O. kakunini sp. n. from Iran. New synonymies are established: Odocnemis anatolica (Pic, 1899) = Stenomax korbi Reitter 1902: 219, syn.n.; Odocnemis recticollis (Allard, 1877) = Stenomax kurdistanus Reitter, 1902: 221, syn.n.; Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876 = Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) pseudoclarus Reitter, 1922, syn.n. The following lectotypes are designated: Helops (Odocnemis) anatolicus Pic, 1899, Helops (Stenomax) seriegranatus Seidlitz, 1896, Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) opertus Reitter, 1922, Stenomax recticollis Allard, 1876, Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876, Helops (Odocnemis) protinus Reitter in Bodemeyer, 1900. Holotypes and paratypes of all other Turkish species of Odocnemis are studied. Two new combinations are established: Odocnemis gloriosa (Faldermann, 1837), comb. n. (from Nalassus Mulsant, 1854) and Odocnemis terminasianae (Nabozhenko, 2011), comb. n. (from Armenohelops Nabozhenko, 2002). Five species O. bosphoranus (Allard, 1876), O. amasiae (Seidlitz, 1896), O. scutellatus (Reitter, 1902), O. fundator (Reitter, 1908

  12. Exploring Subduction, Slab Breakoff, and Upper-Plate Deformation in the Georgian Greater Caucasus: Shortening Estimates from Area- and Line-Balanced Crustal Scale Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, C. C.; Cowgill, E.; Niemi, N. A.; Godoladze, T.

    2015-12-01

    Between the Black and Caspian Seas, the Greater Caucasus Mountains (GC) delineate the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The role of subduction in formation of the GC is not widely recognized, despite patterns of subcrustal seismicity attesting to its importance at the E end of the range. The GC currently absorbs most orogen-perpendicular plate convergence (11 mm/yr, 70% of total), but its tectonic evolution relation to subduction remain unclear. Proposed models include 1) subduction of an ~400 km wide backarc ocean basin followed by slab breakoff under the W end of the range; 2) loss of a lithospheric root followed by buoyancy-driven uplift; and 3) closure of a small (~100 km?) basin with no/minimal subduction. Patterns of modern seismicity, exhumation, and shortening are most consistent with the subduction/slab breakoff model, suggesting the western GC may capture the surface expression of processes associated with recent slab breakoff. Each model of the GC makes specific predictions for the amount of shortening within the orogen, with the subduction/breakoff model predicting large magnitudes of convergence. Here we estimate orogenic shortening by balancing mass along several, orogen-perpendicular, crustal-scale cross sections across the GC. First we estimate the original length of undeformed crust by comparing the modern deformed volume (determined from modern topography and moho depth and assuming no net erosional loss) with hypothesized end-member original crustal thicknesses (based on seismic data in the Eastern Black Sea and Scythian platform). These end-member assumptions allow shortening magnitudes as great as ~700 km (12 km-thick oceanic crust), and as small as ~100 km (39 km-thick Scythian margin). Second, we use line-length balanced crustal-scale geologic cross sections to estimate shortening in the western and central GC. We generated these sections using previously published 1:200k geologic maps and our own focused field

  13. Cycles of seismic activity in the second half of the holocene in the Western Caucasus and their correlation with stages of civilization development: A case study of the upper reach of the Mzymta River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsuchenko, A. N.; Menshikov, M. Yu.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The results of comprehensive research into the area of the upper reach of the Mzymta River (Western Caucasus) are presented. The evidence of strong earthquakes that struck the study area throughout history is studied. The periods when mud flows and rockslides associated with the earthquakes are identified to fall between 3100-4000 and 700-1200 years ago. Paleoseismological results are correlated to the results of archeological excavations. As a result, it is revealed that the periods of tectonic disasters coincided with the onsets of the period when the area was uninhabited (abandoned) by people. The results of the present comprehensive research provide additional information to specify the seismic hazard and the chronology of human habitation in the region.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE COMPOSITION OF THE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA AND FLORA OF THE TETHYS DESERT-STEPPE REGION OF PALEARARTICS, BIOGEOGRAPHIC BOUNDARIES OF THE CAUCASUS. MESSAGE 1. TERRESTRIAL FAUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to conduct a comparative analysis of the composition of the terrestrial fauna of the Tethys desert-steppe region of the Palearctic.Materials and methods. The work was based on the materials collected in different republics and regions of the Caucasus and the south of the European part of Russia during 50 years (from 1961 to 2016 which are kept in various domestic and foreign institutions. Catalogs on the studied model groups were also used to conduct the research. In making the dendrograms, a cluster analysis based on the Jaccard coefficient was used.Results. A detailed analysis was carried out by model groups of the animals of the Eastern and Western Thethys complexes of the desert-steppe region of the Palearctic. Comparative analysis has shown that a significant number of species and genera of the discussed territories is characterized by an exceptionally high ratio of endemic species and superspecies taxa. Indicators of endemism in model groups fluctuate depending on the population's ability to resettle. High endemism of faunas of darkling beetles, ground beetles, click beetles and land snails in the Eastern Tethys complex was noted.Conclusion. The Caucasus (in a new interpretation is characterized by a high percentage of endemism for the studied model groups. A large number of the common Tethys genera and species in all model groups attests to their fundamental role in the overall composition of the biota against the background of powerful autochthonous centers of species-formation and, most importantly, the formation and functioning of the Palaearctic desert-steppe belt as the Tethys ocean reduced. 

  15. Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was

  16. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    atmospheric pollution making by Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. The average weighted WPI forms the basis of weather type number, synoptic weather forecast allows you to define a subtype of the weather. This classification is used in the system of MWF in the resorts of Caucasian Mineral Waters (mountainous region of Northern Caucasus), making for the purpose of timely warnings of medical personnel of medical institutions to strengthen health surveillance and, if necessary, conduct prevention of MPR. MPR to changing weather conditions are most manifest in connection with resettlement of patients from their places of permanent residence to the unusual climatic conditions of the resort. In this regard, in order to enhance the spa rehabilitation of meteosensitive patients with coronary artery disease at PSRIC a physiological method was developed for early and routine prophylaxis of maladaptive pathological and, above all, MPR using the method of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation by MDMK-4 apparatus with a frontooccipital location of the electrodes. Clinical manifestation of the MPR in adverse weather conditions in patients with coronary artery disease, hypertension with dysadaptation syndrome is characterized by frequent recurrences of angina, rhythm disorders, cerebral symptoms, vascular crisis, violations in the field of psycho-emotional area and other disorders. These meteopathies are eliminated with high efficiency using the MDMK-4 apparatus in individually selected modes at the planned rate of prophylaxis for 10 procedures. In order to urgent MPR prevention the procedures can be used situationally. The high preventive and curative effects of transcranial electric-pulse meso-diencephalic modulation of the MDMK-4 apparatus is shown by positive dynamics of the clinical status of patients, including data on the MPR test survey, the Kerdem vegetative index, rheoencephalography indicators, electrocardiography, neurovascular reactivity, Holter

  17. Investigation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central Asia and Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Kazakov, S.V.; Stepanets, O.V.; Solodukhin, V.P.; Petrov, V.A.; Aitmatov, I.T.; Aitmatova, D.T.; Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Pyuskyulyan, K.; Gevorgyan, R.G.; Aleksanyan, G.M.; Guliyev, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Various threats to civilization such as natural and man-induced catastrophes, international terrorism, ecological imbalance, global climate change and others hazards have been recently increased in number. Today catastrophic processes are notable for a high degree of organization The humankind has faced the majority of hazards for the first time; therefore, there are no analogues and recipes to be used for their solving. Catastrophe risk have increased so much and joint efforts of the entire world immunity are required. One of the most effective ways to solve the issue can be estimation of risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes. Here we pay attention to the main regions, having the high seismic activities, where it is possible to stimulate natural calamities in this way or cause man-induced catastrophes with huge negative effects of international scale in Central Asia and Caucasus: Uranium, antimony and mercury tailing storages in Tian-Shan mountains. The possible terrorism acts here create the serious danger for Russian and USA military air bases, functioned near large Kyrgyzstan capital Bishkek city. The large Hydroelectric Stations with their huge dams and reservoirs, located near big industrial cities, different natural mines tailing storages, including Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Polygon in East Kazakhstan

  18. Le mécanisme de formation du pluralisme juridique dans le Caucase du Nord (Kabardino-Balkarie et Ossétie du Nord The formative mechanism of legal pluralism in Northern Caucasus (Kabardino-Balkaria and Northern Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina L. Babitch

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La recherche entreprise par l’auteur est consacrée à la spécificité des processus de formation de l’idéologie juridique et de la pratique juridique dans deux républiques du Nord Caucase ayant une population mixte – musulmane et chrétienne. Elle analyse les institutions sociales traditionnelles – y compris juridiques – fondées sur le droit coutumier et sur la religion. L’attention particulière est attirée sur la coexistence de l’adat, la charia et de droit dit officiel, droit d’Etat, aussi bien qu’à la médiation juridique des conflits.The research carried out by the author focuses on the specific development of legal ideology and legal practice in two republics of Northern Caucasus which have a mixed– muslim and christian – population. She analyzes traditional – including legal – social institutions based on customary law and religion. Specific attention is devoted to the coexistence of adat, sharia and the so-called official or State law as well as to the legal mediation of conflicts.

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  20. Caucasus conflict challenges US space policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-10-01

    A leaked e-mail sent to staff by NASA administrator Michael Griffin has indicated that there could be a "lengthy" period with no US crew based on the International Space Station (ISS). His fears stem from a surprising source: the recent conflict between Georgia and Russia, and the subsequent occupation by Russian troops of South Ossetia - a disputed part of Georgia - and Georgia itself. It triggered a frosty relationship between the US and Russian governments, which has now cast doubts on an agreement to permit Americans to fly onboard the Russian Soyuz craft to reach the orbiting station.

  1. Russia, the United States, and the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Ukrainian , and Moldovan partners.42 Azeri Defense Minister Safar Abiev has responded positively to a suggestion by his Russian counterpart, Sergei...of Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma as a result of popular protests with strong international support in the “Orange Revolution” of November...prices, and imposed an embargo on the importation of Georgian wine , for example) do not bode well for Georgia’s long-term stability. Saakashvili has

  2. War in the Caucasus is Inevitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    of discrimination , racism, bigotry, hatred, mistrust, qualms, injustice, intimidation, and coercion in an effort to classify, categorize, and...with the Olympic Games held in China. An Azeri offensive supported by Turkey would surely be considered by Russian politicians as a NATO threat to...demographics will undoubtedly weaken the military competitiveness. The Armenian-Azeri war over Nagorno-Karabakh drastically offset the gender ratio

  3. Кавказские национальные формирования Красной Армии в период обороны Кавказа в 1942 г. Caucasian National Formations of the Red Army during the Defense of the Caucasus in 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    АлексейБезугольный / Aleksei Bezugol’nyi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns issues in the recruitment of ethnic Caucasians into Red Army units and the military’s use of national (ethnic units during the defense of the Caucasus (July – December 1942. Particular attention is paid to the political and historical context of Caucasian national divisions as well as to discussions among the country's and the Caucasian national republics' military commanders and political leaders regarding the level of military preparedness and political loyalty of ethnically Caucasian troops.Pipss.org is grateful to Rebecca Gordan who translated this abstract from Russian into English

  4. Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency: Jihad in the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Razdobudko and Marina Khorosheva, who carried out separate suicide bombings in Gubden, Dagestan, on February 14, 2011, and Viktor Dvorakovskii, who...Kadyrov was elevated to the post of Prime Minister, replacing Sergey Abramov . Less than a year later, Alkhanov was dismissed and Kadyrov appointed...addressing the root causes of the problem will require a dialogue with Moscow, the prospects of which are dim. ENDNOTES - CHAPTER 3 1. Marina Kamenev, “Has

  5. Russia’s Counterinsurgency in North Caucasus: Performance and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    heavy resis- tance from the Chechen forces on the ground. In order to engulf Chechnya in a “ shock -and-awe” assault, the Russian military subjected...internal, separatist insur- gency—in which the world mostly refrained from interference or was sympathetic to the rebels—to a struggle against...special forces unit fighter, justi- fied using the gas by claiming that, because the gas was used, the terrorists failed to detonate the bomb they had

  6. Seismic hazard assessment for the Caucasus test area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balassanian, S.; Ashirov, T.; Chelidze, T.; Gassanov, A.; Kondorskaya, N.; Molchan, G.; Pustovitenko, B.; Trifonov, V.; Ulomov, V.; Giardini, D.; Erdik, M.; Ghafory-Ashtiany, M.; Grunthal, G.; Mayer-Rosa, D.; Schenk, Vladimír; Stucchi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (1999), s. 1139-1151 ISSN 0365-2556 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) - project of the UN International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction and International Litosphere Program. Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  7. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  8. Turkish Influence in the South Caucasus and Levant: The Consequences for NATO and the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    compliments Moscow’s troop presence in Georgia and support for South Ossetia and Abkhazia autonomy. The zero-sum political mindset perpetuated by Moscow ...independent foreign policy trajectory. Additionally, realpolitik, not Islamism, rules the AKP’s interaction with both state and non- state regional...EU Eric S. Thompson Lieutenant Colonel B.S., University of Arizona, 1994 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

  9. Turkey and the North Caucasus: An Analysis of Internal and Domestic Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    military affairs, communal courts, crime and punishment, blood-feuds, the interaction between social classes, marriage, sexuality , and gender-relations... infidels ’ territories, and its religious perspective.129 They also tried to attract Circassians by making false promises, such as ensuring that the

  10. Self-Inflicted Wounds: Russia’s Failed Chechen and North Caucasus Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-22

    Sergei Abramov , Chechnya’s Prime Minister, as acting president until elections could take place.187 Between the death of Kadyrov in 2004 and the...President Akhmad Kadyrov assumed the position of Chechen Prime Minister, replacing Sergei Abramov .189 In March 2007, President Alu Alkhanov accepted a

  11. Russia’s National Interests Towards the Caucasus: Implications for Georgian Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    http://www.csis.org/ruseura/ponars/policymemos/pm_0233.pdf>. Accessed February 8, 2004. For more detailed analysis on the subject see: Harry Broadman ...view_article.php?articleid=1947>. Accessed June 1, 2004. Broadman , Harry. “Global Economic Integration: Prospects for WTO Accession and Continued

  12. Magmatic activity stages of the El'brus volcanic center (Great Caucasus): isotope geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, I.V.; Lebedev, V.A.; Bubnov, S.N.; Arakelyants, M.M.; Gol'tsman, Yu.V.

    2001-01-01

    The age of volcanites in the Elbrus volcanic center was determined by the methods of K-Ar- and Rb-Sr-dating to ascertain stages of magmatic activity in the area. The data obtained suggest existence of at least two stages of magmatic activity: Middle Neopleistocene (225-180 thous. years) and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene ( [ru

  13. Emigration from the South Caucasus: who goes abroad and what are the economic implications?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dermendzhieva, Zvezda

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2011), s. 377-398 ISSN 1463-1377 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : emigration * economic development * household survey Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2011

  14. Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus | Abbott | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  15. Modern Climate Change and Mountain Skiing Tourism: the Alps and the Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Pestereva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the research of modern climate change is beyond all doubts at the moment. Climate is, first of all, a significant share of any country’s resources. Losses due to global climate change can affect virtually all branches of economy and social aspects, including energy production, eco-systems, agriculture, forests, construction, transport, tourism etc.Climate change imposes certain mode of economy, a strategy of economy’s development years ahead. According to forecasts, for example the one of European environmental agency (EEA, one of the first “hostages” of climate change will be winter tourism and alpine skiing resorts. Climate change seriously influences incomes of countries and certain regions located in mountain areas and developing winter sports.Yet, forecasts of climatologists on modern climate change trends are ambiguous and sometimes controversial. For this reason definite scientific and practical interest is raised by research in climate change trends in mountain areas based on mostly state network of meteorological stations.

  16. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. I. A new species of the genus Electrogena Zurwerra & Tomka, 1985

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sroka, Pavel; Godunko, Roman J.

    -, č. 3222 (2012), s. 28-45 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * Heptageniidae * differential diagnosis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012

  17. Debris cover increase as an essential factor determining evolution of the Djankuat Glacier in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezepkin, Alexey; Popovnin, Victor

    2013-04-01

    45-year-long direct monitoring of Djankuat Glacier mass and water balance revealed the continuous increase of its superficial debris cover. Its area was mapped 7 times since 1968 on a basis of photogrammetric surveys, showing more than three-fold increase from 0,104 to 0,344 km2, whereas its share in the entire glacier surface increased more than 4 times (from 3% to 13%); currently supraglacial moraine occupies 61% of the ablation area. Besides, 3 direct and complete areal surveys of debris thickness were carried out in 1983, 1994 and 2010. They consisted of 133-240 measurement points which were distributed either in checkmate order over uniform debris-covered parts of the snout or by transverse profiles across linear morainic ramparts. Procedure of measuring thickness with an accuracy of 1 cm was coming to till piercing down to ice surface with metallic rod or, when impossible, to manual excavations. Maximum detected point values reached 183 cm in 1983, 280 cm in 1994 and 245 cm in 2010, and average debris thickness turned out to increased more than twice during the monitoring period - 26, 39 and 54 cm, for correspondent surveys. Debris cover influence on liquid run-off was estimated by heat balance considerations, based both on records of AWSs, erected on clean and debris-covered ice surface, and on vertical temperature profiles within the lithogenic layer, demonstrating clearly the diurnal cycle attenuation with depth. Sub-debris ablation is higher than clean ice melting rate under a thin debris layer (2025 the debris cover will reduce hypsometrical lowering rate on the snout by 45% in the latter case. This lead to the assumption about the future role of debris mantle development in Djankuat Glacier evolution: it may become comparable with that exerted by climate change.

  18. The role of competition along productivity gradients: experimental comparison of four alpine communities in the Caucasus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onipchenko, V.G.; Blinnikov, M.S.; Gerasimova, M.A.; Volkova, E.V.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    Question. Competitive and facilitative interactions among plant species in different abiotic environments potentially link productivity, vegetation structure, species composition and functional diversity. We investigated these interactions among four alpine communities along an environmental

  19. Policy Paper 16: Ethnic Conflict and Russian Intervention in the Caucasus

    OpenAIRE

    Arutiunov, Sergei; Migranian, Andranik; Payin, Emil; Starovoitova, Galina

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was remarkably peaceful, but its aftermath has been remarkably violent. To keep its multiethnic empire together, the Soviet regime used a mixed bag of political and economic instruments, developed over decades of Communist power and centuries of Russian imperial rule. The sudden end of the Soviet system destroyed most of these instruments and left the leaders of the new states of Eurasia holding the bag. As a result, these countries have become fertile ground ...

  20. Two new troglobiont Pygmarrhopalites species of the principalis group (Collembola: Arrhopalitidae) from the West Caucasus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargovitsh, Robert S

    2017-04-03

    Springtails of the principalis-group of the genus Pygmarrhopalites from the W Caucasian caves in Abkhazia are described: Pygmarrhopalites dbari sp. nov. from Psyrtskha Cave in Novy Afon and Pygmarrhopalites kovali sp. nov. from caves of Tsebelda Karst Massif. They differ from epigean relatives mainly by troglomorphies: reduced pigmentation, elongated appendages and modified foot complex. These new species as well as a great portion of endemic Caucasian speleofauna have highly restricted distribution and require protection. A new record of Arrhopalites abchasicus Vargovitsh, 2013 in Novoafonskaya Cave is added.

  1. Landslide hazard assessment of the Black sea coastline (Caucasus, Russia) via drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeev, Andrey; Postoev, German; Fedotova, Ksenia

    2017-04-01

    Landslide hazard assessment of slopes of Sochi was performed along the railway between the cities Tuapse and Adler (total length 103 km). The railway passes through the territory with active development of hazardous geological processes such as landslides, rock falls and debris-flows. By the beginning of 2016, 36 landslide sites were discovered along the railway (total length 34 km), 48 rock-fall sites (length 31 km), and 5 debris-flow sites (length 0.14 km). In recent years the intensification of deformations was observed. For instance, during previous 10 years (1996¬¬-2005) 28 sudden deformations occurred due to slope processes, which caused interruptions in traffic. And in the present decade (2006-2015), 72 deformations were recorded. High landslide activity and economic loss determined the necessity of complex investigations of engineering geological conditions of landslides development and causes of its intensification. The protection strategy development was needed to minimize negative consequences. Thus, the investigations of landslide situation along the railway "Tuapse - Adler" included the categorization of landslide sites by level of hazard, with risk assessment based on numerical criteria. Preliminary evaluation of landslide hazard for the railway was conducted via the analysis of archived engineering-geological documents. 13 of 36 landslide sites (total length 13 km) were selected, reflecting the variety and peculiarities of landslide displacements on slopes (both active and inactive sites). Visual field observations of landslide slopes using drone "DJI Phantom 4" were completed during the second stage of this investigation. High-resolution photographs of landslide cirques, cracks, scarp walls, vegetation features were obtained via drone, which would have been impossible to obtain from the ground in conditions of dense subtropical vegetation cover. Possible approaches to the landslide activity and hazard assessment were evaluated: slope stability analysis, geophysical monitoring methods, analysis of critical deformations and critical velocities of displacement, the analysis of changes of conditions of landslide development during its displacement, as well as scoring approaches to landslide hazard and risk assessment. As the result, the method of probabilistic estimation of landslide activity and hazard has been proposed, based on selection and analysis of main factors, influencing landslide displacements. Slope steepness, landslide thickness, slope length, bedrock dip, slope relief, cracks, vegetation patterns and other factors were used for assessment of activity of landslide sites. The investigation was based on the proposed probabilistic method of assessment of landslide activity and hazard. The considered landslide sites were ranked by the rate of activity as inactive, potentially active and active. The most active sites were used to identify potentially the most hazardous sites. Furthermore, the following factors were additionally considered: the damage of railroad facilities due to landslide, landslide activity, thickness of landslide at the toe of the slope, bedrock stratification, the conditions for the cirque development, the position of the sliding surface relatively to the railway, the involvement of bedrock into displaced mass. As the result, the investigated railroad sites were divided into three categories: non-hazardous, potentially hazardous and hazardous. The research was supported by Russian Scientific Foundation (Project № 16-17-00125).

  2. Unpublished and rare coins of the Golden Horde from the site of Nizhny Dzhulat (North Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sitnik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ancient settlement of Nizhny Dzhulat is located on the right bank of the Terek River near the town of Maysky in Kabardino-Balkaria. A large amount of the Golden Horde coins was found there by locals during agricultural work. The authors obtained electronic images of coins found in 2010-2012. In this paper they summarize the results of the study of copper coins from the Nizhny Dzhulat complex. Based on the dated coins, the chronology of copper coins covers 100-year period from 1420s to 1520s. In the complex there are many rare and unpublished types and variants for coins, 16 of which are described in the article. Copper coinage of Djanibek II presents two new types and ten new variants. There were considered seven types of Haji-Tarkhan coins, including the unreleased dated type of "Animals at the trough" of 805 AH. Horde minted al- Jadid's coins are presented here with two types of animalistic symbolism and with a review of the unreleased coin with tamga "glasses" of Emir Ibrahim al-Jadid's coinage of 777 AH.

  3. Eliciting local spatial knowledge for community - based disaster risk management : working with Cybertracker in Georgian Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanu, V.; McCall, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    CyberTracker (CT) participatory field data collection software is used as an element of Participatory GIS for acquiring, geo-referencing, storing and transferring local spatial knowledge. It has been developed initially for animal tracking, ecological surveys and conservation management activities,

  4. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON RED BEET YIELD IN VARIOUS ZONES OF THE FORE-CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  5. ANTECOLOGY ENTOMOPHILOUS ALPINE PLANTS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS. I MORPHOLOGY OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kurashev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants with yellow and white color dominated, 37% and 24%, respectively. The flowers of most species of plants - actinomorphic (70%. Most species have actinomorphic flowers (70%. The average height of the generative organs in communities varies from 7 to 22 cm. Wide variation and lack of correlation between morphological parameters of plants can talk about a wide variety of plants’ adaptations to pollinate, and they have no distinct syndromes of pollination.

  6. Technologies for the Comprehensive Exploitation of the Geothermal Resources of the North Caucasus Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Technology for the integrated development of low-temperature geothermal resources using the thermal and water potentials for various purposes is proposed. The heat of the thermal waters is utilized in a low-temperature district heating system and for heating the water in a hot water supply system. The water cooled in heat exchangers enters a chemical treatment system where it is conditioned into potable water quality and then forwarded to the household and potable water supply system. Efficient technologies for removal of arsenic and organic contaminants from the water have been developed. For the uninterrupted supply of the consumers with power, the technologies that use two and more types of renewable energy sources (RESs) have the best prospects. Technology for processing organic waste using the geothermal energy has been proposed. According to this technology, the geothermal water is divided into two flows, one of which is delivered to a biomass conversion system and the other is directed to a geothermal steam-gas power plant (GSGP). The wastewater arrives at the pump station from which it is pumped back into the bed. Upon drying, the biogas from the conversion system is delivered into the combustion chamber of a gas-turbine plant (GTP). The heat of the turbine exhaust gases is used in the GSGP to evaporate and reheat the low-boiling working medium. The working medium is heated in the GSGP to the evaporation temperature using the heat of the thermal water. High-temperature geothermal brines are the most promising for the comprehensive processing. According to the proposed technology, the heat energy of the brines is utilized to generate the electric power at a binary geothermal power station; the electric power is then used to extract the dissolved chemical components from the rest of the brine. The comprehensive utilization of high-temperature brines of the East-Precaucasian Artesian Basin will allow to completely satisfy the demand of Russia for lithium carbonate and sodium chloride.

  7. Annual pollen traps reveal the complexity of climatic control on pollen productivity in Europe and the Caucasus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    van der Knaap, W. O.; van Leeuwen, J. F. N.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Pidek, I. A.; Kavavadze, E.; Chichinadze, M.; Giesecke, T.; Kaszewski, B. M.; Oberli, F.; Kalnina, L.; Pardoe, H. S.; Tinner, W.; Ammann, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2010), s. 285-307 ISSN 0939-6314 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00130801; GA AV ČR IAAX00050801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : annual pollen monitoring * influx * climate Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2010

  8. On the distribution and taxonomy of bats of the Myotis mystacinus morphogroup from the Caucasus region (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benda, P.; Gazaryan, S.; Vallo, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 6 (2016), s. 842-863 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Myotis * mtDNA * cytochrome b * morphometrics * identification * taxonomy * Middle East, Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2016

  9. Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

  10. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. IV. New species of the genus Nigrobaetis Novikova & Kluge, 1987 (Ephemeroptera, Baetidae) from Georgia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godunko, Roman J.; Martynov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4231, č. 1 (2017), s. 70-84 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * Nigrobaetis * Takobia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  11. Unraveling the Georgian Knot: The United States, Russia, and Georgia and the New Great Game in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    rich agricultural production of wines , alcoholic beverages, and citrus fruits combined with its Black Sea coast tourist industry and black market...Razoux, 2009, p. 2). This isolation has resulted in Ukraine reducing its ties with Tbilisi and refusal by Ukrainian President, Viktor Yushchenko, to...take his country out of the CIS (p. 2). According to Trenin (2008), only 20 percent of Ukrainians actually support NATO membership and 44 percent have

  12. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  13. Evolution of Pleistocene to Holocene eruptions in the Lesser Caucasus Mts:Insights from geology, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savov, Ivan; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Connor, Charles; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Sugden, Patrick; Navasardyan, Gevorg; Halama, Ralf; Ishizuka, Osamu; Connor, Laura; Karapetian, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Both effusive and highly explosive (VEI>5) and often voluminous caldera volcanism has developed atop the collision zone between the Arabian and the Eurasian plates. Currently what is exposed on the Anatolian-Armenian-Iranian active orogenic plateau is post-Mesozoic felsic to intermediate collision-related plutons, and mostly collision or post-collision related Quaternary volcanic structures. We have studied in detail the volcanism, tectonics and geophysics on the territory of E.Turkey and Armenia, where several large stratovolcanoes (Ararat, Lesser Ararat, Aragats, Tsghuk, Ishkhanasar) are surrounded by distinct monogenetic volcanic fields (distributed volcanism). These large in volume stratovolcanoes and the associated low volume monogenetic cones range from normal calk-alkaline to high-K shoshonitic in affinity, with their products ranging from basanites to high K trachytes and rhyolites. Several volcanic provinces, namely Kechut/Javakheti, Aragats, Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik are recognized in Armenia and each of them has > 100 mapped volcanoes. These have distinct geochemical (mineral chemistry, trace element and Sr-Nd-B isotope systematics) and petrological (melt eruption temperatures and volatile contents) fingerprints that may or may not vary over time. Age determinations and volcano-stratigraphy sections for each of the case studies we aim to present shows that the volcanism includes a continuous record from Pleistocene to Holocene, or even historical eruptions. The excellent volcano exposures and the now complete high resolution database (GIS), geological mapping, and new and improved K-Ar and Ar-Ar geochronology, uniquely allows us to evaluate the driving forces behind the volcanism in this continent-continent collision setting that is uniquely associated with long lasting eruption episodes. We shall compare the now well studied historical/Holocene eruptions with those pre-dating them, with the aim to identify possible geochemical or petrological precursors, on both local and regional scales. Our presentation will include several case studies, new ages, high resolution maps of many volcanoes and their association with young active faulting and often large earthquakes. We will present one particular high resolution case study (on Aragats volcanic complex) where we attempted to quantify the volcanic hazards. This is important as this region hosts the active Metsamor nuclear power plant and the capital city of Yerevan (population > 1.4 million), where people live in area with very low (10^6), yet existing risk for a renewed volcanic activity.

  14. A motive of the Bull’s Head as a Decoration of the Medieval Churches in Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Endoltseva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the examples of a syncretism of the traditional believes and Christianity in the Middle Ages. There is a representation of the bull’s head in the architectural decoration of some of the medieval churches (f. i. Svetitskhoveli in Mtskheta, XI c., Georgia; the Holy Cross Cathedral on the Island of Akdamar, X c., Turkey; monasteries of Geghard, XIII c. and Sanain, XII c., Armenia; it is obviously connected with an ancient cult of the bull wide-spread in the Mediterranean world from the Neolithic period until modern time.

  15. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental context of the Early Pleistocene hominins from Dmanisi (Georgia, Lesser Caucasus) inferred from the herpetofaunal assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Agustí, Jordi; Lordkipanidze, David; Rook, Lorenzo; Delfino, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Dmanisi is currently the oldest Early Palaeolithic site discovered out of Africa. It has produced over 40 hominin remains, including a set of very informative skulls, in direct association with faunal remains and numerous lithic artifacts. Given the relevance of this locality, every effort is being made to reconstruct the landscapes where these hominins once lived. Amphibian and reptile remains from Dmanisi are here described for the first time and used as paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental proxies. They comprise at least six taxa: a green toad (Bufo gr. Bufo viridis), the Greek tortoise (Testudo graeca), a green lizard (Lacerta gr. Lacerta viridis), a four-lined snake (Elaphe gr. Elaphe quatuorlineata), an indeterminate colubrid and a water snake (Natrix sp.). As these taxa are not extinct and their ecology can be directly studied, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. The application of the Mutual Climatic Range method provides quantitative data indicating that during the hominin presence at Dmanisi climate was warm and dry, similar to the present-day Mediterranean climate. In comparison with today climate of Dmanisi, estimated mean annual temperature was 3.1 °C higher, with a greater increase of temperature in summer (+7.1 °C) than in winter (+4.7 °C). The mean annual precipitation was slightly lower (-65 mm) than the current level, with precipitation higher than current one during winter (+104 mm) but strongly lower during the other seasons, suggesting a stronger contrast in the rainfall regime during the year. From a paleoenvironmental point of view, fossil amphibians and reptiles all suggest the predominance of arid environments, from steppe or semi-desert to open Mediterranean forest, with stony or rocky substrate and bushy areas. The presence of permanent aquatic environments is also documented. These results mainly agree with those for large mammals, small mammals and the archaeobotanical analysis that indicate an important water stress suggesting a period of increased aridity contemporaneous with human occupations of the site.

  16. Mayflies of the genus Epeorus Eaton, 1881 s.l. (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) from the Caucasus Mountains: a new species of Caucasiron Kluge, 1997 from Georgia and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Sroka, Pavel; Godunko, Roman J; Žurovcová, Martina

    2017-11-01

    The new species Epeorus (Caucasiron) bicolliculatus sp. nov. is described based on larvae and adults. Diagnostic characters are given with regard to the related species. The most pronounced difference is represented by protuberances on larval abdominal terga II-IX, present exclusively in E. (C.) bicolliculatus sp. nov. Primary data on the biology and distribution of the new species are also provided. Delimitation of the new species is verified by the analysis of COI (barcode) sequences. Barcode data for all Caucasian species of the subgenus Caucasiron are provided for the first time and compared with E. (C.) bicolliculatus sp. nov.

  17. Involvement of Russian Organized Crime Syndicates, Criminal Elements in the Russian Military, and Regional Terrorist Groups in Narcotics Trafficking in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Chechnya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtis, Glenn E

    2002-01-01

    ... (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia), and in Chechnya. The purpose of the report is to reveal the role of Russian organized crime and Central Asian terrorist organizations in narcotics trafficking in those areas...

  18. Natural hazards in the Great Caucasus range on the background of climate change - risk maps for the Kazbegi and Mleta areas (Georgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tatjana; Gaprindashvili, George; Gobejishvili, Ramin; Keggenhoff, Ina; Elizbarashvili, Mariam; Kalandadze, Besik; Lomidze, Nino; King, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The frequency of mass wasting processes in the investigated area seems to be closely connected with climate change and land use change. In the past decades, especially mudflows occurred more often in the Kazbegi/Mleta region. They may create serious hazards for the population and infrastructure. Our project investigates mass movement events, especially debris flows as depending on topographical, geological, geomorphological, soil and land use conditions. Selective geomorphological and soil mapping was carried out, and soil samples taken for analysis. The soil map was elaborated in a Geographical Information System (GIS), based on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), land use data and on a geological map. The land use data were interpreted from satellite information. For the compilation of the risk map, a GIS based simulation of debris flows was used, together with topographical, pedological, hydrological and climatological data (catchment area, elevation, soil depth, soil and land cover classes, precipitation and temperature). The mudflow model used considered the objects of risk (settlements, roads). The risk map may be used for hazard management in the investigated region. Calculated climate trends show, that recent mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation sums are rising. At the same time, frequency, duration and intensity of extreme precipitation events increase. The relationship between climate elements (temperature and precipitation) and debris flows is shown. Thus, a future increase in hydro-meteorological hazards may be expected. In Georgia some landslides are triggered by earthquakes, however more than 70% of observed landslide/mudflow phenomena are triggered by the effects of increasing atmospheric precipitation. This index is in direct integral relation with the rate of reactivation of landslide processes. The mechanism of landslides dynamics is defined by the rate of changes in soil water content, which results in variation of consistence features of the subsurface materials, and possibly by lowering the movement persistence up to a critical level in the aeration zone. Kazbegi and Mleta belong to an extremely complex mountainous area of Georgia according to its geology and the scale and frequency of natural disaster processes. Since the year 2000, the activation of these processes results in increased damage for population, farm lands and engineering facilities that can be observed almost every year. The occurrence intervals are becoming significantly shorter. As a result, more populated areas, engineering facilities and industrial objects have to be included in the risk zones.

  19. Epipactis krymmontana (Orchidaceae), a new species endemic to the Crimean Mountains and notes on the related taxa in the Crimea and bordering Russian Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fateryga, A.V.; Kreutz, K.; Fateryga, V.V.; Efimov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    A new obligately self-pollinating species, Epipactis krymmontana, is described from the Crimea. The species is closely related to E. condensata from which it differs by its relatively loose and usually much shorter inflorescence, relatively elongate ovaries, much paler epichile with less protruding

  20. Phytophagous insects of giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in invaded areas of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Ole; Hattendorf, Jan; Wittenberg, Ruediger

    2006-01-01

    show a higher proportion of specialist herbivores in the native habitats compared to the invaded areas, supporting the "enemy release hypothesis" (ERH). When analysing the relative size of the niches (measured as plant organ biomass), we found less herbivore species per biomass oil the stem and roots...

  1. Implementation of a Regional Training Program on African Swine Fever As Part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program across the Caucasus Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco De Nardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF was implemented by Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland. Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease. Gaps in disease knowledge, legislation, and outbreak preparedness in each country were all addressed. Because ASF is a pathogen with bioterrorism potential and of great veterinary health importance that is responsible for major economic instability, the project team developed public outreach programs to train veterinarians in the partner countries to accurately and rapidly identify ASF activity and report it to international veterinary health agencies. The project implementers facilitated four regional meetings to develop this outreach program, which was later disseminated in each partner country. Partner country participants were trained as trainers to implement the outreach program in their respective countries. In this paper, we describe the development, execution, and evaluation of the ASF training and outreach program that reached more than 13,000 veterinarians, farmers, and hunters in the partner countries. Additionally, more than 120,000 booklets, flyers, leaflets, guidelines, and posters were distributed during the outreach campaign. Pre- and post-ASF knowledge exams were developed. The overall success of the project was demonstrated in that the principles of developing and conducting a public outreach program were established, and these foundational teachings can be applied within a single country or expanded regionally to disseminate disease information across borders; overall, this method can be modified to raise awareness about many other diseases.

  2. Mayflies of the Caucasus Mountains. II. Description of the first representative of the subgenus Helvetoraeticus Bauernfeind & Soldán, 2012 (Heptageniidae: Ecdyonurus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kluge, N. J.; Godunko, Roman J.; Apanaskevich, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3608, č. 1 (2013), s. 51-66 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Grant - others:Ministerstvo školství(CZ) MOBILITY 7AMB12SK144 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * new species * Georgia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2013 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2013/f/z03608p066f.pdf

  3. Mayflies of the genus Epeorus Eaton, 1881 s.l. (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) from the Caucasus Mountains: a new species of Caucasiron Kluge, 1997 from Georgia and Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivniak, Ľuboš; Sroka, Pavel; Godunko, Roman J.; Žurovcová, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4341, č. 3 (2017), s. 353-374 ISSN 1175-5326 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 156/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * taxonomy * barcoding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016 https://biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.4341.3.2

  4. External morphology and osteology of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886), with a taxonomic revision of the Pontic and Small-Caucasus populations (Squamata: Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Oscar; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Durmuş, Salih Hakan; Avci, Aziz; Üzüm, Nazan

    2013-01-01

    A broad sample of Darevskia rudis from the main part of its range was reviewed with regard to external morphology (discriminant, UPGMA, MST and ANOVA analyses) and osteology. Darevskia bithynica is raised to species rank, with two subspecies: D. b. bithynica and D. b. tristis. The other subspecies are fairly similar (D. r. rudis being the most different). Two singular populations are described as subspecies: D. r. mirabilis ssp. nov. from Kaçkar Mountains, geographically adjoins the otherwise different D. r. bischoffi and D. r. bolkardaghica ssp. nov., which is geographically isolated but that seems to be very closely related to D. r. obscura.

  5. Determinants of 15N Natural Abundance in Leaves of Co-Occurring Plant Species and Types within an Alpine Lichen Heath in the Northern Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Malysheva, T.I.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Several factors may have interactive effects on natural 15N abundance of plant species. Some of these effects could be associated with different plant functional types, including mycorrhizal association type. Due to its high taxonomic and functional diversity, the alpine heath community in the

  6. Ways of adaptations of populations and communities of fine Mammals to conditions of wood cabins on East Caucasus. The message 1. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Omarov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that reaction of rodent populations to throw is defined by the character and depth of specialization to biotopes of every species. The general consequence of spotting habitats owing to cuttings down for the most of rodent populations is a reorganization of population structure in a metapopulation, which is revealed in the changes of population parameters. Such reorganization of populations has an adaptive character, which allows supporting the optimal structure in a population nucleus.

  7. The geo-strategic and geo-political situation of the Caucasus and the Black Sea region at the beginning of XXI century

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu Stefan; Zelha Altinkaya; Dragan Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Historians’ opinion is unanimous in considering that the Cold War was a war between the two dominant political and social systems: capitalism and socialism. In fact, this war ended with the collapse of communism in the former Soviet Union. With the USSR a crucial geopolitical pole disappeared from the Pontic area and more than ten independent states occurred - Ukraine, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, etc. - involved in regional and international structure...

  8. Regularities of in-regional redistribution of the nuclear test products in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Nozadze, M.R.; Intskirveli, L.N.; Buachidze, N.D.; Churguliya, E.R.; Shatberashvili, I.G.; Diasamidze, R.I.; Karchava, G.V.; Gugushvili, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Regularities of artificial radionuclides redistribution in the Caucasus atmosphere are studied. The structure of global fallout in the region is considered. It is noted, that Caucasus is characterizing by a wide diversity of the landscapes and soils. This diversity results a different migration regime for radioisotopes in soils. Penetration of the nuclear tests products into the soils depends on the annual precipitation amount (soil humidification), and incoming level of the radioisotopes. At evaluation of external and internal irradiation doses on South Caucasus population the Caucasus was divided into regions by levels of the global reactive fallout

  9. Güney Kafkasyada Kadim Yerleşmenin Paleocoğrafi Durumuna Bir Örnek: Nahçıvan An Example to paleogeography of the ancient settlement in South Caucasus : Nakhchivan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Naxcivan is one of the oldest settlement that has found a place inNear and Middle East as well as Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS. Geographical position, climate and natural sources contribute toNaxcivan's primary settlement which is founded around 5000-6000years ago. The fact that Naxcivan has a backround around 420 millionyears indicates a long geological period to have its today's view. Thelands covered by ocean water in the Devonian period were exposed totransgression and regression of seas not a few times, later. Sea waterleaves towards the end of Miocene epoch. Naxcivan and its environshave today's orographic view towards the end of Pliocene epoch.Multi-faceted geological development periods (volcanism, tectonicmovements, different stratigraphic sequences contribute to formation ofvarious natural mineral resources. This paves the way for getting rawmaterials needed for future's settlements. Boreal climate period whichhas temperate, cold and moist climate at mountainous lands of mediumor low heights in Naxcivan 10-12 thousand years ago, changes intoSultry Vereal Climate period 8-9 thousand years ago firstly and ColdAtlantic Climate period of Holocene epoch 6-8 thousand years ago,later. Caspian Sea overruns the plains of Kura and Naxcivan as a resultof temperate and hot effects of Subboreal Climate period on mountainsagain 4.5 or 5 thousand years ago. This causes immigration towardsthe west and basis of today's Naxcivan and its environs as settlements.Caves and natural strongholds play a major role in primarysettlements of the town of Naxcivan. Furthermore, mineral deposits ofsodium chloride as a present of seas to Naxcivan, Naxcivan' s strategicposition and the oldest caravan routes contribute to the development ofsettlement in Naxcivan in the lenght of time. Nahçıvan, Yakın ve Orta Doğu’da, aynı zamanda BağımsızDevletler Topluluğu içinde yer alan çok eski yaşam alanlarından biridir.Geçmişi yaklaşık 5000-6000 yıl öncesine dayanan Nahçıvan etrafındakiilkin (birincil yerleşmede coğrafi konum, iklim ve doğal kaynaklarönemli rol oynamıştır.Nahçıvan dolaylarının jeolojik oluşum yönünden 420 milyon yılayakın bir geçmişi vardır. Nahçıvan diyarının bugünkü jeo-morfolojikgörünümü üzerinde uzun bir jeolojik (litolojik, stratigrafik ve tektonikgeçmişin etkisi vardır. Devon döneminde okyanus sularıyla kaplananarazi daha sonraları bir çok kez denizlerin transgresyon veregresyonuna maruz kalmış ve Miyosen dönemi sonuna doğru denizsuları bölgeyi tamamen terk etmiştir. Pliyosenin son döneminde iseNahçıvan ve çevresi şu anki orografik görüntüsünü almıştır.Karmaşık jeolojik gelişim süreçleri (volkanizma, tektonikhareketler, farklı stratigrafik basamaklar çeşitli mineral doğalkaynakların oluşmasına bu da gelecekteki yerleşmede ihtiyaç duyulanhammaddenin meydana gelmesine zemin hazırlamıştır.10-12 bin yıl önce Nahçıvan’ın orta ve alçak dağlık arazilerindeılıman soğuk ve rutubetli iklimin hakim olduğu Boreal iklim dönemiyerini; 8-9 bin yıl önce Sıcak Rutubetli Vereal iklim dönemine ve 6-8 binyıl önce de Holosen’in Soğuk Atlantik iklim dönemine bırakmıştır.Yaklaşık 4.5 - 5 bin yıl önce Subboreal iklim döneminde dağlardayeniden ılıman sıcak iklimin hakim olmaya başlamasıyla birlikte Hazardenizi, Kura ve Nahçıvan düzlüklerini istila etmiştir. Bu duruminsanların batıya doğru göç etmesine ve dolayısıyla bugünkü Nahçıvanşehri ve çevresindeki birçok yaşam alanlarının da temelinin atılmasınasebep olmuştur.Nahçıvan’da görülen ilk yerleşmelerde mağaralar, doğal barınaklarve doğal kaleler önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Bununla birlikte jeolojikgelişim sürecinde transgresyonlar sonucu denizlerin Nahçıvan’aarmağan ettiği tuz maden yatakları, Nahçıvan’ın elverişli coğrafi konumu ve eski kervan yollarının buradan geçmesi Nahçıvan’dakiyerleşmenin zaman içinde gelişmesine neden olmuştur.

  10. Estimation of risks and possible ecological and economic damages from large-scale natural and man-induced catastrophes in ecology-hazard regions of Central asia and the Caucasus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A.N.; Kazakov, S.V; Stepanets, O.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: It is our international Program with the participation of 6 countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. For all presented regions we single out the following typical factors that significantly increase a risk of implementing natural and man-induced catastrophes: (1) these regions are located in the mountain areas with the high seismic level (5- 9 grades by Richter scale); (2) the largest mountain rivers have cascades of powerful hydroelectric stations with their sizeable reservoirs and huge high dams (>100m); (3) on the regions' densely populated lands there are plenty of mines for extraction of metals/minerals, industrial facilities and plants with U-tailing dumps and burrows of varied pollutants with using the different radioactive, toxic and poisonous substances in their technologies; (3) the man-induced activity here increases probabilities for occurrence of not only severe man-induced catastrophes, but also natural ones; (4) An especially grave situation has been created on trans boundary lands of these continue, due to the lack of common ecological and geochemical monitoring systems, that increases political and economic tension between the countries and generating negative migration processes; (5) risks and ecological-economic damages from catastrophes are not only regional but also global by nature, since they entail contamination of vast lands, the basins of the Black, Caspian and Kara Seas, that of the Arctic Ocean and, consequently, the entire World Ocean; (6) opportunity to perform deliberate attacks of terrorists with the using of explosives, that are able to cause man-induced catastrophes and stimulate natural calamities (earthquakes, mud flows, landslips, etc.). It is easier to implement attacks of terrorists there due to the intersection of main lines, an available border with current centers of international terrorism, located in Chechnya, Afghanistan and some others. The hazard is especially great for new independent states, where the system of safety, boundary and customs control, that of strict visa control and other state safety measures have not yet been formed. Consequences of terrorist attacks in the regions will be followed by major human and huge material losses, and extremely negative irreversible global scale environmental effects. The humankind has faced the majority of the above issues for the first time and, therefore, there are no good suitable methods provided for their solving. A purposeful activity of all countries of the world community is required. Program's results of Program 3 will be used in the following: (1) When developing a methodology/strategy to regulate and manage risks in emergencies; (2) when mapping risk allocation by various lands; (3) when developing a common system for emergency prevention/elimination. Our Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBRAE RAS) has own experience in these scientific directions (http://www.ibrae.ac.ru). This Program will promote the realization of concept of substantial development with growth of economical cooperation and stability, decreasing of political stress not only for the countries- participants, but also at global scale for all countries, located at the continent. (author)

  11. [The application of climatic therapy in the health resorts of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus: the current state-of-the-art and the prospects for the further development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestereva, N M; Khechumyan, A F; Udovenko, I L; Bekhterev, V N

    2016-01-01

    The present review summarizes the data published in the domestic and foreign literature concerning the history of climatic therapy, the current concepts of the mechanisms of action of the climatic and weather factors on the human body, the modern therapeutic modalities and technologies for health promotion. We consider not only the achievements but also the problems arising from insufficient knowledge of the impacts of current climate and extreme weather conditions on the state of human health and some disputable issues of the new methods and technologies of climatic therapy. the promising areas of further research and developments pertaining to climatic therapy as practiced under conditions of the Black Sea coast resorts.

  12. [Basic activity of the Railroad Center of the State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Surveillance at the Vladikavkaz train station of the North Caucasus Railroad in the prevention of infectious diseases in an emergency situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abisalov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the data on the activity of the Railroad (RR) Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance at the train station of Vladikavkaz of the North Caucasian RR at the period of the liquidation of the consequences of the natural calamity in June-July 2002. In accordance with the situation, the scheme of the interaction with the territorial services and departments were worked out, the operative plans of antiepidemic measures were rectified, the sanitary, hygienic and bacteriological control on the quality of drinking water supply and foodstuffs on RR trains and stations was strengthened, the work on sanitary education among the personnel and passengers in the zone of responsibility of the RR Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the North Caucasian RR was activated.

  13. 2018-03-06T09:38:01Z https://www.ajol.info/index.php/all/oai oai:ojs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    article/61850 2018-03-06T09:38:01Z rj:ART Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus Abbott, P Wallace, C Sapsford, R Social Quality Model; Satisfaction with Life; Central Asia; Caucasus; Empowerment This paper deals with four countries ...

  14. Rod Porina (Porinaceae, lichenes) vo flore Kavkaza

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanavichus, G.; Vondrák, Jan; Urbanavichene, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 4 (2017), s. 563-576 ISSN 0006-8136 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : lichens * distribution * Northern Caucasus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  15. Unresolved Ethnic Conflict and Religious Revival in Russia: The Chechen Element

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Shenequa L

    2007-01-01

    As social, cultural and political issues have resurfaced between contemporary ethnic Russians and members of the Northern Caucasus-Chechen minority group, this centuries-old-ethnic-conflict continues...

  16. Karyotypes of the mammals of Turkey and neighbouring regions: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-62 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : chromosomes * banding pattern * Balkan * Caucasus * Middle East * species * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2014

  17. National security policy and defence structures' development programme of Armenia / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia rahvuslikust julgeolekupoliitikast ja kaitsestruktuuride arengust 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  18. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  19. Vulture News - Vol 56 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radio-satelllite telemetry of a territorial bearded vulture Gypaetus barbatus in the Caucasus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Gavashelishvili, MJ McGrady, 4-13 ...

  20. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  1. Orobanche Laxissima Uhlich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche laxissima Uhlich & Rätzel (Orobanchaceae is a probably endemic Caucasian parasite of trees. New localities of this species are reported from the Greater Caucasus: Russia (Dagestan and Azerbaijan. These are the easternmost sites known for the species, so they extend its distribution range. Its hosts, abundance, and habitat preferences at the new localities are described, and a supplemented map of distribution of this species in Caucasus Mts. is provided

  2. Catastrophic avalanches and methods of their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Volodicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of such phenomenon as “catastrophic avalanche” is presented in this arti-cle. Several situations with releases of catastrophic avalanches in mountains of Caucasus, Alps, and Central Asia are investigated. Materials of snow-avalanche ob-servations performed since 1960s at the Elbrus station of the Lomonosov Moscow State University (Central Caucasus were used for this work. Complex-valued measures of engineering protection demonstrating different efficiencies are consid-ered.

  3. HAUT-KARABAGH : GÉOPOLITIQUE D'UN CONFLIT SANS FIN - NAGORNO-KARABAGH : POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AN ENDLESS CONFLICT

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Gérard-François

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The South Caucasus or Transcaucasus is a region where diversified geography combined with historical heritage, gives a population spread out in varied ethnic groups and attached to different religious concepts. At the heart of this South-Caucasus, the geopolitical decisions of the Soviet era's first first years have, against the will of the majority of the inhabitants, consigned the Nagorno-Karabagh to the Soviet Socialist Republic of Azarbaidjan. Since, tensions with ...

  4. Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States. Project November 2007 - October 2009. Final report. Advisory assistance programme for environmental protection in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fammler, Heidrun; Kuris, Merle [Baltic Environmental Forum, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-12-15

    This is the final report of the project ''Concept development for an environmental impact assessment for off-shore wind parks in the Baltic States'', which was co-funded by the German Environmental Agency (project No 380 01 173). The main outcomes of the project are: - The ''Guidelines for the investigation of the impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment in the Baltic States'' developed by the Baltic Environmental Forum and German consultant Dr. Jan Kube in consultation with experts from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The guidelines give an overview on potential negative impacts of offshore wind farms on the marine environment and general EIA and monitoring requirements as well as give detailed guidance on methodology for relevant field investigations. - The background paper ''Legal frame for the use of offshore wind energy in Germany'' prepared by RA'in Dr. Ursula Prall (April 2009) - 3 international workshops on different aspects related to establishment of offshore wind farms and assessment of their environmental impacts. (orig.)

  5. Modes of sedimentary basin formation in the north-eastern Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Randell; Starostenko, Vitaly; Sydorenko, Grygoriy; Yegorova, Tamara

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Caucasus and Black Sea sedimentary basins developed in a Mesozoic back-arc setting, the former older than the latter (Jurassic v. Cretaceous). Compressional shortening of the former and accompanying ongoing development of marginal basin depocentres in the north-eastern Black Sea - which is closely tied to the formation of the Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogen - is a Cenozoic phenomenon, starting in the Eocene and proceeding until the present day. Recently, the sedimentary basin/crust/lithosphere geometry of the study area has been characterised across a range of scales using regional seismic reflection profiling, long-offset refraction/wide-angle reflection profiling and local earthquake tomography. These provide a new integrated image of the present-day crustal structure and sedimentary basin architecture of the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea, north across the Azov Sea and provide evidence of the deeper expression of sedimentary basins and the processes controlling the geometry of their inversion during the Cenozoic. It is inferred that the Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, lying stratigraphically below the Black Sea and younger sedimentary successions, extends further to the west than previously known. This basin has significant thickness in the area between the Azov and Black seas and probably forms the deeper core of the Crimea-Caucasus inversion zone. The Crimea-Greater Caucasus orogenic belt is the expression of "basin inversion" of the Jurassic Greater Caucasus paleo-Basin, the degree of inversion of which varies along strike. The Greater Caucasus foredeep basins - Indolo-Kuban and Sorokin-Tuapse troughs -represent syn-inversional marginal troughs to the main inversion zone. The Shatsky Ridge - the northern flank of the main East Black Sea Basin - may also be mainly a syn-inversional structure, underlain by a blind thrust zone expressed as a northward dipping zone of seismicity on the northern margin of the eastern Black Sea.

  6. The missing link of Jewish European ancestry: contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran

    2013-01-01

    The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The "Rhineland hypothesis" depicts Eastern European Jews as a "population isolate" that emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the "Khazarian hypothesis" suggests that Eastern European Jews descended from the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews continuously reinforced the Judaized empire until the 13th century. Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, the Khazars' contribution has been estimated only empirically, as the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Near Eastern-Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry. We further describe a major difference among Caucasus populations explained by the early presence of Judeans in the Southern and Central Caucasus. Our results have important implications for the demographic forces that shaped the genetic diversity in the Caucasus and for medical studies.

  7. DOBRE-2 WARR profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Stephenson, R.

    2016-01-01

    (the easternmost part of Crimea) and the northern East Black Sea Basin, thus traversing the entire Crimea–Caucasus compressional zone centred on the Kerch Peninsula. The DOBRE-2 profile recorded a mix of onshore explosive sources as well as airguns at sea. A variety of single-component recorders were...... rocks. A narrow unit as shallow as about 5 km and characterized by velocities typical of the crystalline basement bounds the metasedimentary succession on its southern margin and also marks the northern margin of the northern foredeep and the underlying successions of the Crimea–Caucasus compressional...... zone in the southern part of the Azov Sea. A broader and somewhat deeper basement unit (about 11 km) with an antiformal shape lies beneath the northern East Black Sea Basin and forms the southern margin of the Crimea–Caucasus compressional zone. The depth of the underlying Moho discontinuity increases...

  8. The Dagestani Security Paradigm in the View of Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuliak Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the largest and ethnically most heterogeneous entity in the North Caucasus – Dagestan. After the consolidation of the security situation in neighboring Chechnya, Dagestan has become a primary security threat as well as a challenge of the North Caucasus region. Because of the ethnic and linguistic heterogeneity, the society based on primarily clan and tribal structures and weak local governments that cannot reasonably control the substantial part of the Dagestani territory, Dagestan has become an ideal base for an expansion of influence of radical Islam in the form of Wahhabism in the North Caucasus. Because of the spread of the Wahhabi ideology in Dagestan, terrorist attacks spread increasingly and the Dagestani society has become fragmented and disrupted. The paper is a case study aiming to describe and analyze the Dagestani security paradigm and its changes in the course of history, with emphasis on the neighboring actors influence.

  9. Conceptual Understanding of the Russian-Caucasian Relations in the XVI–XIX centuries in the Official Imperial Historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadzhi-Murat A. Sabanchiev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestic Caucasus Studies contains various, often conflicting concepts and approaches, claiming to be the most complete and objective coverage of issues of Russian-Caucasian historical interaction. Though in different studies, the same category is filled with a variety of semantic content that creates a discursive field requiring thorough scientific research. The article analyzes the research works of official direction of pre-revolutionary historiography devoted to the problem of relations between Russia and the North Caucasus in the XVI–XIX centuries. The disciplinary matrix of historical science of J. Ryuzen is used as an instrument of historiographical analysis in this research. This theoretical construct allowed to typologize and to conceptualize the pre-revolutionary studies, to formulate criteria for selection of the conservative direction in the study of the Russian-Caucasian relations. The authors of the article relate the works of M.M. Shcherbatov, N.K. Karamzin, P.P. Zubov, R.А. Fadeev, A.P. Berge, N.F. Dubrovin, V.A. Potto, D.N. Dubenskiy, I. Ivanin, S.S. Esadze et al to the research works of the official direction of the pre-revolutionary historical thought. The cognitive interest of this group of researchers is caused by the search for the most effective ways of conquest and managing the North Caucasian peoples. Caucasus war was examined by the researchers-conservatives as the process of strengthening the position of the Russian Empire in the North Caucasus region justified from a historical and geopolitical point of view. The official approach supposed the civilizational motivation for the particular military conquest of the North Caucasus societies, deprived of citizenship and social order. The authors conclude that the research works of the conservative direction of imperial historiography solve important problems of legitimation of the Russian policy in the North Caucasus.

  10. ТЕРАПЕВТИЧЕСКИЕ ОБЩЕСТВА СЕВЕРО–КАВКАЗСКОГО ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОГО ОКРУГА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Ягода

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the North Caucasus Federal District operate seven scientific medical societies of physicians as an autonomous. Societies have a different history and experience. Thus, the association of therapists in Dagestan, North Ossetia and the Stavropol region exist during many decades. In other regions of the Northern Caucasus societies are relatively young due to the peculiarities of formation of the federal entities. Almost all regions have on their territory higher medical educational institutions — academies and medical faculties of universities, providing a scientific, methodological framework and a high level of clinical therapeutic services.

  11. The Genocide of Chechens in the Context of Russian-Chechen Conflict – a Historical Outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nadskakuła

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the genesis of the Chechen-Russian conflict, including the genocide of Chechens. The analysis explains how the aggressive actions of the Russian authorities were supposed to deal with “the strongest and most dangerous nation” of the Caucasus, in order to subjugate this region. Russian behaviour proves that their priority over the centuries was not an assimilation of Chechens and the peaceful solution of the conflict, but rather an “imperial” dimension of the strife, or to be exact, the ultimate conquest of the Caucasus, even if it would mean the extermination of the Chechen nation.

  12. Measuring the Famine: Consumption Level in 1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey А. Nefedov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of territorial-fixed coverage of the 1933 famine is a matter of dispute between Ukrainian and Russian historians. While the latter believe that the famine was localized in Ukraine only, the latter claim it also covered wide areas in Russia, in particular, the Northern Caucasus, the Volga River basin, and the Central Chernozem District. To solve this problem, the author involves data from nourishment studies conducted by the State Planning Committee of the USSR in 1933. This data does not include information on the Northern Caucasus, but demonstrates that the most catastrophic situation among other regions was in Ukraine.

  13. CIRCASSIAN EXILE IN XIXth CENTURY BY TSARIST RUSSIA AND THE CIRCASSIANS LOCATED IN UZUNYAYLA / XIX. YÜZYILDA ÇARLIK RUSYASI’NIN ÇERKESLERI SÜRGÜN ETMESI VE UZUNYAYLAYA YERLESTIRILMELERI (1860–1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Selma YEL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is composed of two parts. The first part givesinformation on battles which took place in Caucasus in XIXth century.The invasion policy pursued by Russia against Caucasus and the exileand genocide perpetrated by Russia to all Circassians at that period arediscussed in this part. The second part gives information on thepreference of Circassians to migrate to Ottoman Empire regions ratherthan to live under Russian sovereignty; on events which occurredduring and after the migration movement; and the settlement of someof these migrants in Sivas-Uzunyayla by the Ottoman Empire.

  14. The Role of NATO and the EU in Resolving Frozen Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Bodansky, “ Tinder  Box in the Caucasus,” Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy  28, No. 4 (April 2000): 5.  46 made a welcome contrast to Yeltsin...Yossef. “ Tinder  Box in the Caucasus.” Defense & Foreign Affairs  Strategic Policy 28, No. 4 (April 2000): 2‐13.  Brilmayer, Lea. “Secession and Self

  15. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer and barley (possibly hulled. Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the cultivation and use of certain cereal grains at Early Bronze sites such as Tsaghkasar can tentatively be added to a constellation of practices associated with the Kura‐Araxes culture in the South Caucasus.

  16. The questionable legality and political wisdom of Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence: reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wet, E.

    2008-01-01

    Early in August 2008 violent clashes between Georgia and forces of its separatist province South Ossetia (receiving economic, political and military support from Russia), drew renewed attention to the fragile political stability throughout the Caucasus region. One of the questions that come to mind

  17. From Power Projection To Power Protection: Revitalizing Conventional Deterrence In NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    war with Georgia and related support for South Ossetia and Abkhazia independence efforts resulted from this policy. The Eurasian Economic Union...region of South Ossetia , and the Russians repulsed the Georgians. Charles King wrote, “the true significance of the latest crisis in the Caucasus is

  18. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- Eastern Turkey ...

  19. The roles of ecology, behaviour and effective population size in the evolution of a community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Drovetski, Sergei V; Zink, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Organismal traits such as ecological specialization and migratory behaviour may affect colonization potential, population persistence and degree of isolation, factors that determine the composition and genetic structure of communities. However, studies focusing on community assembly rarely consider these factors jointly. We sequenced 16 nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene from Caucasian and European populations of 30 forest-dwelling avian species that represent diverse ecological (specialist-generalist) and behavioural (migratory-resident) backgrounds. We tested the effects of organismal traits on population divergence and community assembly in the Caucasus forest, a continental mountain island setting. We found that (i) there is no concordance in divergence times between the Caucasus forest bird populations and their European counterparts, (ii) habitat specialists tend to be more divergent than generalists and (iii) residents tend to be more divergent than migrants. Thus, specialists and residents contribute to the high level of endemism of Caucasus forest avifauna more than do generalists and migrants. Patterns of genetic differentiation are better explained by differences in effective population sizes, an often overlooked factor in comparative studies of phylogeography and speciation, than by divergence times or levels of gene flow. Our results suggest that the Caucasus forest avifauna was assembled through time via dispersal and/or multiple vicariant events, rather than originating simultaneously via a single isolation event. Our study is one of the first multilocus, multispecies analyses revealing how ecological and migratory traits impact the evolutionary history of community formation on a continental island. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Education and the Crisis of Social Cohesion in Azerbaijan and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silova, Iveta; Johnson, Mark S.; Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the role of education in the maintenance of social cohesion and the formation of new identities amid the economic decline and political volatility of six new nations: Azerbaijan, in the southern Caucasus, and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. The authors first…

  1. Turning Point: A History of German Petroleum in World War II and its Lessons for the Role of Oil in Modern Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    million barrels of oil annually. Baku, the Crown Jewel of Caucasus oil production and one of the world’s richest oilfields, was capable of churning out...a cruel twist of fate, the Silver Bullet that finally brought down the Luftwaffe came from within. The unsustainable attrition rate of pilots and

  2. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern. European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced ...

  3. Welcome speech by H. E. Linas Linkevicius, minister of national defence of the Republic of Lithuania / Linas Linkevicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linkevicius, Linas

    2003-01-01

    Leedu kaitseministri Linas Linkeviciuse avaettekanne Balti ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia riikide vahelisest poliitilis-sõjalisest koostööst 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  4. Rwanda Journal - Vol 19 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-Being in Central Asia and the Caucasus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Abbott, C Wallace, R Sapsford, 34-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/rj.v2i1.12F · Job Satisfaction at SAPREF (South African Petroleum Refinery) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  5. The Future of Transcaspian Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    November 30, 2001. 18. Vilor Niyazov, “Uzbekistan Leaves Regional Organization,” TASS, June 14, 2002. 19. Tom Canahuate , “Uzbekistan, U.S. Plan To Expand...International Studies, Washington, DC, May 25, 2002. 45. Canahuate ; Igor Torbakov, “A New Security Arrangement Takes Shape in the South Caucasus

  6. Teachers' Attitudes toward Assessment of Student Learning and Teacher Assessment Practices in General Educational Institutions: The Case of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiashvili, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study teachers' attitudes toward assessment of students' learning and their assessment practices in Georgia's general educational institutions. Georgia is a country in the South Caucasus with a population of 4.5 million people, with 2300 general educational institutions and about 559,400 students. The research…

  7. Geographical pecularities of the influence of the climatic conditions upon mountain-and-kettle landscapes of The Great Caucasian northern slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bratkov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the article analyze the changes of the air temperature, precipitation quantity and conditions of moisturizing in mountain-and-kettle landscapes of the northern slope of the Great Caucasus, according to the data of “Kislovodsk”, “Shatoy”, “Akhty” weather stations.

  8. Forming Factors of Russia International Image in the Conflict between Georgia and South Ossetia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Y Glinskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the factors of determining the international political image of Russia in the context of Russian policy in the Northern Caucasus. Relations between Russia and Georgia, as well as changes of international image of Russia are evaluated.

  9. The Marriage Politics of the Russian Authorities in the North Caucuses as one of the Aspects of the Russian- Mountainous Interaction during the War Time Period (first half of XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei L. Dudarev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the development of State control over marriages between the Russian and mountainous population during the conquest of South Caucasus by the Russian Empire. The goals, objectives and peculiarities of marriage policy are analyzed. The marriage is regarded here as a tool of stabilization of interethnic relations in the Regions.

  10. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Najaf Gambarov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gambarov, Najaf

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Aserbaidžaani sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõududega ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  11. Evaluation of bilateral and multilateral defence co-operation and assistance / Arthur Aghabekyan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aghabekyan, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Armeenia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikidega ja osalemisest rahvusvahelistes sõjalistes koostööprogrammides 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  12. Law, Imperial Bureaucracy and Russian Jews Beyond the Pale of Settlement in 19 – Beginning of the 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shaidurov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies into history of regional Jewish communities in the Russian Empire in the period between the 19th and early 20th century have so far been extremely erratic. There are topics that have rarely come into focus of Russian, Israeli and American Jewish studies. North Caucasus and Siberia were not included in the Pale of Settlement. The Jews who lived in Siberia as in North Caucasus had a specific legal status. Discrepancies in the national and regional laws adversely affected the lives and activities of local Jewish communities. Not only did the laws determine areas where Jews were permitted to reside, but also those sectors of the economy in which they could work. Law-making in the 19th and early 20th century regarding the Jewish population of Siberia and North Caucasus had no general trend and was subject to change from conservative to liberal character, depending on the state’s national policy. In this article, we will make use of specific examples and comparative analyse to look at the dynamics of the Russian laws on Jews of Siberia and North Caucasus in the 19th and early 20th century. This article is based on archival materials and acts of legislation.

  13. Radiocarbon dating of the bronze age bone pins from Eurasian steppe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shishlina, Natalia I.; Van der Plicht, Johan; Zazovskaya, Elya P.

    Bone catapult and hammer-headed pins played one of very specific roles in funerary offerings in the Bronze Age graves uncovered in the Eurasian Steppes and the North Caucasus. Scholars used different types of pins as key grave offerings for numerous chronological models. For the first time eight

  14. Tolerance of two Bifora radians bieb populations to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl; Ngouajio, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Bifora radians, an annual weed in winter wheat, is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It infests winter-sown crops of the Central Anatolia and Middle Black Sea regions of Turkey. Field experiments in heavily B. radians-infested fields were conduc...

  15. Separatisme, islamisme en regionalisme aan Ruslands zuidgrens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Marc Jansen focuses on the Northern Caucasus, home to dozens of nationalities mainly of Muslim origin, and Russia's problem area, its 'inner abroad'. Although the Chechen struggle for independence has largely been crushed, the turmoil continues. Terrorist attempts at disrupting Russian society

  16. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  17. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced ...

  18. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced ...

  19. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  20. Jihad as Passionarity : Said Buriatskii and Lev Gumilev

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garaev, D.

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses Russian elements in the texts of Said Buriatskii (1982–2010), who in the late 2000s was one of the main ideologists and symbols of the internationalist Islamist resistance in the North Caucasus. Trying to explain the importance and validity of jihad, Buriatskii referred to the

  1. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented...

  2. Russian Security Strategy under Putin: U.S. and Russian Perspectives. U.S. Interests in the New Eurasia. Russia’a Threat Perception and Strategic Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    l’Asie centrale, ‘grand jeu’ autour du pétrole et du gaz” (“From the Caucasus of Central Asia, ‘Great Game’ Around Fuel and Gas”), Le Monde ... diplomatique , June 2007, p. 18. 30. Brenda Schaffer, “From Pipedream to Pipeline: A Caspian Success Story,” Current History, Vol. 104, No. 684, October 2005

  3. Rol Gruzinskoi zheleznoi dorogi v razvitii transportnogo koridora TRACECA = The role of the Georgian railways in the development of the TRACECA transport corridor / Teimuraz Gorshkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gorshkov, Teimuraz

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne 3.-4. detsembrini 2003 Tallinnas toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverents-näitusel "Logistics and transport in international trade" tutvustab Euroopat ja Kesk-Aasiat ühendava transpordikoridori TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia) programmi ja Gruusia raudtee kui programmi olulisima komponendi, arendamise ülesandeid

  4. Experimental infection of pregnant sows with African swine fever (ASFV Georgia 2007): Clinical outcome, pathogenesis and vertical transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Strandbygaard, Bertel; Nielsen, Jens

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs. The disease was introduced from the African continent to Georgia in 2007 and has since spread throughout the Caucasus and the Russian Federation. ASF is now established in Eastern Europe and outbreaks have occurred...

  5. Abkhazia"s status as part of Georgia: historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lordkipanidze, Mariam; Otkhmezuri, Georgi

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at Abkhazia's status as part of Georgia and the establishment of the Abkhazian nation, which moved in the 15th-18th centuries from the Northern Caucasus to Western Georgia (Abkhazia); this ethnic group calls itself "Apsua," while the Georgians call them "Abkhazians."

  6. From the depths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antic, Dragan; Turbanov, Ilya; Reboleira, Ana Sofia

    2018-01-01

    We describe a new anthroleucosomatid millipede, Heterocaucaseuma deprofundum sp. nov., found in the second and third deepest caves of our planet, Krubera-Voronja and Sarma, in Abkhazia, western Caucasus. A brief discussion on its taxonomy and relationships within the Caucaseuma complex and genus...

  7. The Importance of a U.S. Security Strategy in the Caspian Black Sea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    Cooperation Forum. http:// bscf -bcg.org/bourgas.aspx (accessed December-10, 2009). 46 The Autbor 47 Mark Si~akovsky, "Grand Strategy in the Trans...Border/Coast Guard Cooperation Forum. http:// bscf -bcg.org/bourgas.aspx (accessed December 10, 2009). Blandy, Charles. "The Caucasus Region and Caspian

  8. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  9. Improving family and community health in eastern Europe--the lifecycle approach at WHO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Bjørk, Christina; Ostergren, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    There are great differences in the health status of young children in the European Region. Central Asia and the Caucasus are the worst-off areas. After reviewing under-five mortality in the eight countries of this part of Eastern Europe, a new WHO strategy to improve child survival is presented. ...

  10. Way ahead / Zeyno Baran

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Baran, Zeyno

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne Lõuna-Kaukaasia regiooni strateegilisest tähtsusest nafta- ja gaasimajanduses, riikide sisepoliitilisest olukorrast, sõjaliste konfliktide lahendamise vajalikkusest rahvusvahelisel tasandil, Venemaa, USA ning NATO mõjust julgeoleku ja stabiilsuse tagamisele

  11. Speech by Mr. Evaldas Ignatavicius, state secretary, ministry of foreign affairs, Republic of Lithuania / Evaldas Ignatavicius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ignatavicius, Evaldas

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Leedu ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia vabariikide vahelise sõjalis-poliitilise koostöö arendamisest 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: Making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  12. Summing Up / Garry Johnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Garry

    2003-01-01

    Kokkuvõte 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminari "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" ettekannetest Balti- ja Lõuna-Kaukaasia regiooni riikide vahelise sõjalis- ja julgeolekualase koostöö arendamisest

  13. Evaluation of Georgian military co-operation with partner countries and institutions / George Manjgaladze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Manjgaladze, George

    2003-01-01

    Ettekanne Gruusia sõjalis-poliitilisest koostööst välisriikide relvajõudude ja rahvusvaheliste organisatsioonidega, sh NATO-ga 22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO"

  14. National security policy and plans for development of defence structures / Kakha Katsitadze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Katsitadze, Kakha

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne Gruusia rahvusliku julgeolekupoliitika kontseptsioonist ja sõjaväe ülesehituse strateegiast

  15. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Eppie R; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Müller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F G; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic-Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ∼45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ∼25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ∼3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  16. Шуба” эпохи ранней бронзы из дольмена у станицы царская (1898 г.) на северо-западном кавказе : методика и результаты комплексного исследования

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifona, Viktor; Shishlina, N.; Chernova, Olga F.; Sevastyanov, V.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents results of the morphological and isotopic analyses of fur remnants coming from a dol-men dating to the Early Bronze Age (the end of the 4rd millennium BC) discovered near Stanitsa Tsarska-ya in the North-West Caucasus, 1898. It has been established that the fur garment of the

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF HEIGHT ABOVE SEA LEVEL ON WATER CONDUCTING TISSUE OF SEA BUCKTHORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Umarov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the anatomical description of sea buckthorn, that grows 1200 and 1600 above the sea level in Eastern Caucasus. It analyses quantitative changes of its traits - radial growth, elements of water conducting tissue and the degree of its variability.

  18. Legitimacy, credibility and trust as the key components of a Social Licence to operate : An analysis of BP’s projects in Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, Francis; Jijelava, David

    2017-01-01

    We consider the extent to which the concept of Social Licence to Operate can be applied in actual practice by considering BP's activities in Georgia, especially the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Southern Caucasus Pipeline projects. We adapt the model originally developed by Thomson and Boutilier,

  19. [Fine root nitrogen contents and morphological adaptations of alpine plants].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salpagarova, F.S.; van Logtestijn, R. S.; Onipchenko, Vladimir G.; Akhmetzhanova, A.A.; Agafonov, V. A.

    Nitrogen and carbon contents of fine roots were studied for 92 alpine plant species in the Northwest Caucasus. Nitrogen content ranged from 0.43% (Bromus variegatus) to 3.75% (Corydalis conorhiza) with mean value 1.3%. Carbon content ranged from 40.3% (Corydalis conorhiza) to 51.7% (Empetrum nigrum)

  20. Fauna Europaea - Orthopteroid orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.-G.; Bohn, H.; Haas, F.; Willemse, F.; de Jong, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant European terrestrial and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (west of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region),

  1. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- ...

  2. Efficiency of wave impeding barrier in pipeline construction under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Earthquakes have caused colossal casualties and severe damages to engineering structures and especially leading to substantial economic loss to the underground structures and/or infrastructures. Pipelines are one of most important component of lifeline engineering. For instance, the Southern Caucasus- Eastern Turkey ...

  3. Education, Nation-Building and Modernization after World War I: American Ideas for the Peace Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ment, David M.

    2005-01-01

    The First World War ended with the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Ottoman Empires. In planning for the peace negotiations the allied governments considered not only the European boundaries but especially the national aspirations and future development of the peoples of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, Africa and…

  4. KTO I KUDA? Russia, Language, and National Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Khazars , a Turkic-speaking people who adopted Judaism about A.D. 740 and lived in the southern Volga and Caucasus regions.”10 Also, by the ninth century...Kiev. The Varangians were able to expel the Khazars , establish a commercial treaty with the Byzantine Empire, and establish control over the trade

  5. Program Priorities of the Budgetary Investment in the Stavropol Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vasilyevna Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the experience of applying the program and target methodology in practice of strategic territorial management in the Stavropol region – the region which is the catalyst of economic growth in the North Caucasus Federal District. The article’s purpose is to show that despite the favorable conditions for developing the agrarian and industrial complex, tourism, power industry extracting and processing industries in the regions of the North Caucasus, there was no success yet in improving social and economic situation. Realization of the dialectic principles of research within system and evolutionary approaches became a methodological basis of the solution of the tasks set by the author. Creative synthesis of general scientific and specific methods of research is used: subject and object, structural and functional, comparative and other types of analysis, as well as the method of expert evaluations. The investment priorities of the state program “Development of the North Caucasus Federal District for the period till 2025” adopted in 2014, are connected with formation of conditions for advancing development of the regional economy and creation of new jobs. The Federal Target Program “The South of Russia” is supposed to become its main tool in 2014-2020. The strategic tasks of this program include building social objects, increasing investment appeal of subjects of the North Caucasus Federal District and decreasing unemployment rate. The important role in development of an economic complex of the Stavropol region is played by the regional “Program of social and economic development of the Stavropol region for 2010-2015” the main objectives of which are connected with investment activity and innovative development, formation of competitive economy. However, despite active use in regional policy of program and target tools, one of the main problems constraining the accelerated development of economy of the Stavropol

  6. SILK ROAD DISEASE: FROM LEGENDS TO THE 21st CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Alekberova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the historical and geographical aspects of Behcet’s disease (BD. As is known, the geographical distribution of this disease is associated with the ancient caravan route called the Silk Road: it was in these areas along which the latter once ran there have been predominantly cases of BD so far. There are discrepancies in the literature regarding whether the Silk Road was across the North Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea in particular. In support of this conjecture, there is interesting evidence: stone-cutting images that have been retained on the houses of the Dagestani settlement of Kubachi. All give an answer why the natives of the North Caucasus constitute one-fourth of the total number of BD patients followed up at the V.A. Nasonova Research Institute of Rheumatology 

  7. Chechnya: the pipeline front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the impact of the Russian campaign against Chechnya on projects for oil and gas pipelines from the new Caspian republics, which are seeking financial support. Topics discussed include the pipeline transport of oil from Azerbaijan through Chechnya to the Black Sea, the use of oil money to finance the war, the push for non-Russian export routes, the financing of pipelines, the impact of the war on the supply of Russian and Turkmenistan gas to Turkey, the proposed construction of the Trans Caspian pipeline, the weakening of trust between Russia and its neighbours, and the potential for trans Caucasus republics to look to western backers due to the instability of the North Caucasus. (UK)

  8. Seasonal variations in the content of dust particles pm10 and pm2.5 in the air of resort cities depending on intensity transport traffic and other conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Valeriy; Sergina, Natalia; Sidyakin, Pavel; Kovtunov, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the investigation aimed at evaluating the content of dust particles PM10 and PM2.5 in the air of Yessentuki, one of the resort cities in the Caucasus Mineral Waters region. It gives the data on the size distribution and concentration of fine dust in the city atmosphere with regard to the specific features of urban territory zoning, the climatic factors and seasonal changes in the number of citizens as well as to the remoteness from the industrial zone, the intensity of public and transport traffic. The authors show that it is reasonable to use sequences of random values for the purpose of air quality evaluation in various zones of the city in case of the absence of monitoring stations with continuous measurements checking the probability of the standard values exceedance for fine dust content. Similar investigations are carried out in other resort cities of the Caucasus Mineral Waters region.

  9. Farklılıkların Kesiştiği Coğrafyalar İçin Bir Öneri: Radikal Demokrasi(A Proposal for the Regions with the Intersection of Diversities: Radical Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz ÖZDEMİR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The democracy theory has renewed itself up to now with the suggested models that emerged in the face of social and political needs since ancient Greece. Nowadays, especially with post modernism paradigm effects, a new democracy need has been identified as a result of different identity demands. This need is felt especially in the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Middle East regions where diversities are dominant. New democracy model that has the potential to satisfy the needs emerged as a result of all kinds of diversities in accordance with post-modern approaches is radical democracy. In this article, ethnic, religious, cultural diversities in the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Middle East regions will be explained. Then, the relation between the democracy notion and differing needs will be taken into consideration. Finally, radical democracy will be focused in the theoretical context as a democracy proposal that will provide coexistence of all kinds of diversities by explaining new democratic paradigm needs.

  10. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE.

  11. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  12. Rusko - gruzinské vztahy a válka o Abcházii a Jižní Osetii

    OpenAIRE

    Matulová, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with the causes and process of the war in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. It examine whether the war was affected by relations with Russia and Georgia and whether Russia were used to it to maintain its influence in the Caucasus. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part is devoted to relations between Russia and Georgia and their historical contingency. The second part deals with ethnic conflicts in Georgia, their emergence, progress and solutions. The third part ana...

  13. Russia and South Ossetia:conferring statehood or creeping annexation?

    OpenAIRE

    German, Tracey Clair

    2016-01-01

    Events in Ukraine have distracted international attention from the ongoing Russian involvement in the unresolved conflicts of the South Caucasus. This article explores the intensification of relations between South Ossetia and Moscow, focusing on the extent to which South Ossetia exists as a functioning state entity. Are the authorities in Tskhinvali able to provide vital services such as defence and control over ‘state’ borders and territory without Russian involvement? What has been happeni...

  14. CONSEQUENCES OF THE GEORGIAN-SOUTH OSSETIAN ARMED CONFLICT IN 2008

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. KABISOV

    2016-01-01

    We consider the consequences of the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict to the international community. Aspects of contradictions and interests of South Ossetia and Georgia in the international arena. The analysis of the Georgian-South Ossetian relations, in the context of the security problems of the Caucasus region and taking into account the national interests of Russia, as one of the major mediators of the negotiation process between Georgia and South Ossetia. Presented by the opinion of int...

  15. Russian Military Politics and Russia’s 2010 Defense Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    escala - tion towards a large-scale conflict (Borisov 2009). In line with other security documents of recent years of Putin and Medvedev, e.g...Russian-Chinese military exercises and their wider perspective: Power play in Central Asia , Russian Series 05/51, Swindon, UK: CSRC, UK Defence...doctrine” in response to increas- ing external instability and internal problems associ- ated with the Caucasus and Central Asia . He cited the

  16. Alien Coccinellidae (Ladybirds in Sochi National Park and its vicinity, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ja. Orlova-Bienkowskaja

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available About 20 alien species of Coccinellidae were released for biological control of pests in the Caucasus. Some of them were reported to be established, but no monitoring of their populations was conducted. So the current state of the populations is unknown. In particular, it was unknown what alien ladybirds occur in Sochi National Park. Survey of Coccinellidae in Sochi National Park and the city of Sochi in 2013, 2016 and 2017 has revealed that the following alien ladybirds occur in the region: Harmonia axyridis, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Serangium montazerii and Lindorus lophantae. Harmonia axyridis is an Asian species, which has recently become a global invader. It is a top-predator which has caused a decline of ladybirds in many regions of the world. In 2012 the first established population of this species was found in the Caucasus, namely in Sochi. Now H. axyridis has spread along the whole Black Sea coast of the Caucasus and has become abundant in the region. It is abundant not only in the city of Sochi, but also in the mountain forests of Sochi National Park. It could potentially have a serious impact on native ecosystems, especially on ladybirds. Probably the current population of H. axyridis in the Caucasus has appeared as a result of spread from Western Europe and releases of specimens for biocontrol. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Lindorus lophantae introduced from Australia and Serangium montazerii introduced from India have been found only in the city of Sochi and are not abundant. Probably they do not affect the ecosystems of Sochi National Park now. But the monitoring of populations of these alien species is necessary, since established populations exist in the region.

  17. New records of crustose Teloschistaceae (lichens, Ascomycota) from the Murmansk region of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov Ivan; Konoreva Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-three species of crustose Teloschistaceae were collected from the northwest of the Murmansk region of Russia during field trips in 2013 and 2015. Blastenia scabrosa is a new combination supported by molecular data. Blastenia scabrosa, Caloplaca fuscorufa and Flavoplaca havaasii are new to Russia. Blastenia scabrosa is also new to the Caucasus Mts and Sweden. Detailed morphological measurements of the Russian specimens of these species are provided. Caloplaca exsecuta, C. grimmiae and C...

  18. THE IMPACT OF FLOODS ON THE COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF ZOOBENTHOS OF THE MOUNTAIN RIVERS OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Shapovalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the changes in the composition and structure of zoobenthos communities in the mountain rivers of the Belaya river basin (the North-West Caucasus, influenced by high water. Discuss how various factors of the environment in the conditions of stream affect zoobenthos communities during high water events. The new concept "hidrotranselimination" is proposed, which reflects a complex influence of high water on zoobenthos communities of stream.

  19. Dynamics of dental check-ups among the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimova D.Y.

    2015-09-01

    of countries have not produced any free prosthetics. Conclusion. Reduced the number of patients who received pros-theses, especially for free. The most unfavorable situation is observed in the North Caucasus Federal District (-64.9%, mainly due to the Chechen Republic and the Republic of Dagestan, where the figure is zero. The current situation in the field of dental care, requires a differentiated approach and to adequately address problems from a regional perspective.

  20. Differential effects of historical migration, glaciations and human impact on the genetic structure and diversity of the mountain pasture weed Veratrum album L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2011-01-01

    grasslands. Location  Continental Europe. Methods  Forty populations from the Asian border (Urals and Caucasus) to Portugal were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) combined with selected plant and population measures. The data were analysed with phylogenetic, population genetic...... not agree with the expectations from east–west migration into Europe. Furthermore, managed habitats showed higher levels of genetic diversity compared to unmanaged habitats. Stepwise linear regression determined shoot density and soil phosphorus as the main predictors of within-population genetic diversity...

  1. The Ukraine Crisis: Repercussions on Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Kakachia Kornely

    2014-01-01

    Russia’s annexation of Crimea is reshaping the geopolitical map of Europe and sending ripples of apprehension across the South Caucasus and wider Black Sea region. Amid Moscow’s direct involvement in eastern Ukraine many Georgians are closely monitoring all regional foreign policy developments. With a tradition of friendly and strategic relations between Tbilisi and Kyiv Georgians see the struggle for Ukrainian sovereignty as an analogue of their own fate. This article provides some insights ...

  2. Genetic revision of Caucasian barbels, the genus Barbus: one species plus, one species minus

    OpenAIRE

    Boris A. Levin

    2015-01-01

    The Eurasian barbs, the genus Barbus, are distributed mainly in drainages of Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Sea basins. The barbels are one of the common fish in the rivers of the Caucasus Mountains situated between Black and Caspian Seas. Despite most of Caucasian Barbus species were already studied phylogenetically by mtDNA marker cytb, the samples used in these studies were represented by one-two specimens. We sampled Caucasian rivers more intensively and checked all main drainages as we...

  3. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin; Geoeconomie du bassin caspien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raballand, G

    2003-05-15

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  4. Opium, petroleum and islamism. The crime Triad in Afghanistan; Opium, petrole et islamisme. La Triade du crime en Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafargue, F

    2003-07-01

    The geographical position of Afghanistan, at the crossroads of three main cultural areas, Turkish, Indian and Iranian, explains the unsteadiness of its history. Today, Afghanistan is the key position of Central Asia, a necessary path to dispatch the hydrocarbons of the Caucasus region, in particular from Turkmenistan, towards the harbors of the Indian Ocean or China. These political and oil stakes supply the present day chaos and are the constituents of Afghanistan's misfortune.

  5. Strengthening Compute and Data intensive Capacities of Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Astsatryan , Hrachya; Sahakyan , Vladimir; Shoukourian , Yuri; Cros , Pierre-Henri; Daydé , Michel; Dongarra , Jack; Oster , Per

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Traditionally, Armenia has had a leading position within the computer science and Information Technology sectors in the South Caucasus region and beyond. Information Technology (IT) is also one of the fastest growing industries of the Armenian economy [1]. In 2000, the Government of Armenia recognized the IT sector as the primary constituent of the country's economic progress. Armenia is, more than ever, in need of cutting-edge and relevant e-infrastructures and e-serv...

  6. Computational Astrophysics Towards Exascale Computing and Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, Armenia has a leading position both within the computer science and Information Technology and Astronomy and Astrophysics sectors in the South Caucasus region and beyond. For instance recent years Information Technology (IT) became one of the fastest growing industries of the Armenian economy (EIF 2013). The main objective of this article is to highlight the key activities that will spur Armenia to strengthen its computational astrophysics capacity thanks to the analysis made of the current trends of e-Infrastructures worldwide.

  7. Geo-economy of the Caspian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raballand, G.

    2003-05-01

    The Caspian area is essential for the development of the central Asia countries and Caucasus. Excepted the Iran and the Russia, these areas economy is poor. The hydrocarbons exploitation should reinforce the economic weight of these States. The author analyzes the Caspian area economies and shows that the basin economies are confronted with three handicaps, and that even with different economic ways, the soviet economic system is still present in the basin. (A.L.B.)

  8. Democratization and security in Central and Eastern Europe and the Post-Soviet states : 12th New Faces Conference, March 16–18, 2009, Prague, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "Although Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, the Caucasus and Central Asia share the common experience of the demise of the Warsaw Pact and the fall of the former Soviet Union, the political situation in those countries today is markedly diverse. 20 years after the fall of the Berlin wall and the iron curtain, most states in Central and Eastern Europe are considered consolidated democracies and the states of ex-Yugoslavia, albeit to a different extent, have also made significant progres...

  9. Recent changes in Georgia׳s temperature means and extremes: Annual and seasonal trends between 1961 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    I. Keggenhoff; M. Elizbarashvili; L. King

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen temperature minimum and maximum series are used to quantify annual and seasonal changes in temperature means and extremes over Georgia (Southern Caucasus) during the period 1961 and 2010. Along with trends in mean minimum and maximum temperature, eight indices are selected from the list of climate extreme indices as defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) of the Commission for Climatology of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), for studying ...

  10. Opium, petroleum and islamism. The crime Triad in Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafargue, F.

    2003-01-01

    The geographical position of Afghanistan, at the crossroads of three main cultural areas, Turkish, Indian and Iranian, explains the unsteadiness of its history. Today, Afghanistan is the key position of Central Asia, a necessary path to dispatch the hydrocarbons of the Caucasus region, in particular from Turkmenistan, towards the harbors of the Indian Ocean or China. These political and oil stakes supply the present day chaos and are the constituents of Afghanistan's misfortune

  11. China’s Rise and Reconfiguration of Central Asia’s Geopolitics: A Case for U.S. Pivot to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Democratic Insti- tute, DFID Public Finance Reform Project, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, security consultancy Wiki- strat, and global strategy...Uzbekistan- Kyrgyzstan-Xinjiang highway. It also helped finance the north-south corridor linking China, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan, and is...and Afghanistan and inviting yet another historical struggle between an “ infidel ” empire and righteous “freedom fighters.” This is not to discount

  12. TEMPORAL LOCALITY OF CLIMATE OF NORTH-EAST CAUCASUS’ FOOTHILL LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Bratkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the variability of climatic parameters of foothill landscapes of the North-East Caucasus: annual air temperature and precipitation and also the coefficient of moisture in last 60 years. Large temporal heterogeneity of these parameters for landscapes are characterized for the whole period, but no less – for short periods (3-5 years. In this regard, it is concluded that the short changes can reverse the effects for the landscape structure of modern climate changes.

  13. Multinational Counter-Piracy Operations: How Strategically Significant is the Gulf of Guinea to the Major Maritime Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    streamlining, and operationalizing common agreements, judicial codes, and prison systems for resolving maritime offences. xviii 8. The GGMGC should be...Russia. The European Union imports its crude oil requirements from Norway , Russia, Central Asia, and the Caucasus countries (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan...effectively dispensing justice without a prison system does not exist, there is the need to build in the proposed arrangement prisons with common

  14. Constitutional Property Rights Protection and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Post-Communist Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper seeks to estimate the economic growth effect of constitutional provisions for property rights protection. It does so using the unique situation in formerly communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus where all but two introduced new constitutions after the fall...... protection of property rights is not associated with economic development in the long run, but tends to impose costs during a period of institutional transition and implementation proportional to the constitutional change....

  15. Cyber-Enabled Unconventional Warfare: The Convergence of Cyberspace, Social Mobilization, and Special Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    View, vol . 42, Centre for Eastern Studies, May 2014. 18 Robert M. Cutler, “Russia’s Disinformation Campaign over South Ossetia,” Central Asia-Caucasus...them, and then deploy them to CBI headquarters in New Delhi , India. From there, Eifler pushed DET 101 forward into Burma and established its...January 9, 2015, Amedy Coulibaly barricaded himself inside a kosher supermarket in Paris , France and executed four Jewish patrons before being killed by

  16. REGARDING A METHOD OF PERFORMING ON THE VIOLIN IN TRADITIONAL MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRONENCO IAROSLAV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a field study in the village of Lozova, Străşeni, aimed at identifying the variants of a folk song recorded by I. Mironenko from an informant living in the village of Thamaha, North Caucasus — Russia, a village inhabited by Moldovans, the musicologist discovered a fiddler who demonstrated him a specific process of executation on the violin. This method is representative of an advanced level of interpretation on the violin.

  17. Chronology of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminykh Sergei V.; Chizhevsky Anrdei A.

    2014-01-01

    Problems related to the chronology of the early period in the Ananyino cultural and historical area development are discussed in the article. The chronology is based upon the objects imported from the Black Sea region, Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia and their Ananyino replicas or imitations. Radiocarbon dates have also been taken into account. The period under consideration is divided into two stages (I-1 and I-2). They are characterized by differing technological facilities that had det...

  18. Social Inequality at Köhne Shahar, an Early Bronze Age Settlement in Iranian Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Alizadeh, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Due to increasing investigations and studies of the Kura-Araxes cultural communities, our information about this enigmatic archaeological culture has increased in many respects. Its interactions and regional variations in terms of cultural materials have been analyzed by many scholars. However, our knowledge about its societal variations is still very limited. We do not yet know much about social dynamics behind its material culture that spread out through vast regions in the Caucasus and ...

  19. Palaeoethnobotanical Data from the High Mountainous Early Bronze Age Settlement of Tsaghkasar-1 (Mt. Aragats, Armenia)

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Hovsepyan

    2011-01-01

    Palaeoethnobotanical investigations suggest that at least part of the Early Bronze Age population of Tsaghkasar was settled and practiced agriculture in the high mountainous zone. People there appear to have cultivated hexa‐ and tetraploid wheats (probably bread wheat and emmer) and barley (possibly hulled). Bronze Age agriculture in the Southern Caucasus differs from earlier and later period when cultivation of pulses, oil‐producing plants, and other plants was common. This emphasis on the c...

  20. New records and some interesting findings of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murvanidze

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Six species of oribatid mites are found first time for Georgian fauna: Eobrachychthonius latior (Berlese, 1910, Graptoppia paraanalis Subias & Rodrigues, 1985, Mongaillardia grandjeani Calugar & Vasiliu 1984, Tritegeus bisulcatus Grandjean 1953, Podoribates longipes (Berlese, 1887, Chamobates birulai Kuiczinsky, 1092 and Oribatula (Zygoribatula skrjabini (Bulanova-Zachvatkina 1967. M. grandjeani is new finding for Caucasus area. New locations for some rare oribatid species are also registered. Remarks on the replacement of genus Berndamerus to family Ctenobelbidae Grandjean, 1965 are given.

  1. Anthropological Approach to the Study of Russian Legal Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Ignatieva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article author analyzes emergence of an anthropological approach to the study of legal traditions in Russia. It is shown that the first works belong to the 40-50-th years. XIX century. Characterized work KD Kavelin and MM Kovalevsky. For example, the works of MM Kovalevsky, dedicated to legal traditions and customs of the peoples of the Caucasus and, above all, Ossetians, shows their evolution.

  2. IO Sphere: The Professional Journal of Joint Information Operations. Special Edition 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    regenerate the Iraqi Army. Deaths of Western alliance soldiers and Iraqi civilians keep mounting, reaching a level where public opinions in Coalition...examples of the innovative and effective use of information warfare as a war winning effort. The announcement of the death of Ashwathama amidst the...Caucasus region, focusing on those connected with economical and political interests. This author is creating what can be called a ‘ semiotic model

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF BLAPS SCABRIUSCULA MÉNÉTRIÉS, 1832 (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Chigray

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Distribution, habitats and morphological variability of two subspecies of the endemic Caucasian species Blaps scabriuscula Ménétriés, 1832 are considered in the paper.Results and main conclusions. Nominotypical subspecies is very rare and inhabits deserts of eastern Azerbaijan (Gobustan. The subspecies Blaps scabriuscula subalpina is distributed in the Eastern and the Central Caucasus and inhabits steppe and alpine landscapes to 3000 m. Several morphological forms are separated from the Central (North Ossetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KarachayCherkessia and the Eastern Caucasus (Chechnya, Dagestan, southern slopes of the Big Caucasus from Azerbaijan to Georgia – Khevsureti. Blaps scabriuscula subalpina is found in Rostov-on-Don (the first record for Rostov Region in sandy soil meadow during building works. Rostov population is morphologically differs from Caucasian populations of the species. It is assumed that this record is associated with the ancient human migrations because of many representatives of this species-group (B. mortisaga (Linnaeus, 1758, B. puella Allard, 1880, B. scabriuscula, B. kovali Abdurakhmanov, Nabozhenko, 2011 have a propensity to synanthropy. Morphological description of Rostov population and differential characters of Caucasian populations are given. Female genital tubes of different populations of B. scabriuscula are described and figured for the first time. Nominatypical subspecies is strongly differs from other Caucasian Blaps Fabricius, 1775 in the structure of female genital tubes.

  4. First DNA sequences from Asian cave bear fossils reveal deep divergences and complex phylogeographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Michael; Rohland, Nadin; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady; Sher, Andrei; Nagel, Doris; Rabeder, Gernot; Pinhasi, Ron; Schmidt, Heiko A; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Until recently, cave bears were believed to have only inhabited Europe. However, recent morphological evidence suggests that cave bears' geographic range extended as far east as Transbaikalia, Eastern Siberia. These Asian cave bears were morphologically distinct from European cave bears. However, how they related to European lineages remains unclear, stressing the need to assess the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationship between Asian cave bears and their European relatives. In this work, we address this issue using a 227 base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region obtained from nine fossil bone samples from eight sites from the Urals, Caucasus, Altai Mountains, Ukraine and Yana River region in Eastern Siberia. Results of the phylogenetic analyses indicate that (i) the cave bear from the Yana River is most closely related to cave bears from the Caucasus region; (ii) the Caucasus/Yana group of bears is genetically very distinct from both European cave bears and brown bears, suggesting that these bears could represent an independent species; and (iii) the Western European cave bear lineage reached at least temporarily to the Altai Mountains, 7000 km east of their known centre of distribution. These results suggest that the diversity of cave bears was greater than previously believed, and that they could survive in a much wider range of ecological conditions than previously assumed. They also agree with recent studies on other extinct and extant species, such as wolves, hyenas and steppe bison, which have also revealed higher genetic and ecological diversity in Pleistocene populations than previously known.

  5. Physical mapping of rDNA and satDNA in A and B chromosomes of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans from a Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, M; Teruel, M; Chobanov, D; Camacho, J P M; Cabrero, J

    2007-01-01

    Adult males and females of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans from a Greek population were analysed by C-banding, silver impregnation and double FISH for two DNA probes, i.e. ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a 180-bp tandem repeat DNA (satDNA). This population shows characteristics of rDNA location in A chromosomes that are intermediate between those previously reported for eastern (Caucasus) and western (Spain and Morocco) populations. The four rDNA clusters revealed by FISH in chromosomes X, 9, 10 and 11 in Greek specimens imply two more than the two observed in chromosomes 9 and 11 in the Caucasus, but less than the 12 observed in all chromosomes in Morocco. Remarkably, the X chromosome bears one of the new rDNA locations in Greece with respect to the Caucasus, but it appears to be inactive, in contrast to X chromosomes in western populations, which are usually active. B chromosomes were very frequent in the Greek population, and three variants differing in size were observed, all of these being largely composed of rDNA, with the exception of a small pericentromeric satDNA cluster. The high B frequency suggests that B chromosomes in this population might behave parasitically, in resemblance to Bs in western populations. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Chronology of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzminykh Sergei V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the chronology of the early period in the Ananyino cultural and historical area development are discussed in the article. The chronology is based upon the objects imported from the Black Sea region, Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia and their Ananyino replicas or imitations. Radiocarbon dates have also been taken into account. The period under consideration is divided into two stages (I-1 and I-2. They are characterized by differing technological facilities that had determined the appearance of a differing set of material culture objects. The first stage, the transition from the Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, is dated within the 9th to mid-8th century BC. The second phase (mid-8th to first quarter/first half of the 7th century BC is associated with the spread of Caucasian imports in the Volga-Kama area and mostly in the post-Maklasheevka culture sites. On the basis of these imports it is possible to claim that the Ananyino area was included into the international trade and exchange system of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia. Monuments of the early period of the Ananyino cultural and historical area are primarily synchronized with the pre-Scythian funeral monuments of the steppe zone of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus.

  7. التوجه التركي نحو آسيا الوسطى والقوقاز ( 1990- 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    احمد جاسم إبراهيم ألشمري

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available After the failure of the experiment in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, changes in Turkish politics movement internationally, especially in Central Asia occurred. Makers push the Turkish political decision to re-orientation of Turkish foreign public, especially the Central Asian republics, as it faced the Turkish elites of different trends and approaches, several questions Including those put forward by one of Turkish researchers, "Shaheen Albany" wondered "" Is Turkey will become a member "of the European Community in the coming decades? Is it you will see a change" in the political trends of Turkish foreign policy? It will consist Turkish confederation with the Islamic republics of Central Asia Turkish speaking? The Search divided on several topics, dealt with the impact of the collapse of the communist experiment on Turkish attitudes, and discussed the second activation of the Turkish role in Asia and the Caucasus, while the third suffered a Turkish means to achieve its goals in Central Asia and the Caucasus region, and came in fourth factors that limit the Turkish trend in Asia Central and the Caucasus.

  8. Late Quaternary river channel migrations of the Kura River in Transcaucasia - tectonic versus climatic causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suchodoletz, Hans; Gärtner, Andreas; Hoth, Silvan; Umlauft, Josefine; Godoladze, Tea; Faust, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale river channel migrations either in the form of avulsions or combing, i.e. progressive lateral migrations, are global phenomena during the Late Quaternary. Such channel migrations were triggered by tectonics, climate change, human activity or a combination of those factors. River channel migrations have the potential to cause significant human and economic losses. Thus, a more thorough knowledge about underlying causes and process rates is essential. Furthermore, such studies will elucidate the sensitivity or robustness of rivers to different external and internal forcing-agents, i.e. they help to identify the dominant drivers of regional landscape evolution. The Caucasus region is part of the active collision zone between the Africa-Arabian and the Eurasian plates, and is characterized by high current tectonic activity. Furthermore, significant environmental changes took place during the Late Quaternary, i.e. the shrinking or even disappearance of glaciers in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus or fundamental changes of the vegetation cover varying between woodland and grassland-dominated vegetation. The Kura River is the main gaining stream of the Transcaucasian Depression located between the Greater Caucasus Mountains in the north and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south, and receives several tributaries from both mountain ranges. This study focusses on the middle course of the Kura River in eastern Georgia, SE of the city of Tbilisi. Integration of fluvial geomorphology, geochronology, heavy mineral analyses and seismo-tectonic analyses demonstrates that this part of the Kura River underwent large-scale channel migrations up to >10 km during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. It is interpreted that these movements followed both tectonic and climatic triggers: Whereas SW-ward migrations were caused by tectonic uplift in and SW-directed advance of the Kura fold and thrust belt as part of the Greater Caucasus, NE-ward migrations occurred during cold

  9. Application of a hybrid method for downscaling of the global climate model fields for evaluation of future surface mass balance of mountain glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Polina; Rybak, Oleg; Kaminskaia, Mariia

    2017-04-01

    Mountain glaciers in the Caucasus have been degrading during the last century. During this time period they lost approximately one-third in area and half of their volume. Prediction of their evolution in changing climate is crucial for the local economy because hydrological regime in the territory north to the Main Caucasus Chain is mainly driven by glacier run-off. For future projections of glaciers' surface mass balance (SMB) we apply a hybrid method of downscaling of GCM-generated meteorological fields from the global scale to the characteristic spatial resolution normally used for modeling of a single mountain glacier SMB. A method consists of two stages. On the first, dynamical stage, we use the results of calculations of regional climate model (RCM) HadRM3P for the Black Sea-Caspian region with a spatial resolution of approximately 25 km. Initial and boundary conditions for HadRM3P are provided by an AO GCM INMCM developed in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (Moscow, Russia). Calculations were carried out for two time slices: the present (reference) climate (1971-2000 years) and climate in the late 21st century (2071-2100 years) according to scenario of greenhouse gas emissions RCP 8.5. On the second stage of downscaling, further regionalization is achieved by projecting of RCM-generated data to the high-resolution (25 m) digital elevation models in a domain enclosing target glaciers (Marukh in the Western Caucasus and Djankuat in the Central Caucasus, both being typical valley glaciers). Elevation gradient of surface air temperature and precipitation were derived from the model data. Further, results were corrected using data of observations. The incoming shortwave radiation is calculated separately, taking into account slopes, aspects and shade effect. In the end of the current century expected air temperature growth in the Central and Western Caucasus is about 5-6 °C (summer), and 2-3 °C (winter). Reduction in annual precipitation is not

  10. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  11. Meso-Tethyan oceanic sutures and their deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtman, V. S.

    1994-07-01

    On the basis of comparative stratigraphie and paleontologic analysis, supported by some key paleomagnetic data and interpretations, it is shown that during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic the Eurasian continent grew by accretion of microcontinents. These microcontinents separated basins with oceanic crust from the main ocean. During the Late Cretaceous and the early Cenozoic the collision of the microcontinents with Eurasia resulted in the closure of the basins, and Meso-Tethyan oceanic sutures originated. In the region under consideration, from the Carpathians to Tibet, there are two main Meso-Tethyan sutures: the Carpathian-Lesser Caucasus and the Afghan-Tibet suture. The above-mentioned main structures also had branches, which remained as sutures of small basins: the Kamennopotock, Interpontide, Nain-Baft basins and others. In the West Carpathians the Carpathian-Lesser Caucasus suture is overlain by a widespread Gemeric-Tatric allochton. From the West Carpathians the suture passes through the Pannonian basin into the Vardar ophiolite zone and farther to the ophiolites of the Izmir-Ankara zone. Being displaced along the North Anatolian right-lateral strike-slip fault, the main suture passes from the Eastern Pontides into the Lesser Caucasus, where it is marked by ophiolites of the Amasia area, the Shirak, Bozum and Zangezur ridges. Sunsequently, it can be observed through the Iranian Qara Dagh mountains to Lake Urumiyeh and the North Anatolian strike-slip fault. Being again shifted along the strike-slip fault, the Carpathian-Lesser Caucasus Meso-Tethyan suture ends in the Western Zagros near the Cenozoic Neo-Tethyan suture. The Afghan-Tibet Meso-Tethyan suture is situated in the Pamirs in the Rushan-Pshart zone. The east prolongation of the suture has been displaced along the Pamir-Karakorum right-lateral strike-slip fault in Tibet. West of the Pamirs this suture is also displaced along strike-slip faults and continues in the Farahrud zone in Afghanistan, and than

  12. No evidence from genome-wide data of a Khazar origin for the Ashkenazi Jews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M; Metspalu, Mait; Baran, Yael; Kopelman, Naama M; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Gladstein, Ariella; Tzur, Shay; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Tambets, Kristina; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Kushniarevich, Alena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovsky, Elena; Kovacevic, Lejla; Marjanovic, Damir; Mihailov, Evelin; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; King, Roy J; Semino, Ornella; Torroni, Antonio; Hammer, Michael F; Metspalu, Ene; Skorecki, Karl; Rosset, Saharon; Halperin, Eran; Villems, Richard; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2013-12-01

    The origin and history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population have long been of great interest, and advances in high-throughput genetic analysis have recently provided a new approach for investigating these topics. We and others have argued on the basis of genome-wide data that the Ashkenazi Jewish population derives its ancestry from a combination of sources tracing to both Europe and the Middle East. It has been claimed, however, through a reanalysis of some of our data, that a large part of the ancestry of the Ashkenazi population originates with the Khazars, a Turkic-speaking group that lived to the north of the Caucasus region ~1,000 years ago. Because the Khazar population has left no obvious modern descendants that could enable a clear test for a contribution to Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry, the Khazar hypothesis has been difficult to examine using genetics. Furthermore, because only limited genetic data have been available from the Caucasus region, and because these data have been concentrated in populations that are genetically close to populations from the Middle East, the attribution of any signal of Ashkenazi-Caucasus genetic similarity to Khazar ancestry rather than shared ancestral Middle Eastern ancestry has been problematic. Here, through integration of genotypes from newly collected samples with data from several of our past studies, we have assembled the largest data set available to date for assessment of Ashkenazi Jewish genetic origins. This data set contains genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 1,774 samples from 106 Jewish and non-Jewish populations that span the possible regions of potential Ashkenazi ancestry: Europe, the Middle East, and the region historically associated with the Khazar Khaganate. The data set includes 261 samples from 15 populations from the Caucasus region and the region directly to its north, samples that have not previously been included alongside Ashkenazi Jewish samples in genomic studies. Employing a variety of

  13. Circum-Mediterranean phylogeography of a bat coupled with past environmental niche modeling: A new paradigm for the recolonization of Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Raşit; Gürün, Kanat; Rebelo, Hugo; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Maracı, Öncü; Presetnik, Primoz; Benda, Petr; Hulva, Pavel; Ibáñez, Carlos; Hamidovic, Daniela; Fressel, Norma; Horáček, Ivan; Karataş, Ayşegül; Karataş, Ahmet; Allegrini, Benjamin; Georgiakakis, Panagiotis; Gazaryan, Suren; Nagy, Zoltan L; Abi-Said, Mounir; Lučan, Radek K; Bartonička, Tomáš; Nicolaou, Haris; Scaravelli, Dino; Karapandža, Branko; Uhrin, Marcel; Paunović, Milan; Juste, Javier

    2016-06-01

    The isolation of populations in the Iberian, Italian and Balkan peninsulas during the ice ages define four main paradigms that explain much of the known distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity in Europe. In this study we investigated the phylogeography of a wide-spread bat species, the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii around the Mediterranean basin and in the Caucasus. Environmental Niche Modeling (ENM) analysis was applied to predict both the current distribution of the species and its distribution during the last glacial maximum (LGM). The combination of genetics and ENM results suggest that the populations of M. schreibersii in Europe, the Caucasus and Anatolia went extinct during the LGM, and the refugium for the species was a relatively small area to the east of the Levantine Sea, corresponding to the Mediterranean coasts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and northeastern and northwestern Egypt. Subsequently the species first repopulated Anatolia, diversified there, and afterwards expanded into the Caucasus, continental Europe and North Africa after the end of the LGM. The fossil record in Iberia and the ENM results indicate continuous presence of Miniopterus in this peninsula that most probably was related to the Maghrebian lineage during the LGM, which did not persist afterwards. Using our results combined with similar findings in previous studies, we propose a new paradigm explaining the general distribution of genetic diversity in Europe involving the recolonization of the continent, with the main contribution from refugial populations in Anatolia and the Middle East. The study shows how genetics and ENM approaches can complement each other in providing a more detailed picture of intraspecific evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment and mapping of snow avalanche risk in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliverstov, Yuri; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Shnyparkov, Alexander; Vilchek, Yana; Sergeeva, Ksenia; Martynov, Alexei

    The term 'risk' can be defined as the probability of unfavourable consequences or negative effects. Risk can be expressed by means of various indices, such as collective or social risk (possible number of dead), individual risk (probability of a person's death within a certain territory during 1 year), probability of losses, etc. This paper is a case study of the small-scale assessment and mapping of individual avalanche risk focused on the two regions of Russia with the highest levels of avalanche activity: the northern Caucasus and the mountainous parts of Sakhalin island. The basic indices applied for individual avalanche risk estimation are: recurrence interval of avalanches (avalanche frequency), percentage of the whole investigated territory that is occupied by avalanche-prone areas, duration of avalanche danger period, probability of a person's stay in an avalanche-prone area during 1 day (24 hours) and during 1 year, total population of the area and its density. The results of individual avalanche risk assessment, undertaken for the territory of Russia as a whole, show that its values generally do not exceed the admissible level (from 1 × 10-6 to 1 × 10-4). However, some areas of the northern Caucasus, including famous alpine skiing resorts (Krasnaya Poliana, Dombai, the Mount Elbrus region, etc.), and of Sakhalin, including the environs of towns (Kholmsk, Nevel'sk) and other smaller human settlements, are characterized by an unacceptable level of risk. In the aggregate, areas with an unacceptable (>1 × 10-4) level of individual avalanche risk comprise about 7% of the whole avalanche-prone territory of the northern Caucasus, those with an admissible level comprise 52% and those with an acceptable level (<1 × 10-6) 41%. The corresponding values for Sakhalin are 0.1%, 14.8% and 85.1%.

  15. [Characteristics of migration in the population of Yevpatoria (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atramentova, L A; Meshcheriakova, I P; Filiptsova, O V

    2014-09-01

    Indicators characterizing population migration were calculated according to the marriage records of Yevpatoria (Crimea) of 1960/1961, 1985, and 1994/1995. The marital migration coefficient m in those years was 0.80, 0.75, and 0.66, the endogamy index was 0.04, 0.08, and 0.15, and the rate of marriage contingency by birthplace was 0.15, 0.16, and 0.19, respectively. The highest values of the positive mating assortative index were recorded for people from the Caucasus, Central, Central Black Earth Oblast, and Northwest regions of Russia in 1960/1961 and for migrants from Moldavia, the republics of Central Asia and Caucasus, Western Siberia, and Ukraine in 1985. In 1994/1995, natives of Yevpatoria were also included in this group. The average distance of migration by year was 909, 1280, and 1314 km, and the marital distance was 960, 1397, and 1171 km. The "radius" of the Yevpatoria population, in accordance with the Maleco model in the years under study, was 98, 134, and 137 km. The distance isolation indicator b was decreasing and amounted to 0.00049, 0.00043, and 0.00038. Inthe migration flow in all of the periods, the majority of immigrants came from different regions of Ukraine outside Crimea (27-31%), followed by natives of various places in Crimea (21-24%.), Central (3.6-8.5%), and Central Black Earth (1.8-6.1%) regions of Russia, and the South Caucasus (4.0-5.7%). The proportion of Russians and Jews decreased in the migration flow, while the proportion of Ukrainians and representatives of non-Slavic nationalities increased.

  16. The Role of Aviation in the Malgobek Defensive Operations (September-October 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiev Timur Kh.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main characteristics of the factors and the results of the use of air forces of Germany and the Soviet Union during the military operations in September-October 1942, during the Malgobek defensive operation. The operation was one of the most important components of the battle for the Caucasus and throughout the summer and autumn campaign on the Eastern Front of World War II. It was attended by the main forces opposing each other in the Caucasus of the Soviet and German troops. Both sides here have thrown considerable force aircraft. On the Soviet side it was the 4th Air Army, while the German part consisted of the forces of the 4th Air Fleet. At the same time dispersion of forces into two directions – Caucasian and Stalingrad in summer of 1942 did not allow the German command to set air superiority. On the other hand, the Soviet Union failed to achieve the excellence as well. Despite this the whole Soviet aircraft operated in this situation more effectively and had a tangible advantage. This result was achieved due to the concentration of a significant number of aircraft, as well as improvement of the quality of parts of the Air Force aircrew, operating in the Caucasus. The main types of action on both sides were hitting attack and bomber aircraft on airfields, troop concentrations, crossings; direct support of ground troops, as well as the struggle for the conquest of the air, which was conducted mainly by the fighter aircraft. Control over the situation on the battlefield, which the Red Army Air Force maintained that throughout the Malgobek operations played an important role in achieving the ultimate success of the defensive measures of the Soviet command in this battle.

  17. Reconstructing mass balance of Garabashi Glacier (1800–2005 using dendrochronological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolgova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration whether tree-ring data can be effectually applied for the mass balance reconstruction in Caucasus was the main goal of this research. Tree-ring width and maximum density chronologies of pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at seven high-elevation sites in Northern Caucasus were explored for this purpose. As well as in other places of the temperate zone tree- ring width has complex climate signal controlled both temperature and precipitation. Instrumental mass balance records of Garabashi Gglacier started at 1983s. It is well known that Caucasus glaciers intensively retreat in the last decades and according to instrumental data mass balance variations are mostly controlled by the ablation, i.e. summer temperature variations. Maximum density chronology has statistically significant correlation with mass balance due to summer temperature sensitivity and great input of ablation to total mass balance variations. To include in our reconstruction different climatically sensitive parameters, stepwise multiple regression model was used. The strongest relation (r = 0.88; r2 = 0.78; p < 0.05 between two ring-width and one maximum density chronologies was identified. Cross-validation test (r = 0.79; r2 = 0.62; p < 0.05 confirmed model adequacy and it allowed to reconstruct Garabashi Glacier mass balance for 1800–2005ss. Reconstructed and instrumental mass balance values coincide well except the most recent period in 2000s, when the reconstructed mass balance slightly underestimated the real values. However even in this period it remained negative as well as the instrumental records. The bias can be explained by the weak sensitivity of the chronologies to winter precipitation (i.e. accumulation. The tree-ring based mass balance reconstruction was compared with one based on meteorological data (since 1905s. Both reconstructions have good interannual agreement (r = 0.53; p < 0.05 particularly for the period between 1975 and 2005. According to the

  18. Is multiculturalism in Russia possible? Intercultural relations in North Ossetia-Alania

    OpenAIRE

    Galyapina V. N.; Lebedeva N. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines intercultural relations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The RNO-A is the most favorable place for Russians living in the North Caucasus because attitudes toward the Russian minority in the RNO-A are not discriminatory. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in the RNO-A: the mult...

  19. Úloha EÚ pri riešení konfliktov v Južnom Osetsku a Abcházsku

    OpenAIRE

    Garbarčík, Marek

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with role of the European Union in the ethnic conflicts of South Caucasus, notably in South Ossetia and Abkhazia. In the first part, the author concentrates on the evolution of situation in South Ossetia and Abkhazia as well as on the role of international actors in these territories, before the outbreak of war between Russia and Georgia in August 2008. The master thesis continues with the analysis of the EU's engagement in break-away territories where author focuses on the ...

  20. Demographics, Economics, and the Soviet Armed Forces: Implications for U.S. National Security Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ABLE-BODIEDAGES IN THE U.S.S.R., R.S.F.S.R., CENTRAL ASIA AND KAZAKHSTAN, AND THE TRANS - CAUCASUS, BY PLAN PERIOD: 1971-2000 .... 89 8 I...isolated and affected by 67 violence among minorities. 6 4 ibid., p. 132. 65 Enders Wimbush, "The Great Russians and the Soviet State: The Dilemnas of...resources in providing on-the-job training in the production environment. The recent drive for vocational-technical shcools and general secondary schools

  1. The problem of the neolithisation process chronology in Povolzhye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vybornov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower and Middle Volga basin regions border the Caucasus and Central Asia in the South. These regions are important in the study of the neolithisation process in Europe and the chronology of Neolithic cultures is of great significance in this respect. New 14C dates of different organic materials from archaeological sites in these regions have been obtained in the last five years. According to these data, the beginning of neolithisation in North Caspian region can be dated to the beginning of the 5th millennium BC; but in the Povolzhye it happened at least a millennium earlier.

  2. Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity of Cow Milk Kefir and Goat Milk Kefir Against Bacteria Bacillus Cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartanti, Dwi; Septian, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Kefir is fermented milk and comes from the Caucasus. Kefir is made by inoculating cow milk, goat or sheep with kefir grain. Kefir contains 0.5–1.0% alcohol and 0.9 to 1.1% lactic acid. This product is very popular in the Soviet Union, where the consumption of kefir reach 4.5 kg per capita per year. Kefir made from pasteurized milk and fermented with kefir grain, kefir grain is white seeds from bacteria colony, such as Streptococcus sp., Lactobacilli and some types of yeast/yeast a...

  3. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE TO p-NITROCHLOROBENZENE OF KARST CAVES MICROORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslova, O S; Rokitko, P V; Bondar, K M; Golubenko, O O; Tashyrev, A B

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical mechanisms of resistance to persistent organic xenobiotic p-nitrochlorobenzene (NCB) of bacterial strains isolated from two cave clays ecosystems-Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine) and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia) have been established It has been determined that chemoorganotrophic karst caves strains could interact with NCB and transform it reducing the nitro group withformation of p-chloroaniline (ClA) followed by further destruction of NCB aromatic ring. This explained high resistance of caves strains to NCB. The studied strains could potentially be used in wastewater treatment from nitrochloraromatic compounds.

  4. Kurdistan Region, Asia as seen from STS-58

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Lake Urmia (Orumiyeh) in the high desert palteau of northwest Iran dominates the center of the northeast-looking view. The left edge of the view cuts Lake Van in eastern Turkey. The Caucasus mountains in war-torn Georgia appear just beyond. Mount Ararat is a major peak north of Lake Van. The Caspian Sea, an international body of water, stretches across the top right of the view. Countries bordering the Caspian are Iran in the south, Kazakhstan in the west, and Russia and Azerbaijan in the west. The shuttle stabilizer, OMS pods and open payload bay can also be seen just above the horizon.

  5. Biochemical mechanisms of resistance to p-nitrochlorobenzene of karst caves microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Suslova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical mechanisms of resistance to persistent organic xenobiotic p-nitrochlorobenzene (NCB of bacterial strains isolated from two cave clays ecosystems – Mushkarova Yama (Podolia, Ukraine and Kuybyshevskaya (Western Caucasus, Abkhazia have been established. It has been determined that chemoorganotrophic karst caves strains could interact with NCB and transform it reducing the nitro group with formation of p-chloroaniline (ClA followed by further destruction of NCB aromatic ring. This explained high resistance of caves strains to NCB. The studied strains could potentially be used in wastewater treatment from nitrochloraromatic compounds.

  6. Demographic situation and population migration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Problem of the Chernobyl accident effect on the population migration in controlled areas of the Ukraine, Belarus and in Russian Federation. Comparison of the data on migration for 1990 and for 1995 has shown considerable growth of the intensity of efflux of rural population at most Ukrainian areas affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Negative migration growth in urban settlements of these regions is marked. Decrease in rural resident migration is observed. Migrant current in Russia is twice increased. Main regions of North-West, Central, North-Caucasus ones in Russia and Donetsk-Dnieper river in the Ukraine. 6 tabs

  7. [Formation and development of military-medical service of Terek Cossak Army in XIX--beginning XX c].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadov, T Z

    2012-10-01

    The article is dedicated to one nor enough investigated question of medical supplement of irregular Cossak army in North Caucasus in XIX--beginning XX c. The role of the government and cossaks in formation and development of medical service in Terek Cossak Army is showed. Characteristic pecularities of health care of mountain population after administrative development of the district by Tsar Russia. The author underlined that despite the disadvantages, medical service of Terek Cossak Army and Terek district in described period was right developing system of medical care for irregular army and population.

  8. Victimized Majority: Latent Politics of Ethnic Discrimination in post-Soviet Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Babichenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the brief analysis of one of the most important problems of the Russian Federation – the ethnic conflicts. Such a phenomenon has various dimensions and manifestations: from discrimination on the labor market to the extreme of ethnic cleansing during wars in Chechnya. The author focuses on the previously unexplored side of the problem: structural oppression conducted by minorities against the cultural majority of the country with a special regard to the republics of North Caucasus where the scope and intensity of ethnic strife found the most dangerous and explosive forms threatening with disintegration of the state.

  9. Defence of the Realm: The ‘New’ Russian Patriotism on Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gillespie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the war theme in Russian film since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with special reference to the ongoing conflict in the Caucasus. It will explore the tension and seeming contradiction between the military machine as faceless bureaucracy, and the ordinary soldier, seen as the honest and true face of Mother Russia. Through an analysis of both TV and feature films, it will also explore the evolution of attitudes towards the 'new' Putin-era reality, where business and capitalism are condemned as helping the 'enemy', at the expense of the Motherland. Films to be discussed include Chest' imeiu, Gospoda ofitsery, Blokpost, Marsh-brosok, Voina.

  10. Turkey’s Complex Place in the World: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Idiz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Without aiming to be an academic text, this article offers a journalistic “photograph” of the place which Turkey occupies in the world today. For this, it focuses firstly on this country’s relations with the United States. Then it reviews the bonds which link it toEurope: to the EU, in general, as well as to Spain, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Austria and the new Member States, in particular. It also makes special mention of the Balkans, the Middle East, the Caucasus and Russia.

  11. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.

    2013-01-01

    The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe......, where its natural enemy complex is less diverse compared to its area of origin. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data from the samples of D. nordmannianae collected in its native range and Europe and from the samples of Dreyfusia piceae and Dreyfusia prelli collected in Europe and North America...

  12. About Those Women Who Will Never Attend the City of Women Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Skušek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sex ratio, which is demolished after surpassing the ratio of 105 boys per 100 girls. This ratio has long been typical of India and China, South Korea and Vietnam, and recently also for the countries of the Caucasus, Albania and several countries of the former Yugoslavia (Kosovo, North-West Macedonia, Montenegro. Drastic changes in the demographic balance between the sexes, which call for regulatory intervention, began in the eighties with the onset of prenatal diagnostic technology, amniocentesis and ultrasound in the countries with a strong patriarchal tradition, in which sons are more desirable than daughters, and the decline of fertility rate.

  13. History of Alibek Glacier based on Earth remote sensing images, bioindication and cosmogenic isopotes (14С and 10Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Bushueva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the reconstruction of fluctuations of Alibek valley glacier situated in the Teberda valley, Western Caucasus. The former positions of glacier of the past 120 years were reconstructed basing on the old photographs of 1904, 1921, remote sensing data of 1955, 1987, 2007, 2008 and 2012, plans created in 20th century. Since the middle of 20th century Alibek Glacier decreased by 650 m in length and by 0,67 km2 in area and its tongue has risen by 110 m.

  14. South Caspian Pliocene-Anthropogenic basin (summary of existing views)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrakhov, Rashad; Shiraliyeva, Sevinj; Kerimova, Nailya

    2016-04-01

    On the basis of long-time integrated sedimentology, paleogeographic and structural - formation studies covering Pliocene-Anthropogenic sediments of South Caspian Basin (SCB) and design of structural - formation, paleogeographic and catagenetic models applying geophysical studies in the region, the author has interred rift nature on this basin during Pliocene-Anthropogenic stage of its evolution. It is assumed that SCB is intercontinental with absence of continental crust. Evolution of SCR started from Miocene, continental stage of development Lesser and Great Caucasus and Kopetdag. At initial stage of South Caspian rift-graben evolution the crystal uplift of Caucasus, Kopetdag and Talysh organic system took place. Extension forces within their borders caused collapse of central part of South Caspian block. We assumed that at later stage folded blocks of Lesser Caucasus and Talysh on the other hand Alborz and Kopetdagh on the other were moving apart. As a result of these riftogene processes the contemporary structure of SCB Antropogene was formed. Starting from Miocene, subsidence of central part of SCB and later movements of folded blocks of Great and Lesser Caucasus, Talysh and Elbrus occurred along Western Caspian, Sangachal - Ogurcghy deep faults and Turkmenistan thrust. During rift generation within SCB, magmatic troughs emerged in the rift zone - South Absheron, Lower Kura. Enzaly and Western Turkmenistan. Structural-formation studies with application of geophysical data acquired in the region, allow assuming that massive Godina can be considered as interrift horst with large gravity anomaly. Its generation relates to Miocene-Pliocene ages and was formed due to South Caspian riftogenesis. The following are sedimentologic evidences of South Caspian rift basin: a) Avalanche sedimentation and development of large thickness (2.5-3 km/106 years) even within border of Lower Pliocene (Productive Series); b) Morphology of Lower Pliocene molasses formation covering 600

  15. Measurements of soil radon in South Russia for seismological application: Some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, T.; Nevinsky, I.; Nevinsky, V.

    2012-01-01

    Results of soil radon concentration measurements at the surface in Northern Caucasus (Krasnodar territory) in different geological features are shown. Measurements were made in mud volcanoes, faults, mineral deposits and landslips. The data were compared to seismicity. Before earthquakes, the changes in the concentration of radon appear as “humps” or “splashes” of various durations. Monthly, daily and hourly changes of the concentration of soil radon during the earthquakes are shown for each zone of researches. The simultaneous measurement of radon in the big area has shown the movement of the increased concentration of radon to the epicenter several days prior to the earthquake.

  16. Шуба” эпохи ранней бронзы из дольмена у станицы царская (1898 г.) на северо-западном кавказе: методика и результаты комплексного исследования

    OpenAIRE

    Trifona, Viktor; Shishlina, N.; Chernova, Olga F.; Sevastyanov, V.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents results of the morphological and isotopic analyses of fur remnants coming from a dol-men dating to the Early Bronze Age (the end of the 4rd millennium BC) discovered near Stanitsa Tsarska-ya in the North-West Caucasus, 1898. It has been established that the fur garment of the buried individual was made of souslik (a short-tailed ground squirrel (S. citellus) skins, maybe, skins of Spermophilus pyg-maeus. This part of the outer clothes was probably a fur coat which covered t...

  17. Some Asymmetry Problems of the Socio-Economic and Political Relations of Territorial Subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery S. Misakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the problems of territorial alignment asymmetry of the depressive republics in the North Caucasus are considered. It is proved that while making the integrated assessment for the involvement efficiency of factors into the conditions of the market relations and economic development of the region for providing set social results, it is possible to consider the level of social and economic development of the region of the Russian Federation. For these purposes it is expedient to use two complex indicators reflecting key aspects of territorial development: economic development level of the territory; social development level of the territory.

  18. POLITICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND GEORGIA IN THE POST-SOVIET ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Sayin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Georgia and Turkey has become important partners in the Caucasus region after independence of Georgia in 1991. Two countries preferred to follow pro-West policies in their foreign policy against Russian factor. They have geopolitical importance and geostrategic location for Russia throughout history. This article analyzes foreign policies of Georgia and Turkey and examines Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline as a common foreign policy between them. The paper found out that this kind of projects between Georgia and Turkey would make them important actors rising from regional level to global level in the future.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Musayev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to assess the environmental problems in the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation. Methods. An analysis of the literature and own research at a high anthropogenic pressure on agricultural land through the development of more stringent criteria for assessing the already degraded areas. Results. In the Stavropol region, Andropov district is in the most catastrophic state: of eight ratings five have the highest (fifth catastrophic degree degree of degradation; two the first (low and one rating has the second (middle. On the territory of Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, the highest degree of degradation of agricultural land is assigned to rocky ground, where it has a catastrophic rate of 9.76 points. For agricultural workers on steppe plains, the priority is to fight against deflation, as there is also a high degradation level 6.67 (above catastrophic. Conclusion. It was established that in the North Caucasus Federal District the system of rational use of land should be of environmental and resource-conserving nature and provide for the preservation of the soil, limiting the impact on flora and fauna, geological formations, and other components of the environment.

  20. ECOLOGY OF AGRICULTURAL LAND USE THE NORTH CAUCASIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Musaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to make an evaluation of the processes taking place on agricultural lands when intensively used on the territory of the North Caucasus Federal District of the Russian Federation.Methods. Analysis of literary sources and conventional techniques with the use of geo-informational systems.Results. Stavropol Territory and Dagestan Republic occupy 68,29% of the territory of the Federal District and determine the basic agricultural policy. Analysis of anthropogenic degradation of agricultural land in the territorial entities of the district reveals that in the Republic of Dagestan 84% of the territory suffers from degradation (water erosion, and in Kabardino-Balkaria only 0,04% (alkalinization of the land. In case we consider the degradation factor on an integrated basis, then the highest rate in Dagestan reached 2,04.Conclusion. It was established that in the North Caucasus Federal District the anthropogenic pressure on agricultural lands is very high along with low arable lands supply, thus causing many problems for the region, including social. We suggest a set of measures to improve land productivity; to strengthen control by the public authorities over the use, protection and improvement of land and the efficient use of capital investments.

  1. The Caucasian Triangle (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia – Tourism Development and Threats to General and Distinctive Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Roistomashvili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasus triangle is one of the most interesting regions in the world firstly, with its geo-political location and also being a part of post-social space. These involve a number of factors determining existence and development of these three states. The world order today from economic and political point of view require readiness from certain states for establishing themselves in this big space. It especially concerns developing and semi-developed countries and the countries having less experience of being a state, which in fact are in the process of creating the institutes which will determine their independence and co-existence with the democratic world having more experience in this respect.Study on the Caucasus triangle arises great interest. The actuality of this issue is also determined by the political and economic dynamic changes taking place inside these states (evolution of Soviet space. Their political choice is determined by the less-stable environment and weakness of state, political partners and political and economic interests generally and towards one another. Unpredictable situation within the triangle is more important as it is a live process with new and changeable threats. For this reason it is very interesting for the scientists to study the development of this kind of countries. Ambition of these countries to establish themselves in the field of tourism is very important for us and that is why it is necessary to follow the process in dynamics, analyze and evaluate their development in this respect.

  2. Georgia-China: Political, Economic and Humanitarian Aspects of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G G Machavariani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article overviews the policy of China in the South Caucasus. It analyzes the means of so-called “soft power”, which are used by Beijing for expansion of its influence, in particular over Georgia. This research embraces the historical period since the collapse of the Soviet Union up to the current period. Political processes bringing about for the last years throughout post-soviet space are considered within the context of confrontation between global players in the South Caucasus trying to establish their domination - Russia, the USA and EU and from recent times China. Rivalry between them for the influence in this region is accompanied by mass of capital into the economics of the region. In particular, consolidation of Chinese presence in Georgia was marked by growth of Chinese investments into the state economics. In conclusion the author points that China represents power with ability to compete with Western states and Russia for important geostrategic position in Transcaucasia.

  3. The Origin of the Name of the City of Derbent and the Toponymy of the Surrounding Area in the Context of Ethnolinguistic Situation in the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garun-Rashid Abdul-Kadyrovich Guseynov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 438 and included on the World Heritage List in 2003, the ancient city of Derbent emerged in the area which, by the time of its foundation, was known under various names which belong, as it is shown in the paper, to different Bulgar (Turkic languages: province of Chor, Ζουάρ-ος fortress, Chora / Djora way, Τζοΰρ, city of Chora, Chola / Choga / Chol, gate of Chola / Choga, province of Sul. These dialectal place names meaning ʻsteep bank, precipiceʼ meet the localization of the city in a narrow passageway between the Greater Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author argues that all etymologies of the considered oikonyms and horonyms based on linguistic data other than Bulgar should be recognized as inadequate. Their Bulgar origin is supported by the toponymic landscape and the names of the peoples who lived within its borders in the early Middle Ages. The existence of toponymic parallels outside the region in question is explained by the migration, in the first centuries AD, of the Bulgars from the North-Eastern Caucasus and Dagestan to Eastern and Southern Europe — the Volga region, the Balkans and Crimea.

  4. National identity and the formation of civil personality traits of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurčenko Mihajlovič Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of post-socialist societies raised the questions of identity, integration and disintegration, cohesion and value systems. Multi-ethnic regions, such as the North Caucasus or Kosovo, were of particular relevance for these questions. The formation of social identity plays a major role in shaping the motivation of people to join their efforts in addressing socially important problems. Contemporary processes of globalization lead to the erosion of nation-state identity, which, in turn, influences the development of individual countries and entire regions. The theme of identity was especially popular in Russian scientific thought, in relation to the analysis of ethnic identity and a global crisis of identity in the modern, transient conditions. In the Russian Federation, ethnic communities are equal participants in the social, cultural and political relations. This is most clearly manifested in the North Caucasus. In the context of this problem an important tool for the analysis of civic identity are the polls. This paper analyzes the results of a study conducted by a team of researchers at the The Department of Political science of the Kuban State University. In this context, it should be noted that we, at the Kuban State University, pay a lot of attention to the formation of personality and the development of the social quality of tolerance .

  5. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  6. Comparative geopolitical analysis of “hotspots” in the Russian federation and in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation and the Republic of Serbia have experienced internal challenges to their own unity and coherence for a long time. This work represents the analysis of these challenges, which can be defined, geopolitically speaking, as “hotspots”. Relying on the observations of Russian political scientists, the author of this work analyzed the so-called “crisis potential” in four “hotspots” in the Russian Federation. In the Republic of Serbia, five areas are marked that emit instability and jeopardise (or can jeopardise its unity, peace and prosperity. Certain similarities are found between the compared “hotspots”, and differences as well. The region of North Caucasus is marked as the most dangerous “hotspot” in the Russian Federation, which has not been completely solved yet by the Russian federal authorities, due to the constant terrorist attacks. The purpose of the attacks is to extort from Russia the withdrawal from the area and create conditions for the political independence. The author found a geopolitical analogy to the North Caucasus “hotspot” (Chechnya in the Republic of Serbia on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. In the conclusion, it is stated that, at present, disparate geopolitical processes are taking place in the two countries - the Federal Centre is strengthening in the Russian Federation and the Federal Subjects are losing their attributes of statehood, whereas in the Republic of Serbia, the centrifugal tendencies are gaining prominence that can completely fragment it.

  7. Determination of Infrastructure Development in the Integrated Management Planning of Firtina Basin throug Participatary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenap SANCAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fırtına Basin (FB having natural temperate zone forests, rich biodiversity and high endemic variety is located in Caucasus Ecoregion which is among the most important 25 ecoregions on earth. Additionally, forest zones in FB are listed among “100 Forest Hotspots” in Europe by The World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP WCMC. This study identified how and to what level existing land use pattern and related infrastructure, which compose basic inputs of sustainable basin management, influence ecology and biodiversity. Findings also revealed certain socio-economic and environmental effects of recent applications / projects which were not based on a holistic management plan. This study seeks to establish adequate technical infrastructure for the rational use and sustainable management of natural resources (water, soil, forest, etc. in Fırtına Basin and to provide coordination among the institutions. The Integrated Basin Management project also aims at designing a sustainable natural resource management and biodiversity conservation model for the piloting area, Fırtına Basin as well as for other basins. Moreover, IBM (Integrated Basin Management experiences will be opened to debate among scholars in academic and institutional circles who are also concerned with the basins in the same ecological corridor (Eastern Black Sea Mountains or other basins in the wider Caucasus Ecoregion.

  8. Phylogeographic analyses reveal Transpontic long distance dispersal in land snails belonging to the Caucasotachea atrolabiata complex (Gastropoda: Helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiber, Marco T; Sagorny, Christina; Sauer, Jan; Walther, Frank; Hausdorf, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    The phylogeography and population structure of land snails belonging to the Caucasotachea atrolabiata complex in the Caucasus region was investigated to obtain a better understanding of diversification processes in this biodiversity hotspot. So far the complex has been classified into three species, C. atrolabiata from the north-western Caucasus, C. calligera from Transcaucasia and C. intercedens from the eastern Pontus Mountains. Phylogenetic (neighbor-net and neighbor-joining tree) as well as admixture analyses based on AFLP data showed that the complex consists of two population clusters corresponding to C. atrolabiata and C. calligera. The populations assigned to C. intercedens in fact represent hybrids consisting of different proportions of the genomes of C. atrolabiata and C. calligera. There is a broad transition zone between C. atrolabiata and C. calligera in the Pontic Mountains and a second transition zone in Abkhazia. Because of evidence for gene flow, it is suggested to classify the two aforementioned taxa as subspecies, namely C. a. atrolabiata and C. a. calligera. The presence of mitochondrial C. a. atrolabiata haplotypes in Turkey can only be explained by passive dispersal across the Black Sea. The distribution of C. a. atrolabiata and additional cases of land snails with disjunct Transpontic distribution patterns cannot be ascribed to a common cause but are results of long distance dispersal events at different times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. EXTREME WINTERS IN XX–XXI CENTURIES AS INDICATORS OF SNOWINESS AND AVALANCHE HAZARD IN THE PAST AND EXPECTED CLIMATE CHANGE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Oleynikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, due to the global climate change and increasing frequency of weather events focus is on prediction of climate extremes. Large-scale meteorological anomalies can cause long-term paralysis of social and economic infrastructure of the major mountain regions and even individual states. In winter periods, these anomalies are associated with prolonged heavy snowfalls and associated with them catastrophic avalanches which cause significant social and economic damage. The climate system maintains a certain momentum during periods of adjustment and transition to other conditions in the ratio of heat and moisture and contains a climate «signal» of the climates of the past and the future. In our view seasonal and yearly extremes perform the role of these indicators, study of which enables for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the real situation of the climate periods related to the modern ones. The paper provides an overview of the criteria for selection of extreme winters. Identification of extremely cold winters during the period of instrumental observation and assessment of their snowiness and avalanche activity done for the Elbrus region, which is a model site for study of the avalanche regime in the Central Caucasus. The studies aim to identify the extreme winters in the Greater Caucasus, assess their frequency of occurrence, characterize the scale and intensity of the avalanche formation. The data obtained can be used to identify winter-analogues in the reconstruction and long-term forecast of avalanches. 

  10. Impact of GRM: New evidence from the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Gravity information released by the Soviet Union allows the quantitative assessment of how the geopotential research mission (GRM) mission might effect the ability to use global gravity data for continental tectonic interpretation. The information is of an isostatic response spectra for eight individual tectonic units in the USSR. The regions examined include the Caroathians, Caucasus, Urals, Pamirs, Tien-Shan, Altal, Chersky Ridge, and East Siberian Platform. The 1 deg x 1 deg gravity data are used to calculate the admittances are used in two different sorts of tectonic studies of mountain belts in the USSR: (1) interpretation of isostatic responses in terms of plate models of compensation for mountainous terrain. Using geologic information concerning time of the orogeny, lithospheric plates involved, and polarity of subduction in collision zones, they convert the best-fitting flexural rigidity to an elastic plate thickness for the lithospheric plate inferred to underlie the mountains; the isostatic admittance functions is an attempt to directly model gravity and topography data for a few select regions in the Soviet Union. By knowing the value of the expected correlation between topography and gravity from the admittances, the Artemjev's map in mountainous areas can be calibrated, and the maps are converted back to Bouguer gravity. This procedure is applied to the Caucasus and southern Urals.

  11. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego-Llorente, M.

    2016-08-09

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  12. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, Marcos

    2016-06-18

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding,ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting they were somewhat isolated from other populations in the region. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic Anatolians, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity of early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct.

  13. Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology and history of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not widely known in comparison with that of its neighbours. A recent summary of work in the Caucasus (Smith and Rubinson 2003 contained no specific references to results from Azerbaijan, although the studies were directly comparable and overlapped in period and geography. The reasons for this are many, perhaps the most influential is the presentation of material from Azerbaijan being confused with southern Azerbaijan in Iran in the wider academic audience and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet for reports written in the Azeri language over the past century. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC and South Caucasus Pipelines (SCP were constructed through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey during the period 2003-5. BTC was built first from the Caspian Coast to the Georgian border during 2003 and 2004, while the SCP pipeline was built from the Georgian border towards the Caspian and parallel to the BTC in 2005. To investigate and mitigate the effects of this construction, a four year archaeological fieldwork programme (2001-2005 was carried out, followed by a further six-year post-excavation programme that ended in early 2011. This article draws on this extensive archaeological project that combines both the broad corpus of material known in Azerbaijan and new techniques introduced in the Republic for the first time and used on a range of sites that are of both national and international significance.

  14. Factors fragmenting the Russian Federation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.

    1993-10-06

    This paper examines the factors that threaten the future of the Russian Federation (RF). The observations are based on a study that focused on eight republics: Mordova, Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Mari El, Bashkortostan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Buryatia, and Altay Republic. These republics were selected for their geographic and economic significance to the RF. Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Udmurtia, and Mari El are located on important supply routes, such as the Volga River and the trans-Siberian railroad. Some of these republics are relatively wealthy, with natural resources such as oil (e.g., Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), and all eight republics play significant roles in the military-industrial complex. The importance of these republics to the RF contrasts to the relative insignificance of the independence-minded Northern Caucasus area. The author chose not to examine the Northern Caucasus region (except Kabardino-Balkaria) because these republics may have only a minor impact on the rest of the RF if they secede. Their impact would be minimized because they lie on the frontiers of the RF. Many Russians believe that {open_quotes}it might be best to let such a troublesome area secede.{close_quotes}

  15. [New species and sympatric relations of the chigger mite species group Talmiensis (Trombiculidae, Neotrombicula)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekol'nikov, A A

    2001-01-01

    A revision of chigger mites species being closely related to Neotrombicula talmiensis (Schluger, 1955) has been performed. 2 new species are described: N. pontica sp. n. from Krasnodar Territory (Western Caucasus) and N. sympatrica sp. n. from Krasnodar Territory, Daghestan, Tuva, Armenia, Kirghizia and Turkey (Rize Province). N. pontica sp. n. is closely related to N. carpathica Schluger et Vysotzkaya, 1970 and differs from this species by the larger number of idiosomal setae (NDV = = 75-99 against 63-77), shorter legs (Ip = 782-847 against 844-920, TaIII = 67-74 against 70-80), lesser m-t (0.180 against 0.192), slightly lesser scutum and slightly longer setae. N. sympatrica sp. n. is closely related to N. carpathica and differs from this species by the longer scutal and idiosomal setae (PL = 67-78 against 57-69, H = 65-75 against 57-68, Dmin = 43-52 against 39-48, Dmax = 61-70 against 54-64), longer legs (Ip = 892-973 against 844-920, TaIII = = 77-86 against 70-80) and lesser m-t (0.168 against 0.192). N. carpathica is reported for the first time from Northern Caucasus (Karachai-Cherkess Republic, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia); N. talmiensis is reported for the first time from Khakasia. Data on joint occurrence of 3 species are reported. The 3 types of sympatric pairs of the species have been found in the Western Caucasus: 1) N. pontica sp. n. and N. sympatrica sp. n., 2) N. sympatrica sp. n., and N. carpathica, 3) N. pontica sp. n., and N. carpathica. Differences between species in that localities, where the joint occurrence was recorded, have been analysed. Sympatric relations between N. sympatrica sp. n. and N. carpathica are characterized by increased value of some general diagnostic characters of these species, such as the length of idiosomal setae and length of legs. Different characters play main distinguishing role in different sympatric localities. Besides that, some local features appear in certain species of sympatric pairs (narrow scutum in 3

  16. Ways of far-distance dust transport onto Caucasian glaciers and chemical composition of snow on the Western plateau of Elbrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kutuzov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss the chronology of dust deposition events documented by the shallow firn and ice cores extracted on the Western Plateau, Mt. Elbrus (5150 m a.s.l. in 2009, 2012 and 2013. Snow and ice samples were analysed for major ions and minor element concentrations including heavy metals. Dust layers are formed on the surface of the glaciers as a result of atmospheric transport of mineral dust and aerosol particles to the Caucasus region. Satellite imagery (SEVIRI, trajectory models, and meteorological data were used for accurate dating of each the dust layers revealed in the ice cores. Then we tried to determine origins of the dust clouds and to investigate their transport pathways with high resolution (50–100 km. It was found that the desert dust is deposited on Caucasus glaciers 3–7 times in a year and it comes mainly from deserts of the Middle East and more rarely from the Northern Sahara desert. For the first time average annual dust flux (264 µg/cm2 per a year and average mass concentration (1.7 mg/kg over the period 2007–2013 were calculated for this region. The deposition of dust resulted in elevated concentrations consists of mostly ions, especially Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and sulphates. Dust originated from various sources in the Middle East, including Mesopotamia, or similar dust clouds passing over the Middle East are characterised by high concentrations of nitrates and ammonia that may be related to atmospheric transport of ammonium from agricultural lands that may explain high concentrations of ammonium in the dust originating from this region. Mean values of crustal enrichment factors (EF for the measured minor elements including heavy metals were calculated. We believe that high content of Cu, Zn and Cd can be a result of possible contribution from anthropogenic sources. Studies of the Caucasus ice cores may allow obtaining new independent data on the atmosphere circulation and high-altitude environment of this region.

  17. Pliocene-Quaternary syn-collision volcanism of the Javakheti Ridge, NW Armenia: impact on models of magma generation in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliksetian, Kh.; Neill, I.; Allen, M. B.; Navarsardyan, G.; Karapetyan, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Armenian Highlands and Southern Caucasus formed during convergence and collision between the Arabian and Eurasian margins from the Late Mesozoic to the present. These events culminate in the growth of the present-day Turkish-Iranian high plateau. Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism followed plateau building, and is a key feature of the entire region. However, petrogenetic models are sparse, particularly for outcrops in the Armenia sector. Mantle-derived magmatism in Turkey has been linked to Tethyan slab break-off and/or lithospheric delamination following the Arabia-Eurasia collision. In this study we consider preliminary petrographic and geochemical results from the Javakheti ridge and surrounding areas, in NW Armenia, and their relationship to the orogenic plateau as a whole. The N-S trending Javakheti ridge is the southerly extension of the Samsari ridge in Georgia, and is one of several Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic uplands in Armenia and the Lesser Caucasus (e.g. Gegham, Vardenis and Syunik). The basement consists of the Sevan-Akera suture between the South Armenian Block, of Gondwanaland origin, and the Eurasian active margin and associated Mesozoic island arc of the Lesser Caucasus. Arc-continent collision and obduction occurred in the Late Cretaceous or Paleocene-Eocene. The first Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism in the area is represented by valley-filling fissure-fed basaltic flows, examples of which have been dated to ~2.7-2.0 Ma in Georgia and Armenia. The ridge itself consists of eroded intermediate to felsic flows forming a central volcanic complex. Recently published Ar-Ar dating of ash layers related to the complex reveal ages of ~1.8-1.9 Ma. The flows are cut by numerous Quaternary cinder cones. Volcanism on the ridge complex appears to young towards the north, and the ridge remains tectonically active, undergoing extension at 1.25 mm/yr, according to GPS data. Preliminary geochemical results indicate the valley-filling flows, the ridge, and cinder

  18. Assessment of the economic risk for the ski resorts of changes in snow cover duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sokratov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter tourism that is intensively developed in the Russian Federation in recent years strongly depends on the snow availability and properties in the region. Climate changes exert significant influence on the functioning of mountain ski resorts, especially if they are located in areas with relatively high air temperatures in winter season. At the present time, a snowy cluster of mountain ski resorts is intensively progressing in vicinity of Krasnaya Polyana. This region in the West Caucasus (Russia is characterized by relatively warm climate conditions. The snow cover thickness (of 1% insurance in area of the Aibga mountain range may reach 8.1 m. But the snow cover thickness is not the only characteristic of the mountain skiing attractiveness. According to the Swiss standards a mountain ski resort can be considered reliable if during seven seasons of ten ones the snow cover with minimal thickness of 30–50 cm exists for a time not shorter than 100 days during a period from 1st December till 15th April.According to the forecast, during future decades the calculated amount of solid precipitation should reduce by 25–30% in mountain regions on the south macro-slope of the Great Caucasus. As the calculations show, by 2041–2050 the maximal decade thickness of snow cover will decrease by 29–35% while a number of days with snow – by 35–40%. If this is the case, artificial snow will be needed in addition to the natural one. But, under warm climate conditions using of plants for artificial snow production will require a certain perfecting of the nowadays technologies, and very likely, with use of chemicals. That is why a shadowing of existing mountain ski routes by means of the tree planting along them could be ecologically more promising. As for the mountain ski resorts of the West Caucasus, we should mention a possible weakening of the avalanche activity as a potential positive effect of the climate warming predicted by models.

  19. Colloquium on Central Asia; Colloque sur l'Asie centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  20. Application of almost-periodic functions for seismic profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorskii, L. S.; Shkuratnik, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a method for solving the inverse problem of finding a two-dimensional vertical seismic velocity profile of longitudinal and transverse waves in a massif from Rayleigh polarization waves recorded on the surface. We present an algorithm of the method based on applying perturbation theory in almost-periodic functions, and as well as the polynomials of B.M. Levitan. The possibilities of the method are illustrated by the results of comparison with geological data obtained in regions of the Northern Caucasus using active seismics. We formulate the calculation stability conditions and present an example based on microseism data obtained by the Joint Institute for Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences (OIFZ RAN) in an area of North Ossetia.

  1. Identification and characterization of lumpy skin disease virus isolated from cattle in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikov, N; Usadov, T; Kolcov, A; Zhivoderov, S; Morgunov, Y; Gerasimov, V; Gogin, A; Titov, I; Yurkov, S; Malogolovkin, A; Kolbasov, D; Lunitsyn, A

    2018-01-23

    The first notifications of the unknown disease of cattle appeared in September-October 2015 in North Caucasus region of Russia (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania). The clinical signs included watery discharge from eyes, apathy, loss of appetite, salivation, lameness and nodular skin lesions. Capripoxvirus genome was detected by real-time PCR in the tissue samples of sick animals. The aetiological agent was isolated in the primary cell cultures of lamb testis and goat testis, as well as in the continuous MDBK cell culture. Further sequencing of the GPCR gene and phylogenetic analysis showed the close genetic relationship of isolated capripoxvirus with a group of lumpy skin disease virus. Koch's postulates were fulfilled by the experimental infection of four calves with a suspension of tissue samples from sick animals. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Properties and benefits of kefir -A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Moses John

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kefir is becoming increasingly popular as a result of new research into its health benefits. It is a fermented milk drink which has its origin in the Caucasus Mountains of Russia. Kefir is prepared by inoculating milk with kefir grains which are a combination of bacteria and yeasts in a symbiotic matrix. The common microorganisms present are non-pathogenic bacteria, especially Lactobacillus sp. and yeasts. Kefir has a long history of health benefits in Eastern European countries. It is believed that kefir has therapeutic effects, thus it is important to study the various properties contained in, and exhibited by it. This review includes a critical revision of the antimicrobial, anti-carcinogenic, probiotic and prebiotic properties of kefir. Other health benefits, like reducing cholesterol and improving lactose tolerance are also discussed.

  3. The energy community: evaluation, five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boodts, A.

    2010-01-01

    In October 2005,the European Community and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and UNMIK on behalf of Kosovo signed the Treaty establishing the Energy Community, which role is to provide for the creation of a single energy market and the mechanism for the operation of markets. This document first presents the energy situation and challenges in south-western Europe, and then recalls the role of the Energy Community, its organization, legislation and first results. It then discusses the enlargements of the Community in eastern Europe, Turkey, Caucasus and central Asia, and examines its possible perspectives following the enlargement (success or dilution) and its future role

  4. Climatic niche of Selinum alatum (Apiaceae, Selineae, a new invasive plant species in Central Europe and its alterations according to the climate change scenarios: Are the European mountains threatened by invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konowalik

    Full Text Available In recent years, a few established populations of Selinum alatum have been found in the Eastern Carpathians outside its native range that is the Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands. The species is spreading predominantly in Poland where it can outcompete native plants in certain cases. This study addresses a potential climatic niche of the plant with the special aims to illuminate future spreading and indicate areas suitable for invasion. Our results show that the extent of the favourable habitat of the species is broader than currently known. This suggests that the plant has the ability to become a potential new element in some semi-natural or disturbed ecosystems associated with mountainous areas, especially in Central and Southern Europe. Future (2070 models mostly rendered similar suitability maps, but showed slight differences over particular areas and a contraction of suitable habitats, mainly in the northern part of the non-native range.

  5. Nuclear waste. Last stop Siberia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Safe and environmentally sound management of nuclear waste and spent fuel is an unresolved problem of nuclear power. But unlike other nuclear nations, Russia has much more problems with nuclear waste. Russia inherited these problems from the military programs and decades of nuclear fuel cycle development. Nuclear waste continue to mount, while the government does not pay serious enough attention to the solution of the waste problem and considers to increase the capacity of nuclear power plants (NPPs). There are more than 1000 nuclear waste storages in Russia.1 More than 70 million tons of the solid waste has been accumulated by the year 2005, including 14 million tons of tails of the decommissioned uranium mine in the North Caucasus. President Putin said that ''infrastructure of the waste processing is extremely insufficient''. (orig.)

  6. THE ECOSYSTEM APPROACHES TO THE OPERATION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Olgarenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new methodological approaches to optimize the functioning processes of irrigation systems that have been passed a wide industrial verification in irrigation systems of the North Caucasus and proved from the standpoint of the landscape approach and on the basis of the laws of the technics, cybernetics, ecology and economic and mathematical methods. The methodological approach that has been proposed allows to consider the system as a multifactorial, closed with adjustable anthropogenic impacts on the environment, which allowed to develop a model of the irrigation system as a management object, taking into account environmental considerations and impacts on it natural and controllable factors, as well as the optimization factors. Determined classification which is required for operational planning and management of irrigation, including information and referral, seasonal and operational information. Improved planning and management process ensures of the irrigation forecast model, consisting of a control unit information base and the space-time optimization.

  7. "THE LANGUAGE OF THE HIGHEST TRUTH...": PUSHKIN'S ATTITUDE TO THE GOSPEL IN HIS "JOURNEY TO ARZRUM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Leonidovna Bagration-Mukhraneli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Christian code of Alexander Pushkin’s Journey to Arzrum, which is a style forming factor for the whole story, featuring a large thematic diversity. The genre of this book is similar to Old Russian pilgrimage stories. It includes an ethnographic sketch, a battle, Oriental and situational impressions of moving in space. All these are balanced with the biblical names and allusions, as well as the existential experience of the sacred. According to Pushkin, the Gospel is the foundation for real politics and an effective means of annexation of the Caucasus to the Russian Empire. Journey to Arzrum had an impact on the image of the war created by Leo Tolstoy in his War and Peace, as well as on the creation of such pilgrimage stories of the 20th century as A Journey to Armenia by Osip Mandelshtam and A Journey to Mount Athos by Boris Zaytsev.

  8. Studying relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Rivers Kura-Araks basin, Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalbandyan, A.G.; Saghatelyan, A.K.; Kyureghyan, A.A; Mikayelyan, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    We initiated a research in late 2005 as a constituent and logical expansion of an ongoing NATO Science for Peace/OSCE project 'South Caucasus River Monitoring' which has been performed since 2002 and was initially focused on indication of river water quality and quantity indices and determination of heavy metals. It should be stressed that this radioactivity research is the first ever attempt of this kind and that all the data obtained are unique. This paper is focused on a study of relations between radionuclide contents and water quality and quantity indices for Armenia's section of Rivers Kura-Araks basin and highlights data obtained for the studied period 2006-2007 (author)(tk)

  9. [Surgical strategy for combined gun-shot wounds of extremities with injuries of main arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, I M; Zavrazhnov, A A; Kornilov, E A; Margarian, S A

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of materials of treatment of 130 wounded with combined wounds (CW) of extremity blood vessels during war in Afghanistan and in counter-terrorist operations in the Northern Caucasus has shown that the specific feature of surgical treatment of wounds of the extremity arteries associated with severe wounds of other localizations consists in limited possibilities to save the extremities. The scale MESS of a severity of extremity wounds was improved. It allowed a reliable prognosis for wounded with gunshot injuries of the arteries concerning necessary amputation (97%) or a possibility to save the extremity (100%). A strategy of surgical treatment of CW of the extremity arteries is proposed on the basis of an estimation of the general severity of the trauma, the V.A. Kornilov classification of the severity of acute ischemia and a FS-MESS scale of extremity injuries.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE ELBRUS GLACIATION SINCE THE MID XIX CENTURY UNDER CHANGING CLIMATE. KEY FINDINGS OF THE GLACIO-CARTOGRAPHICAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Zolotarev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the area and volume that have been occurring from the middle of the XIX century within the largest in Europe Elbrus glaciation were studied using lichenometry and digital cartography methods. There were cyclical, approximately 55 years long, frontal fluctuations of glaciers Bolshoi Azau (the largest Elbrus glacier and Dzhankuat (which is representative of all Central Caucasus glaciation. Quantitative data on changes in the area and volume of the Elbrus glaciation indicated that the greatest rates of its retreat coincided with the 1850–1887 period. Beginning in 1887, the area reduction was occurring practically evenly through time while the decrease in its volume has even slowed down. These facts suggest that global climate warming, which alternated with short-term cooling periods, began in the middle of the XIX century after the end of the Little Ice Age. The warming was most likely due to natural rather than anthropogenic causes.

  11. Presence of Leishmania and Brucella Species in the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duško Ćirović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The golden jackal Canis aureus occurs in south-eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East, the Caucasus, and Africa. In Serbia, jackals neared extinction; however, during the last 30 years, the species started to spread quickly and to increase in number. Few studies in the past have revealed their potential role as carriers of zoonotic diseases. Animal samples were collected over a three-year period (01/2010–02/2013 from 12 sites all over Serbia. Of the tissue samples collected, spleen was chosen as the tissue to proceed; all samples were tested for Leishmania species and Brucella species by real-time PCR. Of the 216 samples collected, 15 (6.9% were positive for Leishmania species, while four (1.9% were positive for B. canis. The potential epidemiologic role of the golden jackal in carrying and dispersing zoonotic diseases in Serbia should be taken under consideration when applying surveillance monitoring schemes.

  12. Nuclear energy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Do Georgia needs nuclear energy? Nuclear energy is high technology and application of such technology needs definite level of industry, science and society development. Nuclear energy is not only source of electricity production - application of nuclear energy increases year-by-year for medical, science and industrial use. As an energy source Georgia has priority to extend hydro-power capacity by reasonable use of all available water resources. In parallel regime the application of energy efficiency and energy conservation measures should be considered but currently this is not prioritized by Government. Meanwhile this should be taken into consideration that attempts to reduce energy consumption by increasing energy efficiency would simply raise demand for energy in the economy as a whole. The Nuclear energy application needs routine calculation and investigation. For this reason Government Commission is already established. But it seems in advance that regional nuclear power plant for South-Caucasus region would be much more attractive for future

  13. Spatial distribution of the daily precipitation concentration index in Southern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyshkvarkova, Elena; Voskresenskaya, Elena; Martin-Vide, Javier

    2018-05-01

    The territory of Southern Russia presents a great diversity of climates and complex orography that lead to a very different precipitation distribution. Annual precipitation amounts differ between 222 mm in the coast of the Caspian Sea and > 2000 mm in the highest parts of the Caucasus Mountains. In order to investigate the statistical structure of daily precipitation across the study region the daily precipitation Concentration Index (CI) was used. In present paper, the CI was calculated for 42 meteorological stations during the 1970-2010 period. The analysis of precipitation concentration identified that the distribution of daily precipitation is more regular over the west, north and south regions compared to the east (the Caspian Sea coast and the Caspian Depression). The Crimean peninsula is characterized by low CI values in the north and high values in the eastern part.

  14. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  15. “GOING OFF THE BEATEN PATH: KNUT HAMSUN’S FORAYS INTO TRAVEL WRITING”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Conner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Knut Hamsun’s travel writing, from his many newspaper articles about America published before The Cultural Life of Modern America (Fra det moderne Amerikas aandsliv, 1889 – his idiosyncratic and very personal reckoning with America – to his only real (i.e., formal travelogue or travel book, In Wonderland (I Æventyrland, 1903, documenting his visit to the Russian Caucasus. The article focuses on some common themes as well as striking differences among these works, so as to highlight Hamsun’s creative use of the travel genre. As the term “foray” in my title suggests, there is something illicit and transgressive about Hamsun’s travel writing. He does not readily conform to the norms of the genre; rather, he transforms the genre to suit his own purposes by infusing a large dose of his idiosyncratic genius in everything he writes about the faraway lands he visits.

  16. Colloquium on Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium on Azerbaijan was organized by the direction of international relations of the French Senate and the French center of foreign trade (CFCE). This document gathers the interventions of the participants and the debates with the audience following these interventions. The topics treated concern: - the present day political-economical situation of Central Asia countries (problem of borders, relations with Russia and China); - the economies of Central Asia countries: short term problems and medium-term perspectives; - the relations with the European Union (political, economical, trade and investments, perspectives); - the European energy stakes of Caspian sea (oil and gas reserves, development of hydrocarbon resources, exploitation and transport constraints, stakes for Europe and France); - TotalFinaElf company in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, enclavement problem); - the economical impacts of the TRACECA pathway (Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia). (J.S.)

  17. [The input of graduates of Russian military medical academies into fight against acute infectious diseases in pre-revolutionary Dagestan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The population study permitted to establish the role of Russian military physicians in organization of medical business in Dagestan. The prevalence of acute epidemiologic diseases in pre-revolutionary Dagestan is examined. It is derived that mass propagation of infections was supported by cultural and economic backwardness, non-sanitary conditions in cities, lifestyle of mountain dwellers. The tradition to visit ill fellow villager resulted into mass morbidity and even in death collapse of entire population of mountain settlements (auls). The positive conditions to develop medical business developed after Dagestan joined Russia. The activities of Russian military physicians in the Caucasus coincided with the full swing of various infection epidemics among soldiers and residents. The measures undertaken by Russian military physicians permitted to liquidate the epidemics.

  18. Ethnic-Cultural Identity and Dating of the Clothing Clasp Group from the Territory of Prut-Dniester Interfl uve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riabtseva Svetlana S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a group of non-ferrous metal patches discovered in the territory of the Pruto-Dniester region. An analysis of several analogies allowed the authors to conclude that these items represent paired clothing clasps. The group of studied analogies features the flindings discovered in the Caucasus region where similar clasps existed for a long period of time. Caftans with paired clasps are a characteristic trait of a girl’s and in certain cases a woman’s ethnographic costume. Caftans with such clasps were worn over a dress. In terms of shape, the samples in question are most similar to the characteristic clasps present in Nogai women’s costume. The authors date the considered group of items 16th – 18th centuries and correlate it with the antiquities of the Nogais inhabiting the Black Sea and Budjak regions.

  19. Crimea-Kopet Dagh zone of concentrated orogenic deformations as a transregional late collisional right-lateral strike-slip fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patina, I. S.; Leonov, Yu. G.; Volozh, Yu. A.; Kopp, M. L.; Antipov, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that the Crimea, Caucasus, and Kopet Dagh fold systems make up a single whole unified by a lithospheric strike-slip fault zone of concentrated dislocations. The strike-slip fault that dissects the sedimentary cover and consolidated crust is rooted in subcrustal layers of the mantle. The notions about strike-slip dislocations in the structure of the Crimea-Kopet Dagh System are considered. Comparative analysis of structure, age, and amplitude of strike-slip fault segments is carried out. The effect of strike-slip faulting on the deep-seated and near-surface structure of the Earth's crust is considered. Based on estimation of strike-slip offsets, the paleogeography of Paleogene basins is refined; their initial contours, which have been disturbed and fragmented by slipping motion strike-slip displacement, have been reconstructed.

  20. New dates about the graves of Scythian archaic in the Dnieper’s Right-Bank Forest-Steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nazarov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new complexes of the early Scythian time from the Dnieper’s Right-Bank Forest-Steppe are published. Burial in the burrow near village Pochapinci, probably, belonged to the representative of the local agricultural population. Pintaderae, which was found in this complex, may got in the region along with migrants from the Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasia after the end of the Front-Asian campaigns of the nomads.The warrior burial with dagger, axe and spear in the frame near village Voronovka belonged to the representative of the nomads, which came from the southeast and brought the early Scythian material complex.These complexes complement the source base for studying complex processes, which occurred in the east of Eastern Europe in the early Scythian time.

  1. Hydraulic and Wave Aspects of Novorossiysk Bora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakova, Anna A.; Moiseenko, Konstantin B.; Toropov, Pavel A.

    2018-02-01

    Bora in Novorossiysk (seaport on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus) is one of the strongest and most prominent downslope windstorms on the territory of Russia. In this paper, we evaluate the applicability of the hydraulic and wave hypotheses, which are widely used for downslope winds around the world, to Novorossiysk bora on the basis of observational data, reanalysis, and mesoscale numerical modeling with WRF-ARW. It is shown that mechanism of formation of Novorossiysk bora is essentially mixed, which is expressed in the simultaneous presence of gravity waves breaking and a hydraulic jump, as well as in the significant variability of the contribution of wave processes to the windstorm dynamics. Effectiveness of each mechanism depends on the elevated inversion intensity and mean state critical level height. Most favorable conditions for both mechanisms working together are moderate or weak inversion and high or absent critical level.

  2. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  3. Parthenogenesis through the ice ages: A biogeographic analysis of Caucasian rock lizards (genus Darevskia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Susana; Rocha, Sara; Campos, João; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Corti, Claudia; Sillero, Neftali; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Arakelyan, Marine; Harris, D James; Carretero, Miguel A

    2016-09-01

    Darevskia rock lizards include both sexual and parthenogenetic species, mostly distributed in the heterogeneous and ecologically diverse Caucasus. The parthenogenetic species originated via directional hybridogenesis, with only some of the sexual species known to serve as parentals. However, it remains unclear when and where these events happened and how many parental lineages were involved. A multilocus phylogeographic analysis was performed on the parthenogens D. unisexualis, D. bendimahiensis and D. uzzeli, and their putative maternal species D. raddei. Results show the parthenogenetic species all have relatively recent origins, approximately 200-70kyr ago, and at least three hybridization events were involved in their formation. Ecological niche models identify the region where hybridization events leading to the formation of D. unisexualis took place, namely in the northeast of the current distribution. Models also suggest that the sexual D. raddei might have undergone a habitat shift between the Last Interglacial and the Last Glacial Maximum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The energy community: evaluation, five years later; La communaute de l'energie: un bilan cinq ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boodts, A.

    2010-07-01

    In October 2005,the European Community and Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and UNMIK on behalf of Kosovo signed the Treaty establishing the Energy Community, which role is to provide for the creation of a single energy market and the mechanism for the operation of markets. This document first presents the energy situation and challenges in south-western Europe, and then recalls the role of the Energy Community, its organization, legislation and first results. It then discusses the enlargements of the Community in eastern Europe, Turkey, Caucasus and central Asia, and examines its possible perspectives following the enlargement (success or dilution) and its future role

  5. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beardsley Sara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client’s programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. “The Design of Akhmat Tower” describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  6. When we are the violent: The Chechen Islamist guerrillas' discourse on their own armed actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Tarín Sanz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the strategic profile of the discourse with which wars are narrated has been reinforced. This discourse has also varied in the light of a recent – and alleged – peace culture permeating Western societies. Whereas the war discourse in Russia during the Second Russian-Chechen War has been widely studied, this has not been the case of the rhetoric of the Chechen Islamist guerrillas. The aim of this paper is to contribute to bridging this gap in the academic literature on the North Caucasus, employing to this end a critical discourse analysis (CDA of a selection of texts posted by the Kavkaz Center (KC news agency. On the basis of this analysis, it can be concluded that one of the main discursive strategies revolved around the construction of an “us” embodying the Chechen victims of the initial aggression in a conflict provoked by the Russian “other”.

  7. SOME FEATURES of the DISTRIBUTION, OCCURRENCE and behavior of ROE DEER (Capreolus capreolus l. 1758., Cervidae in the MOUNTAINOUS PART of the REPUBLIC of CHECHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Junuzovic Andrianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the study of certain characteristics of the distribution and abundance of the Caucasus subspecies of European roe deer in the Chechen Republic. The purpose of this study is to analyze the most characteristic features of the species biology and ecology, Adaptive conduct. Methods. Direct observation methods used, the collection traces activity and accounting numbers. The results. The article presents the results of long-term observations of Roe in the Chechen Republic in different seasons of the year. Data on the distribution and characteristics of the region, the distribution of habitats. Discusses the results of reproduction and food species, seasonal cikle of life and some features of behaviour in terms of the Republic. Field of application. The research results can be used to develop measures for the preservation and restoration of the main hunting-fishing species of the Chechen Republic, in carrying out biotechnical activities on hunting farms.

  8. Europe's Environment. The Third Assessment. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This is the third pan-European state of the environment report produced by the EEA. It was prepared for the 'Environment for Europe' Ministerial Conference being held under the auspices of the UN Economic Commission for Europe in Kiev, Ukraine on 21-23 May 2003. This assessment is the most comprehensive up-to-date overview currently available of the state of the environment on this continent. In contrast to previous reports issued in 1995 and 1998, it covers for the first time the entire Russian Federation and the 11 other Eastern European, Caucasus and Central Asian (EECCA) states. The report also analyses how the main economic driving forces put pressure on the European environment and identifies key areas where further action is needed [nl

  9. Redescription of Coronoquadroppia monstruosa (Hammer, 1979) (Acari, Oribatida, Quadroppiidae) from Java and variability of the species in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigmann, Gerd; Schatz, Heinrich

    2015-03-06

    A main goal of this study was the comparison of type material of Coronoquadroppia monstruosa (Hammer, 1979) from Java with European populations which were supposed by authors to be conspecific. The species identity of most respective European findings with a type specimen can be confirmed. Yet within some populations from Germany, Austria and northern Italy, specimens with morphological variations are present, resembling partly C. gumista (Gordeeva et Tarba, 1990) from the Caucasus in regard of a transversal band in the rostral structure. This and other described modifications are supposed to be individual variability within the species C. monstruosa. A detailed morphological analysis is presented, resulting in the division of the Quadroppia complex into the genera Quadroppia and Coronoquadroppia as first proposed by Ohkubo (1995).

  10. Calvary of the Germans in Hungary at the end of WWII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matkovits-Kretz Eleonóra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The German community in Hungary suffered many blows at the end of World War II and after it, on the basis of collective guilt. Immediately after the Red Army had marched in. gathering and deportation started into the camps of the Soviet Union, primarily into forced-labour camps in Donetsk, the Caucasus, and the Ural mountains. One third of them never returned. Those left behind had to face forced resettlement, the confiscation of their properties, and other ordeals. Their history was a taboo subject until the change of the political system in 1989. Not even until our days, by the 70th anniversary of the events, has their story reached a worthy place in national and international remembrance. International collaboration, the establishment of a research institute is needed to set to rights in history the story of the ordeal of the German community after World War II. for the present and future generations

  11. Discovering the prehistory of multilingual situations in the lexicon An empirical study on the Caucasian Urum vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ries, Veronika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual situations are reflected in the lexicon; by consequence, lexical borrowings are powerful evidence for language contact in the prehistory of linguistic communities. This article presents an empirical study on the lexical knowledge of Caucasian Urum speakers, i. e., ethnic Greek speakers in the Small Caucasus, who are bilingual in a variety of Turkish (Urum and Russian. The analysis is based on the established assumption that certain concepts are cross-linguistically associated with a certain likelihood of borrowing. Based on this assumption the data from lexical knowledge allow for insights with respect to the substrate/superstrate status of the involved languages in a multilingual situation and provide evidence for the type of relation (genetic or contact-induced between compared languages.

  12. Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution: first year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present the summary of first years of operation and the first results of a novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution, Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9), which is in operation now at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus. The system is able to observe the sky simultaneously in either wide (˜900 square degrees) or narrow (˜100 square degrees) fields of view, either in clear light or with any combination of color (Johnson-Cousins B, V or R) and polarimetric filters installed, with exposure times ranging from 0.1 s to hundreds of seconds. The real-time system data analysis pipeline performs automatic detection of rapid transient events, both near-Earth and extragalactic. The objects routinely detected by MMT include faint meteors and artificial satellites. The pipeline for a longer time scales variability analysis is still in development.

  13. In Defense of the Southern Borders of Russia and Allied Countries (the Russian Foreign Military Bases on the Black Sea-Caspian Arc of Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir I. Afanasenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available December 25, 2014, President Vladimir Putin approved a new version of the military doctrine of the Russian Federation, which reflects manifested threat to Russia and its allies because the situation in Ukraine, especially in its south-east, in the Donets Basin; the events in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan; issues of interaction and cooperation with Abkhazia, South Ossetia, with the CSTO member countries, the BRICS. An important role in the strengthening of the southern borders of the security operate military bases and facilities of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, located in Transnistria, the Caucasus, Syria and Central Asia. Characteristics of these bases and their value in the Black Sea-Caspian arc of tension given in this article.

  14. Description of Karaganops n. gen. perratus (Daniltshenko 1970) with otoliths in situ, an endemic Karaganian (Middle Miocene) herring (Clupeidae) in the Eastern Paratethys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykina, Eugenia M.; Schwarzhans, Werner

    2017-01-01

    ) and the presence of nine pelvic fin rays (vs. 7--8). Otoliths found in situ further support the separation of Karaganops from Sardinella and related genera and add evidence for a second, otolith-based species---Karaganops komochtitziensis (Strashimirov 1985)---from the Middle Sarmatian of Bulgaria. Karaganops...... is thought to represent an endemic clupeid genus of the Eastern Paratethys that evolved during the mid-Miocene Karaganian ecological crisis in the basin. An otolith found in situ in a skeleton of Sarmatella doljeana (Kramberger 1883) from the Early Sarmatian of Belgrade, Serbia and an otolith interpreted...... to be associated with another fossil clupeid genus and species---Sarmatella tsurevica (Baykina 2012)---from the Early Sarmatian of the Caucasus facilitates correlation with previously described otolith-based species. It demonstrates that Sarmatella may not represent a primary endemic of the Paratethys and that its...

  15. On the taxonomy of Anaceratagallia Zachvatkin, 1946 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Agalliinae) of Western Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2017-06-01

    In Western Kyrgyzstan the genus Anaceratagallia includes four species: A. venosa (de Fourcroy, 1785), A. aciculata (Horvath, 1894), A. laevis (Ribaut, 1935) = A. acuteangulata Dubovskiy, 1966 nec Zachvatkin, 1946, and A. alabugensis Dubovskiy, 1966 = A. collicola Dubovskiy, 1966, syn. n. = A. turanica Dubovskiy, 1966, syn. n. = A. laevis Dubovskiy, 1966 nec Ribaut, 1935. Illustrated descriptions and male calling signal oscillograms for all species are given. The range of A. acuteangulata Zachvatkin, 1946 includes Italy, Greece, Turkey, and North Caucasus; records of this species from Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia are erroneous. Investigation of morphological and acoustic characters in Anaceratagallia showed that small differences in the shape of male genitalia and 2nd abdominal apodemes are not species-specific traits.

  16. Geopolitics of Caspian Oil and Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolga Turker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper providesan analysis of increasing geopolitical competition over energyrich Central Asia andCaucasus by key actors such as theU.S.A., Russia andChina. In addition to an evaluation of theregion’s future as anenergyhub both forEast andWest,this paperexamineshow the regional conflicts such as the August2008 war between Russia and Georgia might affect prospects for Caspian energydevelopment and export.Even though both Russia and China have a commongoal of countering Western, particularly U.S., influence in the region, they bothhave their own agenda and distinct relationships with Western countries.In termsof oil and natural gas, only Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have the potential toplay significant roles in the future.However the entire region will continue to bemajor area of conflict or cooperation forglobal powers.

  17. [Peculiarities of course of extramural pneumonia among military servicemen in conditions of local war and armed conflicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchmin, A N; Kharitonov, M A; Shevelev, A A; Rezvan, V V; Butikov, V P; Sergeev, S M

    2010-03-01

    The aim of work was examination of peculiarities of outhospital pneumonia (OHP) among military servicemen, participants of local armed conflicts in areas of Prodnestrovie, Tadjikistan, North Ossetia, Abkhazia. There were retrospectively analyzed 139 archive patient histories of military servicemen, got pneumonia during 1990-1993. In structure of OHP of military servicemen predominating was pneumonia with not hard course of disease. Was educes a clear season dependence of appearance of pneumonia in described conditions with it's peculiarities. Each fifth patient form call-up contingent had deficit of weight. It influenced on course of disease. In 40% of cases of OHP there were coexistent diseases. Peculiarities in clinical forms of disease were not found. Using of antibacterial measures in treatment of OHP was empirical, during therapy of acute pneumonia were used 3 antibiotics simultaneously. For a more long-term of treatment had a need soldiers, participants of combat actions on the Northern Caucasus.

  18. A population genetic study in the Ochamchir region, Abkhazia, SSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, R E; Salamatina, N V; Dalakishvili, S M; Bakuradze, N A; Chakraborty, R

    1985-01-01

    The reported longevity of residents of the Soviet Socialist Republic of the Caucasus has focused considerable attention on this population. However, little is known of the genetic composition of this population. With this in mind, several village populations of the Ochamchir Region, Abkhazia, SSR, were typed for 37 discrete genetic blood groups, erythrocyte and plasma protein loci. Gene and haplotype frequencies calculated for the polymorphic markers were determined and the results used in an analysis of intervillage heterogeneity and genetic distance analysis comparing the Abkhazians to European and Asian reference populations. The Abkhazians are approximately equal distance from European and West Asian populations in a genetic sense, and this is consistent with their geographical location. In addition to the usual genetic polymorphisms, rare electrophoretic variants were encountered at the lactate dehydrogenase A and phosphohexose isomerase loci. These results suggest that the population of the Ochamchir Region is relatively homogeneous and not distinctly different from its geographical neighbors.

  19. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  20. The role of scientific institutions in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials in the republic of Azerbaijan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabulov, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Although the Republic of Azerbaijan itself has no nuclear installations or materials and its nuclear activities are limited to typical uses in oil industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific researches, most of the countries. Thus this strategic geographical location within the Caucasus makes it a possible transit corridor for both legal and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The improvement of control system for the detection, categorization and response measures to the cases involving radioactive and nuclear materials has mainly possible via international cooperation programmes. The Azerbaijan Government and the IAEA entered into an international cooperation where the first phase (2003-2004) established automated stationary radiation control systems at the Astara automobile cargo border checkpoint and the Bara seaport cargo customs checkpoint. Strengthening non-proliferation regime and counteraction against the nuclear and radiation terrorism threat is a global purpose. This approach could be considered for all countries involving in non-proliferation activities

  1. African swine fever: A re-emerging viral disease threatening the global pig industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Montoya, M; Reis, A L; Dixon, L K

    2018-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) recently has spread beyond sub-Saharan Africa to the Trans-Caucasus region, parts of the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. In this new epidemiological scenario, the disease has similarities, but also important differences, compared to the situation in Africa, including the substantial involvement of wild boar. A better understanding of this new situation will enable better control and prevent further spread of disease. In this article, these different scenarios are compared, and recent information on the pathogenesis of ASF virus strains, the immune response to infection and prospects for developing vaccines is presented. Knowledge gaps and the prospects for future control are discussed. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [Age-related aspects of the extent of lipid metabolism and post-traumatic stress disorders among veterans of modern warfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgashov, M N; Miakotnykh, V S; Pal'tsev, A I

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of violations of lipid metabolism and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 161 patients of 25-69 years, veterans of the military actions on the territory of Afghanistan and the Northern Caucasus were investigated. The dependence of the formation of dyslipidemia and related changes of atherosclerosis in the young age on neuroendocrine effects, accompanying the effects of combat stress and promoting accelerated aging was determined. On the other hand, with the time, after 15-25 years after participating in hostilities, the intensity of PTSD and its influence on the development of violations of lipid spectrum may decline. The leading role in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia goes to age-related changes, accompanying a process of accelerated aging of veterans of combat operations, and to pathological disorders of metabolism in liver associated with alcohol abuse and the consequences of infectious diseases.

  3. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT CRAFTSMAN INSCRIPTIONS PRESENT AT THE TURKISH ERA BUILDINGS IN NORTHERN AZERBAIJAN / KUZEY AZERBAYCAN’DAKI TÜRK DÖNEMI YAPILARINDA BULUNAN USTA KITABELERI ÜZERINE BAZI DÜSÜNCELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ersel ÇAĞLITÜTÜNCĐGĐL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkic republics, which gained theirindependency after the collapse of Soviet Union, get intouch with the other states on social, economic andcultural relations, especially with Türkiye. Manyscientists have had the chance to go to these regions forthe scientific researches and to examine the artmonuments, which are the most important evidences ofthe Turkish identity, after the collapse.Turkish art, which takes its strength fromthe depth of history, has been fed continually from itsroots extended to Central Asia and Caucasus. In thisstudy, the inscriptions, which are the primary sources ondating the architectural monuments constructed inAzerbaijan between XI-XIX centuries, have beenexamined and the superscriptions of the constructionand decoration masters’ and some other problems havebeen introduced.

  4. Scientific study of 13C/12C carbon and 18O/16O oxygen stable isotopes biological fractionation in grapes in the Black Sea, Don Basin and the Western Caspian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the results of a study of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in carbohydrates and intracellular water of red and white grapes of 2016 wine-growing season in the Crimean peninsula areas, South-west coast of the Greater Caucasus, the Don basin and the Western Caspian region. The mass concentration of reducing sugars in the studied grape samples has been from 17.5 to 25.0 g/100 ml, titrated acids concentration (based on tartaric acid – from 6.0 to 9.1 g/l, the buffer capacity 34.1–63.2 mg-Eq/l. Red and white wine made from respective grapes contained from 0.5 to 3.6 g/l of residual sugar; from 11.1 to 14.5% ethanol by volume; buffer capacity was 35.2–52.6 mg-Eq/l. It has been found that the δ13CVPDB values for carbohydrates of red and white grape varieties as a result of biological fractionation of carbon isotopes in the agro-climatic conditions of plant growth for the studied geographical areas are ranging from − 26.74 to − 20.74‰ (the Crimean peninsula; from − 27.31 to − 21.58‰ (South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus, from − 27.33 to − 24.73‰ (Don Basin and from − 26.64 to − 23.17‰ (West Caspian. The δ13CVPDB values for ethanol of the red and white dry wines range from − 28.52 to − 24.26‰ (the Crimean peninsula; from − 29.23 to − 24.52‰ (South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus; from − 28.97 to − 26.22‰ (Don Basin; from − 29.14 to − 25.22‰ (Western Caspian. Compared with the surface water and groundwater (averages from δ18OVSMOW− 13.90 to − 6.38‰ and with precipitation (averages from δ18OVSMOW − 10.30 to − 9.04‰ the δ18OVSMOW values in intracellular water of grapes are the following: for the Crimean peninsula grapes, from 0.40 to 4.97‰; the South West Coast of the Greater Caucasus, from -2.11 to 6.29‰; the Don Basin, from − 2.21 to 6.26‰; the Western Caspian, from − 0.24 to 1.44‰. It has been noted that in conditions of

  5. Genomic Analysis of Highly Virulent Georgia 2007/1 Isolate of African Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David A.G.; Darby, Alistair C.; Da Silva, Melissa; Upton, Chris; Radford, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever is widespread in Africa but has occasionally been introduced into other continents. In June 2007, African swine fever was isolated in the Caucasus Region of the Republic of Georgia and subsequently in neighboring countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and 9 states of the Russian Federation). Previous data for sequencing of 3 genes indicated that the Georgia 2007/1 isolate is closely related to isolates of genotype II, which has been identified in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia. We report the complete genomic coding sequence of the Georgia 2007/1 isolate and comparison with other isolates. A genome sequence of 189,344 bp encoding 166 open reading frames (ORFs) was obtained. Phylogeny based on concatenated sequences of 125 conserved ORFs showed that this isolate clustered most closely with the Mkuzi 1979 isolate. Some ORFs clustered differently, suggesting that recombination may have occurred. Results provide a baseline for monitoring genomic changes in this virus. PMID:21470447

  6. Financial Cooperation between the Mongol Uluses of Jochi and Persia: Conflict and Cooperation »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kolbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuing debate about Jochid – Hulaguid conflict is examined in three parts, which conclude that conflict was based on pragmatic and economic rather than theoretical or religious concerns. The author supports the argument by incorporating numismatic evidence into the discussion for the first time. The article has three sections, the first dealing with Jochid claims to Iran, the second with the establishment of the il-Khanate and the third with alliances. The last section focuses on the Jochid military alliance with the Mamluks and then the financial consortia for trade from Kazan to Cairo through the Caucasus and Anatolia. A close look at money challenges the interpretations made from chroniclers, many of whom wrote later than the events. Coinage, on the other hand, comes from the times and places concerned. It supports the conclusion that organizing and retaining wealth was a primary factor in relations within the empire and among various uluses.

  7. [Military medicine and medicine of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, I M

    2010-09-01

    The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters.

  8. Climatic niche of Selinum alatum (Apiaceae, Selineae), a new invasive plant species in Central Europe and its alterations according to the climate change scenarios: Are the European mountains threatened by invasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowalik, Kamil; Proćków, Małgorzata; Proćków, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a few established populations of Selinum alatum have been found in the Eastern Carpathians outside its native range that is the Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands. The species is spreading predominantly in Poland where it can outcompete native plants in certain cases. This study addresses a potential climatic niche of the plant with the special aims to illuminate future spreading and indicate areas suitable for invasion. Our results show that the extent of the favourable habitat of the species is broader than currently known. This suggests that the plant has the ability to become a potential new element in some semi-natural or disturbed ecosystems associated with mountainous areas, especially in Central and Southern Europe. Future (2070) models mostly rendered similar suitability maps, but showed slight differences over particular areas and a contraction of suitable habitats, mainly in the northern part of the non-native range.

  9. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-01-01

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries

  10. Temperature and radiation regime of glaciers on slopes of the Мount Elbrus in the ablation period over last 65 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Тoropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature and radiation regimes of the Elbrus mountain area were reconstructed for summer seasons of 1948–2013 using observational data obtained by expeditions of the Institute of Geography of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Geography of the Lomonosov Moscow State University together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. This made possible to analyze in details the meteorological conditions and to calculate statistical characteristics of both the air temperature and the radiation components. The reanalysis data were compared with the observational ones for the purpose to estimate an applicability of the reanalysis techniques for reconstruction of the Elbrus temperature regime. Using the above data the temperature trends were analyzed for the last 65 years, and the hypothesis on possible physical mechanisms of intensive glacier melting of the Central Caucasus in the XXI century had been formulated.

  11. The Design of Akhmat Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Sara; Stochetti, Alejandro; Cerone, Marc

    2018-03-01

    Akhmat Tower is a 435m supertall building designed by Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture. It is currently under construction in the city of Grozny, in the Chechen Republic, in the North Caucasus region of Russia. The design of the tower was done during a collaborative process by a multi-disciplinary architectural and engineering team, based primarily in the United States and Russia. During this process, the designers considered many factors including, most primarily, the cultural and historical context, the structural requirements given the high seismicity of the region, and the client's programmatic needs. The resulting crystalline-shaped tower is both an aesthetic statement and a performative architectural solution which will be a new landmark for Chechnya. "The Design of Akhmat Tower" describes in detail the design process including structural considerations, exterior wall design, building program, interior design, the tuned mass damper, and the use of building information modeling.

  12. International cooperation and security in the field of nuclear energy in Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, D.A.; Avagyan, A.A.; Stepanyan, V.E.

    2010-01-01

    In the report presented/discussed are the ecological-humanitarian disasters and the related policy of the international organizations, especially IAEA, NATO and others on ensuring security of vital activity of people in the sphere of energy and particularly nuclear energy. Possessing the only nuclear power station in Trans Caucasus and the store of toxic wastes of reactive fuel the Government of Armenia and the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia always take into consideration the many-sided aspects of prevention, warning about accident in energy buildings including nuclear accidents and modern response in case of occurring the latter ensuring security for ANPP personnel and the inhabitants of the settlements of the possible contingency zone. In their daily activity the workers of the Emergency Situations of the Republic of Armenia, especially those of the Armenian Rescue Service base on the experience and logistic support of international community some aspects of which are presented below

  13. Genetic and ecological insights into glacial refugia of walnut (Juglans regia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna; Velasco, Dianne; Ibrahimov, Zakir; Toktoraliev, Biimyrza; Maghradze, David; Musayev, Mirza; Bobokashvili, Zviadi; Preece, John E

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM) has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG) periods. A maximum entropy method was used to project the current walnut distribution model on to the LGM (21-18 kyr BP) and LIG (130-116 kyr BP) climatic conditions. Model tuning identified the walnut data set filtered at 10 km spatial resolution as the best for modeling the current distribution and to hindcast past (LGM and LIG) distributions of walnut. The current distribution model predicted southern Caucasus, parts of West and Central Asia extending into South Asia encompassing northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern Himalayan region, and southwestern Tibet, as the favorable climatic niche matching the modern distribution of walnut. The hindcast of distributions suggested the occurrence of walnut during LGM was somewhat limited to southern latitudes from southern Caucasus, Central and South Asian regions extending into southwestern Tibet, northeastern India, Himalayan region of Sikkim and Bhutan, and southeastern China. Both CCSM and MIROC projections overlapped, except that MIROC projected a significant presence of walnut in the Balkan Peninsula during the LGM. In contrast, genetic analysis of the current walnut distribution suggested a much narrower area in northern Pakistan and the surrounding areas of Afghanistan, northwestern India, and southern Tajikistan as a plausible hotspot of diversity where walnut may have survived glaciations. Overall, the findings suggest that walnut perhaps

  14. Alder and the Golden Fleece: high diversity of Frankia and ectomycorrhizal fungi revealed from Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata roots close to a Tertiary and glacial refugium

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    Melanie Roy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent climatic history has strongly impacted plant populations, but little is known about its effect on microbes. Alders, which host few and specific symbionts, have high genetic diversity in glacial refugia. Here, we tested the prediction that communities of root symbionts survived in refugia with their host populations. We expected to detect endemic symbionts and a higher species richness in refugia as compared to recolonized areas. Methods We sampled ectomycorrhizal (EM root tips and the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia communities in eight sites colonized by Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata close to the Caucasus in Georgia. Three sites were located in the Colchis, one major Eurasian climatic refugia for Arcto-Tertiary flora and alders, and five sites were located in the recolonized zone. Endemic symbionts and plant ITS variants were detected by comparing sequences to published data from Europe and another Tertiary refugium, the Hyrcanian forest. Species richness and community structure were compared between sites from refugia and recolonized areas for each symbionts. Results For both symbionts, most MOTUs present in Georgia had been found previously elsewhere in Europe. Three endemic Frankia strains were detected in the Colchis vs two in the recolonized zone, and the five endemic EM fungi were detected only in the recolonized zone. Frankia species richness was higher in the Colchis while the contrary was observed for EM fungi. Moreover, the genetic diversity of one alder specialist Alnicola xanthophylla was particularly high in the recolonized zone. The EM communities occurring in the Colchis and the Hyrcanian forests shared closely related endemic species. Discussion The Colchis did not have the highest alpha diversity and more endemic species, suggesting that our hypothesis based on alder biogeography may not apply to alder’s symbionts. Our study in the Caucasus brings new clues to understand symbioses biogeography and

  15. SPIDERS (ARANEI OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH OSSETIA

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    Alexander V. Ponomarev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Until recently, spider fauna of the Republic of South Ossetia has been the least studied among the regional araneofaunas of the Caucasus. According to the literature data, as little as 30 spider species have been known from the republic’s territory (Mkheidze, 1997, Mikhailov, 1990; Ponomarev, Dvadnenko, 2013; Trilicauscas, Komarov, 2014. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to summarize available data on the spider fauna of South Ossetia.Location. Republic of South Ossetia.Methods. The material was collected in various districts of South Ossetia in 2011-2014 by Yu.E. Komarov. Mainly, the collecting was performed in the city of Tskhinvali and its environs, and in the South Ossetian State Reserve. Spiders were sampled with pitfall traps and sweep netting. The time of traps’ exposure is April–December.Results and main conclusions. To date, the spider fauna of the Republic of South Ossetia includes 230 species from 29 families. 222 species were registered by the authors, eight species (Clubiona pseudosimilis, Gnaphosa lugubris, Linyphia hortensis, Neriene peltata, Geolycosa vultuosa, Pardosa azerifalcata, Ero aphana, and Philodromus rufus are known from the literature only. Seven species are new to the Caucasus (Clubiona pseudosimilis, Gnaphosa lugubris, Linyphia hortensis, Neriene peltata, Geolycosa vultuosa, Pardosa azerifalcata, Ero aphana, and Philodromus rufus. Of these, two species were known earlier only from Turkey (Pardosa consimilis, Ozyptila spirembolus, and one species (Tegenaria pseudolyncea only from Azerbaijan. Against the background of the widespread species predominance, the Caucasian element is small and presented by twelve species (Tegenaria pseudolyncea, Dysdera tkibuliensis, Haplodrassus caucasius, Zelotes khostensis, Mansuphantes ovalis, Sintula oseticus, Tenuiphantes teberdaensis, Pardosa azerifalcata, P. caucasica, Piratula hurkai, Trochosa cachetiensis, and Xysticus ukrainicus.

  16. Apatite fission-track analysis of the tectonic effects of the Arabia-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, I.; Cavazza, W.; Zattin, M.; Okay, A. I.; Adamia, S.; Sadradze, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene collision between Arabia and Eurasia led to the development of (i) the Bitlis-Zagros orogenic belt, (ii) the North and East Anatolian fault systems, (iii) the structural inversion of the Caucasian basins, and (iv) widespread deformation in the Turkish-Armenian-Iranian plateau. Despite the importance of the event, the exact age of the collision is poorly constrained. The integration of new apatite fission-track (AFT) data from the eastern Pontides, the Lesser Caucasus (Adjara-Trialeti zone), and the eastern part of the Anatolian plateau with preexisting data from the Bitlis suture has provided insights on the syn-and post-collisional evolution not only of eastern Anatolia but also of the entire Eastern Mediterranean area. The AFT samples have a wide spatial distribution and include different types of rocks: Paleogene sandstones and magmatic rocks with Cretaceous-to-Eocene intrusion ages. Despite the disparate lithologies and large distance, apatite fission-track ages from the easternmost Pontides, the Georgian Lesser Caucasus, the eastern Anatolian Plateau, and the Bitlis collision zone show a distinct geographic pattern. Exhumation along the Black Sea coast occurred in the Middle Miocene, mirroring the age of collision between the Eurasian and Arabian plates along the 2,400-km long Bitlis-Zagros suture zone some 200 km to the south. Exhumation in the Anatolian Plateau occurred in the Paleogene (with a cluster of ages in the Middle-Late Eocene), coevally with the development of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture. Successive development of the Anatolian Plateau did not exhume a new partial annealing zone and thus is not recorded by the apatite fission tracks.

  17. The Out of Africa hypothesis and the ancestry of recent humans: Cherchez la femme (et l'homme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Úlfur

    2016-07-01

    The Out of Africa hypothesis (OOAH) has been a mainstay in the discussion of human evolution since its presentation in the 1980's. However, recent advances in palaeontology and molecular genetics have made it possible to examine the hypothesis in a manner that was inconceivable at the time of its proposal. The palaeontological progress relates to early Homo finds in the Caucasus, Denisova finds in the Altai Mountains and Neanderthal finds in a wide range of localities from the Altai Mountains, the Caucasus, the Levant, Asia Minor, southern and Central Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. The Eurasian location of these finds and recognition of the principle of Last common ancestor (LCA) lend no support to OOAH. The same conclusion is drawn from genomic findings, which (a) have revealed the presence of Denisovan and Neanderthal nuclear DNA, primarily in the genomes of recent Eurasians and (b) have shown genomic introgression from early modern humans into Neanderthals in the Altai Mountains. Similarly, archaeological finds in Sulawesi and the discovery of ≈100,000years old human teeth in southern China constitute strong independent challenges to OOAH. The genomic and palaeogenomic results and the new palaeontological and archaeological discoveries suggest (a) that the ancestors of modern humans had their origin in a Eurasian (largely Asian) biogeographic region which may also have extended into NE Africa, and (b) that the founders of basal African lineages became separated, geographically and genetically, in the westernmost part of this region and spread from there to different parts of the African continent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Research of mining and geological conditions for geological exploration in Pre-Caucasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration natural depletion of reserves of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic deposits of the majority of operated deposits of North Caucasus and for the purpose of further development of oil and gas producing industry in the region it is necessary to involve a carbonaceous complex of Jura of West Pre-Caucasus with the burial depth of more than 5300 m in the development. When drafting engineering design for a construction of exploratory wells in complex mining and geological conditions driven by anomalously high overburden pressure and temperature, use of thoroughly studied field geological information and taking into consideration the experience of boring similar wells is important. The paper provides analysis of geophysical data, the results of complex studies of reservoir porosity and permeability features of rocks picked out of core-samples of the first exploratory well on Krupskaya zone (porosity, permeability, electrical, acoustic, lithological characteristics, pressure-and-temperature conditions. The information obtained allowed to specify technological parameters of boring and tailing-in and to give recommendations regarding the way of exploratory wells boring and use of borehole equipment. In order to avoid the development of significant hydrodynamic pressure in the borehole which provokes gas showings it is necessary to keep on a certain level of minimal values of mud rheology parameters (dynamic shear stress τ = 70¸135 dPa; plastic viscosity η = 25¸35 mPa·s. For the purpose of real-time keeping of overbalance with anomalously high overburden pressure, control and regulation of calculated head pressure a stripper head should be included into the equipment configuration. Furthermore well head equipment and blowout preventer equipment must be designed for expected gradient of overburden pressure.

  19. Complete mitochondrial DNA diversity in Iranians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Derenko

    Full Text Available Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ∼24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region.

  20. On the History of the Name Ruslan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Yu. Namitokova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors postulate that there exists a common stock of Russian personal names resulting from a partial blending of national anthroponymicons. The main part of the paper focuses on the history of the personal name Ruslan which has etymological ties with the widespread Turkic name Arslan having the pre-onomastic meaning ‘lion’. The authors study the variation of the name in Russian folklore and in the 15th–17th centuries documents and historical sources. They also pay particular attention to the role of Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila in the formation of the associative background of the studied name and to various onomastic derivatives, the latter include patronyms, surnames and the female name Ruslana. The author conclude that the name Ruslan became especially popular in Soviet and post-Soviet periods when it acquired a specific “semantic aura”, namely, in Caucasus where Ruslan became a kind of mark of Russian identity and, thus, contributed to the unification of the anthroponymic space. This conclusion was verified in the course of a survey done among 40 respondents representing different peoples of Caucasus. For most respondents the name has positive connotations and is associated with the Turkic name Arslan and the name of Pushkin’s character. However, some respondents consider it as a “non-Muslim”, Russian name and point out that it is often perceived as such outside Russia. The history of the name Ruslan and the ways of its transonymisation can be an interesting object for further research, especially due to the emergence of new communication technologies and onomastic discourses.

  1. The State of the Technological Structure of the Macro-Region and its Technological Development (for example, the North-Caucasian Federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Batov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: in modern conditions development of the region is a necessary element of the transition to the new paradigm of economic growth. It is known that scientific and technological progress, which is the result of the knowledge economy is intended to implement technological innovations that should lead to an increase in productivity, renewal of fixed capital and competitiveness. The status of the regions of the Russian Federation, especially in the North Caucasus Federal district (NCFD, raises the need to identify technological potential, which they have that will allow you to change the structure of the economy, to identify the most important directions of its modernisation, to improve existing technology. Methods: methodological base of research is based on the use of a systematic approach and statistical analysis methods. Applied methods of scientific abstraction, analysis and synthesis, analogies and scientific generalizations. Results: the main task that remains is to solve the North Caucasus Federal district regions is to uncover technological structure, which is dominant. Knowledge of the state of the technological structure of the region will set out its development strategy, which can be based on the use of their own potential or the application of the principles of catch-up development, from the point of view of which it is possible to implement "step over" through technological modes by conducting innovative and technological policy that will promote a new economy. Conclusions and Relevance: implementation of planned actions is possible with the use of the theory of technological structures. Approach to the study of the region from the position of this theory allows a deeper look at the status of the economic structure of the region (country, trends of its development, to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the place in the technological development of industries, to identify the main (backbone path of further growth. 

  2. The Analysis of Changes in the Level of Poverty and the Main Characteristics of the Poor in the South of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Stepanovna Oleynik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The poverty is a multifaceted and diverse phenomenon, it varies in time and space. In the economic literature, various approaches are used to measuring poverty. The article deals with the methods of measuring poverty in the Russian Federation. When analyzing the changes in the level of poverty and the main characteristics of the poor in Southern Russia, the authors relied on official statistical information published in editions of the Federal State statistics service. Poverty trends are revealed for the period of four years (2011-2014 in the dynamics and by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, within the Southern and North Caucasus Federal Districts. The authors identified poverty ratio changes in various Southern subjects of the Russian Federation. The level of well-being of the population and the poverty ratio fluctuations in the Southern regions of the Russian Federation are estimated. It is shown that the Southern regions are characterized by a low level of material well-being. The analysis revealed a trend of increasing the proportion of poor households in rural areas. Rural populations are the most vulnerable to the risk of poverty, mainly because of the high concentration of poor households and minimal income levels which increases the vulnerability of households. The analysis of the distribution of poor households according to their composition, revealed a high proportion of households consisting of three or more people. It is determined that the hallmark of Russian poverty is high “child poverty”. It is substantiated that the socio-economic indicators of poverty let identify the general trends in poverty levels of the subjects of Southern and North Caucasus Federal districts. The outcome of the present study consists in the withdrawal of the main priorities for combating poverty in the South of Russia.

  3. Genetic and ecological insights into glacial refugia of walnut (Juglans regia L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjuna Aradhya

    Full Text Available The distribution and survival of trees during the last glacial maximum (LGM has been of interest to paleoecologists, biogeographers, and geneticists. Ecological niche models that associate species occurrence and abundance with climatic variables are widely used to gain ecological and evolutionary insights and to predict species distributions over space and time. The present study deals with the glacial history of walnut to address questions related to past distributions through genetic analysis and ecological modeling of the present, LGM and Last Interglacial (LIG periods. A maximum entropy method was used to project the current walnut distribution model on to the LGM (21-18 kyr BP and LIG (130-116 kyr BP climatic conditions. Model tuning identified the walnut data set filtered at 10 km spatial resolution as the best for modeling the current distribution and to hindcast past (LGM and LIG distributions of walnut. The current distribution model predicted southern Caucasus, parts of West and Central Asia extending into South Asia encompassing northern Afghanistan, Pakistan, northwestern Himalayan region, and southwestern Tibet, as the favorable climatic niche matching the modern distribution of walnut. The hindcast of distributions suggested the occurrence of walnut during LGM was somewhat limited to southern latitudes from southern Caucasus, Central and South Asian regions extending into southwestern Tibet, northeastern India, Himalayan region of Sikkim and Bhutan, and southeastern China. Both CCSM and MIROC projections overlapped, except that MIROC projected a significant presence of walnut in the Balkan Peninsula during the LGM. In contrast, genetic analysis of the current walnut distribution suggested a much narrower area in northern Pakistan and the surrounding areas of Afghanistan, northwestern India, and southern Tajikistan as a plausible hotspot of diversity where walnut may have survived glaciations. Overall, the findings suggest that

  4. Spatial variation in the frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes under the tectonic framework in the Middle East

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    Mousavi, S. Mostafa

    2017-10-01

    Spatial variations of seismic energy released and b-value over the Middle East region are investigated based on a seismicity catalog from 1995 to 2007. The goal is to use these seismic parameters and based on other geodetic and geophysical observations, such as GPS measurements, strain rate model, fault distribution, focal mechanism, crustal model, Q model, and gravity measurements, etc., to uncover spatial patterns that seem anomalous. Areas of high energy released (cumulative) seem to correspond to the areas of relatively high b-values. Areas of high energy released and high b-values seem to correspond very well with the location of continental collision where earthquake activities are high. The divergent boundary between Arabia and African plates and subduction zone at Makran seem to correspond to low to moderate energy release. Northern Pamir, Azerbaijan-Caucasus, the lower part of Zagros Mountains, eastern Turkey, Owen Fracture Zone, Strait of Bob-el-Mandeb, and south of the Sulaiman Shear Zone seem to correspond to high cumulative energy-released, high strain rate, high b-values, and high fault density. While, the central and eastern Iran, southern Zagros, northern Pakistan, Gulf of Aden, Alborz, southwest of the Caspian Sea, western Caucasus and Kopeh-Dagh seem to correspond with lower b-values. The cross-section map for Hindu-Kush shows general decreasing of the b-values with depth, however, a region of high b-value is observed underneath Pamir at depths from 170 to 230 km. This anomaly region can be due to dehydration of Pamir crustal slab at depth.

  5. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ORIBATIDMITEIN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE NORTH-WEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA

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    A. A. Grikurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim . Studied the fauna of the soil mites of coastal and island ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian sea (Bryansk spit, Strategiczne, Islands seal, Chechen and Nordby. Found 49 species and 39 genera and subgenera, and 24 families. Species composition of oribatidmite of theNorth-western part of the Caspian Sea remains not completely studied. The aim of the work was to study the species composition of oribatidmite ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea. Location. Coastal ecosystems north-western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The selection of soil samples in different habitats and MicroStation is the basis for studying the biodiversity and abundance of soil microarthropod. To extract small soil organisms method was used electoral forcing, which is based on the use of negative phototaxis soil organisms. When the definition of oribatid mites used the microscope MBI-6, Olympus CH-20.Results. As a result of studies 41 species of oribatidmites, 9 of which – new forthe fauna of the Caucasus, 17 species – new for the fauna of Dagestan, one species – new to science were identified. There sults can be used to compile regionallists, inventories and will be included in the list of directories oribatidmite of Caucasus.Main conclusions. There sults showed that for both are as of studies - 9 species, exclusively in coastal ecosystems of Bryansks pit 24 species, found only in ecosystems Staroterechnogo 9 species are common.

  6. Structural model of the eastern Achara-Trialeti fold and thrust belt using seismic reflection profiles

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    Alania, Victor; Chabukiani, Alexander; Enukidze, Onise; Razmadze, Alexander; Sosson, Marc; Tsereteli, Nino; Varazanashvili, Otar

    2017-04-01

    Our study focused on the structural geometry at the eastern Achara-Trialeti fold and thrust belt (ATFTB) located at the retro-wedge of the Lesser Caucasus orogen (Alania et al., 2016a). Our interpretation has integrated seismic reflection profiles, several oil-wells, and the surface geology data to reveal structural characteristics of the eastern ATFTB. Fault-related folding theories were used to seismic interpretation (Shaw et al., 2004). Seismic reflection data reveal the presence of basement structural wedge, south-vergent backthrust, north-vergent forethrust and some structural wedges (or duplex). The rocks are involved in the deformation range from Paleozoic basement rocks to Tertiary strata. Building of thick-skinned structures of eastern Achara-Trialeti was formed by basement wedges propagated from south to north along detachment horizons within the cover generating thin-skinned structures. The kinematic evolution of the south-vergent backthrust zone with respect to the northward propagating structural wedge (or duplexes). The main style of deformation within the backthrust belt is a series of fault-propagation folds. Frontal part of eastern ATFTB are represent by triangle zone (Alania et al., 2016b; Sosson et al., 2016). A detailed study was done for Tbilisi area: seismic refection profiles, serial balanced cross-sections, and earthquakes reveal the presence of an active blind thrust fault beneath Tbilisi. 2 & 3-D structural models show that 2002 Mw 4.5 Tbilisi earthquake related to a north-vergent blind thrust. Empirical relations between blind fault rupture area and magnitude suggest that these fault segments could generate earthquakes of Mw 6.5. The growth fault-propagation fold has been observed near Tbilisi in the frontal part of eastern ATFTB. Seismic reflection profile through Ormoiani syncline shows that south-vergent growth fault-propagation fold related to out-of-the-syncline thrust. The outcrop of fault-propagation fold shown the geometry of the

  7. Petroleum geology and resources of the middle Caspian Basin, Former Soviet Union

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    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Middle Caspian basin occupies a large area between the Great Caucasus foldbelt and the southern edge of the Precambrian Russian craton. The basin also includes the central part of the Caspian Sea and the South Mangyshlak subbasin east of the sea. The basin was formed on the Hercynian accreted terrane during Late Permian?Triassic through Quaternary time. Structurally, the basin consists of the fold-and-thrust zone of the northern Caucasus foothills, the foredeep and foreland slope, the Stavropol-Prikumsk uplift and East Manych trough to the north of the slope, and the South Mangyshlak subbasin and slope of the Karabogaz arch east of the Caspian Sea. All these major structures extend offshore. Four total petroleum systems (TPS) have been identified in the basin. The South Mangyshlak TPS contains more than 40 discovered fields. The principal reserves are in Lower?Middle Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in structural traps. Source rocks are poorly known, but geologic data indicate that they are in the Triassic taphrogenic sequence. Migration of oil and gas significantly postdated maturation of source rocks and was related to faulting and fracturing during middle Miocene to present time. A single assessment unit covers the entire TPS. Largest undiscovered resources of this assessment unit are expected in the largely undrilled offshore portion of the TPS, especially on the western plunge of the Mangyshlak meganticline. The Terek-Caspian TPS occupies the fold-and-thrust belt, foredeep, and adjoining foreland slope. About 50 hydrocarbon fields, primarily oil, have been discovered in the TPS. Almost all hydrocarbon reserves are in faulted structural traps related to thrusting of the foldbelt, and most traps are in frontal edges of the thrust sheets. The traps are further complicated by plastic deformation of Upper Jurassic salt and Maykop series (Oligocene? lower Miocene) shale. Principal reservoirs are fractured Upper Cretaceous carbonates and middle Miocene sandstones

  8. A new look at the collision-related volcanism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey: Volcanic history of the Northern-Van neovolcanic province

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    Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir; Sharkov, Evgenii; Oyan, Vural; Ünal, Esin

    2010-05-01

    The region including the Eastern Anatolian - Northern Iranian High Plateau and Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges is one of the best examples of an active continental collision zone in the world, which is thought to have been formed by the closure of the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean. It comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt (i.e. the Eastern Anatolia High Plateau) with an average elevation of ~2 km above the sea level. The volcanic activity initiated immediately after the block uplift of the region (at around 15 Ma as our new isotope-geochronological database indicates) and produced great volumes of volcanic material in a number of countries including Turkey, Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Iran. At present, the volcanic province extends from Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) into Caucasus of Southern Russia, spanning a distance of some 1000 km. Perhaps the most striking aspect of the Eastern Anatolian - N Iranian High Plateau and Caucasus is the volume and compositional variability of collision-related volcanic products erupted in a time interval from Neogene to Quaternary. Only in E Turkey, the collision-related volcanic units cover over half of the region (i.e.˜43,000 km2). In order to better understand the spatial and temporal compositional variations in volcanic rocks and their implications on magma genesis and geodynamic evolution of the region, we conducted joint research on this spectacular volcanic province. One of the largest Cenozoic volcanic areas on the EAHP is located in the north of Lake Van as we named "the Northern-Van neovolcanic province". It covers an area of about 6000 km2 starting from the northern cost of Lake Van. It is composed of a series of volcanic edifices (e.g. Girekol, Meydandag and Etrusk volcanoes). Remarkably, these volcanoes sit almost on the culmination of a regional domal structure called "Lake Van dome" in the vertex of the eastern Turkish high plateau. We intentionally

  9. Traditions of the Middle Sarmatian Culture in Burial Mounds of the Caspian Dagestan in the Second Half of the 2nd - First Half of the 5th Century A.D.

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    Malashev Vladimir Yuryevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of a number of the traditions which are going back to a funeral ceremony of Middle Sarmatiаn culture is observed in the burial grounds of Caspian Dagestan dating back to the second half of the 2nd - first half of the 5th centuries. The signs of this culture are gradually transformed in these traditions. It was complicated by the influences of traditions of Late Sarmatian culture (orientation of some corpses; the traditions of early Sarmatian population are more significant: catacombs of type II, narrow pits and loculuses, the western orientation of the corpse. The author highlights the major importance of the results of contacts between the descendants of the Middle Sarmatiаn culture and the population of Alan North Caucasus culture, manifested in the spread of the catacombs of type I and the formation of the catacombs of type IV under their influence. At the same time there is a sharp decrease in the proportion of burials in narrow rectangular pits and the disappearance of the diagonal position of corpses (middle 3rd-4th Centuries A.D., that leads to the formation of a ritual complex, fixed in Lvovsky cemeteries. This complex was moved from its native territory of the Terek-Sulak interfluve to the Southern Dagestan in the 1st half - the middle of the 4th century A.D., where it was preserved until the 1st half - the middle of the 5th century A.D. This completes the process of development of the Middle Sarmatian ritual complex in the region which absorbed a number of traditions of Early Sarmatian time. The complex existed in relative isolation from the late cultural Sarmatian influences, but it was affected by bearers of Alan culture. Considering also that formation of Alan culture passed on the basis of culture of the population of the region in the 2nd century B.C. - 1st century A.D. under the influence of a middle Sarmatian migratory impulse, the author assumes that carriers of the Middle Sarmatian traditions with the

  10. Negation, Including, Gradual Oblivion: State Strategies On Soviet Heritage In Georgia, Armenia And Azerbaijan

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    A. A. Tokarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year of 100th anniversary of the October Revolution, the author turns to the question of the Soviet heritage influence on nation- and state-building processes in three countries of the South Caucasus –Azerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgia. The article postulates clear differences between the study of postcolonialism and the post-Soviet space, and therefore the author presents his own operationalization of the "imperial heritage" study. The countries of the South Caucasus are compared based on the following criteria: a number of ethnic Russians as the main constituent of the Soviet people living in the country; a status of the Russian language; national symbols (statutes, architecture, Soviet state symbols, the hierarchy of military ranks, and political practices (functioning of the party systems, type of sovereignty, degree of freedom of speech and political competition. StudyingAzerbaijan,ArmeniaandGeorgiadifferently coming out of theUSSRand using the disintegration of theUSSRto construct their national narratives in accordance with their own ideas about the ways of development, the author finds a repetition of the Soviet system elements. Each of the states demonstrates a unique combination of “post-Soviet Soviet” phenomena. The difference lies in the ratio between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet elements. Azerbaijanseems to maintain a pro-Soviet narrative more than the others. It inherited the Soviet cult of personality and combined this practice with a completely non-Soviet (Eastern tradition of political dynasties covered by the election system. The Armenian political tradition includes reference to Soviet Armenia as theSecondRepublic, which distinguishes the country from the neighbors who consider themselves to be the successors of the democratic republics that emerged during the Civil War inRussia. Despite competitive elections and free media, the Armenian leadership seeks to establish a political system with a single dominant party and

  11. Asylum seekers alleging torture in their countries: Evaluation of a French center.

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    Clément, Renaud; Lebossé, David; Barrios, Lucia; Rodat, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Over a 6-year period, 570 survivors gave consent to this study and were examined by forensic medical doctors in academic French hospital. They evaluated with the aim of cataloguing the physical evidence of torture. Sociological data, declared violence (single physical altercation, repeated physical violence less than one year or more than one year, incarceration not more than one week or more than 1 week), and method of violence (blows by blunt object, crushing, burns, electrical shocks, attempted drowning, smothering, incision, or gunshot) were studied. An association between victims' statements and physical evidence of torture was determined. 70% were male with an average age of 31.9 years and ages between 1 and 70 years old. Dagestan, Guinea-Conakry and Guinea-Bissau were the countries most represented among asylum seekers. Beatings were reported by 27.89%, confinement was reported by 40.22%, and repeated violence by 30.16% of refugees. The average time interval between the first assault and forensic evaluation was 53 months. Forms of torture reported included: blunt force trauma (82.51%) truncheon blows (27.50%), arm incision (30%), and burns (16.3%). Statistically, truncheon blows were experienced more often by males in confinement due to political conflict. The use of crushing methods and electrical shocks also were experienced more often by males during confinement. Victims who had received incision wounds were significantly younger. Gunshots were statistically associated with male survivors of political conflict. Men experienced drowning and electrical shocks while in confinement in the Balkans, Asia, and Russia. Electrical shocks were reported by males during confinement and in northern Caucasus countries. The association was significant between assertions of burns and the presence of cutaneous scars (p = 0.0105); similarly, assertions of incision wounds were significantly corroborated by evidence of scars (p = 0.0009). Asylum seekers assessed were

  12. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis

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    Janevic Teresa

    2012-11-01

    MCU were in Central Asia, whereas at the individual-level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Conclusions Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

  13. Individual and community level socioeconomic inequalities in contraceptive use in 10 Newly Independent States: a multilevel cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Sarah, Pallas W; Leyla, Ismayilova; Elizabeth, Bradley H

    2012-11-16

    -level inequalities of the largest magnitude were found in the Caucasus. There were no distinct patterns found in Eastern European countries. Community-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in Central Asian countries, whereas individual-level socioeconomic inequalities in MCU were most pronounced in the Caucasus. It is important to consider multilevel contextual determinants of modern contraceptive use in the development of reproductive health and family planning programs.

  14. Nitrogen-15 natural abundance of different soil N pools as a tool for assessing N transformation processes in alpine soils

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    Makarov, Mikhail; Malysheva, Tatiana; Tiunov, Alexei; Kadulin, Maxim; Maslov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen availability, net N mineralization, nitrification and 15N natural abundance of total soil N and small soil N pools (N-NH4+, N-NO3-, DON and microbial biomass N) were studied in a toposequence of alpine ecosystems in the Northern Caucasus. The toposequence was represented by (1) low productive alpine lichen heath (ALH) of the wind-exposed ridge and upper slope; (2) more productive Festuca varia grassland (FG) of the middle slope; (3) most productive Geranium gymnocaulon/Hedysarum caucasicum meadow (GHM) of the lower slope and (4) low productive snow bed community (SBC) of the slope bottom. Nitrogen transformation in the alpine soils produces distinct N pools with different 15N enrichment: DON/microbial biomass N > total N > N-NH4+ > N-NO3-. Grassland and meadow soils of the middle part of the toposequence are characterized by higher nitrogen transformation activities and higher δ15 values of total N and N-NH4+. Field incubation of alpine soils increased δ15N of N-NH4+ from -2.6 - +2.0‰ to +6.1 - +15.7‰. The N-NO3-produced in the incubation experiment had extremely low (negative) δ15N values (up to -14‰). We found a positive correlation between δ15N of different soil N pools (total N, N-NH4+ and N-NO3-) and net N mineralization and nitrification. Nitrification controls the formation of 15N enriched N-NH4+ pool while N mineralization probably had an important role in regulation of 15N enrichment of DON pool in alpine soils. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that 15N is more enriched in N-rich and more depleted in N-poor ecosystems. We conclude that δ15N values of different soil N pools could be a good indicator of microbial N transformation in alpine soils of the Northern Caucasus. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Russian Science Foundation (16-14-10208).

  15. THE USE OF DRINKING WATER IN THE CONDITIONS OF MAINTAINING ECOLOGICAL BALANCE

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    Avtandil SILAGADZE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Caucasus is an important transit place for the "Great Silk Road"; an important role in it is assigned to the Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum gas pipeline and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway line which is at finishing stage of its construction, and others. The countries of Central Caucasus can make a meaningful contribution to the construction of the "New Silk Road" with other untapped rich natural resources. Especially attractive for investors can be the Georgian underground artesian renewable, biologically clean drinking water reserves of international importance; an effective utilization of their small part can make a significant contribution to the resolving of high quality drinking water supply problem for millions of people in Europe and Asia. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, independent post-Soviet Georgia has passed through the toughest period of reforms, conflicts and development. A significant part of its territory is still occupied, the economy is weak; the country is oriented to the European Union. In this light the country should use foreign experience and capabilities in the real sector (agriculture, mining industry .... In post-Soviet Georgia according to the current legislation, foreign investors enjoy the same rights as domestic ones. A large part of the world's population suffers from water shortages. In Georgia this resource is virtually untapped (only 0.01 is used. This resource will further rise in price on the world market of raw materials. Through the participation of foreign investors Georgia can make its contribution to the solving of the above-noted global problem in different directions: By the exploitation of freshwater resources Georgia should become a larger producer and exporter of drinking water until the problems of products transportation arise; the second part of underground water reserves should be provided to Europe and other countries through

  16. Géorgie-Ossétie-Russie. Une guerre à toutes les échelles

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    Julien Thorez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available En août 2008, le Caucase a été le théâtre d’une guerre opposant la Géorgie à la Russie, à l’issue de laquelle la Russie a décidé de reconnaître la souveraineté de l’Abkhazie et de l’Ossétie du Sud, régions sécessionnistes géorgiennes indépendantes de facto depuis le début des années 1990. Déclenchée par le président géorgien M. Saakachvili, cette guerre a découlé de la superposition dans le Caucase d’aspirations géopolitiques contraires. L’article aborde les enjeux de ce conflit selon une approche multiscalaire, en mettant en perspective les aspirations séparatistes abkhazes et ossètes, la politique d’unification et de modernisation de l’Etat Géorgien, la complexité de la relation post-coloniale entretenue par la Russie et la Géorgie et les rivalités géopolitiques internationales inscrites dans les réalités caucasiennesIn August 2008, after the war against Georgia, Russia decided to recognize the sovereignty of the secessionist Georgian regions of Abkhazia and south Ossetia, which are de facto independent since the early 1990’s. This war, unleashed by the action of he Georgian president M. Saakashvili, was a consequence of a clash between contrasting geopolitical goals in Caucasus. This article adopts a multi-scale approach to explain the war, analyzing its various dimensions, starting with the Abkhazian and Ossetian separatisms and the Georgian policy, aimed at “unifying” and modernizing the country, but dealing as well with the complex relationship between Russia and Georgia and finally with the wider international geopolitical rivalries playing out in the Caucasus.

  17. Retrospective analysis for detecting seismic precursors in groundwater argon content

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    P. F. Biagi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the groundwater Argon content data sampled from 1988 to 2001 at two wells in Kamchatka (Russia and anomalous increases appeared clearly during June-July 1996. On 21 June, a shallow (1km earthquake with M=7.1 occurred at a distance less than 250km from the wells and so the previous increases could be related to this earthquake and, in particular, could be considered premonitory anomalies. In order to support this raw interpretation, we analysed the data collected in details. At first we smoothed out the high frequency fluctuations arising from the errors in a single measurement. Next we considered the known external effects on the water of a well that are the slow tectonic re-adjustment processes, the meteorology and the gravity tides and we separated these effects applying band-pass filters to the Argon content raw trends. Then we identified the largest fluctuations in these trends applying the 3 σ criterion and we found three anomalies in a case and two anomalies in other case. Comparing the time occurrence of the anomalies at the two wells we found out that a coincidence exists only in the case of the premonitory anomalies we are studying. The simultaneous appearance of well definite anomalies in the residual trends of the same parameter at two different sites supports their meaning and the possibility that they are related to some large scale effect, as the occurrence of a strong earthquake. But, other earthquakes similar to the June 1996 event took place during the Argon content measurements time and no anomaly appeared in this content. In the past, some of the authors of this paper studied the Helium content data collected in three natural springs of the Caucasus during seven years. A very similar result, that is the simultaneous appearance of clear premonitory anomalies only on the occasion of a strong (M=7.0 but shallow (2–4km earthquake, was obtained. The correspondence with the case of the Caucasus validates the

  18. Helmet "tang" from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City, United States. Features of Construction, Design and Operational Use

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    Leonid A. Bobrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not

  19. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

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    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  20. The Tatar and Kipchak Languages in the Frameworks of One Linguageographic Reconstruction.

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    Shumkin A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the origin and development of several Turkic languages spoken in the North Caucasus. Research materials: the era of Turkic khanate domination in the steppes of Asia and Eastern Europe marked the formation of the ancient Turkic literary tradition. Initially it was displayed in the original Orkhon-Yenisey alphabet. Later, in the principality Kocho and Karakhanids’ state this tradition was transliterated into alphabet borrowed from the Sogdians. In his work compiled in Arabic, Karakhanid Mahmoud al-Kashgari was first to describe Turkic-speaking dialects that differed from the ancient writing standards. Among them, he focused mainly on the languages of nomadic Oguz and Kipchak confederations. One after another they occupied the steppes of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Based on al-Kashgari’s information, the author of this article demonstrates that the territory occupied by the Kipchak confederation preserved Oghuz dialect used by Oghuz tribes Kangly and Karabёrkli who joined to Kipchaks. The Kyrgyz branch of the Turkic languages brought by Kipchaks to the West spread in this area as well. The rise and conquest of the Great Mongol Empire changed the language boundaries and literary canons of Central Asia, Siberia and Eastern Europe forever. In the time of the Mongol Empire practice of bilingualism established in the area. Literary canons from now and until the first third of the 20th century were based on the Turkic speech of Chagataid ulus of the Mongol Empire. On the other hand, examining the Antonio de Finale’s manuscript composed at the beginning of the 14th century on the territory of the Jochid Ulus, and a number of documents of the 16th–18th centuries written in the Lithuanian Tatar, the author reveals the formation history of Tatar branch of Turkic languages in the steppes of Dasht-i Kipchak. Results and novelty of the research: on the basis of this information the article manages to conclude that both