WorldWideScience

Sample records for caucasian american volunteers

  1. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  2. The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plato, C C; Cereghino, J J; Steinberg, F S

    1975-03-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were collected from 360 male and 360 female seven year old Caucasians from the greater Boston area. All participants were screened and found to be free of minor anomalies or chronic diseases. All individuals with I. Q. scores below 70 were also excluded. The results were presented in such a way as to give information on bilateral symmetry as well as overall frequencies of the various dermatoglyphic features. The results were compared with those of the corresponding sample of seven year old normal male and female Negroes of the accompanying report. A review of the distribution of the dermatoglyphic features in different Caucasian populations has also been presented and the overall dermatoglyphics of the Caucasians were discussed in reference to the distribution of the same features in the other major "racial" groups. The method of collection and selection of the subjects, described in the text, makes this set of data unique and one of the most suitable for use as controls in studying the dermatoglyphics of the individuals with diseases or congenital anomalies. PMID:1119541

  3. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S

    2009-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective s...

  4. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  5. Effect of Adolescent Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk in African-Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  7. Oral Reading Fluency and Prediction of Reading Comprehension in African American and Caucasian Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, John M.; Callahan, James E., III; Matthews, William J.; Williams, Stacy A.S.; Tobin, Kevin G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differential predictive bias of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) in reading across African American and Caucasian students. Results of this study suggest that CBM continues to appear to be a sensitive form of direct reading assessment in the local curriculum for both African American and Caucasian elementary-age students. (Contains…

  8. Family, peer, and individual correlates of sexual experience among Caucasian and Asian American late adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, CS; Chen, C.; Greenberger, E; Biermeier, C

    1997-01-01

    This study explored ethnic and gender differences in sexual behavior and its correlates among 148 Caucasian American and 202 Asian American college students (mean age = 19.8 years). Among Asian Americans, differences in mean number of sexual partners were not associated with differences in generational status, ethnic subgroup, or level of acculturation as indicated by language usage at home. As expected, Caucasian Americans reported having had more sexual partners by late adolescence to young...

  9. Bioequivalence study of 8 mg ondansetron film-coated tablets in healthy Caucasian volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, P J; Kaza, M; Leś, A; Gilant, E; Ksycińska, H; Serafin-Byczak, K; Troć, M; Raszek, J; Piątkowska-Chabuda, E; Skowrońska-Smolak, M; Tarasiuk, A; Wilkowska, E; Łazowski, T

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bioequivalence of a generic product of 8 mg film-coated tablets (test) to the branded product (reference) at the same strength in order to apply for regulatory approval. The secondary objective of the study was to compare the tolerability of both products. A double blinded, randomized, cross-over, 2-period, comparative study was conducted in healthy Caucasian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single oral dose administration of the test or reference product was followed by a 7-day wash-out period. The ondansetron concentration was determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection method. The 90% confidence interval of the point estimate (test over reference products) for C(max) and AUC(0-t) fell within the 80.00-125.00% acceptance range. The results of the study indicate that the film-coated tablets of Ondatron 8 mg manufactured by Tarchomińskie Zakłady Farmaceutyczne Polfa S.A. (test product) are bioequivalent to those of Zofran manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Export Ltd (reference product). Both products were well tolerated. PMID:24132707

  10. ARTERIAL ELASTICITY IN AMERICAN INDIAN AND CAUCASIAN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during seven consecutive days. Amer...

  11. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p ethnicity (p Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  12. Arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    We compared arterial elasticity in American Indian and Caucasian children, adolescents, and young adults, and we assessed whether demographic, body composition, and ambulatory activity measures were predictive of arterial elasticity within each group. Fifty-one American Indians and 66 Caucasians between the ages of 8 and 30 years were assessed on large artery elasticity index, small artery elasticity index, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory activity during 7 consecutive days. American Indians had a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians (p = 0.002), whereas daily ambulatory activity measures were similar (p > 0.05). American Indians had a 16% lower large artery elasticity index (p = 0.007) and a 19% lower small artery elasticity index (p cadence (p = 0.001), fat-free mass (p cadence for 30 continuous minutes (p = 0.009), race (p = 0.005), and average cadence (p = 0.049). Between 8 and 30 years of age, elasticity means for the large and small arteries is lower in American Indians than in Caucasians. A smaller difference was observed in children, with a trend to a much larger difference in young adults. Furthermore, greater fat-free mass and higher daily ambulatory cadence are associated with higher arterial elasticity in both American Indians and Caucasians. PMID:21828174

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes in Alzheimer's Disease in a Cohort of Older African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, J Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L; Roberts, David L; Dorbin, Cornelya D; Hu, William T

    2016-06-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine whether older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older caucasians in the greater Atlanta area as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than older caucasians, with race only accounting for 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-2.61, P < .001) points of difference in a multivariate model. Attitudes toward AD were also similar between the 2 groups but 1 (35.7%) in 3 adults reported control over general health but not AD risks. In addition to enhancing education content in outreach efforts, there is an urgent need to address the perception that future AD risks are beyond one's own internal control. PMID:26646115

  14. Estrogen Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eskridge, Susan L.; Morton, Deborah J.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wingard, Deborah; Wooten, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    Controlling for body size and composition, the authors examined the association between estrogen therapy and bone mineral density in older African-American and Caucasian women. In 1992–1998, 443 African-American and 989 Caucasian women aged 45–87 years were assessed for medication use, laboratory variables, behavioral characteristics, and bone mineral density. The mean age was 61.3 (95% confidence interval: 60.3, 62.3) years in African Americans and 71.0 (95% confidence interval: 70.4, 71.7) ...

  15. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23046273

  16. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  17. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  18. Knowledge and attitudes in Alzheimer’s Disease in a cohort of older African Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, J. Christina; Soyinka, Oretunlewa; Parker, Monica; Jarrett, Thomas L.; Roberts, David L.; Dorbin, Cornelya D.; Hu, William T

    2015-01-01

    African American participation in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research studies has been historically low. To determine if older African Americans and Caucasians had different knowledge or attitudes related to AD, we administered the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) to 67 older African Americans and 140 older Caucasians in the greater Atlanta area, as well as questions targeting locus of control over general health and AD risks. Older African Americans scored slightly lower on ADKS than...

  19. Genomic and proteomic profiling I: Leiomyomas in African Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chegini Nasser

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical observations indicate that leiomyomas occur more frequently in African Americans compared to other ethnic groups with unknown etiology. To identify the molecular basis for the difference we compared leiomyomas form A. Americans with Caucasians using genomic and proteomic strategies. Methods Microarray, realtime PCR, 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results Using Affymetrix U133A array and analysis based on P ranking (P Conclusion These findings imply that the level rather than the ethnic-specific expression of a number of genes and proteins may account for the difference between leiomyomas and possibly myometrium, in A. Americans and Caucasians. Further study using larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  20. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  1. A comparison of African-American and Caucasian college students' attitudes toward computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Pamela Gail

    1997-09-01

    As computer usage becomes mandatory on college campuses across the world, the issue of examining students' attitudes toward computers becomes very important. The major goal of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and ethnicity and African American and Caucasian college students attitudes toward computers. The Computer Attitude Scale instrument was used to measure the students' attitudes. During the Summer of the 1996 academic year, a university in the southeastern United States was selected to participate in this study. A total of 230 African American and Caucasian undergraduate students participated in the study. The students were pre-tested during the first week of the semester to access their initial computer attitudes. The students were enrolled in one of the mandatory computer literacy courses (Computer Literacy Awareness Course or C, Pascal or FORTRAN Programming Course) for 12 weeks. There were a total of seven different instructors for the courses. During the 12th week of class, the students were post-tested to access their computer attitudes after completing one of the computer literacy courses. Results were analyzed using ANCOVA. While both African Americans and Caucasian students showed a slight increase in their attitudes toward computers after completing the course, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, all groups were found to have positive attitudes toward computers in general. Data analysis also indicated no significant gender difference among African American and Caucasian undergraduate students. This confirmed findings of previous studies in which no significant gender difference was found to exist among college students.

  2. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    Yancy Haile F; Mason Jacquline A; Peters Sharla; Thompson Charles E; Littleton George K; Jett Marti; Day Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expressio...

  3. Comparative study of matrix metalloproteinase expression between African American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Jacquline A; Yancy, Haile F; Lashley, Kerrie; Jett, Marty; Day, Agnes A

    2004-01-01

    To date there are 26 human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are classified according to their substrate specificity and structural similarities. The four major subgroups of MMPs are gelatinases, interstitial collagenases, stromelysins, and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). This study investigates the expression of 26 MMPs, which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Breast tissues and cell lines derived from African American patients and Caucasian patient...

  4. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  5. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  6. Differences in gambling problem severity and gambling and health/functioning characteristics among Asian-American and Caucasian high-school students

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Grace; Tsai, Jack; Pilver, Corey E.; Tan, Hwee Sim; Hoff, Rani A.; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Asian-American adults have found high estimates of problematic gambling. However, little is known about gambling behaviors and associated measures among Asian-American adolescents. This study examined gambling perceptions and behaviors and health/functioning characteristics stratified by problem-gambling severity and Asian-American and Caucasian race using cross-sectional survey data of 121 Asian-American and 1,659 Caucasian high-school students. Asian-American and Caucasian adoles...

  7. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated...

  8. Comparison of the dentofacial patterns for native Greek and American-Caucasian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, E; Sassouni, V

    1989-03-01

    The study of the craniofacial relations and variations in man has long been used to differentiate various racial groups in physical anthropology. Morphologic features of different races and ethnic groups are not randomly distributed but appear in geographic clusters. Richardson wonders whether there is only one race, comprising ethnic groups separated by cultural, climatic, and geographic boundaries, causing subtle changes in facial morphology. Since the introduction of roentgenographic cephalometry in orthodontics, several methods of analysis have been developed for clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Also, these methods have been used to establish the cephalometric norms of different ethnic groups: American Negro, Australian aborigine, American Mexican, Norwegian, Indian, Japanese, Swedish, and Iranian. Sassouni, Ricketts, and others have concluded that norms differ between Caucasians and other ethnic and racial groups. Ethnic differences in facial traits do exist. Awareness of the normal dentofacial pattern of each ethnic group will undoubtedly ensure better success of treatment to establish optimal facial harmony. These conclusions prompted the present investigation, which compares Greek and American-Caucasian dentofacial patterns of adolescents, and provides information on the facial characteristics of Greek adolescents. To date, no similar study has been made. PMID:2923103

  9. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  10. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men’s Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social ...

  11. Pharmacogenetics in Central American healthy volunteers: interethnic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Ramírez, Ronald; Serrano, Víctor; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; LLerena, Adrián

    2015-03-01

    Ethnicity is one of the major factors involved in interindividual variability to drug response. This study aims to describe the frequency of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in Central American healthy volunteers and to determine its interethnic variability. Twenty-six original research articles on allelic, genotypes or metabolic phenotype frequencies were analyzed, in which a total number of 7611 Central American healthy volunteers were included (6118 were analyzed for genotype and 1799 for metabolic phenotype). No reports were available for population from Belize and Honduras. The CYP2D6*4 and *5 frequencies in Amerindian populations from Costa Rica have shown to be among the highest frequencies so far reported in the world. Furthermore, NAT2*5 and *6 presented higher frequencies in admixed populations than in Amerindians, but, inversely, the NAT2*7 was more frequent in Amerindians compared to an admixed population. Likewise, different patterns of distribution have been shown in HLA-A*02, *03 and HLA-B*07 among Native populations from Latin America. Reports on Central American populations were also found for the CYP2C19, LDLR, CYP2E1, MDR1, G6PD, TP53, CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 biomarkers, but no data were available for the other 91 pharmacogenetic biomarkers revised in Central American populations. Differences in the frequency of some pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes were found, showing interethnic variability within Central American and with other Latin American populations. PMID:25490028

  12. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421

  13. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  14. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinboboye O

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Olakunle AkinboboyeQueens Heart Institute, Rosedale, NY, USAAbstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease.Keywords: antithrombotic, atrial fibrillation, stroke, warfarin, race

  15. Who Serves? The American All-Volunteer Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Lowther, Adam

    2012-01-01

    demographics, socio-economic origin, and ideology? Or would the force become increasingly separate and alienated from American society, maneuver to become politically independent from civil authority, and perhaps endanger the polity? We address these issues by discussing the underlying choice made by the U.......S. government when it opted for an all-volunteer force, reviewing many of the concerns raised about consequences of this choice, assessing the degree to which these occurred and whether they still affect the force through an analysis of its demographic profile, and discussing concerns raised about the current...

  16. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  17. Comparison of bleeding and in-hospital mortality in Asian-Americans versus Caucasian-Americans with ST-elevation myocardial infarction receiving reperfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Parsons, Lori; Peterson, Eric D

    2012-04-01

    Concern has been raised that Asian-Americans may have a higher bleeding risk than Caucasian-Americans when treated with fibrinolytic and antithrombotic agents. To date there is limited evidence to support or refute this hypothesis or evaluate bleeding risk and its related outcomes in Caucasian-Americans versus Asian-Americans with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PPCI). We evaluated Asian-Americans and Caucasian-Americans with STEMI receiving reperfusion therapy in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction (NRMI) 4 and 5 (n = 90,317). We studied risk-adjusted major bleeding and in-hospital mortality. Major bleeding rates after fibrinolysis were similar in Asian-Americans (n = 705) and Caucasian-Americans (n = 42,243, 11.1% vs 10.3%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69 to 1.36, p = 0.5002). Although the observed major bleeding rate was higher in Asian-Americans (n = 1,037) compared to Caucasian-Americans (n = 46,332) treated with PPCI (10.3% vs 7.8%, p = 0.0036), these rates differed only marginally after adjusting for baseline clinical variables (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.59). Overall adjusted mortality was similar in Asian-Americans and Caucasian-Americans when treated with fibrinolysis (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.65) or with PPCI (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.13). Major bleeding after PPCI or fibrinolysis was associated with similar increased risks for mortality in these ethic groups. In conclusion, despite suggestions to the contrary, Asian-Americans with STEMI treated with fibrinolysis or PPCI had similar bleeding and bleeding-related mortality risks compared to Caucasian-Americans. Given the genotypic and phenotypic differences between the 2 cohorts, similar studies in the rapidly growing Asian-American population are needed to confirm our findings and to understand the safety and effectiveness of newer potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents in

  18. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  19. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  20. Biomechanical properties of isolated fascicles of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in African American and Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, P; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S Peter

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate biomechanical properties of the Iliopsoas and Achilles tendons in young African American (AA) and Caucasian (CC) men, and attempt to clarify whether the difference in Achilles tendon ruptures between AA and CC can be explained by differences in material properties. METH...

  1. Self-reported Experiences of Discrimination and Visceral Fat in Middle-aged African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participan...

  2. Clinical Profile, Quality of Care, and Recurrence in Arab-American and Caucasians Prostate Cancer Patients in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Moussawi, Ahmad H.; Yassine, May; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S.

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the United States with striking differences in incidence and mortality among ethnic groups. Michigan has one of the largest concentrations of Arab Americans (AAs) in the U.S. and little is known about this ethnic minority with respect to prostate cancer. This study investigated differences in clinical profile, quality of care, and recurrence among prostate cancer survivors comparing AAs and Caucasian Americans (CAs). Participants in this ...

  3. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  4. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  5. Pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy African-American and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jee; Christoph, Kathy; Yu, Zhangsheng; Eigen, Howard; Tepper, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of pulmonary diffusing capacity in healthy children primarily focused upon Caucasian (C) subjects. Since lung volumes in African-Americans (AA) are smaller than lung volumes in C subjects of the same height, diffusing capacity values in AA children might be interpreted as low or abnormal using currently available equations without adjusting for race. Healthy AA (N = 151) and C (N = 301) children between 5 and 18 years of age performed acceptable measurements of single breath pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) and alveolar volume (VA ) according to current ATS/ERS guidelines. The natural log of DLCO and VA were associated with height, gender, age, and race; AA children had lower DLCO and VA compared to C children. Adjustment of DLCO for Hemoglobin (Hgb) resulted in no significant difference in DLCO among these healthy subjects with normal Hgb. In summary, we report prediction equations for DLCO and VA that include adjustment for race (C; AA) demonstrating that AA have lower DLCO and VA compared to C children for the same height, gender, and age. PMID:25906836

  6. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  7. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  8. Needs and Concerns of Family Caregivers of American Indians, African Americans, and Caucasians With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lisa J; Bakas, Tamilyn; Poe, G Doug; Hull, Margie A; Ongwela, Loice A; Miller, Wendy R

    2016-04-01

    Although type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness affecting the entire family, scant literature exists in this area. This study's purpose was to identify needs of family caregivers of persons with type 2 diabetes across cultures. Using a semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions, a convenience sample of 33 family caregivers of American Indians (n = 14), African Americans (n = 11), and Caucasians (n = 8) with type 2 diabetes were interviewed by telephone. Qualitative content analysis was conducted based on five pre-determined categories derived from an existing conceptual model. Results were similar across groups and provided support for the conceptual model with themes emerging within the five pre-determined categories: (a) information about type 2 diabetes, (b) managing emotions and behaviors, (c) physical care, (d) instrumental care, and (e) personal responses to caregiving. No additional themes emerged. Although small and exploratory, findings provide information that may be useful to the future development of culturally based interventions. PMID:25505159

  9. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Elevated circulating levels of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are associated with increased breast cancer risk in prospective studies. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis genes may contribute to these circulating hormone levels, and consequently to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in HPA axis genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five HPA axis genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, CRH, CRHR1, and CRHBP) with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 49 SNPs evaluated, one showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of the SNP rs11747190[A] in the CRHBP gene for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women was 1.45 (1.09-1.94). The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CIs) of two SNPs (CRHBP rs1700688[T] and CRHR1 rs17689471[C]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 1.84 (1.13-2.98) and 2.48 (1.20-5.13), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in these HPA axis genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:26417403

  10. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Susan K.; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipoly...

  11. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at the baseline assessment, regressions were used to examine ethnic effects on TPB c...

  12. Differential endothelial cell gene expression by African Americans versus Caucasian Americans: a possible contribution to health disparity in vascular disease and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Milbauer LC; Wei P; Enenstein J; Nguyen J; Pan W; Hebbel RP

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology of the vascular endothelium could be a factor contributing to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer among African Americans (AA) compared to Caucasian Americans (CA). Methods From self-identified, healthy, 20 to 29-year-old AA (n = 21) and CA (n = 1...

  13. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-30

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA), Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  14. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondos Adam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.

  15. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  16. BMI1, stem cell factor acting as novel serum-biomarker for Caucasian and African-American prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifzur Rahman Siddique

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers is a stumbling block in the management of prostate cancer (CaP. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA widely used in clinics has several caveats as a CaP biomarker. African-American CaP patients have poor prognosis than Caucasians, and notably the serum-PSA does not perform well in this group. Further, some men with low serum-PSA remain unnoticed for CaP until they develop disease. Thus, there is a need to identify a reliable diagnostic and predictive biomarker of CaP. Here, we show that BMI1 stem-cell protein is secretory and could be explored for biomarker use in CaP patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Semi-quantitative analysis of BMI1 was performed in prostatic tissues of TRAMP (autochthonous transgenic mouse model, human CaP patients, and in cell-based models representing normal and different CaP phenotypes in African-American and Caucasian men, by employing immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and Slot-blotting. Quantitative analysis of BMI1 and PSA were performed in blood and culture-media of siRNA-transfected and non-transfected cells by employing ELISA. BMI1 protein is (i secreted by CaP cells, (ii increased in the apical region of epithelial cells and stromal region in prostatic tumors, and (iii detected in human blood. BMI1 is detectable in blood of CaP patients in an order of increasing tumor stage, exhibit a positive correlation with serum-PSA and importantly is detectable in patients which exhibit low serum-PSA. The clinical significance of BMI1 as a biomarker could be ascertained from observation that CaP cells secrete this protein in higher levels than cells representative of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: BMI1 could be developed as a dual bio-marker (serum and biopsy for the diagnosis and prognosis of CaP in Caucasian and African-American men. Though compelling these data warrant further investigation in a cohort of African-American patients.

  17. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663585

  18. Susceptibility to glaucoma: differential comparison of the astrocyte transcriptome from glaucomatous African American and Caucasian American donors

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas, Thomas J.; Miao, Haixi; Chen, Lin; Sean M Riordan; Li, Wenjun; Crabb, Andrea M.; Wise, Alexandria; Du, Pan; Lin, Simon M; Hernandez, M Rosario

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and genetic studies indicate that ethnic/genetic background plays an important role in susceptibility to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). POAG is more prevalent among the African-descent population compared to the Caucasian population. Damage in POAG occurs at the level of the optic nerve head (ONH) and is mediated by astrocytes. Here we investigated differences in gene expression in primary cultures of ONH astrocytes obtained from age-matched normal and glaucoma...

  19. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  20. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  1. Health Promoting Life-Style Behaviors and Systemic Inflammation in African American and Caucasian Women Prior to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Debra E. Lyon; Lathika Mohanraj; Debra Lynch Kelly; RK Elswick Jr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with bre...

  2. Comparative study of matrix metalloproteinase expression between African American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lashley Kerrie; Jett Marty; Mason Jacquline; Yancy Haile; Day Agnes

    2004-01-01

    Abstract To date there are 26 human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are classified according to their substrate specificity and structural similarities. The four major subgroups of MMPs are gelatinases, interstitial collagenases, stromelysins, and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). This study investigates the expression of 26 MMPs, which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Breast tissues and cell lines derived from African American patients and Caucasia...

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  4. Activity Patterns And Perceptions Of Goods, Services, And Eco-Cultural Attributes By Ethnicity And Gender For Native Americans And Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Managing ecosystems requires understanding how people use and value them. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in resource use and perceptions of environmental quality in Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in East-central Idaho. More men than women engaged in consumptive activities, but there were no differences for non-consumptive or religious/spiritual. More Caucasian males engaged in hunting, and more females engaged in collecting herb and, berries, and bird-watching. More Native American males engaged in hunting and fishing, and more females engaged in picnics and walking/running. Women had higher rates of hike, walk and bike than did men, and there were no ethnic differences. The data indicate that both the percent participation and the frequency of participation varied both ethnically and by gender.

  5. A comparison of 12-gene colon cancer assay gene expression in African American and Caucasian patients with stage II colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Rangaswamy; Posey, James; Chao, Calvin Y.; Lu, Ruixiao; Jadhav, Trafina; Javed, Ahmed Y.; Javed, Awais; Mahmoud, Fade A.; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U.; Manne, Upender

    2016-01-01

    Background African American (AA) colon cancer patients have a worse prognosis than Caucasian (CA) colon cancer patients, however, reasons for this disparity are not well understood. To determine if tumor biology might contribute to differential prognosis, we measured recurrence risk and gene expression using the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay (12-gene assay) and compared the Recurrence Score results and gene expression profiles between AA patients and CA patients with stage II colon cancer. ...

  6. Genetic variants in anti-Mullerian hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone receptor genes and breast cancer risk in Caucasians and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian folliculogenesis by signaling via its receptors, and elevated serum AMH levels are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in AMH-related genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMH and its receptor genes, including AMH type 1 receptor (ACVR1) and AMH type 2 receptor (AMHR2), with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 62 SNPs evaluated, two showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs12694937[C] and ACVR1 rs2883605[T]) for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women were 2.33 (1.20-4.52) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CI) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs1146031[G] and AMHR2 functional SNP rs2002555[G]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 0.63 (0.44-0.92) and 1.67 (1.10-2.53), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in AMH-related genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:25379134

  7. Persistence of depression in African American and Caucasian women at midlife: findings from the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Crawford, Sybil; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the course of depression in African American and Caucasian midlife women over an 11-year period. Racial differences in lifetime history of depression, severity of depressive symptoms and rates of depressive disorders at baseline, and persistence or recurrence of depression over an 11 year period were examined. Predictors of persistence/recurrence of depression were also examined. The sample was comprised of 423 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). All participants completed baseline and annual assessments, which included self-reported measures of health, functioning, and psychosocial factors, and clinician administered assessments of psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine predictors of depression persistence/recurrence. Findings indicated that African American and Caucasian women did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and baseline depressive disorders, or severity of depressive symptoms. Annual assessments revealed no significant differences between the groups in rates of persistent/recurrent depression. While African American and Caucasian women do not differ in recurrence of depression at midlife, factors associated with depression differed by race. PMID:24996377

  8. Graft-versus-Host Disease after HLA-Matched Sibling Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of North American Caucasian and Japanese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya; Brazauskas, Ruta; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Nagafuji, Koji; Kanamori, Heiwa; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Miyamura, Koichi; Murata, Makoto; Fukuda, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kimura, Fumihiko; Seo, Sachiko; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Yoshimi, Ayami; Milone, Giuseppe; Wood, William A; Ustun, Celalettin; Hashimi, Shahrukh; Pasquini, Marcelo; Bonfim, Carmem; Dalal, Jignesh; Hahn, Theresa; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Saber, Wael

    2016-04-01

    The risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is lower in Japanese than in Caucasian patients. However, race may have differential effect on GVHD dependent on the graft source. North American Caucasian and Japanese patients receiving their first allogeneic BMT or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling for leukemia were eligible. BMT was performed in 13% of the Caucasian patients and in 53% of the Japanese patients. On multivariate analysis, the interaction term between race and graft source was not significant in any of the models, indicating that graft source does not affect the impact of race on outcomes. The risk of grade III or IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the Japanese patients compared with the Caucasian patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.96), which resulted in lower risk of nonrelapse mortality in the Japanese patients (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.89). The risk of relapse was also lower in this group. The lower risks of nonrelapse mortality and relapse resulted in lower overall mortality rates among the Japanese patients. In conclusion, our data indicate that irrespective of graft source, the risk of severe acute GVHD is lower in Japanese patients, resulting in a lower risk of nonrelapse mortality. PMID:26762681

  9. African American men with low-grade prostate cancer have increased disease recurrence after prostatectomy compared with Caucasian men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamoah, Kosj; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Spangler, Elaine; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita M.; Malkowicz, Bruce; Lee, David I.; Kattan, Michael; Dicker, Adam P.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To explore whether disparities in outcomes exist between African-American (AA) and Caucasian (CS) men with low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) and similar Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post-Surgery (CAPRA-S) features following prostatectomy (RP) METHODS The overall cohort consisted of 1,265 men (234 AA, and 1,031 CS) who met National comprehensive cancer network (NCCN) criteria for low-intermediate risk PCa and underwent RP between 1990 and 2012. We first evaluated whether clinical factors were associated with adverse pathologic outcomes and freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) using the entire cohort. Next, we studied a subset of 705 men (112 AA, and 593 CS) who had pathologic Gleason score ≤6 (low-grade disease). Using this cohort, we determined whether race impacted FFbF in men with prostatectomy-proven low-grade disease and similar CAPRA-S score. RESULTS With a median follow up time of 27 months, the overall 7-year FFbF rate was 86% vs. 79% in CS and AA men, respectively (p=0.035). There was no significant difference in ≥1 adverse pathologic features between CS vs. AA men (27% vs. 31%; P =0.35) or CAPRA-S score (p=0.28). In the subset analysis of patients with low-grade disease, AA race was associated with worse FFbF outcomes (p=0.002). Furthermore, AA race was a significant predictor of FFbF in men with low-grade disease (HR 2.01, 95%CI 1.08–3.72; p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS AA race is a predictor of worse FFbF outcomes in men with low-grade disease after RP. These results suggest that a subset of AA men with low-grade disease may benefit from more aggressive treatment. PMID:25304288

  10. Health Promoting Life-Style Behaviors and Systemic Inflammation in African American and Caucasian Women Prior to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra E Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with breast cancer. Methods: This is a baseline descriptive analysis from an ongoing randomized controlled trial that includes 124 women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer prior to chemotherapy. Data sources included medical records, self-report questionnaires and a blood sample for measures of inflammation. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and ANOVA models to determine differences between the two groups. Results: Overall, both groups had low levels of health promoting behaviors. African Americans had a significantly higher body mass index. Caucasian women consumed more alcohol. Levels of C-reactive protein and MIP-1β were significantly higher in African Americans. Conclusion: Potentially modifiable factors such as nutrition, physical activity and levels of inflammation warrant further attention.

  11. The interleukin-6 (-174) G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Fernández-Real, José-Manuel; Knowler, William C;

    2003-01-01

    assess whether the IL6 promoter polymorphism is associated with T2DM in these populations. We genotyped the IL6 (-174) G/C polymorphism using pyrosequencing in 463 Native Americans and by PCR-RFLP in 329 Spanish Caucasians. Among the Spanish Caucasian subjects, there was a significant difference in...... genotypic distribution between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (P=0.028); the GG genotype was more common in diabetic (0.40) than in non-diabetic (0.29) subjects. The G allele was much more frequent in the Native American sample, and among a sample of 143 cases and 145 controls, the GG genotype was...... significantly more common in diabetic subjects (P=0.019). When this sample population was stratified according to ethnic heritage, all 211 subjects who were of full Pima Indian heritage had the GG genotype, whereas in the 77 American Indian subjects with non-Pima admixture, T2DM was associated with IL6 genotype...

  12. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  13. Differential Associations of Serum Amyloid A and Pentraxin-3 with Allele-Specific Lipoprotein(a) Levels in African Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Anuurad, Erdembileg; Ozturk, Zeynep; ZHANG Wei; Pearson, Thomas A.; Berglund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a CVD risk factor, where inflammation impacts levels differentially across ethnicity. We investigated the effect of systemic [serum amyloid A (SAA)] and vascular [pentraxin-3 (PTX-3)] inflammation on Lp(a) levels across different apo(a) sizes in a bi-ethnic population. Lp(a) and allele-specific apo(a) levels, apo(a) sizes, SAA and PTX-3 levels were determined in 336 Caucasians and 224 African Americans. We dichotomized subjects into 2 groups using the respective medi...

  14. Comparison of performance-based measures among native Japanese, Japanese-Americans in Hawaii and Caucasian women in the United States, ages 65 years and over: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Takuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese (both in Japan and Hawaii have a lower incidence of falls and of hip fracture than North American and European Caucasians, but the reasons for these differences are not clear. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study. We compared neuromuscular risk factors for falls using performance-based measures (chair stand time, usual and rapid walking speed, and grip strength among 163 Japanese women in Japan, 681 Japanese-American women in Hawaii and 9403 Caucasian women in the United States aged 65 years and over. Results After adjusting for age, the Caucasian women required about 40% more time to complete 5 chair stands than either group of Japanese. Walking speed was about 10% slower among Caucasians than native Japanese, whereas Japanese-American women in Hawaii walked about 11% faster than native Japanese. Grip strength was greatest in Japan, which may reflect the rural farming district that this sample was drawn from. Additional adjustment for height, weight or body mass index increased the adjusted means of chair stand time and grip strength among Japanese, but the differences remained significant. Conclusions Both native Japanese and Japanese-American women in Hawaii performed better than Caucasians on chair stand time and walking speed tests, and native Japanese had greater grip strength than Japanese in Hawaii and Caucasians. The biological implications of these differences in performance are uncertain, but may be useful in planning future comparisons between populations.

  15. Differential endothelial cell gene expression by African Americans versus Caucasian Americans: a possible contribution to health disparity in vascular disease and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbauer LC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease continue to be perplexing worldwide health challenges. This study addresses the possibility that genetic differences affecting the biology of the vascular endothelium could be a factor contributing to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease and cancer among African Americans (AA compared to Caucasian Americans (CA. Methods From self-identified, healthy, 20 to 29-year-old AA (n = 21 and CA (n = 17, we established cultures of blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC and applied microarray profiling. BOEC have never been exposed to in vivo influences, and their gene expression reflects culture conditions (meticulously controlled and donor genetics. Significance Analysis of Microarray identified differential expression of single genes. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis examined expression of pre-determined gene sets that survey nine biological systems relevant to endothelial biology. Results At the highly stringent threshold of False Discovery Rate (FDR = 0, 31 single genes were differentially expressed in AA. PSPH exhibited the greatest fold-change (AA > CA, but this was entirely accounted for by a homolog (PSPHL hidden within the PSPH probe set. Among other significantly different genes were: for AA > CA, SOS1, AMFR, FGFR3; and for AA Many more (221 transcripts for 204 genes were differentially expressed at the less stringent threshold of FDR CA for 46/157 genes within that system. Conclusions Many of the genes implicated here have substantial roles in endothelial biology. Shear stress response, a critical regulator of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis, may be different between AA and CA. These results potentially have direct implications for the role of endothelial cells in vascular disease (hypertension, stroke and cancer (via angiogenesis. Also, they are consistent with our over-arching hypothesis that genetic influences stemming from ancestral

  16. From "Wops and Dagoes and Hunkies" to "Caucasian": Changing Racial Discourse in American Classrooms during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on how public schools have functioned in the ideological production of race in America and their critical role in shaping the way Americans understand specific definitions of race as well as the muted rules of racial etiquette. The author analyzes American schools as racializing institutions, that is institutions with the…

  17. U.S. Volunteering in the Aftermath of the Great Recession: Were African Americans a Significant Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon B. Carter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession weakened U.S. families’ abilities to make charitable gifts. Although African Americans are generally especially hard hit by these types of economic crises, they have a long and distinctive history of volunteerism and mutual assistance. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine African American volunteering in nonprofit organizations in the aftermath of the 2008–2009 recession. Specifically, we examined race as well as other factors with the potential to influence volunteering in four categories of organizations: poverty organizations, senior service agencies, social action groups, and religious affiliated organizations. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID data, this secondary analysis produced significant findings regarding volunteerism among African Americans in these community-based organizations.

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICAN/span>S AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  19. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native American/span>s and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  20. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: → Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g). → Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. → Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. → Smoking

  1. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  2. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a quant

  3. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  4. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C; North, Kari E; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2009-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma I...

  5. PD with a Passport: Reflections on Professional Development through Volunteer Work in Emerging Central American Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cate Louise Carlyle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For many librarians, professional development involves system wide training days, webinars, massive open online courses (MOOCs, annual association conferences, and workshops. While such activities are necessary for learning new skills and technologies, some professionals crave a different kind of professional development. Volunteering as an international librarian can be a very rewarding and fulfilling challenge, an incredible personal and professional learning experience, but one that should not be entered into lightly. Based on the author’s experience volunteering in Guatemala with Librarians Without Borders, this article describes some of the issues involved when volunteering in Central America. Practical advice for selecting a service trip, costs, health and medical requirements, personal and professional issues, and work scope are some of the areas discussed.

  6. Modest but variable effect of rifampin on steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in healthy African-American and Caucasian volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwara, Awewura; Tashima, Karen T; Dumond, Julie B; Poethke, Pamela; Kurpewski, Jaclyn; Kashuba, Angela D M; Court, Michael H; Greenblatt, David J

    2011-07-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral regimen is preferred during rifampin-containing tuberculosis therapy. However, current pharmacokinetic data are insufficient to guide optimized concurrent dosing. This study aimed to better characterize the effects of rifampin on efavirenz pharmacokinetics. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg efavirenz/day or 600 mg efavirenz with 600 mg rifampin/day for 8 days, with plasma samples collected for pharmacokinetic analysis over 24 h on day 8. Treatments were then crossed over after at least a 2-week washout period, and procedures were repeated. Efavirenz concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. Efavirenz pharmacokinetic differences between treatment periods were evaluated by paired t test. The coefficients of variation in efavirenz plasma AUC(0-24) (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h) were 50% and 56% in the absence and presence of rifampin, respectively. Of the 11 evaluable subjects (6 white, 5 black; 6 women, 5 men), the geometric mean AUC(0-24) ratio on/off rifampin (90% confidence interval) was 0.82 (0.72, 0.92), with individual AUC(0-24) ratios varying from 0.55 to 1.18. Five subjects had a 24-hour efavirenz concentration (C(24)) of <1,000 ng/ml on rifampin. They were more likely to have received a lower dose in milligrams/kilogram of body weight and to have lower efavirenz AUC(0-24) values in the basal state. Although rifampin resulted in a modest reduction in efavirenz plasma exposure in subjects as a whole, there was high variability in responses between subjects, suggesting that efavirenz dose adjustment with rifampin may need to be individualized. Body weight and genetic factors will be important covariates in dosing algorithms. PMID:21518840

  7. Outcome disparities in African American women with triple negative breast cancer: a comparison of epidemiological and molecular factors between African American and Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although diagnosed less often, breast cancer in African American women (AAW) displays different characteristics compared to breast cancer in Caucasian women (CW), including earlier onset, less favorable clinical outcome, and an aggressive tumor phenotype. These disparities may be attributed to differences in socioeconomic factors such as access to health care, lifestyle, including increased frequency of obesity in AAW, and tumor biology, especially the higher frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in young AAW. Improved understanding of the etiology and molecular characteristics of TNBC in AAW is critical to determining whether and how TNBC contributes to survival disparities in AAW. Demographic, pathological and survival data from AAW (n = 62) and CW (n = 98) with TNBC were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Student’s t-tests, and log-rank tests. Frozen tumor specimens were available from 57 of the TNBC patients (n = 23 AAW; n = 34 CW); RNA was isolated after laser microdissection of tumor cells and was hybridized to HG U133A 2.0 microarrays. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with FDR <0.05, >2-fold difference defining significance. The frequency of TNBC compared to all BC was significantly higher in AAW (28%) compared to CW (12%), however, significant survival and pathological differences were not detected between populations. Gene expression analysis revealed the tumors were more similar than different at the molecular level, with only CRYBB2P1, a pseudogene, differentially expressed between populations. Among demographic characteristics, AAW consumed significantly lower amounts of caffeine and alcohol, were less likely to breastfeed and more likely to be obese. These data suggest that TNBC in AAW is not a unique disease compared to TNBC in CW. Rather, higher frequency of TNBC in AAW may, in part, be attributable to the effects of lifestyle choices. Because these risk factors are modifiable, they provide new opportunities for the development of risk

  8. The impact of gout on patient’s lives: a study of African-American and Caucasian men and women with gout

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); ...

  9. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) Polymorphism and Context-Specific Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in African American and Caucasian Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yu; North, Kari E.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Chambless, Lloyd E; Franceschini, Nora; Heiss, Gerardo; Kottgen, Anna; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth; West, Suzanne L.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Although variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene are consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, large population-based studies of African Americans are lacking. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effects of TCF7L2 on type 2 diabetes in the context of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We investigated the association between the TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in 2,727 African American and 9,302 Cau...

  10. Digital technology ownership, usage, and factors predicting downloading health apps among Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans: The digital link to health survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, MS; Choi, J; Arai, S; Paul, SM; Gonzalez, P.; Fukuoka, Y

    2014-01-01

    ©Melinda S Bender, JiWon Choi, Shoshana Arai, Steven M Paul, Prisila Gonzalez, Yoshimi Fukuoka. Background: Interventions using mobile health (mHealth) apps have been effective in promoting healthy lifestyle behavior change and hold promise in improving health outcomes to thereby reduce health disparities among diverse racial/ethnic populations, particularly Latino and Asian American subgroups (Filipinos and Koreans) at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Latinos and Asian Amer...

  11. Avaliação comparativa do padrão de normalidade do perfil facial em pacientes Brasileiros leucodermas e em Norte-Americanos Comparative evaluation of the facial profile normality standards in Brazilian Caucasian patients and in North American patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sant'Ana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: ciente de que a cirurgia ortognática moderna se preocupa em planejar e diagnosticar os casos clínicos utilizando medidas obtidas de grandezas do perfil tegumentar dos pacientes - com o auxílio de imagens digitais empregadas em softwares de planejamento -, no presente estudo foi proposto aferir as medidas de brasileiros leucodermas de descendência européia e compará-las com as medidas já padronizadas por Arnett, com o intuito de criar novas medidas a serem seguidas por brasileiros que utilizam o software de predição cirúrgica Dolphin Imaging 9.0. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas radiografias cefalométricas de 31 pacientes com oclusão Classe I de Angle e harmonia facial. Todas as radiografias foram digitalizadas e inseridas no software Dolphin 9.0 e 16 pontos de tecido mole e 22 pontos do esqueleto facial foram marcados, seguindo-se exatamente as marcações da análise de Arnett e McLaughlin presentes no programa. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram avaliados estatisticamente e mostram que o perfil do brasileiro é quase totalmente diferente do perfil norte-americano, exceção feita a apenas quatro pontos para os homens e outros quatro para as mulheres. Os brasileiros apresentam uma face menos protruída, um perfil mais convexo e menor proeminência do queixo do que o grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: esses dados mostram a necessidade de se realizar algumas mudanças nas grandezas numéricas para que um perfeito diagnóstico e planejamento possam ser realizados em brasileiros, criando assim o padrão do perfil facial do brasileiro leucoderma de descendência européia.AIM: Considering that modern orthognathic surgery is mainly concerned in planning and diagnosing clinical cases by the use of patients' soft tissue measurements obtained from digital images used in planning software, the aim of this study is to establish Caucasian Brazilians measures and to compare them to the standard North American measures. METHODS: For this, a

  12. 中美大学生志愿服务激励机制的比较研究%A Comparative Study of the Inspirational Mechanism of Volunteer Services Between Chinese and American College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙永红

    2011-01-01

    从来源上看,国家的合法性认同、高校的创新管理、志愿组织与志愿者之间的关系是大学生志愿服务激励机制的重要方面。中美大学生志愿服务激励机制的比较结果表明:志愿服务是一种“有限自愿”行为,需要强化国家在法律规章合法性建构方面的主导性,提升大学生志愿服务在国家社会生活中的显著度;大学生志愿服务行动呈“弥散分布结构”,需要高校建立统一认证考评体系,并将其纳入课程学分、就业指标与素质教育的框架;志愿组织培育好与志愿者的关系,以平等沟通与深度参与方式开发志愿服务的多元活动网络,有助于从内在的满足感与成就感方面激发大学生的志愿热情。%The inspirational mechanism of volunteer services among college students originates from the recognition of the legitimacy from state, the creative management in higher educational institutions and the relationship between the volunteer organizations and volunteers. The comparison of the inspirational mechanism of volunteer services between Chinese and American college students shows that volunteer services is a kind of limited voluntary behaviors, which means that state power should take the leadership in the construction of a legalized framework of laws and regulations so as to highlight the importance of volunteer services of college students in the social life of the whole country. The scattered structure of volunteer service of college students determines that higher educational institutions should establish a unified evaluation and testing system to include it in the framework of course credits, employment target and quality education. The volunteer organizations are supposed to cultivate its relationship with volunteers to expand the diversification of volunteer activities by equal communication and deep involvement, which stimulates the passion of volunteers by meeting their internal

  13. Interethnic variability of pharmacogenetic biomarkers in Mexican healthy volunteers: a report from the RIBEF (Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke-Galindo, Ingrid; Jung-Cook, Helgi; LLerena, Adrián; López-López, Marisol

    2016-06-01

    Mexico presents a complex population diversity integrated by Mexican indigenous (MI) (7% of Mexico's population) and Mexican mestizos (MMs). This composition highlights the importance of pharmacogenetic studies in Mexican populations. The aims of this study were to analyze the reported frequencies of the most relevant pharmacogenetic biomarkers and metabolic phenotypes in healthy volunteers from Mexican populations and to assess its interethnic variability across MI and MM populations. After a literature search in PubMed, and according to previously defined inclusion criteria, 63 pharmacogenetic studies performed in Mexican healthy volunteers up to date were selected. These reports comprised 56,292 healthy volunteers (71.58% MM). Allele frequencies in 31 pharmacogenetic biomarkers, from 121 searched, are described. Nine of these biomarkers presented variation within MM and MI groups. The frequencies of CYP2D6*3, *4, *5, *10, *17, *35 and *41 alleles in the MM group were different from those reported in the MI group. CYP2C9*2 and *3 alleles were more frequent in MM than in MI populations (χ2 test, pMexican healthy volunteers; therefore, further studies are warranted. The frequency variation of biomarkers in MM and MI populations could be important for the clinical implementation of pharmacogenetics in Mexico. PMID:26812836

  14. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  15. Does Pay Motivate Volunteers?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Frey; Götte, Lorenz

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer work is an increasingly large, yet ill-understood sector of the economy. We show that monetary rewards undermine the intrinsic motivation of volunteers. A unique data set from Switzerland allows us to assess the effects of financial rewards on the effort put into volunteer work. There is a fairly standard pattern regarding the volunteers reaction e.g. to more labor market work hours. But we obtain the puzzling result that, when rewarded, volunteers work less. These findings are in l...

  16. The management of volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Mihaela Haivas

    2009-01-01

    Volunteering is consider to be any activity intended to help others that is provided without obligation for which the volunteer does not receive pay or other material compensation. Given the role and the importance of volunteering as a productive resource, the non – profit organizations mainly driven by volunteers need to have a good management of these resources, which could be a tricky issue considering the lack of any financial rewards. After a short briefing of the role of volunteering an...

  17. Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative disorder in the United States : Young Caucasian males are at highest risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dharnidharka, VR; Tejani, AH; Ho, PL; Harmon, WE

    2002-01-01

    We have previously documented Caucasian race and cadaver donor source as risk factors for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) development in recipients registered in the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study (NAPRTCS). We analyzed data from the Scientific Regist

  18. My Volunteer Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengAi

    2004-01-01

    SEVERAL years ago, I read a notice soliciting volunteer teachers to work in the west.It caught my interest and I clipped it. Upon graduation in August 2000, 1 postponed my graduate stud-ies in sociology and joined the Fudan Team of China Youth Volunteer Aid.My one-year volunteer life began in

  19. Volunteers in Sport Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VESNA CILERDZIC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.

  20. Social Volunteer Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Mcmahon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available While both volunteer computing and social networks have proved successful, the merging of these two models is a new field: Social Volunteer Computing. A Social Volunteer Computing system utilizes the relationships within a social network to determine how computational resources flow towards tasks that need to be completed, and the results of these computations are added back into the social network as content. Such a system will provide scientists and artists a new facility to obtain computational resources and disseminate their work. RenderWeb 2.0, a prototype Social Volunteer Computing system, is introduced that allows animations created in Blender to be distributed and rendered within Facebook.

  1. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor | Donate main search Search American Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA ... RENEW VOLUNTEER FAES: FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN EPILEPSY SOCIETY MAILING LIST PURCHASE FOR PATIENTS EPILEPSY BENEFIT INTERNATIONAL ...

  2. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes. PMID:19622188

  3. Recruiting Today's Volunteer Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paresky, Susan S.

    1994-01-01

    College and university development officers are encouraged to adjust their expectations of volunteers to the current reality of graduates' schedules and commitments. Five barriers to volunteering (economic, time and distance, language and cultural, environmental, and competitive) are identified, and techniques for overcoming them are offered. (MSE)

  4. Geographic variation in organ availability is responsible for disparities in liver transplantation between Hispanics and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, M L; Choi, H; Warren, G J W; Sonnenday, C J; Marrero, J A; Heisler, M

    2009-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether disparities in waiting list outcomes exist for Hispanics and African Americans during the post-MELD era, and to investigate interactions between disparities and geography. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data were used to compare Hispanics and African Americans to Caucasians listed between 2003 and 2008. Endpoints included (i) receipt of a liver transplant and (ii) death or removal from the waiting list for being too sick or medically unsuitable. Adjustment for possible confounders was performed using multivariate Cox regression, with adjustment for geographic variation using a fixed-effects multilevel model. In multivariate analysis, African Americans have similar hazard of transplantation and death/removal as Caucasians during the post-MELD era. However, Hispanics are less likely to receive a transplant than Caucasians despite adjustment for potential confounders (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.77-0.83), while having a similar hazard of death/removal. This effect disappeared after adjusting for unequal regional distribution of Hispanics, who represent 8% of patients in donation service areas (DSAs) having median waiting times of 155 days. In conclusion, disparities in liver transplantation exist for Hispanics during the post-MELD era, caused by geographic variation in organ availability. PMID:19624565

  5. My volunteer work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫子辰

    2015-01-01

    <正>As we all know,being a volunteer can help us learn many things,such as new skills,staying active,improving our social skills,accumulating work experience,making new friends with those who have the same topic,helping us grow more rapidly...I can still recall the days when I worked as a volunteer in a hospital in my city.The unforgetable experience was not only a volunteer work,but also a small society to me.It was in the summer vocation after high school entrance examination,when I had nothing to do but to play computer

  6. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  7. NASTEP Volunteer Request (CSA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Allows users to add themselves to a Service Area wide ?volunteer for emergency duty? list (was created after Gulf Coast Hurricanes). Approval and email by managers,...

  8. Volunteering and Organizational Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David

    2008-01-01

    understanding of why people donate some of their scarce time to different types of volunteering. The survey is based upon a random sample of 4.200 persons aged 16-85, drawn from the Central Population Register. The response rate was 75 percent and interviews were obtained through phone interviewing conducted...... with the characteristics of the Danish adult population suggests that the sample is representative as regards gender, age, and place of living. However, respondents with non-western citizenship are under-represented in the study. In the survey respondents were probed about formal volunteering within 14 different fields...... accomplish some desired end (Smith 1981:33). The question of why people volunteer is thus guided towards factors governing entry and exit from ‘the volunteer labour market' (Wilson and Musick 1999:244). The following three different forms of resources or capital are identified as being of crucial importance...

  9. Student volunteering - gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Maškarin Ribarić; Lorena Dadić; Martina Nađ

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – A high unemployment rate of young highly-educated people as a consequence of economic crisis is one of the main problems the Croatian economy is facing today. In order to increase their future competitiveness on the labour market, students are encouraged to involve themselves in different types of volunteering activities. The purpose of this paper is to determine if there are differences in attitudes towards volunteering between male and female students. These differences should be ...

  10. Volunteering in sport clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Nagel, Siegfried; Schlesinger, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Volunteers are the most important resource for non-profit sport clubs seeking to bolster their viability (e.g. sporting programs). Although many people do voluntary work in sport clubs, stable voluntary engagement can no longer be granted. This difficulty is confirmed by existing research across various European countries. From a club management point of view, a detailed understanding of how to attract volunteers and retain them in the long term is becoming a high priority. The purpose of thi...

  11. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  12. Body density differences between negro and caucasian professional football players

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J.; Bagnall, K. M.; McFadden, K. D.; Mottola, M.

    1981-01-01

    Other workers have shown that the bone density for the average negro is greater than for the average caucasian. This would lead to greater values of body density for the average negro but it is confused because the average negro has a different body form (and consequently different proportions of body components) compared with the average caucasian. This study of body density of a group of professional Canadian football players investigates whether or not to separate negroes from caucasians w...

  13. Motivations of German Hospice Volunteers: How Do They Compare to Nonhospice Volunteers and US Hospice Volunteers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Eva-Maria; Lang, Frieder R

    2016-03-01

    We examined reasons of volunteering for hospice and nonhospice organizations in a study with 125 volunteers (22-93 years) from the United States and Germany. Motives of US and German hospice volunteers revealed similarities and few differences. Hospice volunteers are involved because they seek to help others, seek new learning experiences, seek social contacts, or seek personal growth. The US hospice volunteers reported motives related to altruistic concerns, enhancement, and social influence as more influential, while German hospice volunteers rated career expectations as being more important. Comparison of German hospice with nonhospice volunteers revealed stronger differences: German hospice volunteers scored higher on altruistic motives, while German nonhospice volunteers yielded higher scores on self-serving motives. Findings contribute to improved understanding of volunteering motivation and of activating or retaining hospice volunteers. PMID:25422517

  14. Effect of cortisol on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in Pima Indians and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Snitker, Soren;

    2003-01-01

    tonic inhibitory effect of cortisol. However, an acute release of cortisol is likely to more effectively contain sympathoexcitation during stress in Pima Indians than in Caucasians, which may be an important mechanism of cardioprotection in this Native American population.......The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) interact to maintain cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis, especially during stress. Pima Indians have a low SNS activity, which may contribute to both their increased risk of obesity and reduced risk of hypertension....... Although glucocorticoids inhibit SNS activity, Pima Indians are not hypercortisolemic compared with Caucasians. This does not exclude the possibility that the SNS is more responsive to an inhibitory effect of cortisol in the former than in the latter group. We measured fasting plasma ACTH and cortisol and...

  15. Call for volunteers

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory for organizing the two exceptional Open days.CERN is calling for volunteers from all members of the Laboratory’s personnel to help with the organisation of these two exceptional Open Days, for the visits of CERN personnel and their families on the Saturday and above all for the major public Open Day on the Sunday. As for the 50th anniversary in 2004, the success of the Open Days will depend on a large number of volunteers. All those working for CERN as well as retired members of the personnel can contribute to making this event a success. Many guides will be needed at the LHC points, for the activities at the surface and to man the reception and information points. The aim of these major Open Days is to give the local populations the opportunity to discover the fruits of almost 20 years of work carried out at CERN. We are hoping for some 2000 volunteers for the two Open Days, on the Saturday from 9 a.m. to ...

  16. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  17. Motivation of youth participation in the volunteer movement

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Nezhina; Kseniya Petukhova; Natal'ya Chechetkina; Il'ziya Mindarova

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine existing practices of young volunteer recruitment, retention and motivation in Russian noncommercial and government organizations and compare them with the best practices in American organizations. To know this information is essential for government managers and NGO leaders to successfully attract and retain young people as volunteers in their organizations. The theories of economic man and altruistic man have shaped the methodology and research des...

  18. VOLUNTEERING IN EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Emilian M. DOBRESCU

    2011-01-01

    Around 100 million people residing in EU countries, so about 24 percent of the EU participate in volunteer activities. About 20 million volunteers live in countries from Eastern Europe, so they represent about 20 percent of the volunteers from EU countries. It is widely recognized the social and cultural dimension of volunteering, reflected in employment and social inclusion, education and training, active citizenship and mass sport. But the economic dimension of volunteerism, especially duri...

  19. Enhancing Leadership Skills in Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Landry L.; Boyd, Barry

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how professionals leading volunteers can purposefully work toward developing the "leadership identity" of individual volunteers. These concepts and the application of them are presented in the context of Cooperative Extension volunteer groups. Specific methods of developing the leadership identity and capacity of individual…

  20. Making room for volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2012-01-01

    If campaigns do not accommodate this view, all but a hard core of regulars and fired-up partisans will drift away, leaving it for staffers and hired hands to do all the hard work of identifying voters, canvassing people by foot and by phone, and turning out the vote. [...] ironically, a campaign...... that is singleminded in its instrumental pursuit of victory can thus be less effective than one that is more accommodating- a campaign that makes room for volunteers by accepting that, unlike staffers, they come to politics with a different perspective and conception of what is and ought to be going on....

  1. Volunteer Team Management

    OpenAIRE

    Monych, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This thesis looked into volunteer team management in a project in AIESEC in Finland through the action research method. AIESEC in Finland is a non-profit non-government organization with a purpose of “peace and fulfilment of humankinds potential” through development of the youth’s future leadership. AIESEC was not a commissioning party; the project was the basis for the thesis without the supervision of the company. The thesis is based on a project that the author was in charge of, in ...

  2. Micro-volunteering and leadership in CPH Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Yankova, Kalina Boyanova; Gottlieb, Mikkel; Raya Prasai, Manuka; Shrestha Sainju, Romisha

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there have been tremendous changes in the voluntary world. The technological revolution has opened up new possibilities for volunteering, both in terms of how people find opportunities, and how people actually carry out their volunteer activities. While these new types of volunteering are rapidly spreading around the world, it seems as if they have not yet received a solid foothold in Denmark, a country otherwise well known for their strong voluntary tradition. In addition, t...

  3. The first Caucasian patient with p.Val122Ile mutated-transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis treated with isolated heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirati, Enrico; Marziliano, Nicola; Vittori, Claudia; Pedrotti, Patrizia; Bramerio, Manuela A; Motta, Valentina; Orsini, Francesco; Veronese, Silvio; Merlini, Piera A; Martinelli, Luigi; Frigerio, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Effective treatments for mutated transthyretin (TTR)-related cardiac amyloidosis are limited. Heart transplantation or combined liver-heart transplantation are the most successful options, although results rely on underline mechanism and systemic nature of the disease. In this report, we present the first case of a Caucasian patient with the p.Val122Ile mutated TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis treated with heart transplantation due to this gene mutation frequent in Afro-Americans with a prevalent isolated heart involvement. The choice of isolated heart transplantation instead of combined heart and liver transplantations was based on (1) severe and progressive cardiac disease, (2) evidence of a gene mutation generally associated with isolated cardiac disease and (3) absence of relevant extra-cardiac involvement (with the possible exception of mild peripheral neuropathy). In any case, the very short post-transplant observation period of 10 months does not allow any conclusions on the long-term course of the presented strategy. Finally, it is the first European Caucasian family with the p.Val122Ile TTR mutation that has been described. Till now, very few Caucasian cases of p.Val122Ile mutated TTR-related cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. The patient and some members of his family also had mild peripheral neuropathy suggesting a regional phenotypic heterogeneity of European Caucasian TTR p.Val122Ile. PMID:22449240

  4. Large-scale in-vivo Caucasian facial soft tissue thickness database for craniofacial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, S; Claes, P; Vandermeulen, D; Mollemans, W; Suetens, P; Willems, G

    2006-05-15

    A large-scale study of facial soft tissue depths of Caucasian adults was conducted. Over a 2-years period, 967 Caucasian subjects of both sexes, varying age and varying body mass index (BMI) were studied. A user-friendly and mobile ultrasound-based system was used to measure, in about 20min per subject, the soft tissue thickness at 52 facial landmarks including most of the landmarks used in previous studies. This system was previously validated on repeatability and accuracy [S. De Greef, P. Claes, W. Mollemans, M. Loubele, D. Vandermeulen, P. Suetens, G. Willems, Semi-automated ultrasound facial soft tissue depth registration: method and validation. J. Forensic Sci. 50 (2005)]. The data of 510 women and 457 men were analyzed in order to update facial soft tissue depth charts of the contemporary Caucasian adult. Tables with the average thickness values for each landmark as well as the standard deviation and range, tabulated according to gender, age and BMI are reported. In addition, for each landmark and for both sexes separately, a multiple linear regression of thickness versus age and BMI is calculated. The lateral asymmetry of the face was analysed on an initial subset of 588 subjects showing negligible differences and thus warranting the unilateral measurements of the remaining subjects. The new dataset was statistically compared to three datasets for the Caucasian adults: the traditional datasets of Rhine and Moore [J.S. Rhine, C.E. Moore, Tables of facial tissue thickness of American Caucasoids in forensic anthropology. Maxwell Museum Technical series 1 (1984)] and Helmer [R. Helmer, Schädelidentifizierung durch elektronische bildmischung, Kriminalistik Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 1984] together with the most recent in vivo study by Manhein et al. [M.H. Manhein, G.A. Listi, R.E. Barsley, R. Musselman, N.E. Barrow, D.H. Ubelbaker, In vivo facial tissue depth measurements for children and adults. J. Forensic Sci. 45 (2000) 48-60]. The large-scale database

  5. Social media and community volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, A

    2015-01-01

    This seed project aimed to explore to what extent the transformative potentials of digital technologies, in particular social media, are being realised in relation to community volunteering. The project was funded by the Communities and Culture Network+ and Canterbury and Herne Bay Volunteer Centre was a project partner. The research explored how small non-profit organisations in the case study area of Canterbury district used social media for volunteering as well as how they have adopted the...

  6. Wasted resources volunteers and disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, a reported 12,000 volunteers arrived to help. Immediately after the 9/11 attacks, an estimated 30,000 volunteers converged on ground zero and the Pentagon. As the weather cleared following Hurricane Katrina, over 60,000 volunteers descended upon Lousiana, Alabama, Texas and Mississippi. These well-intentioned citizens were both a blessing and a curse. While offering assistance, they also ...

  7. Volunteering for charity: pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2007-05-01

    This study builds upon and extends the social-identity-based model of cooperation with the organization (T. R. Tyler, 1999; T. R. Tyler & S. L. Blader, 2000) to examine commitment and cooperative intent among fundraising volunteers. In Study 1, structural equation modeling indicated that pride and respect related to the intent to remain a volunteer with an organization, and that this relation was mediated primarily by normative organizational commitment. In Study 2, structural equation modeling indicated that the perceived importance of volunteer work was related to pride, that perceived organizational support related to the experience of respect, and that pride and respect mediated the relation between perceived importance and support on the one hand and organizational commitment on the other. Overall, the results suggest that volunteer organizations may do well to implement pride and respect in their volunteer policy, for instance to address the reliability problem (J. L. Pearce, 1993). PMID:17484556

  8. My Days as a Volunteer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲; 杨梦倩; 许文侠; 陈丽敏; 陈丽琼; 陈昊; 李雯

    2009-01-01

    Volunteer, a word derived from Latin, carries the meaning of "will". A volunteer is someone who works for a community or for the benefit of environment. There are various forms of voluntary work including "serving food at the local homeless shelter,

  9. Managing Library Volunteers, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, Preston; Dumas, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are essential to a successful library program--and at a time when deep budget cuts are the norm, there are many libraries that depend on the help of dedicated volunteers, who do everything from shelving books to covering the phones. Whether these are friends, trustees, or community members, managing them effectively is the key to…

  10. The Effective Use of Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Scott G.

    1980-01-01

    If volunteers are to be effective, they must perform needed tasks, have a clear job description, a sense of importance, a schedule for completion, and an understood term of office. Identifying, recruiting, and training fund-raising volunteers are discussed. Annual giving specialists are classified as leaders, personal solicitors, class agents,…

  11. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  12. Comparison of cervicovertebral dimensions in Australian Aborigines and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, B; Brown, T; Townsend, G

    1999-04-01

    Cervicovertebral dimensions were compared in a group of 30 male and 30 female young adult Australian Aborigines from the Northern Territory, and a control sample consisting of 60 Caucasian dental students from Adelaide, matched for sex and age. Thirty-six variables, 22 cervical and 14 craniofacial, were derived from standardized lateral roentgenograms with the use of a computerized cephalometric system. Vertebral body height and length were significantly greater in Aboriginal males than females for C3 to C7, while dorsal arch height of C1 and C2 displayed the greatest dimensional variability in both sexes. The antero-posterior length of C1, dens height, and body heights of C3 and C4 were significantly shorter in Aborigines than Caucasians for both males and females. Total length of the column from C2 to C6 was approximately 12 per cent shorter in the Aborigines compared with Caucasians. The height of the posterior arch of C1 was significantly correlated with one or both posterior cranial base lengths in Aborigines and Caucasians. Associations were also noted between mandibular lengths and posterior arch heights of the upper two vertebrae. The results confirm and clarify several previous observations on the relative shortness of the cervical spine in Australian Aboriginals. They also indicate some associations between dimensions of the cervical vertebrae and craniofacial lengths, particularly those representing the posterior cranial base and the mandible. PMID:10327736

  13. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  14. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Pigmented corneal ring associated with orthokeratology in caucasians : case reports

    OpenAIRE

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; González-Pérez, Javier; Garcia-Porta, Nery; Diaz-Rey, José Alberto; Parafita, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to report the appearance of a pigmented ring in both eyes of two patients undergoing overnight orthokeratology. METHODS: Two Caucasian patients, one male and one female, were fitted with orthokeratology lenses to correct myopia between -2.00 and -2.50 DS with Paragon corneal refractive therapy lenses worn overnight. Treatment was successful in both patients achieving uncorrected vision of 6/6 or better monocularly under high (100 per cent) and low (10 per cent) con...

  16. Analysis of genetic heterogeneity in the HCAR adenovirus-binding Ig1 domain in a Caucasian Flemish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollants Elke

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes the human cellular receptor for group B coxsackieviruses and adenoviruses (HCAR could be responsible for differences in susceptibility to infections with these pathogens. Moreover, adenovirus subgroup C-mediated gene therapy could be influenced by mutations in the coding exons for the aminoterminal immunoglobulin-like 1 (Ig1 domain, which is the essential component for adenovirus fiber knob binding. Results Using two primersets in the adjacent intron sequences, HCAR exons 2 and 3, which comprise the full-length Ig1 domain, were amplified by polymerase chain reactions in 108 unselected and unrelated healthy Belgian volunteers. After nucleotide sequencing, no polymorphisms could be demonstrated in the adenovirus-binding Ig1 exons 2 and 3 of the HCAR gene. Conclusions The adenovirus-binding Ig1 domain seems to be a highly conserved region in the Caucasian population which is a reassuring finding regarding adenovector-based gene therapy.

  17. Volunteers - how to motivate and lead them

    OpenAIRE

    Sajo, Elise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study the leadership of volunteers and its specific characteristics. The motivation of volunteers is studied and also how the leadership of volunteers is implemented in some volunteer organisations operating in Finland. The thesis also presents basic theories in human motivation and leadership styles to help identify suitable methods for the leadership of volunteers. The thesis process was conducted during the spring of 2014 and consisted of two parts. The fir...

  18. Volunteers in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2012-01-01

    they help in the product development but also because they are seen as a cheap resource. From an employee perspective you often hear that it creates a sense of fear for cuts or loss of professionalism, but can also be seen as a helpful resource and dynamic element in the organization. In the Experience...... down, gathered and discussed. The Questions addressed is how to enlist, motivate and reward volunteers a long the way and how to manage and guide volunteers. Furthermore what kind of special relationship does the volunteer have in the making of the experience design and in the experience of that design....... This paper combines theories from psychology about motivational factors, game theories about rewards, business model theory about crowdsourcing and crowdfunding, user and customer experience theory with 25 interviews with experienced industry experts limited to the cultural sector and with relation to...

  19. 45 CFR 1217.6 - Roles of volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communication of VISTA policies to VISTA volunteers. (c) Encourage and develop VISTA volunteer leadership and... VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.6 Roles of volunteers. VISTA volunteer leaders may have the...

  20. Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism and personality traits in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M L; Wasserman, D; Geijer, T; Frisch, A; Rockah, R; Michaelovsky, E; Apter, A; Weizman, A; Jönsson, E G; Bergman, H

    2000-01-01

    An association between long alleles of a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene and the extraversion related personality traits Excitement and Novelty Seeking has been reported in healthy subjects. In an attempt to replicate the previous findings, 256 healthy Caucasian volunteers were analysed for a potential relationship between the dopamine receptor D4 exon III VNTR polymorphism and Extraversion as assessed by the Revised Neo Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The present study did not yield evidence for an association between Extraversion and the dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism. PMID:11009073

  1. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  2. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies. PMID:27075031

  3. Everyday party politics: local volunteers and professional organizers in grassroots campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Super, Elizabeth Harkness

    2009-01-01

    The decline in traditional methods of civic engagement is a cause for concern in many Western democracies. Similarly, studies of American party politics point to a transformation from locally-based volunteer organizations to national ones assisting candidate-centered, professionally-run campaigns, leaving little room for volunteer participants. This thesis analyses the recent resurgence of grassroots participation and organization in the United States. Using interpretive methods, I present a ...

  4. Caucasian Infants Scan Own- and Other-Race Faces Differently

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S.; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differen...

  5. Platelet antigen allele frequencies in Australian aboriginal and Caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Lester, S; Boettcher, B; McCluskey, J

    1997-11-01

    We have applied genotyping methods of PCR-SSOP and PCR-RFLP to three, bi-allelic platelet specific antigen systems HPA-1 (Pla), HPA-3 (Bak) and HPA-5 (Br). This combination of techniques offers flexibility for high volume or rapid typing. The phenotype and genotype frequencies of alleles from the three systems differ significantly between the Yuendumu Australian Aboriginals (Wailbri) and Australian Caucasians. The major differences are the very low frequencies of HPA-1b and HPA-3b in Yuendumu Aboriginals which are potentially relevant to platelet transfusion in patients of Australian Aboriginal descent. PMID:9423221

  6. Echocardiographic nomograms for chamber diameters and areas in Caucasian children

    OpenAIRE

    Cantinotti, Massimiliano; Scalese, Marco; Murzi, Bruno; Assanta, Nadia; Spadoni, Isabella; De Lucia, Vittoria; Crocetti, Maura; Cresti, Alberto; Gallotta, Milena; Marotta, Marco; Tyack, Karin; Molinaro, Sabrina; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although a quantitative evaluation of cardiac chamber dimensions in pediatric echocardiography is often important, nomograms for these structures are limited. The aim of this study was to establish reliable echocardiographic nomograms of cardiac chamber diameters and areas in a wide population of children. METHODS: A total of 1,091 Caucasian Italian healthy children (age range, 0 days to 17 years; 44.8% female) with body surface areas (BSAs) ranging from 0.12 to 1.8 m(2) were pros...

  7. Engaged anthropology and corporate volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Blahová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present engaged anthropology and its methodological tools with a specific perspective of the research field and the position of the researcher with regard to research subjects. The study focuses on corporate volunteering as one of the forms of collaboration between the non-profit and the private sectors seeking solutions to social problems and community development. Volunteering projects contribute to the interlinking of the knowledge, skills, experience and resources of corporate employees and the representatives of the non-profit or the public sector. It is a part of the philanthropic strategy of companies which are willing to present themselves as entities responsible towards the environment in which they run their business, and towards their employees, partners and customers. Engaged anthropology can bring, through its methodological tools, a new perspective of corporate volunteering. Community-based participatory research on the process of knowledge creation includes all partners on an equal basis and identifies their unique contribution to problem solution and community development.

  8. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordasco Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. Methods CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI, of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. Results The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females. Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p 2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p Conclusion These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care.

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis in Caucasian patients: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Bertrand; Lidove, Olivier; Delbot, Thierry; Aslangul, Elisabeth; Hausfater, Pierre; Papo, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Secondary hypokalemic periodic paralysis is rare. However, when it occurs, it is usually associated with Graves' disease and it is mostly diagnosed in Asiatic male patients. In this report, we analyze the diagnostic procedure in three cases of hypokalemic periodic paralysis associated with Graves' disease, diagnosed in three different emergency care units over the last 3 years. Three Caucasian men (26, 30, and 39 years of age) came to the emergency care unit for acute tetraparesia. One of them had suffered 15 stereotypical episodes of tetraparesia during the last 2 years. Goiter was present in each case. Kalemia was 1.8, 2.1, and 3 mmol/l, respectively. Triggering events such as considerable sugar intake and physical exercise were present in two cases. In all cases, low TSH levels, high FT4 levels, and anti-TSH receptor antibodies led to the diagnosis of Graves' disease. All patients were treated with potassium supplementation and neomercazole. Outcome was good with a follow-up of 6, 9, and 24 months, respectively. Emergency care practitioners should be aware of this diagnosis, which may affect Caucasian patients presenting with transient tetraparesia in a primary care unit. PMID:16137557

  10. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasinato, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture, 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching, 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance, domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique under local anesthesia Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose.

  11. An Experience with Volunteers in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsworth, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Offers examples of the use of volunteers in recreation and adult education programs. Describes Fanshawe College's local community advisory committees for continuing education centers. Identifies conditions for using volunteers effectively. Reviews Edison College's Talent Banking system which involves volunteers as visiting lecturers, career…

  12. Differences in breast cancer characteristics and outcomes between Caucasian and Chinese women in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dan-Na; Song, Chuan-Gui; Ouyang, Qian-Wen; Jiang, Yi-zhou; Ye, Fu-Gui; Ma, Fang-Jing; Luo, Rong-Cheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Chinese breast cancer patients living in the United States (US) can experience different disease patterns than Caucasians, which might allow for predicting the future epidemiology of breast cancer in China. We aimed to compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes of Caucasian and Chinese female breast cancer patients residing in the US. The study cohort consisted of 3868 Chinese and 208621 Caucasian women (diagnosed from 1990 to 2009) in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and En...

  13. Condylar volume and surface in Caucasian young adult subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been no quantitative standards for volumetric and surface measurements of the mandibular condyle in Caucasian population. However, the recently developed cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system allows measurement of these parameters with high accuracy. CBCT was used to measure the condylar volume, surface and the volume to surface ratio, called the Morphometric Index (MI), of 300 temporo-mandibular joints (TMJ) in 150 Caucasian young adult subjects, with varied malocclusions, without pain or dysfunction of TMJs. The condylar volume was 691.26 ± 54.52 mm3 in males and 669.65 ± 58.80 mm3 in, and was significantly higher (p< 0.001) in the males. The same was observed for the condylar surface, although without statistical significance (406.02 ± 55.22 mm2 in males and 394.77 ± 60.73 mm2 in females). Furthermore, the condylar volume (693.61 ± 62.82 mm3 ) in the right TMJ was significantly higher than in the left (666.99 ± 48.67 mm3, p < 0.001) as was the condylar surface (411.24 ± 57.99 mm2 in the right TMJ and 389.41 ± 56.63 mm2 in the left TMJ; t = 3.29; p < 0.01). The MI is 1.72 ± 0.17 for the whole sample, with no significant difference between males and females or the right and left sides. These data from temporomandibular joints of patients without pain or clinical dysfunction might serve as examples of normal TMJ's in the general population not seeking orthodontic care

  14. Paleotethys geo dynamics of the Caspian-Caucasian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Character of the spread of the plate-tectonic structures of Paleotethys and its oceanic basins including plan and age of the deformation as well as relation between Paleotethys and Mesotethys and the other issues are urgent debatable problems of the Paleozoic-Triassic geology in the region. As a result of complex geologic, magmatic, tectonic, paleo bio geographic, geophysical and cosmotectonic studies in the Caucasus, Zacaspian and Iran there were constructed geo dynamic maps on the paleo tectonic basis for certain time sections starting from the Cambrian transition stage till the Triassic models of Paleotethys evolution for two near-meridional geo traverses Arabian margin of Gondwana and in the north it crosses the East-European platform. In the Cambrian the change of the carbonaceous facies by the arkosicsandstones and quartzites in the Gondwana and in the East-European platforms is associated with the absolute elevation and washout of the Caspian-Caucasian shield. This is a precursor of more significant events and processes. There probably occurred a large structural reconstruction in the boundary of the Cambrian and the Ordovician associated with the beginning of the opening of the Caucasian, Turkestan and Ural pale oceans. As a result of the continental riftogenesis that in the next stage is transformed from the rifting into the spreading of the oceanic crust the double deep-water basins of Paleotethys were separated. The closure of neo-Paleotethys in the late Triassic was preceded by the crack of Gondwana and location of a system of the branching rifting and spreading of Mesotethys

  15. Mitochondrial haplogroups and control region polymorphisms are not associated with prostate cancer in Middle European Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith E Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides being responsible for energy production in the cell, mitochondria are central players in apoptosis as well as the main source of harmful reactive oxygen species. Therefore, it can be hypothesised that sequence variation in the mitochondrial genome is a contributing factor to the etiology of diseases related to these different cellular events, including cancer. The aim of the present study was to assess the frequency of haplogroups and polymorphisms in the control region (CR of mitochondrial DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with prostate carcinoma (n = 304 versus patients screened for prostate disease but found to be negative for cancer on biopsy (n = 278 in a Middle European population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nine major European haplogroups and the CR polymorphisms were identified by means of primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, respectively. We found that mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and CR polymorphisms do not differ significantly between patients with or without prostate cancer, implying no impact of inherited mitochondrial DNA variation on predisposition to prostate carcinoma in a Middle European population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results contrast with a recent report claiming an association between mtDNA haplogroup U and prostate cancer in a North American population of caucasian descent.

  16. 20 CFR 10.730 - What are the conditions of coverage for Peace Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? 10.730 Section... Corps volunteers and volunteer leaders injured while serving outside the United States? (a) Any injury sustained by a volunteer or volunteer leader while he or she is located abroad shall be presumed to...

  17. Motivations of Young Volunteers in Special Events

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Volunteers are considered one of the main pillars of the special events. Motivations of volunteers have received a great attention from many organizations as they proved to be of a great value for human resources. Volunteering in special events bring different people together no matter what are their ethnics, origins, religion and economic standards. It also creates a sense of social harmony. The main issue of this research is to identify the motivations, needs and attitudes of young voluntee...

  18. Pain perception in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Nielsen, Signe T; Werner, Mads U;

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the relationship between pain perception and cytokine release during systemic inflammation. We present a randomized crossover trial in healthy volunteers (n = 17) in 37 individual trials. Systemic inflammation was induced by an i.v. bolus of Escherichia coli LPS (2 ng/kg) on two...... separate trial days, with or without a nicotine patch applied 10 h previously. Pain perception at baseline, and 2 and 6 h after LPS was assessed by pressure algometry and tonic heat stimulation at an increasing temperature (45-48℃) during both trials. Compared with baseline, pain pressure threshold...... was reduced 2 and 6 h after LPS, while heat pain perception was accentuated at all testing temperatures after 2 but not 6 h. The magnitude of changes in pain perception did not correlate to cytokine release. No effect of transdermal nicotine or training status was observed. In conclusion, LPS administration...

  19. Comparing HLA shared epitopes in French Caucasian patients with scleroderma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doua F Azzouz

    Full Text Available Although many studies have analyzed HLA allele frequencies in several ethnic groups in patients with scleroderma (SSc, none has been done in French Caucasian patients and none has evaluated which one of the common amino acid sequences, (67FLEDR(71, shared by HLA-DRB susceptibility alleles, or (71TRAELDT(77, shared by HLA-DQB1 susceptibility alleles in SSc, was the most important to develop the disease. HLA-DRB and DQB typing was performed for a total of 468 healthy controls and 282 patients with SSc allowing FLEDR and TRAELDT analyses. Results were stratified according to patient's clinical subtypes and autoantibody status. Moreover, standardized HLA-DRß1 and DRß5 reverse transcriptase Taqman PCR assays were developed to quantify ß1 and ß5 mRNA in 20 subjects with HLA-DRB1*15 and/or DRB1*11 haplotypes. FLEDR motif is highly associated with diffuse SSc (χ(2 = 28.4, p<10-6 and with anti-topoisomerase antibody (ATA production (χ(2 = 43.9, p<10-9 whereas TRAELDT association is weaker in both subgroups (χ(2 = 7.2, p = 0.027 and χ(2 = 14.6, p = 0.0007 respectively. Moreover, FLEDR motif- association among patients with diffuse SSc remains significant only in ATA subgroup. The risk to develop ATA positive SSc is higher with double dose FLEDR than single dose with respectively, adjusted standardised residuals of 5.1 and 2.6. The increase in FLEDR motif is mostly due to the higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 and DRB1*15 haplotypes. Furthermore, FLEDR is always carried by the most abundantly expressed ß chain: ß1 in HLA DRB1*11 haplotypes and ß5 in HLA-DRB1*15 haplotypes.In French Caucasian patients with SSc, FLEDR is the main presenting motif influencing ATA production in dcSSc. These results open a new field of potential therapeutic applications to interact with the FLEDR peptide binding groove and prevent ATA production, a hallmark of severity in SSc.

  20. Motivations and Benefits of Student Volunteering: Comparing Regular, Occasional, and Non-Volunteers in Five Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmes targeting student volunteering and service learning are part of encouraging civic behaviour amongst young people. This article reports on a large scale international survey comparing volunteering amongst tertiary students at universities in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. The data revealed high rates of student volunteering and the popularity of occasional or episodic volunteering. There were strong commonalities in student volunteering behaviour, motivations and benefits across the five Western predominately English-speaking countries. Altruism and self-orientated career motivations and benefits were most important to students; however volunteering and non-volunteering students differed in the relative value they attached to volunteering for CV-enhancement and social factors.

  1. Ohio 4-H Agents' and Volunteer Leaders' Perceptions of the Volunteer Leadership Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Joseph A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study found that six areas of volunteer leadership development are important to volunteers and 4-H agents. The areas are (1) recruiting, (2) training, (3) motivation, (4) recognition, (5) retention, and (6) supervision. (JOW)

  2. Do monetary rewards undermine intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorillo, Damiano

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies show that intrinsic motivations increase the volunteer labour supply. This paper studies how monetary rewards to volunteers affect their intrinsic motivations. Using a sample of Italian volunteers, allowing to distinguish the type of volunteer, the paper shows that monetary rewards (extrinsic motivations) influence positively the choice to donate voluntary hours, while a low intrinsic motivation seems to decrease hours per week. Moreover, monetary rewards increase the hours ...

  3. Employer-supported volunteering benefits: gift exchange among employers, employees, and volunteer organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Jonathan E.; Park, Kyoung Won; Theresa M. Glomb

    2009-01-01

    Using gift exchange theory to explain the growing trend of employers offering employer-supported volunteering (ESV) benefits, this article discusses the creation of exchange relationships between the employer and employee and between the volunteer organization and employee. Hypotheses derived from the employee's perspective are tested with a nationally representative sample of volunteers (n=3,658). Findings suggest that ESV benefits are positively related to hours volunteered by the employee....

  4. More volunteers in football clubs. An evaluation of a method to increase the number of volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Splinter, Mariëlle; Egli, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of clubs experience difficulties in recruiting and retaining sufficient numbers of volunteers to manage and staff their clubs (Lamprecht, Fischer, & Stamm, 2012). In order to facilitate volunteer recruitment, sport clubs need a specific strategy to recruit and retain volunteers for both formal positions and ad hoc tasks. Therefore, the intervention “More Volunteers in Football Clubs” was designed and its impact was evaluated in detail. The question this evaluation researc...

  5. Does It Pay to Volunteer? The Relationship Between Volunteer Work and Paid Work

    OpenAIRE

    Helene Jorgensen

    2013-01-01

    It is widely believed that volunteering will improve workers’ job prospects. The logic is that volunteering offers opportunities to expand work-related experience, develop new skills, and build a network of professional contacts. For young people with little history of paid employment it can also signal that a person would be a reliable and motivated employee. In spite of these widespread views about volunteering, surprisingly little research has been done on the effect of volunteering on emp...

  6. Volunteering with Newcomers: The Perspectives of Canadian- and Foreign-born Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam Behnia

    2012-01-01

    Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers have contributed to the settlement of newcomers into Canadian society. Despite their important contribution, little has been reported about the experiences and perspectives of these volunteers. Using the information collected from face-to-face interviews with 60 Canadian- and foreign-born volunteers who support newcomers, this article discusses factors that motivate people to volunteer with newcomers. The study results revealed among other findings that (...

  7. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian woman: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellani Debora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient LV regional wall motion abnormalities (with peculiar apical ballooning appearance, chest pain or dyspnea, ST-segment elevation and minor elevations of cardiac enzyme levels Case presentation A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department because of sudden onset chest pain occurred while transferring her daughter, who had earlier suffered a major seizure, to the hospital. The EKG showed sinus tachycardia with ST-segment elevation in leads V2–V3 and ST-segment depression in leads V5–V6, she was, thus, referred for emergency coronary angiography. A pre-procedural transthoracic echocardiogram revealed regional systolic dysfunction of the LV walls with hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Coronary angiography showed patent epicardial coronary arteries; LV angiography demonstrated the characteristic morphology of apical ballooning with hyperkinesis of the basal segments and hypokinesis of the mid-apical segments. The post-procedural course was uneventful; on day 5 after admission the echocardiogram revealed full recovery of apical and mid-ventricular regional wall-motion abnormalities. Conclusion Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a relatively rare, unique entity that has only recently been widely appreciated. Acute stress has been indicated as a common trigger for the transient LV apical ballooning syndrome, especially in postmenopausal women. The present report is a typical example of stress-induced takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a Caucasian Italian postmenopausal woman.

  8. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  9. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  10. Comparison of MMPI-2 Validity Scales among Compensation-Seeking Caucasian and Asian American Medical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Tsushima, Vincent G.

    2009-01-01

    Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) are widely used for the detection of exaggerated psychological complaints, although little is known about the results of these scales with racial or ethnic minority individuals. Five validity scales derived from the MMPI-2, including the F Scale, the Back Infrequency…

  11. Stereotype Threat in Manual Labor Settings for African American and Caucasian Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Jennifer L.; Green, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Stereotype threat has primarily been studied with regard to test performance in academic settings, testing aptitude, ability, and intelligence, and it has been found to cause both behavioral and cognitive decrements. Although there is research on stereotype threat in the workplace, this too is usually conducted in upper-level or more academically…

  12. Locus of Control and Peer Relationships Among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    KANG, HS; Chang, KE; Chen, C.; Greenberger, E

    2015-01-01

    © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents’ peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Ch...

  13. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Cadilla, Carmen L; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms with major relevance in drug response. Filtering for healthy volunteers or individuals, we performed a search of pharmacogenetic studies in academic literature databases without limiting the period of the results. The search was limited to Puerto Ricans living in the island, excluding those studies performed in mainland (United States). We found that the genetic markers impacting pharmacological therapy in the areas of cardiovascular, oncology, and neurology are the most frequently investigated. Coincidently, the top causes of mortality in the island are cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke. In addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode for members of the CYP450 family (CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) are also available due to their relevance in the metabolism of drugs. The complex genetic background of Puerto Ricans is responsible for the divergence in the reported allele frequencies when compared to parental populations (Africans, East Asians, and Europeans). The importance of reporting the findings of pharmacogenetic studies conducted in Puerto Ricans is to identify genetic variants with potential utility among this genetically complex population and eventually move forward the adoption of personalized medicine in the island. PMID:26501165

  14. Training Shelter Volunteers to Teach Dog Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Veronica J.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which training procedures influenced the integrity of behaviorally based dog training implemented by volunteers of an animal shelter. Volunteers were taught to implement discrete-trial obedience training to teach 2 skills (sit and wait) to dogs. Procedural integrity during the baseline and written instructions…

  15. Evaluating Presentation Skills of Volunteer Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Donna K.

    A systematic method for evaluating the presentation skills of volunteer trainers would enable the discovery of hidden problems. It would also increase individual trainer skills and satisfaction and improve the overall effectiveness of the training program. A first step is to determine the general presentation skills a successful volunteer trainer…

  16. 75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-9415 Filed... natural disaster, volunteers are touching lives every day. Social entrepreneurs are pioneering innovative... national challenges. We are also investing in social innovation and volunteer management to give...

  17. Corporate volunteering - motivation for voluntary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Azevedo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, when the welfare state is a responsibility of the entire society, organizations in the private sector assume co-responsibility for social issues. They are also pressured by the challenges presented by technological advances and the globalization , involving new parameters and requirements for quality. In this context, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (RSC emerges as an option for solutions to the issues related to the company and the whole community. Among the actions of the RSC is the Corporate Volunteering-program, which aims to promote / encourage employes to do voluntary work. A central issue when talking about volunteering is the withdrawal of these (SILVA and FEITOSA, 2002; TEODÓSIO, 1999 and, in accordance with the Community Solidarity (1997, one of the possible causes for the withdrawal is the lack of clarity as to the motives and expectations that lead the person to volunteer themselves. This study uses qualitative research and triangulation of feedback from volunteers, coordinators of volunteers and social organizations, to present a framework from which it is possible to analyze the various motivations for the volunteer work. Key words: Corporate Volunteering program. Volunteering. Corporate social responsibility.

  18. A VNA-Organized Hospice Volunteer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorang, Edith S.

    1981-01-01

    Factors contributing to the success of a hospice volunteer program, organized by a visiting nurse association, include patient involvement in defining agency expectations of a volunteer, careful selection of candidates, a well-planned training program, contractual agreements, and record-keeping. (CT)

  19. Personality Traits and Motives for Volunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Juzbasic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the possibility of predicting volunteer motives based on five-factor model of personality in a sample of 159 volunteers from Zagreb, Osijek and Split. Data was collected using IPIP-300 personality questionnaire and Volunteer Functions Inventory. Results indicate that Croatian volunteers are agreeable, conscientious, altruistic, dutiful, and moral persons with artistic interests. Their most salient motives for volunteering are understanding and values. Hierarchical regression analysis confirmed that the five-factor model personality traits independently predict 17% of protective motive variance, 12% of values motive, 18% of career motive, 10% of understanding motive, and 12% of enhancement motive. Social motive was not explained by personality traits.

  20. Stereoselective metabolism of metoprolol in Caucasians and Nigerians--relationship to debrisoquine oxidation phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Lennard, M. S.; Tucker, G T; Woods, H. F.; Silas, J H; Iyun, A O

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between debrisoquine oxidation phenotype and the stereoselective metabolism of metoprolol was investigated in populations of British Caucasians (n = 139) and Nigerian subjects (n = 117). The 0-8 h urinary S/R-metoprolol (S/R-M) ratio was related to the ability to metabolise metoprolol and debrisoquine in both ethnic groups. The median S/R-M ratio was significantly higher in Caucasians (1.27) than in Nigerians (1.10). In the Caucasian population poor metabolisers of debrisoqui...

  1. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  2. Volunteers for Researchers’ Night wanted

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Every year, on the last Friday of September, the European Researchers’ Night (see here) takes place in about 300 cities all over Europe - promoting research in engaging and fun ways for the general public. This year, CERN will be participating once again, hosting dozens of events across the Balexert shopping centre – and we’ll need YOUR help to make the celebration a success.   From film screenings and celebrity Q&A sessions to “Ask a Researcher” and build-your-own LEGO LHC events, this year’s Researchers’ Night is going to be jam-packed! The fun will kick off prior to the night itself with a mock-up of the LHC tunnel installed in the central court of the Balexert shopping centre, 8-12 September*. CERN people will be on hand to speak to shoppers about the LHC, and to encourage them to participate in Researchers’ Night! The CERN organisers are recruiting volunteers and support staff for Researchers’ ...

  3. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  4. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1; as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and

  5. Volunteer vs. Professional Management of Academic Conferences: A Comparison of Five Meetings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Spee

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic conferences operate under a range of models from nearly all volunteer to a mix of volunteer and professional event management. This paper compares the event management practices of five conferences: The Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference (OBTC, The Western Academy of Management (WAM, The North American Case Research Association (NACRA, The Academy of Management (AOM, and The Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management (IBAM The analysis will examine the mix of volunteer and professional management used to organize and operate the annual meeting of each organization separate from the program content; such as reserving the hotel, ordering meals, and offering special group events. Along a continuum, OBTC uses the least professional event management and IBAM uses the most. The other organizations fall somewhere in between. Professional event managers who organize conferences on a repeated basis have a distinct advantage over volunteers who change jobs every year, thereby losing large amounts of experiential learning. The all-volunteer organizations justify their choice of amateur event managers on the basis of lower up-front cost and "preserving our culture," but neglect to account for the wide variations in performance, lack of accountability, and burnout that can come with use of volunteers.

  6. HLA-A, B and DR in Caucasians with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, P H; Anderson, S A; Stogdill, V D; Lamm, D L

    1983-11-01

    When HLA-A, B and DR antigens in Caucasian patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder were compared with controls, no significant alterations in antigen frequencies were found. PMID:6581580

  7. A Zen Approach to Volunteer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael L.; Cahill, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    New York University's Zen approach to community service focuses on the principles of mindfulness, awareness, compassion, and engagement in the present moment. It enables a more holistic approach to the measurement of volunteer management objectives. (SK)

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Volunteer Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taplin, Jessica; Dredge, Dianne; Scherrer, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    in the project planning and implementation cycles of volunteer tourism organisations and destination managements. However, they can be both value-laden and politically charged, making an understanding of context, purpose and various approaches to monitoring and evaluation important. Drawing from evaluation...... highlights the important influence of context (the issue the volunteer tourism programme is addressing, the nature of the intervention, the setting, the evaluation context and the decision-making context), and identifies four dimensions of volunteer tourism (stakeholders, organisations, markets......The rapid expansion and commercialisation of the volunteer tourism sector and the potential for negative impacts on host communities have put the sector under increasing scrutiny. Monitoring and evaluation are key aspects of sustainable tourism planning and management, and play important roles...

  9. Motivation and Ethics within Volunteer Work

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Marie-Louise Keck; Lopez, Kristina Halberg; Arildsen, Marie Otte; Kauppi, Suvi; Jacobsen, Nana Toft; Houmann, Amalie

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to investigate in the profiles of volunteers and their motivations. It further intends to create an ethical discussion about said motivations to generate a broader understanding of motivational factors and the ethical perspectives of them. In order to find the profiles and motivation, an interview and questionnaire were conducted of respectively an employee of MellemFolkeligt Samvirke and volunteers about to go abroad with the organisation. With the use of Abraham H. Maslow,...

  10. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby

    2002-01-01

    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  11. Frequencies of 23 functionally significant variant alleles related with metabolism of antineoplastic drugs in the Chilean population: comparison with Caucasian and Asian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Margarita Roco

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cancer incidence rate in Chile is 133.7/100,000 inhabitants and it is the second cause of death, after cardiovascular diseases. Most of the antineoplastic drugs are metabolized to be detoxified, and some of them to be activated. Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes can induce deep changes in enzyme activity, leading to individual variability in drug efficacy and/or toxicity. The present research describes the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the Chilean population, which might be useful in public health programs for personalized treatment of cancer, and compare these frequencies with those reported for Asian and Caucasian populations, as a contribution to the evaluation of ethnic differences in the response to chemotherapy.We analyzed 23 polymorphisms in a group of 253 unrelated Chilean volunteers from the general population. The results showed that CYP2A6*2, CYP2A6*3, CYP2D6*3, CYP2C19*3 and CYP3A4*17 variant alleles are virtually absent in Chileans. CYP1A1*2A allele frequency (0.37 is similar to that of Caucasians and higher than that reported for Japanese people. Allele frequencies for CYP3A5*3 (0.76 and CYP2C9*3 (0.04 are similar to those observed in Japanese people. CYP1A1*2C (0.32, CYP1A2*1F (0.77, CYP3A4*1B(0.06, CYP2D6*2(0.41 and MTHFR T(0.52 allele frequencies are higher than the observed either in Caucasian or in Japanese populations. Conversely, CYP2C19*2 allele frequency (0.12 and GSTT1null (0.11 and GSTM1null (0.36 genotype frequencies are lower than those observed in both populations. Finally, allele frequencies for CYP2A6*4(0.04, CYP2C8*3(0.06, CYP2C9*2(0.06, CYP2D6*4(0.12, CYP2E1*5B(0.14, CYP2E1*6(0.19, and UGT2B7*2(0.40 are intermediate in relation to those described in Caucasian and in Japanese populations, as expected according to the ethnic origin of the Chilean population.In conclusion, our findings support the idea that ethnic variability must be considered

  12. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  13. Is volunteering for everyone? Volunteering opportunities for young ex-offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Amy

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to explore volunteering opportunities for young adults with criminal records (‘young ex-offenders’). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study was conducted primarily in one London borough. It involved mapping volunteering opportunities for young ex-offenders and conducting in-depth interviews with young ex-offenders and practitioners from volunteer-involving organisations and resettlement organisations. FINDINGS: Several perceived benefits of...

  14. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...

  15. mtDNA and the origin of Caucasians: identification of ancient Caucasian-specific haplogroups, one of which is prone to a recurrent somatic duplication in the D-loop region.

    OpenAIRE

    Torroni, A.; Lott, M. T.; Cabell, M F; Chen, Y. S.; Lavergne, L.; Wallace, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    mtDNA sequence variation was examined in 175 Caucasians from the United States and Canada by PCR amplification and high-resolution restriction-endonuclease analysis. The majority of the Caucasian mtDNAs were subsumed within four mtDNA lineages (haplogroups) defined by mutations that are rarely seen in Africans and Mongoloids. The sequence divergence of these haplogroups indicates that they arose early in Caucasian radiation and gave raise to modern European mtDNAs. Although ancient, none of t...

  16. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  17. Genes identified in Asian SLE GWASs are also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Ahlford, Annika; Järvinen, Tiina M; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Padyukov, Leonid; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Jönsen, Andreas; Bengtsson, Anders A; Truedsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Catharina; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Sjöwall, Christopher; Julkunen, Heikki; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Robert R; Behrens, Timothy W; Kere, Juha; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Sandling, Johanna K

    2013-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in Asian populations have identified novel risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight such loci and investigated their disease associations in three independent Caucasian SLE case–control cohorts recruited from Sweden, Finland and the United States. The disease associations of the SNPs in ETS1, IKZF1, LRRC18-WDFY4, RASGRP3, SLC15A4, TNIP1 and 16p11.2 were replicated, whereas no solid evidence of association was observed for the 7q11.23 locus in the Caucasian cohorts. SLC15A4 was significantly associated with renal involvement in SLE. The association of TNIP1 was more pronounced in SLE patients with renal and immunological disorder, which is corroborated by two previous studies in Asian cohorts. The effects of all the associated SNPs, either conferring risk for or being protective against SLE, were in the same direction in Caucasians and Asians. The magnitudes of the allelic effects for most of the SNPs were also comparable across different ethnic groups. On the contrary, remarkable differences in allele frequencies between Caucasian and Asian populations were observed for all associated SNPs. In conclusion, most of the novel SLE risk loci identified by GWASs in Asian populations were also associated with SLE in Caucasian populations. We observed both similarities and differences with respect to the effect sizes and risk allele frequencies across ethnicities. PMID:23249952

  18. Treatment responses in Asians and Caucasians with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth K Yan; Marianne Guirgis; Thuy Dinh; Jacob George; Anouk Dev; Alice Lee; Amany Zekry

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To conduct a multicentre retrospective review of virological response rates in Asians infected with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treated with combination interferon and ribavirin and then to compare their responses to that among Caucasians. METHODS:Asian patients infected with genotype 1 CHC treated at 4 Australian centres between 2001 to 2005 were identified through hospital databases.Baseline demographic characteristics,biochemical,virological and histological data and details of treatment were collected.Sustained virological responses (SVR) in this cohort were then compared to that in Caucasian subjects,matched by genotype,age,gender and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. RESULTS:A total of 108 Asians with genotype 1 CHC were identified.The end of treatment response (ETR) for the cohort was 79% while the SVR was 67%.Due to the relatively advanced age of the Asian cohort,only sixty-four subjects could be matched with Caucasians.The ETR among matched Asians and Caucasians was 81% and 56% respectively (P=0.003),while the SVR rates were 73% and 36% (P<0.001) respectively.This difference remained significant after adjusting for other predictive variables. CONCLUSION:Genotype 1 CHC in Asian subjects is associated with higher rates of virological response compared to that in Caucasians.

  19. 28 CFR 551.60 - Volunteer community service projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volunteer community service projects. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Volunteer Community Service Projects § 551.60 Volunteer community service projects. (a) A volunteer community service project is a project sponsored and developed by local government...

  20. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  1. Motives for Volunteering: Categorization of Volunteers' Motivations Using Open-ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Chacón

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of volunteers’ motivations use standardized questionnaires with one of the most commonly-used being the Volunteer Function Inventory. Open-ended questions about what drives individuals to be volunteers are seldom used. We hypothesize that questionnaires tend to overestimate the number of motivations and to underestimate their variety. Therefore, in this paper we analyze the answers of 1515 volunteers to an open-ended question and categorize these answers. Results show that volunteers give an average of 2 motivations, fewer than the questionnaires, and that the Value motivation is the most frequently mentioned and the most important for volunteers. In addition, this motivation coexists with other motivations, which are lacking in the standard questionnaires, such as Organizational Commitment, Personal Development, Religiosity, Social Change or Interest in the Activity.

  2. Sport volunteerism: a study on volunteering motivations in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsafian, Hamidreza; Mohamadinejad, Azadeh

    2012-01-01

    Volunteers form an integral part of the sport industry. Recognition of the volunteers' motivations to attract them in sport programs is the aim of each organization. Although several studies have been conducted regarding volunteers in sport, there is not a clear idea about the effective motivational factors on the sport volunteers on different communities. This subject might be due to the effects of social variables on the volunteering motivations. The aim of this study was to analyze the mot...

  3. THE STUDY OF SELF-CONCEPT BETWEEN VOLUNTEER AND NON-VOLUNTEER STUDENTS IN SPORT OF UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality characteristics of volunteers are important for their recruitment and retention in sport associations. This study compared self-concept as a personality characteristic between volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations. The method of this research was survey and descriptive. The statistical population consisted of volunteer and non-volunteer students in sport associations of Iran universities. Two hundred and fifty two students (120 volunteers and 132 non-volunteers from 10 universities were selected as subjects by using random clustered sampling method. Pyryt and Mandaglio Self Perceived Survey (PMSPS was used to collect the data. The content and face reliability of questionnaire was checked and confirmed. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire (alfa=0.90. Independent t test and U Mann-Whitney test were used for comparison of the factors between volunteers and non-volunteers. Findings of this study indicated that there was a significant difference between volunteer and non-volunteer students in social and athletic self-concept. The mean of scientific and value factors were higher in volunteers than non-volunteers, however, they were not statistically significant. We concluded that the nature of sport (active and sport volunteering (social encourage students who have higher self-concept for volunteering. Moreover, the characteristics of sport associations can increase self-concept in sport volunteers.

  4. Motivations for Youth Volunteer Participation: Types and Structure--An Analysis of Interviews with Twenty-Four Young Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luping, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Scholars who study volunteer activities are attaching ever greater importance to the motivations of volunteers who participate in volunteer activities. However, deficiencies are, on the whole, to be found in the empirical studies by scholars in China on the participating volunteers' motivations. To make up for the deficiencies in the research on…

  5. The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Bendix Kleif, Helle; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    with NR organizations to districts without NR organizations. The results show no difference in the crime rates between Danish postcode districts with and without the NR programme. Hence, we cannot identify positive effects of situational crime prevention when evaluating this Scandinavian volunteer......The volunteer programme ‘Night Ravens’ (NR) was founded in Sweden in 1987 and has, over the years, developed into a Scandinavian concept covering large areas of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The NR programme is a crime prevention initiative with adults walking the...... streets at night in identifiable ‘uniforms’ in areas with high activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the NR programme in Denmark based on a volunteer set-up with a less intrusive approach to situational crime prevention than, for instance, hot spot policing. The analyses are...

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement in a Caucasian man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2009-09-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a potentially fatal complication of hyperthyroidism, more common in Asian races, which is defined by a massive intracellular flux of potassium. This leads to profound hypokalaemia and muscle paralysis. Although the paralysis is temporary, it may be lethal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, as profound hypokalaemia may induce respiratory muscle paralysis or cardiac arrest. The condition is often misdiagnosed in the west due to its comparative rarity in Caucasians; however it is now increasingly described in Caucasians and is also being seen with increasing frequency in western hospitals due to increasing immigration and population mobility. Here we describe the case of a patient with panhypopituitarism due to a craniopharyngioma, who developed thyrotoxic periodic paralysis due to excessive L-thyroxine replacement. This disorder has been described in Asian subjects but, to our knowledge, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis secondary to excessive L-thyroxine replacement has never been described in Caucasians.

  7. Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Dalla Man, Chiara; Overgaard, Rune V;

    2014-01-01

    a cross-sectional study with oral glucose tolerance tests to assess β-cell function, hepatic insulin extraction, and insulin sensitivity. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS included 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasian subjects. MAIN OUTCOMES: Measures of β-cell function, hepatic extraction, and insulin...... sensitivity were assessed using C-peptide, glucose, and insulin minimal models. RESULTS: Basal β-cell function (Φ(b)) was lower in Japanese compared with Caucasians (P < .01). In subjects with IGT, estimates of the dynamic (Φ(d)) and static (Φ(s)) β-cell responsiveness were significantly lower in the Japanese...... compared with Caucasians (P < .05). In contrast, values of insulin action showed higher sensitivity in the Japanese IGT subjects. Hepatic extraction was similar in NGT and IGT groups but higher in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects (P < .01). Despite differences in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and...

  8. Volunteered Cloud Computing for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. D.; Hao, W.; Chettri, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Disaster management relies increasingly on interpreting earth observations and running numerical models; which require significant computing capacity - usually on short notice and at irregular intervals. Peak computing demand during event detection, hazard assessment, or incident response may exceed agency budgets; however some of it can be met through volunteered computing, which distributes subtasks to participating computers via the Internet. This approach has enabled large projects in mathematics, basic science, and climate research to harness the slack computing capacity of thousands of desktop computers. This capacity is likely to diminish as desktops give way to battery-powered mobile devices (laptops, smartphones, tablets) in the consumer market; but as cloud computing becomes commonplace, it may offer significant slack capacity -- if its users are given an easy, trustworthy mechanism for participating. Such a "volunteered cloud computing" mechanism would also offer several advantages over traditional volunteered computing: tasks distributed within a cloud have fewer bandwidth limitations; granular billing mechanisms allow small slices of "interstitial" computing at no marginal cost; and virtual storage volumes allow in-depth, reversible machine reconfiguration. Volunteered cloud computing is especially suitable for "embarrassingly parallel" tasks, including ones requiring large data volumes: examples in disaster management include near-real-time image interpretation, pattern / trend detection, or large model ensembles. In the context of a major disaster, we estimate that cloud users (if suitably informed) might volunteer hundreds to thousands of CPU cores across a large provider such as Amazon Web Services. To explore this potential, we are building a volunteered cloud computing platform and targeting it to a disaster management context. Using a lightweight, fault-tolerant network protocol, this platform helps cloud users join parallel computing projects

  9. The Invention and Institutionalization of Volunteer Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Håkon; Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and explains differences in governmental implementation strategies of volunteer centers in Norway and Denmark. In the first part, we describe the emergence of centers, focusing on shifting policies and governmental initiatives. The second part aims at explaining the observed...... Norwegian centers lacked a national coordinating unit. Third, an independent legal form in which local associations are members may have helped Danish centers bring about a sense of local ownership. In Norway, volunteer centers had weak ties to other local voluntary associations and were at times perceived...

  10. Does it Pay for Women to Volunteer?

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic and non-economic returns to volunteering for prime-aged women. A woman's decision to engage in unpaid work, and to marry and have children, is formulated as a forward-looking discrete choice dynamic programming problem. Simulated maximum likelihood estimates of the model indicate that an extra year of volunteer experience increases wage offers in part-time work by 8.3% and wage offers in full-time work by 2.4%. The behavioral model also reveals an adverse sel...

  11. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...

  12. Fundamental properties of Afro-American hair as related to their straightening relaxing behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Quadflieg, Jutta Maria

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the current understanding of straightening processes in Afro hair by alkaline treatment. It is therefore fundamentally important to gain a more detailed insight into the properties of Afro-American hair. The geometry of Afro-American hair has been initially investigated by cross-sections of hair. The apparent diameter of Afro-American hair is dependent on gender. Furthermore, differences between Caucasian, Asian and Afro hair, with respect to their morphol...

  13. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlow B. Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  14. Student Volunteering in China and Canada:Comparative Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hustinx

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While many of the theoretical frameworks for volunteering have beendeveloped and empirically tested in the West, our understanding of volunteering in non-Western countries, such as China, is relatively limited. Nevertheless, in recent decades enormous efforts have been made by the Chinese government to encourage and support volunteering among its citizens, especially youth. Chinese youth are volunteering in greater numbers in response to these initiatives. Given the strongly state-led nature of volunteering in China, as opposed to the voluntary, more citizen-initiated nature of volunteering in Western societies, this paper seeks to understand the impact of these contextual differences on student volunteering. Using data from 1,892 questionnaires completed by university students in China and Canada, we examine differences in their volunteering. The findings clearly show the impact of the differences in sociopolitical structures that are reflected in the nature of students’ volunteer participation and perceived benefits.

  15. Citizen volunteer water monitoring on Lake Mitchell

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, W.

    2005-01-01

    Publication includes a timeline of AWW and the Lake Mitchell Home Owners and Boat Owners Association as well as: Lake Facts and Figures; Lake Oxygen and Temperature Cycles; Lake Clarity and Eutrophication; Water Quality Differences in the Watershed; Why Is Volunteer Monitoring Important?; and Alabama's Rich Water Resources and AWW.

  16. The Benefits of Volunteering for Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromnick, Rachel; Horowitz, Ava; Shepherd, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Within the current economic climate students are seen as needing more than a degree to succeed in securing graduate employment. One way that students chose to enhance their employability is through engaging in voluntary work. In this empirical study, undergraduate psychology students' reasons for volunteering are explored within the context of…

  17. Volunteers in Wikipedia: Why the Community Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytiyeh, Hoda; Pfaffman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Wikipedia is a reliable encyclopedia with over seven million articles in several languages all contributed and maintained by volunteers. To learn more about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to building and maintaining this remarkable resource, surveys with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations were…

  18. International Volunteering: Employability, Leadership and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Andrew; Charleston, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of individuals in transition between education and work during international volunteering expeditions. While it was expected that outcomes might include employability enhancement and skill development, the authors aimed to clarify what the main factors were, examine employability…

  19. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name “LHC at home 2.0” and the BOINC project: “Test4Theory”. At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC at home, and has been running the “Sixtrack” beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup into a generic BOINC application service that will allow scientists and engineers at CERN to profit from volunteer computing. This paper describes the experience with the two different approaches to volunteer computing as well as the status and outlook of a general BOINC service.

  20. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Boretti Tanya; Fairer-Wessels Felicité

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT) volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro env...

  1. The role of SVS volunteer vascular surgeons in the care of combat casualties: results from Landstuhl, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Ruth L; Fairman, Ronald M; Flaherty, Stephen F; Gillespie, David L

    2009-01-01

    With a shortage of active duty vascular surgeons in the military, Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) members have been called upon to perform short-term rotations at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (LRMC), the US military's receiving facility for combat injuries sustained in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. From September 2007 to May 2008, 20 SVS vascular surgeons have performed 2-week rotations at LRMC through American Red Cross and US Army sponsorship. Volunteers were surveyed for previous military and/or trauma experience. In addition to reporting number and types of procedures performed, volunteers were queried on their experience and impression of the rotation. Several volunteers have had prior military experience and all have had vascular trauma experience through residency, fellowship, and current practices. With most definitive vascular repairs being done in theater, SVS members were most often called upon for clinical expertise in the care of combat casualties and evaluation of revascularization procedures. The volunteers contributed to daily rounds, patient care, and teaching conferences, as well as actively participated in surgical procedures with the most common being wound examinations under anesthesia for which intraoperative vascular consultation was occasionally requested (5-20 per volunteer). Additional procedures that volunteers performed included: inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, thrombectomy, revision of lower and upper extremity interposition vein grafts, retroperitoneal spine exposures, diagnostic and therapeutic angiograms, iliac stenting, and duplex ultrasound scan interrogation of vascular repairs, suspected arterial injuries, and deep vein thrombosis. All volunteers described the experience as valuable and will return if needed. With a limited number of military vascular surgeons and the unpredictable need for a vascular specialist at LRMC, civilian volunteers are playing an important role in providing high-quality vascular

  2. An investigation of the HUMVWA31A locus in British Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drozd, M A; Archard, L; Lincoln, P J;

    1994-01-01

    A number of short tandem repeat (STR) loci are currently being examined for their usefulness as markers of identity; HUMVWA31A is one such locus. We used a high-sieving agarose technique to type 200 British Caucasians for this locus. Comparison of the resultant allele frequencies with other...

  3. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture. PMID:25157829

  4. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  5. Studies of variability in the PTEN gene among Danish caucasian patients with Type II diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L; Jensen, J N; Ekstrøm, C T;

    2001-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome ten (PTEN) has recently been characterized as a novel member in the expanding network of proteins regulating the intracellular effects of insulin. By dephosphorylation of phosphatidyl-inositol-(3, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) the PTEN protein......-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in a Danish Caucasian population....

  6. Attitudes toward Rape: Gender and Ethnic Differences across Asian and Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Lisa; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined 302 Asian and Caucasian college students' attitudes towards rape victims and belief in rape myths. Results show significant differences between both groups. Asians more often endorsed negative attitudes toward rape victims than whites, and males endorsed more negative attitudes and more acceptance of rape myths than females. Results are…

  7. Paraoxonase 1 Phenotype and Mass in South Asian versus Caucasian Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Connelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South Asian renal transplant recipients have a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. We carried out a study to determine whether paraoxonase 1, a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risk, was decreased in South Asian compared with Caucasian renal transplant recipients. Subjects were matched two to one on the basis of age and sex for a total of 129 subjects. Paraoxonase 1 was measured by mass, arylesterase activity, and two-substrate phenotype assay. Comparisons were made by using a matched design. The frequency of PON1 QQ, QR and RR phenotype was 56%, 37%, and 7% for Caucasian subjects versus 35%, 44%, and 21% for South Asian subjects (χ2=7.72, P=0.02. PON1 mass and arylesterase activity were not significantly different between South Asian and Caucasian subjects. PON1 mass was significantly associated with PON1 phenotype (P=0.0001, HDL cholesterol (P=0.009, LDL cholesterol (P=0.02, and diabetes status (P<0.05. Arylesterase activity was only associated with HDL cholesterol (P=0.003. Thus the frequency of the PON1 RR phenotype was higher and that of the QQ phenotype was lower in South Asian versus Caucasian renal transplant recipients. However, ethnicity was not a significant factor as a determinant of PON1 mass or arylesterase activity, with or without analysis including PON1 phenotype. The two-substrate method for determining PON1 phenotype may be of value for future studies of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients.

  8. Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors genes in the Italian Caucasian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs are a family of inhibitory and activatory receptors that are expressed by most natural killer (NK cells. The KIR gene family is polymorphic: genomic diversity is achieved through differences in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The number of KIR loci has been reported to vary among individuals, resulting in different KIR haplotypes. In this study we report the genotypic structure of KIRs in 217 unrelated healthy Italian individuals from 22 immunogenetics laboratories, located in the northern, central and southern regions of Italy. Methods Two hundred and seventeen DNA samples were studied by a low resolution PCR-SSP kit designed to identify all KIR genes. Results All 17 KIR genes were observed in the population with different frequencies than other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations; framework genes KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR2DL4 and KIR3DL2 were present in all individuals. Sixty-five different profiles were found in this Italian population study. Haplotype A remains the most prevalent and genotype 1, with a frequency of 28.5%, is the most commonly observed in the Italian population. Conclusion The Italian Caucasian population shows polymorphism of the KIR gene family like other Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. Although 64 genotypes have been observed, genotype 1 remains the most frequent as already observed in other populations. Such knowledge of the KIR gene distribution in populations is very useful in the study of associations with diseases and in selection of donors for haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.

  9. Novel PRRT2 mutation in an African-American family with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedera Peter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, heterozygous mutations in PRRT2 (Chr 16p11.2 have been identified in Han Chinese, Japanese and Caucasians with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. In previous work, a paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia locus was mapped to Chr 16p11.2 - q11.2 in a multiplex African-American family. Methods Sanger sequencing was used to analyze all four PRRT2 exons for sequence variants in 13 probands (9 Caucasian, 1 Caucasian-Thai, 1 Vietnamese and 2 African-American with some form of paroxysmal dyskinesia. Results One patient of mixed Caucasian-Thai background and one African-American family harbored the previously described hotspot mutation in PRRT2 (c.649dupC, p.R217Pfs*8. Another African-American family was found to have a novel mutation (c.776dupG, p.E260*. Both of these variants are likely to cause loss-of-function via nonsense-mediated decay of mutant PRRT2 transcripts. All affected individuals had classic paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia phenotypes. Conclusions Heterozygous PRRT2 gene mutations also cause paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia in African-Americans. The c.649dupC hotspot mutation in PRRT2 is common across racial groups.

  10. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  11. Shared rewarding overcomes defection traps in generalized volunteer's dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    For societies to produce or safeguard public goods, costly voluntary contributions are often required. From the perspective of each individual, however, it is advantageous not to volunteer such contributions, in the hope that other individuals will carry the associated costs. This conflict can be modeled as a volunteer's dilemma. To encourage rational individuals to make voluntary contributions, a government or other social organizations can offer rewards, to be shared among the volunteers. Here we apply such shared rewarding to the generalized volunteer's dilemma, in which a threshold number of volunteers is required for producing the public good. By means of theoretical and numerical analyses, we show that without shared rewarding only two evolutionary outcomes are possible: full defection or coexistence of volunteers and non-volunteers. We show that already small rewards destabilize full defection, stabilizing small fractions of volunteers instead. Furthermore, at these intermediate reward levels, we find ...

  12. Molecular helpers wanted... Call for volunteers!

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The Task Force in charge of the organization of the LHC Inauguration is looking for 40 volunteers to support the team of molecular cooks directed by international chef Ettore Bocchia. The "molecular" volunteers will help in the preparation of liquid nitrogen ice-cream. Your help is requested from 12h to 18h on October 21st. Your participation in a general rehearsal on October 20th is also required - (the time of the rehearsal will be communicated at a later moment). Dress code: black pants and shoes, long sleeved white shirt. Do not miss this opportunity to take part in an extraordinary event! For further information and to enrol, contact: mailto:Catherine.Brandt@cern.ch

  13. AVOCLOUDY: a simulator of volunteer clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastio, Stefano; Amoretti, Michele; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    application, intelligent agents constitute a feasible technology to add autonomic features to cloud operations. Furthermore, the volunteer computing paradigm—one of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) trends of the last decade—can be pulled alongside traditional cloud approaches, with the...... purpose to ‘green’ them. Indeed, the combination of data center and volunteer resources, managed by agents, allows one to obtain a more robust and scalable cloud computing platform. The increased challenges in designing such a complex system can benefit from a simulation-based approach, to test autonomic...... management solutions before their deployment in the production environment. However, currently available simulators of cloud platforms are not suitable to model and analyze such heterogeneous, large-scale, and highly dynamic systems. We propose the AVOCLOUDY simulator to fill this gap. This paper presents...

  14. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such situation. For this reason, the health care center should call the nearest available donor in order to ensure to get the service as quickly as possible. A smart phone application is developed to facilitate the identification of the nearest available blood donor volunteer and the communication with him/her in the emergency situations where the blood can’t be supplied through the blood banks’ stocks. In this paper this application will be presented.

  15. Leadership perceptions as a function of race-occupation fit: the case of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Thomas; Shore, Lynn M; Strauss, Judy; Shore, Ted H; Tram, Susanna; Whiteley, Paul; Ikeda-Muromachi, Kristine

    2010-09-01

    On the basis of the connectionist model of leadership, we examined perceptions of leadership as a function of the contextual factors of race (Asian American, Caucasian American) and occupation (engineering, sales) in 3 experiments (1 student sample and 2 industry samples). Race and occupation exhibited differential effects for within- and between-race comparisons. With regard to within-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were higher when race-occupation was a good fit (engineer position) than when race-occupation was a poor fit (sales position) for the two industry samples. With regard to between-race comparisons, leadership perceptions of Asian Americans were low relative to those of Caucasian Americans. Additionally, when race-occupation was a good fit for Asian Americans, such individuals were evaluated higher on perceptions of technical competence than were Caucasian Americans, whereas they were evaluated lower when race-occupation was a poor fit. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that race affects leadership perceptions through the activation of prototypic leadership attributes (i.e., implicit leadership theories). Implications for the findings are discussed in terms of the connectionist model of leadership and leadership opportunities for Asian Americans. PMID:20718523

  16. Volunteer Tourism Program Development, Case Vietnam Heritage Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Leminh

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis project is to figure out what kinds of volunteer tourism programs should be developed for Vietnam Heritage Travel, a tour operator in Vietnam, and what business and volunteering factors need to be considered for the development. In order to answer those research questions, the thesis reviewed current studies and researches on volunteer tourism, including its definitions, theoretical frameworks and practices, various types of projects worldwide and overview of volunt...

  17. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-01-01

    There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such ...

  18. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Fast; Claus Rinner

    2014-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To...

  19. Virtual Mentoring for Volunteer Leadership Development

    OpenAIRE

    Guloy, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Calls to investigate leadership development in the nonprofit and voluntary sector have been put forth as concerns about leadership succession have increased. To respond to this call to investigate this under-researched area, this design-based, multiple case study provides rich, thick descriptions of the development of the mentoring relationships, between mentor and mentee pairs, over the course of a virtual mentoring program for volunteer leadership development, in a Catholic nonprofit. I exp...

  20. ATLAS@Home looks for CERN volunteers

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS@Home is a CERN volunteer computing project that runs simulated ATLAS events. As the project ramps up, the project team is looking for CERN volunteers to test the system before planning a bigger promotion for the public.   The ATLAS@home outreach website. ATLAS@Home is a large-scale research project that runs ATLAS experiment simulation software inside virtual machines hosted by volunteer computers. “People from all over the world offer up their computers’ idle time to run simulation programmes to help physicists extract information from the large amount of data collected by the detector,” explains Claire Adam Bourdarios of the ATLAS@Home project. “The ATLAS@Home project aims to extrapolate the Standard Model at a higher energy and explore what new physics may look like. Everything we’re currently running is preparation for next year's run.” ATLAS@Home became an official BOINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network ...

  1. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  2. Women Empower Women: Volunteers and Their Clients in Community Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Megidna, Hofit

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at examining the relationship between psychological empowerment of women volunteers and their clients in community volunteer projects in Israel. Based on an ecological approach, the study also aimed at examining whether the variables that explain empowerment of women who volunteer also explain empowerment of their clients. The…

  3. Motivations of Volunteer Leaders in an Extension Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha

    2015-01-01

    This article describes findings from a qualitative study of volunteer leaders in the StrongWomen strength training program in Arkansas. The study explored reasons volunteers initially agreed to serve, perceptions of volunteer role, and motivations for continuing to lead strength training groups long-term. Findings suggest a combination of factors…

  4. Will Natural Resources Professionals Volunteer to Teach Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.; San Julian, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    A unique approach to volunteer marketing research involved a mail survey with natural resources professionals from across Pennsylvania. Previous work identified this group as a source of potential volunteers for the 4-H youth natural resources program. The results give insights into those most likely to volunteer to teach youth through 4-H…

  5. Affecting Community Change: Involving "Pro Bono" Professionals as Extension Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Diane T.; Culp, Ken, III

    2013-01-01

    "Pro bono" volunteers provide an effective means for Extension professionals to expand limited financial and human resources. Volunteers recruited from business settings can provide skills, abilities, expertise, leadership, and resources to Extension programs. Allowing professional volunteers to meet their desired leadership goals while…

  6. Assessing Changes in Virginia Master Gardener Volunteer Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Sheri T.

    1999-01-01

    ASSESSING CHANGES IN VIRGINIA MASTER GARDENER VOLUNTEER MANAGEMENT Sheri T. Dorn ABSTRACT Master Gardener (MG) volunteers are nonpaid, education partners with Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE). VCE MGs have assisted Extension agents in meeting VCE's educational goals and mission by following the Sustainable Landscape Management educational program objectives within the VCE Plan of Work. Local MG volunteer programs must be managed appropriately so that vol...

  7. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David A.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corpor...

  8. Why volunteer? : a case study of volunteers in the FIS Nordic World Ski Championship 2011 Oslo, Holmenkollen

    OpenAIRE

    Uchermann, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a case study conducted on the volunteers in the FIS Nordic World Ski Championship 2011 in Oslo, Holmenkollen. The focus has been to study why the volunteers are motivated. I have investigated this through these following four research questions; (1) How does the volunteer’s degree of motivation develop during the WSC 2011?, (2) What motivates people to work as volunteers?, (3) How does volunteers feel about themselves? and (4) How will the volunteer’s expectation...

  9. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES): Evaluating the feasibility of using volunteers to deliver nutrition and food safety education to rural older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Morgan

    Due to their limited resources, rural, older adults in the United States are at risk for poor diet-related health outcomes. Nutrition education is a key component in improving health outcomes in older adults. Cooking Healthy, Eating Smart (CHES) is a nine-lesson curriculum designed to teach rural, older adults culturally appropriate nutrition and food safety information. Funding to hire health professionals to deliver such a curriculum is limited, presenting the need to explore a less expensive mode of dissemination. In this community-based, participatory research study, a formative evaluation and feasibility study were conducted to examine the use of volunteers to deliver a nutrition and food safety curriculum to rural, older adults in South Carolina. Seven focus groups were conducted with members of the South Carolina Family and Community Leaders (SCFCL) and members of the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) in the four regions of South Carolina to explore barriers and facilitators of volunteers delivering CHES (N=65 participants). The focus group findings informed the development of the volunteer training manual. A comparative case study method was used to examine the feasibility of a volunteer-based approach by observing and describing the delivery of CHES by two groups of volunteers in SC. The case study findings, including volunteer knowledge change, self-efficacy change, curriculum experience, program experience, and project team observations of volunteers indicated that using volunteers to deliver CHES is a plausible approach with the assistance of paid staff or project team members.

  10. FEATURES OF TERRITORIAL INTEGRATION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS IN THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Влидимирович Беляев

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to describe the situation taken place with integration of marketing communications in the region. The author conducted research aimed at identifying the most popular and effective forms of communication with the consumer, allowing in detail to characterize the state of the advertising market of Caucasian Mineral Waters. Information concluded in article may be used by companies present in the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, to form notion about the effectiveness of the regional channels of communication with customers and building a more efficient model of advertising policy, also its could be useful for specialists, which are working in marketing communication and advertising sphere.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-34

  11. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  12. Insulin resistance and body fat distribution in South Asian men compared to Caucasian men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Chandalia

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: South Asians are susceptible to insulin resistance even without obesity. We examined the characteristics of body fat content, distribution and function in South Asian men and their relationships to insulin resistance compared to Caucasians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine South Asian and 18 Caucasian non-diabetic men (age 27+/-3 and 27+/-3 years, respectively underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp for insulin sensitivity, underwater weighing for total body fat, MRI of entire abdomen for intraperitoneal (IP and subcutaneous abdominal (SA fat and biopsy of SA fat for adipocyte size. RESULTS: Compared to Caucasians, in spite of similar BMI, South Asians had higher total body fat (22+/-6 and 15+/-4% of body weight; p-value<0.0001, higher SA fat (3.5+/-1.9 and 2.2+/-1.3 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.004, but no differences in IP fat (1.0+/-0.5 and 1.0+/-0.7 kg, respectively; p-value = 0.4. SA adipocyte cell size was significantly higher in South Asians (3491+/-1393 and 1648+/-864 microm2; p-value = 0.0001 and was inversely correlated with both glucose disposal rate (r-value = -0.57; p-value = 0.0008 and plasma adiponectin concentrations (r-value = -0.71; p-value<0.0001. Adipocyte size differences persisted even when SA was matched between South Asians and Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin resistance in young South Asian men can be observed even without increase in IP fat mass and is related to large SA adipocytes size. Hence ethnic excess in insulin resistance in South Asians appears to be related more to excess truncal fat and dysfunctional adipose tissue than to excess visceral fat.

  13. Prevalence of gallstones and risk factors in Caucasian women in a rural Canadian community.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C. N.; Johnston, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of gallstones and gallbladder disease was studied in a rural Caucasian population. All the women aged 15 to 50 years were asked to complete a questionnaire, undergo cholecystography and keep a food record for 4 consecutive days. The gallbladder status was assessed in 73%. The prevalence of gallstones in this population, 167/1000, was considerably higher than that reported in the Framingham study (59/1000) but was not significantly different from that recently found in Micmac In...

  14. Association of ABCB1 genetic variants with renal function in Africans and in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston Robert C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The P-glycoprotein, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, is expressed in human endothelial and mesangial cells, which contribute to control renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. We investigated the association of ABCB1 variants with renal function in African and Caucasian subjects. Methods In Africans (290 subjects from 62 pedigrees, we genotyped the 2677G>T and 3435 C>T ABCB1 polymorphisms. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured using inulin clearance and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF using para-aminohippurate clearance. In Caucasians (5382 unrelated subjects, we analyzed 30 SNPs located within and around ABCB1, using data from the Affymetrix 500 K chip. GFR was estimated using the simplified Modification of the Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results In Africans, compared to the reference genotype (GG or CC, each copy of the 2677T and 3435T allele was associated, respectively, with: GFR higher by 10.6 ± 2.9 (P P = 0.06 mL/min; ERPF higher by 47.5 ± 11.6 (P P = 0.007 mL/min; and renal resistances lower by 0.016 ± 0.004 (P P = 0.004 mm Hg/mL/min. In Caucasians, we identified 3 polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene that were strongly associated with all estimates of GFR (smallest P value = 0.0006, overall P = 0.014 after multiple testing correction. Conclusion Variants of the ABCB1 gene were associated with renal function in both Africans and Caucasians and may therefore confer susceptibility to nephropathy in humans. If confirmed in other studies, these results point toward a new candidate gene for nephropathy in humans.

  15. Optimization of lactobionic acid production by Acetobacter orientalis isolated from Caucasian fermented milk, "Caspian Sea yogurt".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Yamauchi, Kouhei; Masuyama, Araki; Ooe, Kenichi; Kimura, Takashi; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    We have reported that lactobionic acid is produced from lactose by Acetobacter orientalis in traditional Caucasian fermented milk. To maximize the application of lactobionic acid, we investigated favorable conditions for the preparation of resting A. orientalis cells and lactose oxidation. The resting cells, prepared under the most favorable conditions, effectively oxidized 2-10% lactose at 97.2 to 99.7 mol % yield. PMID:22313756

  16. Genetic differences at four DNA typing loci in Finnish, Italian, and mixed Caucasian populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Krane, D E; Allen, R. W.; Sawyer, S. A.; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Highly polymorphic segments of the human genome containing variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTRs) have been widely used to establish DNA profiles of individuals for use in forensics. Methods of estimating the probability of occurrence of matching DNA profiles between two randomly selected individuals have been subject to extensive debate regarding the possibility of significant substructure occurring within the major races. We have sampled two Caucasian subpopulations, Finns and Italians,...

  17. Comparison of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Fidaxomicin in Healthy Japanese and Caucasian Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Takao; Benner, Lauren; Miki, Takashi; Michon, Ingrid; Wojtkowski, Tomasz; Kaibara, Atsunori; Mujais, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fidaxomicin treatment of Clostridium difficile infection is known to produce minimal systemic exposure, as the antibacterial (antibiotic) remains primarily in the gut. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending doses of fidaxomicin were evaluated in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Methods Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to receiv...

  18. Is the Greulich and Pyle atlas still valid for Dutch Caucasian children today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In our Paediatric Radiology Department, the Greulich and Pyle technique is used to assess skeletal age. Several authors have raised questions with regard to the applicability of this technique in a contemporary paediatric and adolescent population. Objective: To compare skeletal age and calendar age in a healthy Dutch Caucasian population in order to test the applicability in this specific population. Materials and methods: For this study we enrolled 278 Dutch Caucasian boys (age range 5.0-19.5 years, mean 12.6 years) and 294 Dutch Caucasian girls (age range 5.2-19.9 years, mean 12.2 years). Radiographs of the left hand were scored according to the Greulich and Pyle atlas by two investigators. Results: Intra-observer coefficient of variation of duplicate assessment of skeletal age for investigator 1 (resident) was 2.4 % and for investigator 2 (radiologist) was 1.5 %. We found no significant systematic differences between the two observers regarding variability and levels of measurement, and the agreement was good. There was a strongly significant correlation between skeletal and calendar age rgirls = 0.974 and rboys = 0.979 (P < 0.001). On average, calendar age preceded skeletal age by a small amount (1.7 months in girls and 3.3 months in boys, both P < 0.001). Conclusions: The reliability of the Greulich and Pyle atlas in our study corresponds well with previously reported studies. Based on our data, we conclude that the Greulich and Pyle atlas is still applicable in Dutch Caucasian children and adolescents. (orig.)

  19. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the RCMAS in Latino and Caucasian Youth with Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Knight, George P.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement equivalence of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was examined in a sample of 667 Caucasian and Latino youth referred to an anxiety disorders specialty clinic. Findings supported the factorial invariance of the Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, and Social Concerns/Concentration subscales as well as the construct validity equivalence of the Total Anxiety scale. These findings suggest that the RCMAS can be used with Latino youth in cross-ethnic res...

  20. AIDS in Haitian immigrants and in a Caucasian woman closely associated with Haitians.

    OpenAIRE

    Laverdière, M.; Tremblay, J; Lavallée, R.; Bonny, Y.; Lacombe, M.; Boileau, J.; LaChapelle, J.; Lamoureux, C.

    1983-01-01

    In Montreal the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was seen in eight Haitian immigrants and one Caucasian woman who had lived with Haitian immigrants for 3 years before the onset of her illness. AIDS was characterized by opportunistic infections alone in seven patients, by opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in one patient and by chronic generalized lymphadenopathy in one patient. Five of the patients had presented with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections 1 to 12 months bef...

  1. SORL1 is genetically associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Miyashita

    Full Text Available To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD, we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD, Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC. In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008 and controls (n = 1,016. Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5 were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls, and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10(-7 in the combined sample. Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10(-9 and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10(-8. SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10(-5 and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10(-4. The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.

  2. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P. A.; Gerard-Marchant, R.; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F.; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a se...

  3. Widely Assumed but Thinly Tested: Do Employee Volunteers' Self-Reported Skill Improvements Reflect the Nature of Their Volunteering Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David A.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of companies use corporate volunteering programs (CVPs) to support and coordinate their employees' efforts to serve their communities. Among the most frequently touted benefits of such programs to sponsoring companies and employee volunteers alike is the opportunities for employees to develop tangible work-related skills through their volunteering activities. Evidence for skill development through volunteering, however, is mostly limited to the expressed beliefs of corporate leaders and employee volunteers. This study was designed to contribute to this largely anecdotal literature by testing hypotheses about the extent to which employee volunteers' self-reported skill development reflects the characteristics of the volunteers and their volunteering experiences. Study participants were 74 employee volunteers who completed a service apprenticeship managed by a U.S.-based nonprofit called Citizen Schools that partners with middle schools to extend the learning day with a combination of academic support, enrichment, and youth development activities. Data were obtained via the nonprofit's records, and surveys completed by employee volunteers before and after their service experience, including measures used to assess self-reported improvements in each of 10 work-related skills: communicating performance expectations, leadership, mentorship, motivating others, project management, providing performance feedback, public speaking and presenting, speaking clearly, teamwork, and time management. Support was found for several hypothesized effects suggesting that employees who practiced specific skills more often during their volunteering experience reported greater improvements in those skills. Improvements in some skills were higher among employee volunteers who completed a greater number of pre-volunteering preparation courses, and the effects of preparation courses were moderated by the employee volunteers' self-efficacy about improving their work

  4. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and hip fracture in postmenopausal Caucasian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on anteroposterior hip radiographs are more prevalent in patients that have had a hip fracture as compared to patients without a fracture. Materials and methods: Ninety-two Caucasian women with a unilateral proximal femur fracture were retrospectively evaluated and randomly selected using radiology database records to comprise the investigational group. Ninety-eight age-matched Caucasian women without hip fracture were selected as a control group. Anteroposterior hip radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BBs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Chi-square tests were used to assess whether fractures were more prevalent in patients with BB than those without BB. Results: The patient population was comprised Caucasian women with a mean age of 79.8 ± 6.4 years in the control group and 79.9 ± 6.6 years in the investigational group. Regardless of the reader, BB were identified in a significantly higher percentage of women with a fracture (75 versus 39%, p < 0.001 or 53 versus 38%, p = 0.041) as compared to those without a fracture. Conclusion: BB are associated with hip fracture. Their presence is a trigger for requesting a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination to confirm or refute a diagnosis of low bone mineral density (BMD) and a subsequent increased risk of fracture.

  5. Case of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis in a Caucasian Male and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina K. Thethi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP, a known condition in Asian men, is becoming increasingly common in men from Western countries. Since suspicion for TPP as a differential in diagnosis is of utmost importance to avoid overcorrection of hypokalemia and other complications, we are reporting a case of TPP in a 25-year-old Caucasian male. Methods. The patient presented with intermittent lower extremity weakness after consumption of a large high-carbohydrate meal. Clinical examination revealed diffusely enlarged thyroid gland, no muscle power in lower extremities, tremors, and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Results. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Graves’ disease and the patient had hypokalemia. The patient responded to potassium repletion and was treated with propylthiouracil and propranolol. After treatment with radioactive iodine, the patient developed postablative hypothyroidism for which he was treated with levothyroxine. Conclusion. Since this condition is overlooked by physicians in Western countries, we present a case of TPP in a Caucasian male thus showing the importance of consideration of TPP in Caucasians despite its rare occurrence and the need for prompt diagnosis to avoid the danger of hyperkalemia in management of the paralytic attack in TPP patients.

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Asian American Families: Challenges in Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…

  7. Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Self-Esteem in African American College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kimberly A.; Phelps, LeAdelle; Bross, Andrea L.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates African American undergraduate females (N=95) for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and on four dimensions of self-concept. Results indicate body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness at levels commensurate with Caucasian samples. A hierarchical multiple regression found a combination of physical self-concept, drive for…

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Oral Taurine in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Ghandforoush-Sattari; Siminozar Mashayekhi; Krishna, Channarayapatna V.; Thompson, John P.; Routledge, Philipp A.

    2010-01-01

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a normal constituent of the human diet. Little is known of the pharmacokinetics of taurine in man after oral administration. We studied the pharmacokinetics of 4 g taurine in eight healthy male volunteers (median age 27.5, range 22–45) following orally administration in the fasting state in the morning. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals and plasma taurine concentration was measured by a modified HPLC method. Data were subjected to noncom...

  9. Polymorphic allele of human IRGM1 is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Y King

    Full Text Available An ancestral polymorphic allele of the human autophagy-related gene IRGM1 is associated with altered gene expression and a genetic risk for Crohn's Disease (CD. We used the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10065172C/T as a marker of this polymorphic allele and genotyped 370 African American and 177 Caucasian tuberculosis (TB cases and 180 African American and 110 Caucasian controls. Among African Americans, the TB cases were more likely to carry the CD-related T allele of rs10065172 (odds ratio of 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.02; P<0.01 compared to controls. Our finding suggests that this CD-related IRGM1 polymorphic allele is also associated with human susceptibility to TB disease among African Americans.

  10. STUDY FOR METHODOLOGICAL SUPPORT ORGANIZATION FOR QUALITUY ESTIMATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES IN PHYTOTHERAPY AT THE CAUCASIAN MINERAL WATERS RESORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of phytotherapy pharmaceutical services quality estimation support at the Caucasian Mineral Waters resorts on the basis of quality nianagement

  11. 2008 LHC Open Days Training for volunteers

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Information and training sessions are being organised for Open Day volunteers. The Open Days Organising Committee is offering information and training sessions every Thursday in March from 2.00 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. in the Main Building Auditorium. The first session will be on Thursday 6 March. It is important that volunteers attend these sessions to familiarise themselves with the practical arrangements for the two Open Days and with the main messages to be conveyed to the general public in order to make the event a success. General information will be given out at each session, followed by information on a specific theme. The sessions will be organised as follows: 2.00 - 2.45 p.m. : first part - general information 2.45 - 3.30 p.m. : second part - specific information * 6 March - specific theme "How to answer questions about the fears surrounding the LHC" * A different theme will be addressed at each session. The themes of subsequent sessions (13 , 20, 27 March and 3 Ap...

  12. BOINC service for volunteer cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Høimyr, N; Buncic, P; Giovannozzi, M; Gonzalez, A; Harutyunyan, A; Jones, P L; Karneyeu, A; Marquina, M A; Mcintosh, E; Segal, B; Skands, P; Grey, F; Lombraña González, D; Zacharov, I; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    Since a couple of years, a team at CERN and partners from the Citizen Cyberscience Centre (CCC) have been working on a project that enables general physics simulation programs to run in a virtual machine on volunteer PCs around the world. The project uses the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) framework. Based on CERNVM and the job management framework Co-Pilot, this project was made available for public beta-testing in August 2011 with Monte Carlo simulations of LHC physics under the name "LHC@home 2.0" and the BOINC project: "Test4Theory". At the same time, CERN's efforts on Volunteer Computing for LHC machine studies have been intensified; this project has previously been known as LHC@home, and has been running the "Sixtrack" beam dynamics application for the LHC accelerator, using a classic BOINC framework without virtual machines. CERN-IT has set up a BOINC server cluster, and has provided and supported the BOINC infrastructure for both projects. CERN intends to evolve the setup i...

  13. A prospective cohort study comparing early opioid requirement between Chinese from Hong Kong and Caucasian Australians after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konstantatos, A H; Imberger, G; Angliss, M;

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia.......The relationship between ethnicity and early opioid consumption is not well understood. Our prospective cohort study tested whether Chinese patients in Hong Kong require less opioid after major abdominal surgery compared with Caucasian patients in Australia....

  14. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  15. CEBUANO PARA SA MGA PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS. (CEBUANO FOR THE PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAURA, BETTY; AND OTHERS

    THE BASIC VOCABULARY AND STRUCTURE OF CEBUANO VISAYAN ARE PRESENTED HERE THROUGH TWENTY-TWO SHORT DIALOGUES AND ACCOMPANYING PATTERN DRILLS AND CULTURAL NOTES. THE DIALOGUES ARE BASED ON EVERYDAY SITUATIONS AND COMMON USAGE THAT THE PEACE CORPS VOLUNTEER ENCOUNTERS IN THIS AREA OF THE PHILIPPINES. INTRODUCTORY PAGES PRESENT THE STUDENT WITH THE…

  16. MMPI Comparison of Black Heroin Users Volunteering or Not Volunteering for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinowitz, R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Black volunteers differed significantly, scoring higher on the Hypochondriasis, Depression, and Hysteria scales. Such differences add evidence against the addiction-prone personality hypothesis and underscore the need for evaluating the effects of voluntarism and ethnicity in personality research on drug abuse. (Author)

  17. Volunteer Notes on Reforestation. A Handbook for Volunteers. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Reprint R-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Steve, Comp.

    Provided in this document are descriptions of reforestation projects and techniques presented by Peace Corps volunteers from Chad, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, and Niger. The purpose of the document is to aid individuals in trying to find solutions to the problems facing forestry in the Sahel. These projects include: (1) reforestation of Ronier palm…

  18. Volunteers: A Challenge For Extension Workers: Developing Volunteer Leaders From Disadvantaged Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, Minerva O.; And Others

    A series of guidelines for use by Extension agents, as they involve socially and economically disadvantaged youth and adults in volunteer leadership roles in rural and urban Extension programs, is presented. Section headings are: Know Your Audience, Establish Rapport, Levels of Leadership, Leader Development, Leadership Roles, Volunteer…

  19. Breast Cancer Treatment among African American Women in North St. Louis, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N.; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in ...

  20. Physical Activity Resource Attributes and Obesity in Low-Income African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McAlexander, Kristen M; Banda, Jorge A.; McAlexander, Joshua W.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2009-01-01

    More than two thirds of Americans are overweight or obese, and African Americans are particularly vulnerable to obesity when compared to Caucasians. Ecological models of health suggest that lower individual and environmental socioeconomic status and the built environment may be related to health attitudes and behaviors that contribute to obesity. This cross-sectional study measured the direct associations of neighborhood physical activity resource attributes with body mass index (BMI) and bod...

  1. Do African-American men need separate prostate cancer screening guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Divya; Packianathan, Satyaseelan; Chen, Allen M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the United States Preventative Services Task Force issued new guidelines recommending that male U.S. residents, irrespective of race, no longer be screened for prostate cancer. In African American men, the incidence of prostate cancer is almost 60 % higher and the mortality rate is two to three times greater than in Caucasians. The purpose of this study is to reduce African American men's prostate cancer burden by demonstrating they need separate screening guidelines. Meth...

  2. The role of nonprofessional volunteers in a Suicide Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, S M; Farberow, N L; Litman, R E; Shneidman, E S

    1968-08-01

    The procedures in the selection, training and supervision of 10 nonprofessional volunteers, to provide direct therapeutic crisis services to patients in a Suicide Prevention Center are described. One year's experience indicates a high degree of proficiency achieved by the volunteer in the handling of suicidal crises. The volunteers' reactions to the program are reported. Significant problems for the agency emerged in reference to precipitous increase in size of staff communication, and for the volunteer, in stimulation of problems of identity and selfconcept. The comments are limited to agency situations involving the use of nonprofessional volunteers in regular collaboration with a professional staff. Other models, such as entirely volunteer staffed groups, must be evaluated separately. PMID:24185391

  3. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials-Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562

  4. VOLUNTEERING AND LIFE SATISFACTION : AN INVESTIGATION OF ENDOGENEITY

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, CHIANG-MING; YEH, CHIA-YU; CHANG, CHING-HSING

    2014-01-01

    Based upon the results of a national survey conducted in Taiwan, this study investigates the effects of volunteering on life satisfaction. We used a univariate ordered probit model and a simultaneous bivariate ordered probit model to compare the potential endogeneity between volunteering and life satisfaction. An exogenous military service variable was included in the bivariate model to correct the endogeneity of volunteering on life satisfaction. The results of the univariate ordered probit ...

  5. Court Appointed Volunteers for Abused and Neglected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Justin, Renate G.

    2002-01-01

    A court appointed special advocate (CASA) volunteer is a trained citizen who is appointed by a judge to represent the best interests of an abused and neglected child in court. An independent voice, the volunteer gathers information and reports to the court. The CASA volunteer works in close cooperation with other professionals, physicians, lawyers, social workers, and teachers to find the most suitable permanent placement for a victimized child, whether it be a foster home, parental home, or ...

  6. The consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in event volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Andam; Nooshin Benar; Mozhgan Aliabadi; Asieh Ghorbanian Rajabi; Ghorbanian A.; Kazem Danesh Sani

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80). The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average ...

  7. Stavanger live festival from the viewpoint of volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Novcic, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper is exploring selected organization process in Stavanger Live Festival from the point of view of volunteers as very sensitive group that must be handled by professionals. The areas that will be analyzed are process of recruitment, motivation and satisfactions of volunteers, quality and relevance of the training, quality of instruction and leadership, communications between volunteers and coordinators, support of the coordinators, expertise of the coordinators and top management, to ...

  8. An analysis of leadership characteristics of search and rescue volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Gurer, Burak; ADILOGULLARI, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership behaviors of volunteer leaders in search and rescue field. 118 volunteer leaders attended this study on a volunteer basis. Data were collected through the use of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, which was developed by Bass & Avolio (1985) and adapted into Turkish by Demir & Okan. 20 items were used to measure transformational leadership while 16 of them were applied for transactional leadership. One Way Anova and T-...

  9. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  10. Sport volunteerism: a study on volunteering motivations in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMIDREZA MIRSAFIAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Volunteers form an integral part of the sport industry. Recognition of the volunteers' motivations to attract them in sport programs is the aim of each organization. Although several studies have been conducted regarding volunteers in sport, there is not a clear idea about the effective motivational factors on the sport volunteers on different communities. This subject might be due to the effects of social variables on the volunteering motivations. The aim of this study was to analyze the motivational factors in university sport. The samples consist all of the 304 students who participated as volunteers in sport programs at the Iranian universities. For data collection, a structured questionnaire comprising 39 items in the form of seven different factors (material, social, career supportive, purposive, progress and obligation regarding the motivational factors of sport volunteering was used. The items in the questionnaire were scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale. This study demonstrated that the social and obligation factors were the highest and lowest effective factors on the sport volunteers’ motivation. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of social and career factors in two genders (P<0.05. This means that boys and girls had higher scores in career and social factors. In conclusion it is stated that university students have a large impact on the general ideas at the communities; therefore, promotion of sport volunteering activities at the universities could develop the culture of volunteering in various parts of the communities.

  11. The role of the hospice volunteer in community settings

    OpenAIRE

    Draper, Janet; Kernohan, George; McNamara, Aine; Komaromy, Carol

    2014-01-01

    In the UK, there are between 70,000 and 100,000 hospice volunteers, of whom half have direct patient contact. This seminar draws on a commissioned literature review that highlighted how ‘volunteering is integral to voluntary action and often motivated by altruism.’ The review concluded that hospice at home volunteers can help improve the quality of responsiveness of end of life care, improve access to care and can support care and death in the person’s own home. Volunteers gain health and soc...

  12. AVOCLOUDY: a simulator of volunteer clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastio, Stefano; Amoretti, Michele; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    , with the purpose to ‘green’ them. Indeed, the combination of data center and volunteer resources, managed by agents, allows one to obtain a more robust and scalable cloud computing platform. The increased challenges in designing such a complex system can benefit from a simulation-based approach, to test autonomic...... management solutions before their deployment in the production environment. However, currently available simulators of cloud platforms are not suitable to model and analyze such heterogeneous, large-scale, and highly dynamic systems. We propose the AVOCLOUDY simulator to fill this gap. This paper presents...... the internal architecture of the simulator, provides implementation details, summarizes several notable applications, and provides experimental results that measure the simulator performance and its accuracy. The latter experiments are based on real-world worldwide distributed computations on top of the Planet...

  13. A Systems Perspective on Volunteered Geographic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Fast

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteered geographic information (VGI is geographic information collected by way of crowdsourcing. However, the distinction between VGI as an information product and the processes that create VGI is blurred. Clearly, the environment that influences the creation of VGI is different than the information product itself, yet most literature treats them as one and the same. Thus, this research is motivated by the need to formalize and standardize the systems that support the creation of VGI. To this end, we propose a conceptual framework for VGI systems, the main components of which—project, participants, and technical infrastructure—form an environment conducive to the creation of VGI. Drawing on examples from OpenStreetMap, Ushahidi, and RinkWatch, we illustrate the pragmatic relevance of these components. Applying a system perspective to VGI allows us to better understand the components and functionality needed to effectively create VGI.

  14. Poly Thymidine Polymorphism and Cystic Fibrosis in a Non-Caucasian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Tabaripour; Haleh Akhavan Niaki; Mohammad Reza Esmaeeli Douki; Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz; Bagher Larijani; Parichehr Yaghmaei

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cystic fibrosis is a monogenic recessive disorder found predominantly in Caucasian population. This disease arises from mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In this study we consider poly T polymorphism c.1210-12T[5], c.1210-12T[7], c.1210-12T[9] (T5, T7, T9) in the intron 8 of CFTR gene in normal individuals and cystic fibrosis patients in the north of Iran. Material and methods: 40 CF patients and 40 normal individuals were screened f...

  15. Heavy and Special Weapons across the Territory of Black Sea Coastline during the Caucasian War

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov; Vladimir G. Ivantsov; Michal Smigel; Violetta S. Molchanova

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the heavy and special weapons of the Russian army during the Caucasian war across the territory of Black Sea coastline. By heavy equipment is meant all kinds of artillery systems which were used in the fortresses at that time. The particular importance is given to the special weapons, which include the minefields (mines and fougasses). It is proved that the mines on the galvanic elements were used not only in the navy but also for the needs of the ground forces. The auth...

  16. NT-proBNP and potential vascular calcification in Black and Caucasian African men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Ruan; Schutte, Rudolph; Huisman, Hugo W;

    2012-01-01

    The N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a reliable marker of cardiac strain. In hypertensive heart disease, NT-proBNP levels increase and may lose its protective function. Simultaneously, the vasculature is also subject to hemodynamic stress, resulting in vascular matrix...... remodeling and stiffening which contribute to further cardiac alterations. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a marker of osteoblast activity and is involved in vascular calcification. We explored the link between NT-proBNP and ALP in Black and Caucasian African men....

  17. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  18. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…

  19. About WASP and its Impact on American Culture and Politics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜

    2015-01-01

    The acronym WASP in the United States refers to a descendent of the Caucasian Protestant Christians from England who began immigrating to the Americas in the seventeenth century. This was one the first foreign-born ethnic groups to gain a secure foothold in U.S. territory, displacing the Native American populations. In the late-eighteenth century WASPs became the dominant ethnicity in the United States, with their values shaping the institutions of the new and rapidly growing nation. Whether WASP cultural values are still the most dominant values in the United States is a subject of debate for a lot of scholars who are doing research on American history.

  20. An African-American family with dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  1. The Interface of Volunteer Work and Paid Work : Benefits of Volunteering for Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Mojza, Eva J.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly, psychologists are dealing with the research question of how different life domains are positively related to each other. While the focus is currently on the interface of family and work (e.g., theories and studies on the positive relationship between family engagement and work engagement; Greenhaus & Powell, 2006; Grzywacz et al., 2006; Rohtbard, 2001), until now the interface of volunteer work and paid work has rarely been scrutinized. However, there is empirical evidence (Kirc...

  2. Students’ motivations for volunteering : a study on the motivational factors for volunteering in student unions

    OpenAIRE

    Skramstad, Martin Roa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to uncover the main motivations for, and hindrances against, student volunteer work, and to understand what it is that gives satisfaction from participation for the students. In order to solve the objective, analyses are performed on collected data from students at NHH in Norway and at Tecnológico de Monterrey in Mexico. The analyses show connections between control variables and ten different motivational factors and five different hindrance factors, as wel...

  3. AHSG gene polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in Caucasian nuclear families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To investigate the role of alpha2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG) gene on bone mineral density (BMD) variation. Methods. A total of 665 subjects from 157 Caucasian nuclear families were genotyped at the AHSG NlaIII, SacI sites. The association and linkage between the single SNP markers and haplotypes constructed by two markers in this gene and BMDs at the spine and hip were determined by using quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT). Results. Significant within-family associations were obtained for spine BMD at both of studied markers (P = 0.036 and 0.005 at the NlaIII and SacI sites, respectively). Significant (P = 0.008 at the NlaIII locus) (P = 0.004 at the SacI locus) total associations at spine BMD were detected. Haplotype analyses confirmed those within-family and total association. Conclusions. These data suggest the polymorphisms in the AHSG gene may have effects on BMD variation in Caucasian population

  4. Association between Sleep Disruption and Levels of Lipids in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wan Mahmood, Wan Aizad

    2013-08-29

    Aim. To investigate the association between sleep quality and duration with lipid and glycaemic control in Caucasian subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in 114 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects. Comparisons were made between subjects with different sleep quality and sleep duration. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine contributors to metabolic parameters. Results. Subjects with poor sleep quality (PQ; PSQI ≥ 6) had higher systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, urine albumin : creatinine ratio (UAC), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) (P < 0.05 for all) compared to those with good sleep quality (GQ; PSQI ≤ 5). Long sleep duration (LSD) subjects had higher TC and short sleep duration (SSD) subjects had higher TG compared to those with medium sleep duration. Sleep duration and PSQI score were independent predictors of TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), contributing to 14.0% and 6.1% of the total variance, respectively. Conclusions. In this Caucasian T2DM population, PQ is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk markers, and long and short sleep disruptions have an independent negative impact on lipids. Sleep assessment should be included as part of a diabetes clinic review.

  5. Nasal base narrowing of the caucasian nose through the cerclage technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocellin, Marcos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to reduce the nasal base (narrowing, as skin resection vestibular columellar skin resection, resection of skin in elliptical lip narinary, sloughing of skin and advancements (VY technique of Bernstein and the use of cerclage sutures in the nasal base. Objective: To evaluate the technique of cerclage performed in the nasal base, through endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery of basic technique, in the Caucasian nose, reducing the distance inter-alar flare and correcting the wing with consequent improvement in nasal harmony in the whole face. Methods: A retrospective analysis by analysis of clinical documents and photos of 43 patients in whom cerclage was made of the nasal base by resecting skin ellipse in the region of the vestibule and the nasal base (modified technique of Weir using colorless mononylon® 4 "0" with a straight cutting needle. The study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Hospital of Paraná Institute of Otolaryngology - IPO in Curitiba, Parana - Brazil. Patients had a follow up ranging 7-12 months. Results: In 100% of cases was achieved an improvement in nasal harmony, by decreasing the inter-alar distance. Conclusion: The encircling with minimal resection of vestibular skin and the nasal base is an effective method for the narrowing of the nasal base in the Caucasian nose, with predictable results and easy to perform.

  6. Whole genome distribution and ethnic differentiation of copy number variation in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    Full Text Available Although copy number variation (CNV has recently received much attention as a form of structure variation within the human genome, knowledge is still inadequate on fundamental CNV characteristics such as occurrence rate, genomic distribution and ethnic differentiation. In the present study, we used the Affymetrix GeneChip(R Mapping 500K Array to discover and characterize CNVs in the human genome and to study ethnic differences of CNVs between Caucasians and Asians. Three thousand and nineteen CNVs, including 2381 CNVs in autosomes and 638 CNVs in X chromosome, from 985 Caucasian and 692 Asian individuals were identified, with a mean length of 296 kb. Among these CNVs, 190 had frequencies greater than 1% in at least one ethnic group, and 109 showed significant ethnic differences in frequencies (p<0.01. After merging overlapping CNVs, 1135 copy number variation regions (CNVRs, covering approximately 439 Mb (14.3% of the human genome, were obtained. Our findings of ethnic differentiation of CNVs, along with the newly constructed CNV genomic map, extend our knowledge on the structural variation in the human genome and may furnish a basis for understanding the genomic differentiation of complex traits across ethnic groups.

  7. Burkitt-type lymphoma in France among non-Hodgkin malignant lymphomas in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, T; Lenoir, G M; Bryon, P A; Gerard-Marchant, R; Souillet, G; Philippe, N; Freycon, F; Brunat-Mentigny, M

    1982-05-01

    In a retrospective analysis of 87 cases of Caucasian childhood non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma (NHML) from Lyon, France, all the case were diffuse lymphomas, but 47 were diagnosed as monomorphic small non-cleaved NHML, pathologically indistinguishable from Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). BL could then be the most frequent childhood lymphoma in France. This homogeneous series allows better definition of the characteristics of BL within NHML. Age distribution is similar to that of endemic BL, with a sex ratio of 3.7/1. Abdominal masses are initially present in 68% of the cases, whereas jaw is involved in only 4%. The disease is characterized by its overwhelming evolution in the absence of therapy. However, complete remission (CR) is usually obtained after the first chemtherapy regimen. Most relapses occur at 3-8 months. Death could be related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) involvement, local recurrence or secondary marrow involvement. Ninety per cent of the patients alive with no evidence of disease (NED) 8 months after CR can be considered as definitely cured. Our study on Caucasian children with NHML indicates that, from histological and clinical criteria, nearly half the cases are very similar to African BL. Even though EBV rarely associated with our cases, BL could be a worldwide lymphoma. PMID:7082553

  8. Connecting Volunteers and Agents: A Social Constructionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillivan, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    Extension volunteers benefit from participation in training activities. Furthermore, Extension personnel are best positioned to provide volunteers with relevant training. However, trainers neglecting relationship building and failing to attend to the communicative process may achieve unsatisfactory results. Social constructionism, a theoretical…

  9. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of lorazepam tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-junQIU; Guo-xinHU; Jian-gangWANG; Zong-shunDAI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of lorazepam tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers. METHODS:Twenty Chinese healthy male volunteers were involved in the study. Each subject received a single dose of 3 mg Lorazepam tested formulation (T, Hubei Zhongtian Airbeck Pharmaceutical Limited Company) or Lorazepam reference formulation (R, Thailand Atlatic Pharmaceutical Limited Company) with a random-

  10. Pressure pain thresholds in volunteers and herniorrhaphy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Molke Jensen, F; Kehlet, H

    1990-01-01

    surgery. PPT was determined in 20 healthy volunteers on two separate examinations, and in 14 patients at the incisional site before and following inguinal herniotomy. In volunteers, PPT was higher for men than for women, and no difference was observed between the first and second day of examination. In...

  11. Volunteers as Products of a Zoo Conservation Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Robert D.; Joseph, Stephanie L.; Searles, Vicki M.

    2014-01-01

    Zoos embrace docents/volunteers as a means of interpreting the threats to wildlife and biodiversity to visitors. To accomplish this, zoos provide docents' education, training, and work experience. Docents themselves also engage in solitary and social wildlife experiences outside of their volunteer obligations. This study examined what…

  12. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Tony

    2011-01-01

    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  13. Pharmacogenetics of healthy volunteers in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio-Campos, Karla; Orengo-Mercado, Carmelo; Renta, Jessicca Y.; Peguero, Muriel; García, Ricardo; Hernández, Gabriel; Corey, Susan; Carmen L Cadilla; Duconge, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Puerto Ricans are a unique Hispanic population with European, Native American (Taino), and higher West African ancestral contributions than other non-Caribbean Hispanics. In admixed populations, such as Puerto Ricans, genetic variants can be found at different frequencies when compared to parental populations and uniquely combined and distributed. Therefore, in this review, we aimed to collect data from studies conducted in healthy Puerto Ricans and to report the frequencies of genetic polymo...

  14. Lack of racial differences in the pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous golimumab in healthy Japanese and Caucasian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jie; Lyn, Sally; Xu, Zhenhua; Achira, Meguru; Bouman-Thio, Esther; Shishido, Akira; Ford, Joyce; Shankar, Gopi; Wagner, Carrie; Kim, Kenneth T; Davis, Hugh M; Zhou, Honghui

    2010-07-01

    This phase 1 study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of subcutaneous golimumab, a human anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha monoclonal antibody, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects. Eligible subjects were males, aged 20 to 45 years, weighing 50 to 90 kg with a body mass index of 19 to 30 kg/m(2). Japanese and Caucasian subjects were matched by body weight and dose group. Blood samples were collected through day 50 following a single subcutaneous injection of golimumab 50 or 100 mg. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. All 51 subjects (24 Japanese, 27 Caucasian) were included in the safety analysis; 47 completed the study and were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetics of golimumab were comparable in both race groups. Peak concentrations were observed approximately 4 to 6 days after administration. No significant differences in exposure or mean half-life (range, 11-13 days) were observed between Japanese and Caucasian subjects at the same dose level. Regardless of race, serum golimumab exposure increased with increasing dose. Mean apparent clearance ranged from 12 to 19 mL/kg/d. Mean apparent volume of distribution (224-262 mL/kg) remained constant with an increase in dose. No antibodies to golimumab were detected. Single subcutaneous injections of golimumab 50 mg or 100 mg were generally well tolerated in these healthy male Japanese and Caucasian subjects. PMID:20133508

  15. Predicting professional quality of life among professional and volunteer caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avieli, Hila; Ben-David, Sarah; Levy, Inna

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of the few that has compared volunteers' professional quality of life (PQL), which includes secondary traumatic stress (STS), burnout, and compassion satisfaction (CS), to those of professional caregivers. In addition, the research compared the ethical behavior of volunteers with that of professional therapists and examined the connection between years of experience, ethical behavior, and PQL. One hundred eighty-three volunteers and professional caregivers filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire, an Ethical Behavior Questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) questionnaire. The results indicated that professional caregivers report lower levels of STS and burnout, and higher levels of CS and ethical behavior compared with volunteer caregivers. Moreover, the findings suggest that ethical behavior correlates with STS, burnout, and CS. Ethical behavior has a protective value for mental health caregivers. The discussion emphasizes the value of a professional code of ethics and ethical training for professional and volunteering caregivers. PMID:26121172

  16. English Training for College Student Volunteers at Sports Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies English training for student volunteers at large scale sports events with a comprehensive investigation of the undergraduate student volunteers from Capital University of Physical Education who have taken part in large scale sports events. By examining the current volunteer training situation, the author finds that there is a sever lack of professional and system-atical English training for student volunteers at large scale sports events. The study shows focusing on sports events knowledge and requirements of the volunteers’specific job is crucial to the service level of the volunteers. The study concludes that the problem can be solved by developing new course books, innovating new flexible training methods, and offering more comprehensive training content. The recommended training methods include intensive group training, computer aided teaching, task training and on-the-spot training to make them fit their work soon.

  17. Volunteer Clouds and Citizen Cyberscience for LHC Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computing for the LHC, and for HEP more generally, is traditionally viewed as requiring specialized infrastructure and software environments, and therefore not compatible with the recent trend in volunteer computing, where volunteers supply free processing time on ordinary PCs and laptops via standard Internet connections. In this paper, we demonstrate that with the use of virtual machine technology, at least some standard LHC computing tasks can be tackled with volunteer computing resources. Specifically, by presenting volunteer computing resources to HEP scientists as a volunteer cloud, essentially identical to a Grid or dedicated cluster from a job submission perspective, LHC simulations can be processed effectively. This article outlines both the technical steps required for such a solution and the implications for LHC computing as well as for LHC public outreach and for participation by scientists from developing regions in LHC research.

  18. Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Herbert

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.

  19. Rhinoplasty and facial asymmetry: Analysis of subjective and anthropometric factors in the Caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric proportions and symmetry are considered determinants of beauty. These parameters have significant importance in facial plastic surgery, particularly in rhinoplasty. As the central organ of the face, the nose is especially important in determining facial symmetry, both through the perception of a crooked nose and through the determination of facial growth. The evaluation of the presence of facial asymmetry has great relevance preoperatively, both for surgical planning and counseling. Aim/Objective: To evaluate and document the presence of facial asymmetry in patients during rhinoplasty planning and to correlate the anthropometric measures with the perception of facial symmetry or asymmetry, assessing whether there is a higher prevalence of facial asymmetry in these patients compared to volunteers without nasal complaints. Methods: This prospective study was performed by comparing photographs of patients with rhinoplasty planning and volunteers (controls, n = 201, and by evaluating of anthropometric measurements taken from a line passing through the center of the face, until tragus, medial canthus, corner side wing margin, and oral commissure of each side, by statistical analysis (Z test and odds ratio. Results: None of the patients or volunteers had completely symmetric values. Subjectively, 59% of patients were perceived as asymmetric, against 54% of volunteers. Objectively, more than 89% of respondents had asymmetrical measures. Patients had greater RLMTr (MidLine Tragus Ratio asymmetry than volunteers, which was statistically significant. Discussion/Conclusion: Facial asymmetries are very common in patients seeking rhinoplasty, and special attention should be paid to these aspects both for surgical planning and for counseling of patients.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of bacmecillinam and pivmecillinam in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, K; Bergan, T; Magni, L; Pring, B G; Westerlund, D

    1982-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of bacmecillinam and pivmecillinam were studied in healthy fasting volunteers given tablets in a cross-over, randomized order. The mean (+/- SD) peak levels of plasma mecillinam were 1.43 +/- 0.34, 2.73 +/- 0.43, and 4.62 +/- 1.41 mg/l after bacmecillinam 100, 200, and 400 mg and 2.38 +/- 0.65 mg/l after pivmecillinam 400 mg. The corresponding areas under plasma Vs time curves (AUC) were 2.21 +/- 0.19, 3.99 +/- 0.63, and 7.74 +/- 1.38 mg . h. l-1 for bacmecillinam and 5.35 +/- 0.93 mg . h. l-1 for pivmecillinam. The elimination half-lives were 0.8-1.1 h for bacmecillinam and 0.7 h for pivmecillinam. The 12 h urinary recovery of unchanged mecillinam after the 400 mg doses was 41% for bacmecillinam and 30% for pivmecillinam. The 400 mg dose of bacmecillinam gave a significantly higher plasma peak (p less than 0.001), AUC (p less than 0.001) and urinary recovery (p less than 0.001) than did pivmecillinam 400 mg. The plasma peaks appeared earlier and the rate of absorption was higher after bacmecillinam than after pivmecillinam (p less than 0.05). In conclusion, bacmecillinam had a better bioavailability than pivmecillinam in the tablet formulations studied. The AUC increased linearly with increasing doses of bacmecillinam. PMID:6293834

  1. Measuring the Impacts of a Volunteer-Based Community Development Program in Developing Volunteers' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Amy; Singletary, Loretta; Hill, George

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an evaluation of the impacts of a community development program to develop leadership skills in its adult volunteers. The evaluation featured 20 questions about leadership skills learned as a result of volunteer experiences. Data analysis strategies beyond a simple means ranking resulted in evidence…

  2. Insulin Promoter Factor 1 variation is associated with type 2 diabetes in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective insulin secretion is a key defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM. The β-cell specific transcription factor, insulin promoter factor 1 gene (IPF1, is essential to pancreatic development and the maintenance of β-cell mass. We hypothesized that regulatory or coding variants in IPF1 contribute to defective insulin secretion and thus T2DM. Methods We screened 71 Caucasian and 69 African American individuals for genetic variants in the promoter region, three highly conserved upstream regulatory sequences (PH1, PH2 and PH3, the human β-cell specific enhancer, and the two exons with adjacent introns. We tested for an association of each variant with T2DM Caucasians (192 cases and 192 controls and African Americans (341 cases and 186 controls. Results We identified 8 variants in the two populations, including a 3 bp insertion in exon 2 (InsCCG243 in African Americans that resulted in an in-frame proline insertion in the transactivation domain. No variant was associated with T2DM in Caucasians, but polymorphisms at -3766 in the human β-cell enhancer, at -2877 bp in the PH1 domain, and at -108 bp in the promoter region were associated with T2DM in African American subjects (p Conculsion The common alleles of regulatory variants in the 5' enhancer and promoter regions of the IPF1 gene increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes among African American individuals, likely as a result of gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. In contrast, IPF1 is not a cause of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. A previously described InsCCG243 variant may contribute to diabetes susceptibility in African American individuals, but is of low penetrance.

  3. Synergy of Volunteer Measurements and Volunteer Computing for Effective Data Collecting, Processing, Simulating and Analyzing on a Worldwide Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gordienko, Nikita; Fedak, Gilles; Gordienko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The paper concerns the hype idea of "Citizen Science" and the related paradigm shift: to go from the passive "volunteer computing" to other volunteer actions like "volunteer measurements" under guidance of scientists. They can be carried out by ordinary people with standard computing gadgets (smartphone, tablet, etc.) and the various standard sensors in them. Here the special attention is paid to the system of volunteer scientific measurements to study air showers caused by cosmic rays. The technical implementation is based on integration of data about registered night flashes (by radiometric software) in shielded camera chip, synchronized time and GPS-data in ordinary gadgets: to identify night "air showers" of elementary particles; to analyze the frequency and to map the distribution of "air showers" in the densely populated cities. The project currently includes the students of the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI", which are compactly located in Kyiv city and contribute their volunteer measur...

  4. Differences and similarities among volunteers who drop out during the first year and volunteers who continue after eight years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, María Luisa; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2010-05-01

    Differences and similarities between 130 volunteers who remain for more than eight years in the same non-profit organization and 110 volunteers who quit during the first year were analyzed in this paper. Both groups were chosen from a sample of 851 volunteers that were working as volunteers when we assessed the independent variables (Time 1). After a 12-month follow-up (Time 2), 209 (25%) of them had dropped out and 642 (75%) continued in the same organization. Using the previous time, we formed two groups made up of those who dropped out and had been in the organization less than a year and those who continued and had been in the organization more than 8 years. Results show that differences and similarities between both groups are coherent with the three-stage model of volunteer's duration (Chacón, Vecina, & Dávila, 2007). This model includes the functional approach of volunteers' motivations (Clary & Snyder, 1991), and the role identity approach (Callero, 1985), and indicates that people will remain as volunteers insofar as this satisfies the motivations that are relevant for them at the first stage, they develop organizational commitment at the second stage, and they develop role identity as volunteers at the third stage. More specifically, results show that it is possible to predict 85% of the cases correctly using seven variables. Volunteers who remain after eight years feel a higher level of emotional exhaustion, a higher level of organizational commitment, and a strong role identity as volunteers. They are also highly satisfied with the friendships in the organization and have a stronger intention to remain at the long-term (2 years). PMID:20480701

  5. Ethnic comparison of pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben, a PET tracer for beta-amyloid imaging, in healthy Caucasian and Japanese subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, Michio; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yamane, Tomohiko; Shimizu, Keiji [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Division of Molecular Imaging, 2-2 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe (Japan); Patt, Marianne; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Nagasawa, Toshiki; Aitoku, Yasuko [Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Osaka (Japan); Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus [Bayer HealthCare AG, Berlin (Germany); Dinkelborg, Ludger [Piramal Imaging GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    {sup 18}F-Florbetaben is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer indicated for imaging cerebral beta-amyloid deposition in adult patients with cognitive impairment who are being evaluated for Alzheimer's disease and other causes of cognitive decline. The present study examined ethnic comparability of the plasma pharmacokinetics, which is the input to the brain, between Caucasian and Japanese subjects. Two identical phase I trials were performed in 18 German and 18 Japanese healthy volunteers to evaluate the plasma pharmacokinetics of a single dose of 300 MBq {sup 18}F-florbetaben, either of low (≤5 μg, LD) or high (50-55 μg, HD) mass dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated based on the total {sup 18}F radioactivity measurements in plasma followed by metabolite analysis using radio-HPLC. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben was characterized by a rapid elimination from plasma. The dose-normalized areas under the curve of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in plasma as an indicator of the input to the brain were comparable between Germans (LD: 0.38 min/l, HD: 0.55 min/l) and Japanese (LD: 0.35 min/l, HD: 0.45 min/l) suggesting ethnic similarity, and the mass dose effect was minimal. A polar metabolite fraction was the main radiolabelled degradation product in plasma and was also similar between the doses and the ethnic groups. Absence of a difference in the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}F-florbetaben in Germans and Japanese has warranted further global development of the PET imaging agent. (orig.)

  6. Self-selection for personality variables among healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and were more satisfied and optimistic (P less than 0.01) when compared with the general norm. When compared with a student norm, volunteers had lower levels of state (P less than 0.001) and trait (P less than 0.05) anxiety. The general sensation seeking tendency of volunteers was higher than in the student norm group (P less than 0.001). The volunteers had a greater tendency to thrill-and-adventure-seeking (P less than 0.001) and to disinhibition (P less than 0.01). 3. Hence, volunteers were a selected sample of the total population of students. This may influence the interpretation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters. 4. Personality screening should be added to the screening procedures for volunteers. PMID:1540478

  7. The consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in event volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of emotional intelligence abilities is one of the new subjects and important in human behavior studies. According to this matter, purpose of this research is consideration of emotional intelligence abilities in public sport events volunteers in 2011. For this purpose, Bradbury and Cruise's standard questionnaire was completed by present volunteers in event (n=80. The results indicated that 4 levels of emotional intelligence in volunteers are higher than expectational average significantly (p<0.01. Also, priority of emotional intelligence abilities indicated that self-awareness is first priority and social awareness, relationship management and self-management are second, third and fourth priorities in volunteers. Finally, in the basis of parameter, results stated that there is no difference between male and female volunteers emotional intelligence in first Olympia of public sport. According to results of present research and advantages of attention to emotional intelligence and human behavior in organizations, it recommended sport events managers to be more sensitive relative to human behavior abilities in human behavior abilities in human resource (volunteers under his management. At least, result of this meditation in student's sport is recruitment and development of motivated volunteers for continuous attendance in sport events.

  8. The American Board of Ophthalmology Tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Martin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses the efforts of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) to recognize and celebrate the contributions of its volunteers to certification programs and processes. In recognition of service to the ABO, all directors and examiners received ties for men and scarves for women bearing the ABO logo and colors. This article briefly describes the rationale and the importance of these articles for those who receive them. PMID:27550002

  9. Vitamin K status in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuwissen, E; Magdeleyns, E J; Braam, L A J L M; Teunissen, K J; Knapen, M H; Binnekamp, I A G; van Summeren, M J H; Vermeer, C

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin K's recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is based on the hepatic requirement for clotting factor synthesis, but substantial concentrations of undercarboxylated extra-hepatic Gla-proteins are found in the circulation of non-supplemented individuals. This suggests that vitamin K intake above the RDA is required for an optimal extra-hepatic vitamin K status. Circulating uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP) are considered markers of the vitamin K status in bone and the vasculature, respectively. We measured these markers in 896 samples of healthy volunteers and defined target groups for vitamin K supplementation based on increased levels indicative of tissue-specific vitamin K deficiency. We studied the response to vitamin K supplements at different states of vitamin K deficiency by measuring the circulating dp-ucMGP level in samples from two short-term trials on menaquinone-7 (MK-7, vitamin K2) supplementation in 42 children and 68 adults. Children had high ucOC levels (3.4-96.9 ng ml(-1)); other age groups had values in the range of 1.5-5.0 ng ml(-1). From the age of 40 years, dp-ucMGP levels gradually increased. Children and adults with more pronounced vitamin K deficiency gave the highest responses to MK-7 supplementation. Children and adults above 40 years showed the largest tissue-specific vitamin deficiency and accordingly may benefit from MK-7 supplementation to improve their extra-hepatic vitamin K status. PMID:24296867

  10. Influence of Youth Volunteering on Socialization and Development of Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteering is one of manifestations of citizenship. It indicates the individual’s quality in terms of citizenship and the readiness to take an active part in public activities. The current paper analyses the phenomenon of volunteering (its place and role in ensuring public development and sustainability. The influence of volunteer - ing on the youth socialization and personal development of competences (in particular, social, professional and communicative is disclosed in the article. The article also highlights the motives and factors that promote and prevent the youth participation in voluntary activities.

  11. Improving remote sensing flood assessment using volunteered geographical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Schnebele

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the generation of flood hazard maps is presented fusing remote sensing and volunteered geographical data. Water pixels are identified utilizing a machine learning classification of two Landsat remote sensing scenes, acquired before and during the flooding event as well as a digital elevation model paired with river gage data. A statistical model computes the probability of flooded areas as a function of the number of adjacent pixels classified as water. Volunteered data obtained through Google news, videos and photos are added to modify the contour regions. It is shown that even a small amount of volunteered ground data can dramatically improve results.

  12. Improving remote sensing flood assessment using volunteered geographical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.

    2013-03-01

    A new methodology for the generation of flood hazard maps is presented fusing remote sensing and volunteered geographical data. Water pixels are identified utilizing a machine learning classification of two Landsat remote sensing scenes, acquired before and during the flooding event as well as a digital elevation model paired with river gage data. A statistical model computes the probability of flooded areas as a function of the number of adjacent pixels classified as water. Volunteered data obtained through Google news, videos and photos are added to modify the contour regions. It is shown that even a small amount of volunteered ground data can dramatically improve results.

  13. Torpedo maculopathy with an anisometropic amblyopia in a 5-year-old Caucasian girl: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dutra-Medeiros

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report a clinical case of asymptomatic female Caucasian children with torpedo maculopathy. A 5-year-old girl was referred to our clinic for routine evaluation. The ophthalmic examination revealed best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 in both eyes, without any changes in the biomicroscopy. Fundus examination showed normal findings in one eye, whereas in the contralateral eye it disclosed, in the temporal sector of the macular region, a whitish, atrophic, oval chorioretinal lesion with clearly defined margins. Posterior evaluations documented the stability of the lesion. Torpedo maculopathy diagnosis is based on its characteristic shape and peculiar location. The differential diagnosis has to be estabilished versus choroidal lesions (melanoma and nevus, congenital or iatrogenic hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and particularly versus the congenital pigmented lesions associated with Gardner's syndrome.

  14. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women

  15. A Case of Unexplained Cerebral Sinus Thrombosis in a 22-Year-Old Obese Caucasian Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheult, Jansen N; Chibisov, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Herein, we present the case of a 22-year old obese Caucasian woman female with no acquired thrombophilic risk factors who was diagnosed with extensive cerebral sinus thrombosis. A detailed thrombophilia workup demonstrated persistently elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity levels, with an elevated PAI-1 antigen concentration and homozygosity for the PAI-1 4G allele (4G/4G genotype). The patient was treated with indefinite warfarin anticoagulation medication due to the unprovoked nature of her thrombotic event. Disturbances in the fibrinolytic system, in particular PAI-1, have been related to an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology of hypofibrinolysis associated with elevated PAI-1 levels and the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism. PMID:27287941

  16. Lateral intercrural suture in the caucasian nose: Decreased domal divergence angle in endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several techniques can be performed to improve nasal tip definition such as cartilage resection, tip grafts, or sutures. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of lateral intercrural suture at the lower lateral cartilage by endonasal rhinoplasty with a basic technique without delivery in decreasing the angle of domal divergence and improving the nasal tip definition. Method: This prospective study was performed in 64 patients in which a suture was made on the board head of the lower lateral cartilage in the joint between the dome and lateral crus, using polydioxanone (PDS with sharp, curved needle. Results: In all of the cases, better definition of the nasal tip was achieved by intercrural suturing for at least 6 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Lateral intercrural suture of the lower lateral cartilage provides improved nasal tip definition and can be performed by endonasal rhinoplasty without delivery in the Caucasian nose.

  17. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseynova, Tukezban; Abdulaliyeva, Farah; Lanza, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug camera. Setting Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1) eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber volume (ChV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (AC angle), keratometric power deviation (KPD), maximum front elevation (Max FE), and maximum back elevation (Max BE), as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI), Ambrosio relational thickness (ART), index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), center keratoconus index (CKI), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD), and radius minimum (RM) were collected and statistically compared between the two groups. Results PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (Pastigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with steep cornea, in Caucasians. PMID:27099469

  18. Cholinergic modulation of auditory P3 event-related potentials as indexed by CHRNA4 and CHRNA7 genotype variation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Molly; Choueiry, Joëlle; Smith, Dylan; de la Salle, Sara; Nelson, Renee; Impey, Danielle; Baddeley, Ashley; Aidelbaum, Robert; Millar, Anne; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by cognitive dysfunction within the realm of attentional processing. Reduced P3a and P3b event-related potentials (ERPs), indexing involuntary and voluntary attentional processing respectively, have been consistently observed in SZ patients who also express prominent cholinergic deficiencies. The involvement of the brain's cholinergic system in attention has been examined for several decades; however, further inquiry is required to further comprehend how abnormalities in this system affect neighbouring neurotransmitter systems and contribute to neurocognitive deficits. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the moderating role of the CHRNA4 (rs1044396), CHRNA7 (rs3087454), and SLC5A7 (rs1013940) genes on ERP indices of attentional processing in healthy volunteers (N=99; Caucasians and non-Caucasians) stratified by genotype and assessed using the auditory P300 "oddball" paradigm. Results indicated significantly greater P3a and P3b-indexed attentional processing for CT (vs. CC) CHRNA4 carriers and greater P3b for AA (vs. CC) CHRNA7 carriers. SLC5A7 allelic variants did not show significant differences in P3a and P3b processing. These findings expand our knowledge on the moderating effect of cholinergic genes on attention and could help inform targeted drug developments aimed at restoring attention deficits in SZ patients. PMID:27109789

  19. Hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to mutant proinsulin (Arg{sup 65}{yields}His) not associated with impaired glucose tolerance: The contribution of mutant proinsulin to insulin bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roder, M.E.; Vissing, H. [Health Care Discovery, Bagsvaerd (Denmark); Nauck, M.A. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany)

    1996-04-01

    Familial hyperproinsulinemia is a genetic abnormality characterized by an increased proportion of proinsulin immunoreactivity in the circulation due to mutations affecting the posttranslational processing of proinsulin. In affected Japanese families, this has been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. A three-generation Caucasian family with hyperproinsulinemia was identified through unexplained hyperinsulinemia in a normal volunteer participating in a metabolic study. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fasting plasma revealed a major peak eluting close to the position of proinsulin. Direct sequencing of the proinsulin gene exon 3 showed a heterozygous point mutation (CGT{yields}CAT) resulting in the substitution of Arg{yields}His in position 65 (corresponding to the AC cleavage site) in the index case, his mother, and his maternal grandmother. All affected subjects had normal oral glucose tolerance. In the basal state and after oral glucose administration, their proinsulin responses were slightly reduced. However, when calculating insulin bioactivity by assuming 9% activity for mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin, responses in affected subjects were comparable to those in normal subjects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate hyperproinsulinemia in a three-generation Caucasian family due to heterozygous mutant Arg{sup 65}{yields}His proinsulin. This was not associated with impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that this mutation in the heterozygous state per se does not affect glucose tolerance and that the biological activity of mutant proinsulin contributes to glucose homeostasis in this family. The association of the same mutation with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in previous studies may be the result of selection bias or associated conditions (e.g. the genetic background of the kindreds examined). 29 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  1. Heartbeat-related distension and displacement of the thoracic aorta in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test our hypothesis that distension and displacement in various segments of the healthy thoracic aorta are significant and can be predicted based on clinical characteristics. Materials and methods: Sixty-one Caucasian volunteers without cardiovascular disease (49 ± 16 years, range 19–82; 28 men, 33 women) divided into two age groups (A: <50, B: ≥50 years) underwent 1.5-T MRI. ECG-gated dynamic data sets were acquired at five locations perpendicular to the thoracic aorta. Aortic distension and Centre of Mass (CoM) displacement were determined as percentages of diastolic aortic diameter. A multiple linear regression model including age group, gender, location, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and body mass index was tested. Results: Mean aortic distension averaged over all locations was 11.2 ± 4.1% (age group A) and 6.7 ± 3.3% (age group B), mean displacement 15.1 ± 8.3% (A) and 11.0 ± 6.2% (B). Systolic and diastolic aortic diameter and CoM position significantly differed at all locations (p < 0.001). Distension and displacement could be predicted based on the regression model (p < 0.001). Age group A and women exhibited significantly greater distension and displacement compared to age group B (p < 0.001) and men (p < 0.01), respectively. Distension increased, displacement decreased from proximal to distal. Conclusion: Distension and translational displacement are significant at all levels of the thoracic aorta and can be predicted based on clinical characteristics.

  2. NRPB volunteer study: deposition and clearance of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Board Meeting of the National Radiological Protection Board held on 15 February 1996, approval was given for an experimental study of the deposition and clearance of inhaled particles in the human nasal passage. This is the latest in a series of volunteer biokinetic studies that have been conducted at NRPB since its formation. This article explains the purpose of the study, how ethical approval was obtained, how the study will be performed, what volunteers will be asked to do, and what doses they will receive. Doses will of course be carefully controlled, and will be well below the annual limits set for such experiments. The success of the study is of course crucially dependent on recruitment of a sufficient number of volunteers. The aim of this article is to provide information to anyone who might be interested in volunteering. (UK)

  3. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). False...

  4. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to survey for and treat 17 different invasive species within the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and William L....

  5. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with refuge staff to survey for and treat invasive species on the Willamette Valley Refuges (Ankeny, Baskett Slough and WL Finley NWR). Scotch...

  6. Willamette Valley - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Volunteers worked with staff to map and control invasive species within the Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex refuges (William L. Finley, Ankeny,...

  7. 75 FR 65595 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... requirements. List of Subjects in 45 CFR Part 2553 Aged, Grant programs--social programs, Volunteers. For the... application by its responsiveness to published guidelines and to the overall purpose and objectives of...

  8. 76 FR 20243 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... 2553 Aged, Grant programs--social programs, Volunteers. For the reasons set forth in the preamble, the... Corporation reviews and determines the merits of an application by its responsiveness to published...

  9. Mid-Columbia - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Project will initiate a program for the early detection, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on McNary and Umatilla NWR's using Refuge volunteers. The...

  10. Body Composition Is the Main Determinant for the Difference in Type 2 Diabetes Pathophysiology Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120...

  11. SORL1 Is Genetically Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-San; Matsubara, Etsuro; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Shoji, Mikio; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Asada, Takashi; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Higuchi, Susumu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Suga, Masaichi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imagawa, Masaki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Moriaha, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Takao, Takeo; Nakata, Kenji; Sasaki, Ken; Watanabe, Ken; Nakashima, Kenji; Urakami, Katsuya; Ooya, Terumi; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Serikawa, Kayoko; Yoshimoto, Seishi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Won, Hong-Hee; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won; Mook-Jung, Inhee; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Yoshida, Makiko; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Ken; Tsuji, Shoji; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kuwano, Ryozo

    2013-01-01

    To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10−9) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10−8). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10−5) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10−4). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations. PMID:23565137

  12. Study of the international epidemiology of androgenetic alopecia in young caucasian men using photographs from the internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shalom Avital

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII, non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results : The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA.

  13. Changes in energy metabolism in response to 48 h of overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians and Pima Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weyer, C; Vozarova, B; Ravussin, E; Tataranni, P A; de Courten, Barbora

    2001-01-01

    Differences in the metabolic response to overfeeding and starvation may confer susceptibility or resistance to obesity in humans. To further examine this hypothesis, we assessed the changes in 24 h energy metabolism in response to short-term overfeeding and fasting in Caucasians (C) and Pima...

  14. Defensive coping and subclinical vascular disease risk – associations with autonomic exhaustion in Africans and caucasians: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamer, Mark; Malan, Leone; Malan, Nicolaas Theodor; De Kock, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Objective The defensive active coping response is a recognised cardiovascular risk factor in Africans, especially in men. It is uncertain whether autonomic dysfunction might be the underlying cause. We therefore investigated associations between salivary MHPG (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolglycol), as a marker of sympathetic activity, and subclinical vascular disease risk in defensive coping Africans and Caucasians. Methods The Coping Strategy Indicator questionnaire identified participan...

  15. MDMA Impairs Response to Water Intake in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, Matthew J.; Garrison, Kathleen J.; Coyle, Jeremy R.; Galloway, Gantt P.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mendelson, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a serious complication of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use. We investigated potential mechanisms in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. In Study 1, healthy drug-experienced volunteers received MDMA or placebo alone and in combination with the alpha-1 adrenergic inverse agonist prazosin, used as a positive control to release antidiuretic hormone (ADH). In Study 2, volunteers received MDMA or placebo followed by standardized water intake. MDMA lowered serum...

  16. Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujlow, Tomasz; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard;

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of existing methods for traffic classification (by ports, Deep Packet Inspection, statistical classification) a new system was developed, in which the data are collected and classified directly by clients installed on machines belonging to volunteers. Our approach combines....... We released the system under The GNU General Public License v3.0 and published as a SourceForge project called Volunteer-Based System for Research on the Internet....

  17. Bioavailability of two oral formulas of secnidazole in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Andréa Bertuol Montovani; Ana Maria Pugens Pinto; Mauricio Bedim dos Santos; Daiane Loss Vieira; Anelise Weich do Prado; Josélia Larger Manfio

    2009-01-01

    Secnidazole is an antimicrobial agent used primarily in the treatment of amoebiasis. For this bioequivalence study of secnidazole, twenty-eight healthy female volunteers were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. Each volunteer was given a single oral dose of secnidazole test preparation and then the reference preparation, or vice versa, with a wash out interval of two weeks. The plasma concentrations of secnidazole were determined by HPLC, and the samples were extracted with tert-butyl-m...

  18. Volunteered Geographic Information and Computational Geography: New Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several exempl...

  19. Improving remote sensing flood assessment using volunteered geographical data

    OpenAIRE

    Schnebele, E.; Cervone, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology for the generation of flood hazard maps is presented fusing remote sensing and volunteered geographical data. Water pixels are identified utilizing a machine learning classification of two Landsat remote sensing scenes, acquired before and during the flooding event as well as a digital elevation model paired with river gage data. A statistical model computes the probability of flooded areas as a function of the number of adjacent pixels classified as water. Volunteered data ...

  20. Effects of Tocotrienol Supplementation on Hair Growth in Human Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Beoy, Lim Ai; Woei, Wong Jia; Hay, Yuen Kah

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between oxidative stress and alopecia. Patients with alopecia generally exhibit lower levels of antioxidants in their scalp area as well as a higher lipid peroxidation index. Tocotrienols belong to the vitamin E family and are known to be potent antioxidants. Hence, a study was conducted to investigate the effect of tocotrienol supplementation on hair growth in volunteers suffering from hair loss. Twenty one volunteers were randomly assigned to orally receive...

  1. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kline Joel N; Businga Thomas R; Watt Janet L; Launspach Janice; Durairaj Lakshmi; Thorne Peter S; Zabner Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital. Mice underwent a baseline methacholine challenge, exposure to either aerosolized saline o...

  2. Increasing capacity & changing the culture : volunteer management in law enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Cayson, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    CHDS State/Local In the post-September 11 world, law enforcement agencies are struggling to protect their communities from the threat of global terrorism, and also preparing for and responding to natural and manmade disasters. The demands on municipal law enforcement agencies have never been greater. Today, more than ever, it is clear that volunteers can play a fundamental role in augmenting a department's homeland security efforts. Are there best practices when incorporating volunteers in...

  3. The role of Volunteered Geographic Information in participatory planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig; Kahila, Maarit

    2012-01-01

    Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful...... context, employing volunteered GPS tracking to capture everyday uses of the urban environment. The second case study was carried out in Finland, employing SoftGIS as a tool to identify and quantify place values....

  4. [Drug evaluation in healthy volunteers. Legislative and ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D

    1991-01-01

    Studies in healthy volunteers have been legalized since December 20th 1988 in France. The healthy volunteer is employed for a variety of studies in phases I and IV of drug development. This type of research can equally be called nontherapeutic in nature. Every experiment involving healthy volunteers should be approved by the Ethics Committee. Using volunteers within the department, company or other organisation, while offering advantages for the investigator should be prohibited as freedom of concept might not be safeguarded. As well, financial incentives may over-persuade individuals, including students, who have low incomes and promote the "professional volunteer". To avoid this problem, French law planned a national register. The potential benefits of such a disposition are still unknown. Having been given appropriate information concerning the drug trial, his obligations and rights, the healthy volunteer gives his written consent. Specific recommendations for nontherapeutic assessments of drug effects are given concerning prisoners, the mentally handicapped, women with a risk of frequency, children. Ethical considerations concerning research on a healthy population must go beyond the law recently promulgated in France. PMID:2050001

  5. Hospital administrative characteristics and volunteer resource management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intindola, Melissa; Rogers, Sean; Flinchbaugh, Carol; Della Pietra, Doug

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between various characteristics of hospital administration and the utilization of classes of volunteer resource management (VRM) practices. Design/methodology/approach - This paper uses original data collected via surveys of volunteer directors in 122 hospitals in five Northeastern and Southern US states. Findings - Structural equation modeling results suggest that number of paid volunteer management staff, scope of responsibility of the primary volunteer administrator, and hospital size are positively associated with increased usage of certain VRM practices. Research limitations/implications - First, the authors begin the exploration of VRM antecedents, and encourage others to continue this line of inquiry; and second, the authors assess dimensionality of practices, allowing future researchers to consider whether specific dimensions have a differential impact on key individual and organizational outcomes. Practical implications - Based on the findings of a relationship between administrative characteristics and the on-the-ground execution of VRM practice, a baseline audit comparing current practices to those VRM practices presented here might be useful in determining what next steps may be taken to focus investments in VRM that can ultimately drive practice utilization. Originality/value - The exploration of the dimensionality of volunteer management adds a novel perspective to both the academic study, and practice, of volunteer management. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first empirical categorization of VRM practices. PMID:27119392

  6. How to Run Successful Teen Volunteer Programs - Forms for teen volunteers and teen advisory groups (TAG) -Powerpoint Presentations

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, Sarah; Donoghue, Vicki; Dawley, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Based on work with teen volunteers, teen advisory councils, teen reading buddy programs and anime and manga clubs, Sarah Donald, Vicki Donoghue and Amy Dawley discuss their successes with teenagers, and practical ways to serve teens in the community.

  7. American Red Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Help Sand Fire Evacuees » 90% of the Red Cross Workforce are Volunteers Learn More. Search for ... Volunteer» Digital Advocates» SEARCH FOR OPENINGS Shop the Red Cross Store Be Prepared and Ready to Respond ...

  8. Oral taste recognition in health volunteers Reconhecimento oral do gosto em voluntários sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Melciades Barbosa Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Taste food recognition has an important role in the nutritional conditions and also allows protection of the organism integrity against foods potentially dangerous. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of the selective taste regions on the tongue and also the palate participation in the oral taste definition. METHODS: A standard tongue divided in six regions was exposed with the four basic tastes (sweet, salted, sour and bitter, 10 times each. Thirteen volunteers were studied from both side and 34 only from one side, performing 240 tests with opened mouth and 240 with closing mouth, just after tongue sapid stimulation. A second group, with 12 volunteers, had its taste recognition studied, with and without palate isolation, using silicone prosthesis (n = 120. RESULTS: From results, chi-square (3×2 and (2×2, nonparametric independency test with P = 0.05 were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior, medium and posterior regions of the tongue, at both sides, had the same taste discriminative capacity. Nevertheless, closed mouth increased immediate and late recognition capacity by palate participation. It was possible to admit that palate participation increase the sapid perception in the mouth, by recruitment of the palate taste receptors and also by fluid compression and its scattering over tongue surface.CONTEXTO: O reconhecimento dos gostos tem importante papel para as condições nutricionais e também para a proteção da integridade do organismo contra a ingestão de alimentos potencialmente perigosos. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença na língua de regiões com capacidade seletiva para percepção dos gostos básicos e também verificar se e como o palato participa da definição dos gostos na cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Uma língua padrão hipotética dividida em 6 regiões teve cada umas destas, exposta 10 vezes a cada um dos quatro sabores básicos (doce, salgado, azedo e amargo. Treze voluntários tiveram sua lingual estudada dos dois

  9. Digestive tract microbiota in healthy volunteers Microbiota no trato digestivo em voluntários saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Zilberstein; Alina G Quintanilha; Santos, Manoel A A; Denis Pajecki; Eduardo G Moura; Paulo Roberto Arruda Alves; Fauze Maluf Filho; João Ary Ubriaco de Souza; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to standardize the methods of sample collection of mucus from the digestive tract and to determine the microbiota in healthy volunteers from Brazil, collecting samples from the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, and rectum. METHODS: Microbiota of selected healthy volunteers from the oral cavity (n=10), the esophagus (n=10), the upper digestive tract (n=20), and the lower digestive tract (n=24) were evaluated through distinct collecti...

  10. The comparison of self esteem between volunteer and non volunteer students in universities sport in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Andam.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies three concepts of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leaderships as three independent and individual dimensions. This field study is descriptive and correlative. Statistical population of this study is the volunteer students in universities' sport associations of 10 regions of the country. Among 73 universities, 17 had active sport associations. Based on Morgan table, 231 students were selected as statistical sample (n=231 from which the results of 208 questionnaires were analyzed. Bass and Avolio (1995 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ was used to measure managers' leadership style of the universities' sport administrations. This questionnaire includes 41 questions with 5-value Lickert scale (1=never to 5=always. Choosing satisfaction from experiencing as the most important dimension of satisfaction shows volunteers' high level of satisfaction from experiences they have acquired in universities sport associations. The reason of this fact is that sport activity in the association is long term in nature. Sport association provides the students an opportunity to experience and use their experiences in their sport and work life. This study illustrates that girls are more satisfied than boys in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, commitment, and material in sport associations. Researches show that female students' satisfaction is more than male students' satisfaction and women's job satisfaction is more than men's job satisfaction. Thus, the higher degree of job satisfaction and experiencing in female students seems more justifying. Also, it's been cleared that sport students were more satisfied than other students in all satisfaction dimensions (especially acquiring experience, career, purposeful, and commitment

  11. Volunteering in dementia care – a Norwegian phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ulrika Söderhamn1, Bjørg Landmark2,3, Live Aasgaard2, Hilde Eide3, Olle Söderhamn11Center for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Institute of Research and Development for Nursing and Care Services, Municipality of Drammen, Drammen, Norway; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, NorwayIntroduction: The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today.Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia.Methods: Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results: Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role.Conclusion: In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual

  12. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1 Farah Abdulaliyeva,2 Michele Lanza3 1Briz-L Eye Clinic, 2National Ophthalmology Center, Baku, Azerbaijan; 3Second University of Naples, Caserta, Campania, Italy Purpose: To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC using Scheimpflug camera.Setting: Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan.Design: A cross-sectional study.Methods: In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1 eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax, corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ChV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (AC angle, keratometric power deviation (KPD, maximum front elevation (Max FE, and maximum back elevation (Max BE, as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI, Ambrosio relational thickness (ART, index of surface variance (ISV, index of vertical asymmetry (IVA, center keratoconus index (CKI, index of height asymmetry (IHA, index of height decentration (IHD, and radius minimum (RM were collected and statistically compared between the two groups.Results: PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05 between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion: Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with

  13. Prostate cancer screening in African American and Caribbean males: detriment in delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchment, Yvonne D

    2004-01-01

    Men of the African diaspora are diagnosed with prostate cancer much later than Caucasians and the mortality rate is significantly higher in these groups than among Caucasians. This study investigates health beliefs surrounding prostate health in a sample of African American and Caribbean men and identifies reasons men have for delaying or avoiding prostate screenings. One hundred African American and Caribbean men recruited from three churches, aged 37-89, were surveyed about their health seeking behaviors and knowledge of prostate cancer. Forty-five of these men also attended a seminar on the importance of early detection. Eighty percent of the men revealed they were embarrassed to have digital rectal examinations. Sixty percent feared impotence and incontinence after treatment if diagnosed with cancer. Findings reveal that attention to cultural realities may assist healthcare professionals in planning culturally sensitive educational interventions in the community that may narrow the health disparities gap in this population. PMID:18399361

  14. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Colón-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.

  15. An Analysis of Valencia Community College's Policy Response to Local Community Agencies' Need for Student Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lula M.

    A study was conducted at Valencia Community College (VCC) to evaluate VCC's success in meeting the community's need for volunteers, to determine the needs of student volunteers, and to discover what kinds of students were participating in the student volunteer program. Results of a questionnaire completed by 72 student volunteers indicated that…

  16. Manual on Volunteer Services in Homes for the Aging and Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S.

    Intended as a practical guide for the administrator in homes for the aging, this booklet provides direction on how to set up a volunteer program. Five steps in organizing a volunteer program are: (1) Launching a Volunteer Program, (2) Recruitment and Selection of Volunteers, (3) Orientation and Training Program (The Role and Function of a…

  17. 论美国的志愿服务及借鉴价值%The Analysis of America’s Volunteer Service and Reference Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡平; 赵佳宾

    2012-01-01

    美国人普遍把参加志愿服务活动作为实现自我理想与价值、发挥显示自己能力、实现社会交往、积累工作经验、获得社会认可的重要方式和途径。志愿服务运动在美国社会中发挥着重要的作用,它们的组织模式对我国的志愿服务活动的开展具有重要的借鉴价值。%In the United States,volunteer service has been regarded as a social responsibility when people have free time to help or aid others.Americans generally regard attending activities of volunteer service as the important ways and approaches of realizing their ideal,their value,their ability and the social intercourse,getting social acceptance.The movement of volunteer service in American society plays an important role,their organization mode has an important reference value to the volunteer service in our country.

  18. The sero-epidemiology of human papillomavirus among Caucasian transplant recipients in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive study of high-risk mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPV, little is known of the epidemiology of cutaneous HPV. As part of a study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and HPV among organ transplant recipients (OTR from London and Oxford, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors for 34 HPV types (detected using Luminex technology among 425 Caucasian OTR without skin cancer. Results Overall, 86% of participants were seropositive to at least one HPV: 41% to mucosal alpha types, 33% to cutaneous alpha types, 57% to alpha types, 56% to beta, 47% to gamma types and 45% to other types (nu, mu, HPV101 and 103. In both centres, the most common types were HPV6 (33% and 26% for London and Oxford respectively, HPV8 (24% and 18%, HPV15 (26% and 29%, HPV17 (25% and 21%, HPV38 (23% and 21%, HPV49 (19% and 21%, HPV4 (27% and 23%, HPV65 (30% and 25%, HPV95 (22% and 20%, HPV1 (33% and 24% and HPV63 (28% and 17%. The seroprevalence of 8 HPV types differed significantly (P Conclusion Findings for mucosal HPV types were in line with results from previous studies. We observed differences in HPV seroprevalence between organ transplant recipients from two geographically close centres but no clear risk factor was found associated with cutaneous HPV seropositivity among organ transplant recipients. These findings have implications for interpretation of future seroepidemiology studies addressing the association between HPV and cutaneous SCC in OTR populations.

  19. Segregation of LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 mutations in Caucasian families with extremely high HDL cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tietjen

    Full Text Available To date, few mutations are described to underlie highly-elevated HDLc levels in families. Here we sequenced the coding regions and adjacent sequence of the LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 genes in 171 unrelated Dutch Caucasian probands with HDLc≥90th percentile and analyzed segregation of mutations with lipid phenotypes in family members. In these probands, mutations were most frequent in LIPG (12.9% followed by GALNT2 (2.3% and CETP (0.6%. A total of 6 of 10 mutations in these three genes were novel (60.0%, and mutations segregated with elevated HDLc in families. Interestingly, the LIPG mutations N396S and R476W, which usually result in elevated HDLc, were unexpectedly found in 6 probands with low HDLc (i.e., ≤10th percentile. However, 5 of these probands also carried mutations in ABCA1, LCAT, or LPL. Finally, no CETP and GALNT2 mutations were found in 136 unrelated probands with low HDLc. Taken together, we show that rare coding and splicing mutations in LIPG, CETP, and GALNT2 are enriched in persons with hyperalphalipoproteinemia and segregate with elevated HDLc in families. Moreover, LIPG mutations do not overcome low HDLc in individuals with ABCA1 and possibly LCAT and LPL mutations, indicating that LIPG affects HDLc levels downstream of these proteins.

  20. Regional body composition in college-aged Caucasians from anthropometric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Robert T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32 and women (n = 67. Circumference measurements as well as body weight and height were taken for each individual. Equations relating body measurements to a respective regional fat and lean mass were developed using multiple regression analysis. Results Multiple regression R2 values ranged from 0.4451 to 0.8953 and 0.1697 to 0.7039 for regional fat and lean mass relationships to body measurements, respectively. Conclusion The equations developed in this study offer a simple way of estimating regional body composition in a college-aged adult population. The parameters used in the equations are common body measurements that can be obtained with the use of a measuring tape and weight scale.

  1. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24896777

  2. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  3. Clonal Diversity and Clone Formation in the Parthenogenetic Caucasian Rock Lizard Darevskia dahli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A.; Martirosyan, Irena A.; Semyenova, Seraphima K.; Omelchenko, Andrey V.; Petrosyan, Varos G.; Lazebny, Oleg E.; Tokarskaya, Olga N.; Korchagin, Vitaly I.; Ryskov, Alexey P.

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  4. Interactions Between SNP Alleles at Multiple Loci and Variation in Skin Pigmentation in 122 Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiko Anno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to clarify the molecular basis for human skin color variation and the environmental adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation, with the ultimate goal of predicting the impact of changes in future environments on human health risk. One hundred twenty-two Caucasians living in Toledo, Ohio participated. Back and cheek skin were assayed for melanin as a quantitative trait marker. Buccal cell samples were collected and used for DNA extraction. DNA was used for SNP genotyping using the Masscode™ system, which entails two-step PCR amplification and a platform chemistry which allows cleavable mass spectrometry tags. The results show gene-gene interaction between SNP alleles at multiple loci (not necessarily on the same chromosome contributes to inter-individual skin color variation while suggesting a high probability of linkage disequilibrium. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and human skin color variation. Our overarching goal is to use remote sensing data to clarify the interaction between atmospheric environments and SNP allelic frequency and investigate human adaptability to ultraviolet irradiation. Such information should greatly assist in the prediction of the health effects of future environmental changes such as ozone depletion and increased ultraviolet exposure. If such health effects are to some extent predictable, it might be possible to prepare for such changes in advance and thus reduce the extent of their impact.

  5. On establishment the professional - oriented regional radioecological collaboration of southern Caucasian new independent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Today civilized Universe aims 'To Live and Collaborate into Safe - Ecologically Pure Environment'. Citizens of NIS realize this clearly only during last years - years of independence. However, in Georgia (Maybe, in other NIS too) a collective nature between officials and representatives of research and public bodies under solving radioecological problems is not observable. Therefore, researchers from I.Javakhishvili TSU suggest NATO representatives to discuss establishment of Professional-Oriented Regional Radioecological Collaboration (As NGO-Independent Expert Group). The Collaboration aims: 1.To study (As Independent Expert Group) the radioecological situation in separate areas of Southern Caucasus; 2.To assess the risk caused by the influence of ionising radiation on population; 3.To create broadly accessible regional radioecological database; 4.To assist: Popularising of radioecological studies; Upgrading Southern Caucasian population's erudition in the field of radioecology and radiation safety; Improvement of collaboration between NGO-s and governmental institutions. Success of the presented Collaboration under NATO (Or other institutions) support will create: Obvious case of the regional collaboration to solve one of the most timely environment saving problems; Preconditions for enlargement the Collaboration by involvement research bodies from other countries of Caspian region, as the idea of creation the ecologically pure living space is concordant with interests of Eurasian population

  6. Association between EGF +61A/G polymorphism and gastric cancer in Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Paula Araújo; Bruno M Costa; Ana L Pinto-Correia; Maria Fragoso; Paula Ferreira; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro; Sandra Costa; Rui M Reis; Rui Medeiros

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between epidermal growth factor (EGF ) +61A/G polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer, through a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction resctriction fragment lenght polymorphism analyses were used to genotype EGF +61 in 207 patients with gastric lesions (162 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas, 45 with atrophy or intestinal metaplasia) and 984 controls. All subjects were Caucasian. RESULTS: Genotype distribution was 23.5% for GG and 76.5% for GA/AA in the control group, 18.4% for GG and 68.6% for GA/AA in the entire group with gastric lesions and 17.9% for GG and 82.1% for GA/AA in the group with gastric adenocarcinoma. No statistically significant associations were found between EGF +61 variants and risk for developing gastric cancer [odds ratios (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.90-2.21, P = 0.116]. However, the stratification of individuals by gender revealed that males carrying A alleles (EGF +61A/G or AA) had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer as compared to GG homozygous males (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.05-2.28, P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: In summary, we found that males who were A carriers for EGF +61 had an increased risk for developing gastric cancer. This result may be explained by the suggestion that women secrete less gastric acid than men.

  7. Gastric cancer in a Caucasian population: Role of pepsinogen C genetic variants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana L Pinto-Correia; Hugo Sousa; Maria Fragoso; Luís Moreira-Dias; Carlos Lopes; Rui Medeiros; Mário Dinis-Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the pepsinogen C (PGC) gene, an effective marker for terminal differentiation of the stomach mucosa, in the susceptibility to the development of gastric lesions.METHODS: The study was performed with 99 samples of known gastric lesions and 127 samples without evidence of neoplastic disease. PCR was employed and the 6 polymorphic alleles were amplified: Allele 1 (510 bp), Allele 2 (480bp), Allele 3/4 (450/460 bp), Allele 5 (400 bp) and Allele 6(310 bp).RESULTS: Our results revealed that Allele 6 carriers seemed to have protection against the development of any gastric lesion (OR = 0.34; P<0.001), non-dysplastic lesions associated with gastric adenocarcinoma such as atrophy or intestinal metaplasia (OR = 0.28; P < 0.001) or invasive GC (OR = 0.39; P = 0.004).CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that the Allele 6 carrier status has a protective role in the development of gastric lesions, probably due to its association with higher expression of PGC. Moreover, the frequency of Allele 6 carriers in the control group is far higher than that obtained in Asian populations, which might represent a genetic gap between Caucasian and Asian populations.

  8. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  9. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.

    2008-01-01

    A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...

  10. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  11. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  12. Examining Volunteer Motivations and Recruitment Strategies For Engagement in Urban Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Moskell; Shorna Broussard Allred; Gretchen Ferenz

    2010-01-01

    Few studies in urban forestry have examined the motivations of urban forestry volunteers. In this research, two social psychological theories (Volunteer Functions Inventory and Volunteer Process Model) are utilized to examine motivations for participating in tree planting activities. The Volunteer Functions Inventory can be used to examine the needs, goals and motivations that individuals seek to fulfill through volunteerism. The Volunteer Process Model sheds light on the antecedents, experie...

  13. ATLAS@Home: Harnessing Volunteer Computing for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdarios, Claire; Filipcic, Andrej; Lancon, Eric; Wu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    A recent common theme among HEP computing is exploitation of opportunistic resources in order to provide the maximum statistics possible for Monte-Carlo simulation. Volunteer computing has been used over the last few years in many other scientific fields and by CERN itself to run simulations of the LHC beams. The ATLAS@Home project was started to allow volunteers to run simulations of collisions in the ATLAS detector. So far many thousands of members of the public have signed up to contribute their spare CPU cycles for ATLAS, and there is potential for volunteer computing to provide a significant fraction of ATLAS computing resources. Here we describe the design of the project, the lessons learned so far and the future plans.

  14. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous melatonin in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenkilde, Mette M;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of oral and iv melatonin in healthy volunteers. METHODS: The study was performed as a cohort crossover study. The volunteers received either 10 mg oral melatonin or 10 mg intravenous melatonin on two separate study days. Blood samples were...... collected at different time points following oral administration and short iv infusion, respectively. Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined by RIA technique. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed by "the method of residuals" and compartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic variables: k a, t 1....../2 absorption, t max, C max, t 1/2 elimination, AUC 0-∞, and bioavailability were determined for oral melatonin. C max, t 1/2 elimination, V d, CL and AUC 0-∞ were determined for intravenous melatonin. RESULTS: Twelve male volunteers completed the study. Baseline melatonin plasma levels did not differ...

  16. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation

  17. Advantages of volunteer-based biodiversity monitoring in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Julliard, Romain; Gruber, Bernd; Clobert, Jean; Dziock, Frank; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Nowicki, Piotr; Déri, Eszter; Budrys, Eduardas; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Bauch, Bianca; Settele, Josef; Van Swaay, Chris; Kobler, Andrej; Babij, Valerija; Papastergiadou, Eva; Henle, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    Without robust and unbiased systems for monitoring, changes in natural systems will remain enigmatic for policy makers, leaving them without a clear idea of the consequences of any environmental policies they might adopt. Generally, biodiversity-monitoring activities are not integrated or evaluated across any large geographic region. The EuMon project conducted the first large-scale evaluation of monitoring practices in Europe through an on-line questionnaire and is reporting on the results of this survey. In September 2007 the EuMon project had documented 395 monitoring schemes for species, which represents a total annual cost of about 4 million euro, involving more than 46,000 persons devoting over 148,000 person-days/year to biodiversity-monitoring activities. Here we focused on the analysis of variations of monitoring practices across a set of taxonomic groups (birds, amphibians and reptiles, mammals, butterflies, plants, and other insects) and across 5 European countries (France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, and Poland). Our results suggest that the overall sampling effort of a scheme is linked with the proportion of volunteers involved in that scheme. Because precision is a function of the number of monitored sites and the number of sites is maximized by volunteer involvement, our results do not support the common belief that volunteer-based schemes are too noisy to be informative. Just the opposite, we believe volunteer-based schemes provide relatively reliable data, with state-of-the-art survey designs or data-analysis methods, and consequently can yield unbiased results. Quality of data collected by volunteers is more likely determined by survey design, analytical methodology, and communication skills within the schemes rather than by volunteer involvement per se. PMID:19183201

  18. A Caucasian Australian presenting with human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the first known case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an Australian Caucasian, a disease reported in Aboriginal and immigrant populations where the virus is often endemic. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian Australian man had a 3-year background of progressive functional decline from a myelopathy with spastic paraparesis and sphincteric dysfunction. Conclusions Although studies have shown a very low prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in the greater Australian population, increased focus on Aboriginal health, and the expanding diversity and integration of the Australian population means that presentation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated disease is likely to increase. PMID:25416840

  19. Stakeholder Involvement during the Development of Aremediation Concept for the Lermontov Uranium Mining Site in the Caucasian Water District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commissioned by the European Commission, Wismut GmbH in collaboration with partners developed during the period 2004/05 a remediation concept for the Lermontov uranium mining site in Russia. Remarkable for Lermontov is its location in a tremendous countryside, in the centre of the Caucasian Mineral Waters region, and adjacent to famous spas. Identification of the technical solutions for rehabilitation of the uranium mining liabilities was not easy but could be managed on the basis of the broad Wismut know-how. More challenging however was to include the different stakeholder interests in finding the best suitable remedial measures. The paper deals with the social aspects of remediation, with questions of perception of radiological liabilities in the Caucasian Mineral Water region and describes how the different interests of stakeholders have been taken into account. (author)

  20. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma in a non-Caucasian patient: A case report and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, JINGXIN; YANG, SHIPING; CHEN, JIMIN; LIAO, TIANAN; DENG, WEI; LI, WEIZHONG

    2016-01-01

    Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is extremely rare among Asians, with the majority of cases presenting in Caucasian individuals. The current study describes the case of a 38-year-old Chinese woman who presented with a 10 year history of a mass in the upper lip. A biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of MAC. The patient underwent complete surgical resection and the tumor was successfully excised. During 6 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, the present case is the first Chinese case to be reported in the English literature, and is presented with the aim of increasing the awareness and aiding in the management of MAC in non-Caucasian populations. PMID:27073500

  1. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... higher number of naevi on the arms and the legs than did female controls, but also had more naevi on the trunk. For females, the risk for basal cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of naevi. Naevi were not a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in males....... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...

  2. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males with...

  3. Liver fat accumulation in response to overfeeding with a high-fat diet: a comparison between South Asian and Caucasian men

    OpenAIRE

    Wulan, Siti N.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B; Westerterp, Klaas R; Plasqui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Background South Asians were reported to have a higher liver fat content as compared to BMI-matched Caucasians. This study compared the increase in liver fat content in response to overfeeding with a high fat diet in South Asian and Caucasian men when matched for body fat percentage. Methods Ten South Asian men (BMI 18–29 kg/m2) and 10 Caucasian men (BMI 22–33 kg/m2), aged 20–40 y, matched for body fat percentage, were included. A weight maintenance diet was given for 3 days based on the indi...

  4. Self-selection for personality variables among healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, M S; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Schoemaker, H C; Cohen, A F

    1992-01-01

    1. Healthy student volunteers (n = 103) participating in ongoing clinical pharmacological research completed the Dutch Personality Inventory (DPI), the Dutch version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-DY) and the Dutch version of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). 2. The volunteers were more extrovert (P less than 0.001), more flexible (P less than 0.001), more tolerant or less impulsive (P less than 0.001), had more self-confidence and initiative (P less than 0.001), and ...

  5. Physiologic effects of intravenous fluid administration in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    volunteers with a median age of 63 yr (range, 59-67 yr) received an infusion of lactated Ringer's solution 40 mL/kg (median, 2820 mL) or 5 mL/kg (median, 353 mL; background infusion) in random order on two separate occasions. The study was designed to mimic the perioperative course with preoperative fasting...... fluid administration. These findings may serve as a basis for clinical studies applying the same type of fluid in different amounts to determine the optimal amount of perioperative fluid in various surgical procedures. IMPLICATIONS: Infusion of 40 mL/kg of lactated Ringer's solution in volunteers led to...

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers

    CERN Document Server

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers had made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this paper, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and demographics of Galaxy Zoo volunteers, and define a technique to determine motivations from free responses that can be used in larger multiple-choice surveys with similar populations. Our categories form the basis for a future survey, with the goal of determining the prevalence of each motivation.

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of Oculocutaneous Albinism among Non-Hispanic Caucasians Shows that OCA1 Is the Most Prevalent OCA Type

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Saunie M.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by absent or reduced pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. In humans, four genes have been associated with “classical” OCA and another 12 genes with syndromic forms of OCA. To assess the prevalence of different forms of OCA and different gene mutations among non-Hispanic Caucasian patients, we performed DNA sequence analysis of the four genes associated with “classical” OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1, SLC...

  8. The usefulness of Y-glutamyltransferase as a marker of cardiovascular function in Africans and caucasians: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Catharina Maria Theresia; Glyn, Matthew Colin Patrick; Huisman, Hugo Willem; Malan, Leone; Malan, Nicolaas Theodor; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph; Van Rooyen, Johannes Marthinus

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is increasingly regarded as a marker of vascular function. However, the usefulness of this marker is in dispute. Gender and ethnic differences, as well as the serum level range where correlations with vascular function will emerge, may complicate the usefulness of GGT. The aim is to compare correlations with markers of vascular function between African and Caucasian groups. Methods. This cross-sectional target population study involved four groups of Afr...

  9. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Said; Heise, Heike; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Bölke, Edwin; Gerber, Peter Arne

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We...

  10. Fourier domain optical coherence tomography to assess the iridocorneal angle and correlation study in a large Caucasian population

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Vigo, José Ignacio; García-Feijóo, Julián; Martínez-de-la-Casa, José María; García-Bella, Javier; Arriola-Villalobos, Pedro; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Fernández-Vigo, José Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, novel anatomic parameters that can be measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), have been identified as a more objective and accurate method of defining the iridocorneal angle. The aim of the present study is to measure the iridocorneal angle by Fourier domain (FD) OCT and to identify correlations between angle measurements and subject factors in a large healthy Caucasian population. Methods A cross sectional study was performed in 989 left eyes of 989 healthy subje...

  11. No association between germline allele-specific expression of TGFBR1 and colorectal cancer risk in Caucasian and Ashkenazi populations

    OpenAIRE

    Seguí, N; Stevens, K. N.; Guinó, E.; Rozek, L S; Moreno, V R; Capellá, G; Gruber, S B; Valle, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the TGFBR1 gene has been reported as a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) with an odds ratio close to 9. Considering the potential implications of the finding, we undertook the task of validating the initial results in this study. Methods: Allele-specific expression was measured using the highly quantitative and robust technique of pyrosequencing. Individuals from two different populations were studied, one Caucasian-dominat...

  12. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the yeast Komagataea (williopsis) pratensis populations from Caucasian and Tien Shan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E S; Tokareva, N G; Bab'eva, I P; Naumov, G I

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of sixteen Komagataea (Williopsis) pratensis from the Caucasian and Tien Shan soils by the PCR, blot hybridization, and isoenzyme electrophoresis techniques showed that fifteen of them do belong to the species K. pratensis. The isolates from the two geographic areas differed in some physiological characteristics and in the PCR product profiles obtained with the microsatellite primers (CAC)5 and (GACA)4. PMID:11386057

  13. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, Ester MM; Thönissen, Brenda EJT; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total,...

  14. Variations of the interleukin-6 promoter are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Y H; Rose, C S; Urhammer, S A; Glümer, C; Nolsøe, R; Kristiansen, O P; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jorgensen, T; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O

    2005-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an essential regulator of the acute phase response associated with insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes and obesity. Three polymorphisms at positions -597, -572, and -174 of the IL6 promoter have been reported to influence IL6 transcription. The...... aim of this study was to investigate whether the IL6 promoter polymorphisms were associated with features of the WHO-defined metabolic syndrome and related quantitative traits in 7,553 Caucasian Danes....

  15. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  16. Lesion comparison of multiple sclerosis in hispanic and caucasian patients utilizing an imaging informatics-based eFolder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Shiroishi, Mark; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Genetics have been considered as a leading factor in the prevalence and disease course of MS. We have presented an informatics-based eFolder system for integrating patients' clinical data with MR images and lesion quantification results. The completed eFolder system has been designed and developed in aiding to evaluate disease manifestation differences in Hispanic and Caucasian MS patients. MS lesion data, as shown in MRI, can be extracted by the 3-D automatic lesion detection tool in the eFolder, and data storing and mining tools in eFolder is able to extract and compare data from individual patients. The computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm has been modified and enhanced to include spatial information as detection criteria. For this study, 36 Caucasian MS patients and 36 matched Hispanic patients have been selected. Most recent MR images of the patients are collected, and images are evaluated both by the CAD tool in the eFolder and radiologists. The results are compared between Caucasian and Hispanic patients and statistically evaluated to see if the two populations have significant difference in lesion presentations. The results can be used to evaluate differences in the two groups of patients and to evaluate the new CAD algorithm's performance with radiologists' contours. Significant findings can further evaluate effectiveness of MS eFolder in MS-related research.

  17. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  18. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  19. Life expectancy in two Caucasian countries. How much due to overestimated population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first attempt to produce reliable estimates of mortality in Georgia and Armenia in the 1990s. Official statistics registered a decrease in mortality over the 1990s in spite of local wars, mass flows of refugees, and severe economic hardships faced by populations. According to official statistics, in 1999-2000 population size was about 5.4 millions in Georgia and about 3.8 millions in Armenia. Non-official estimates based on migration surveys are much lower: 4.0-4.1 millions and 3.0 millions, respectively. This huge difference is mostly due to unregistered out-migration. In addition to corrections in population, corrections are made for under-registration of deaths. Hospital statistics is used for infant deaths and the Coale-Demeny model life tables are used for ages above 70. In Georgia, the introduction of payment for the declaration of vital events resulted in a greater under-registration of deaths than in Armenia. Modified populations, mortality and life expectancy values are produced for the 1990s. In 1999 life expectancy was 68.6 and 75.6 for males and females in Georgia and 68.7 and 75.4 for males and females in Armenia. These figures are lower than the official estimates by 5.2 and 5.6 years for males and females in Georgia and by 3.8 and 1.7 years for males and females in Armenia. After corrections Caucasian male life expectancy is higher than in other post-Soviet countries.

  20. Differences in reproductive endocrinology between Asian men and Caucasian men-a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.E.vanHouten; LouisJ.G.Gooren

    2000-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the literature on aspects of reproductive endocrinology wherein Asian men may differ from Caucasian, notably, prostatic nioplasm and the sensivity to pharmacological regimens of male contraception. Both genetic and environmental factors, such as nutrition, might be relevant. Asian men residing in Asia seem to be relatively protected from clinical prostatic nioplasm while the prevalence of preclinical prostatic nioplasm is not different. Migration to an area with a higher prevalence reduces this difference but does not undo it. With regard to prostatic nioplasm the following factors have been considered as relevant in Asian men: 1) a reduction in 5α-reductase level, 2) decreased levels of androgenic ketosteroid precursors of 5α-reduced androgen metabolites, 3) the decreased presence of a P53 mutation, 4) a higher CAG-repeat length of the androgen receptor, 5) a possible higher level of physical activity, 6) differences in sexual activity. Furthermore, Asian men respond to a higher degree with azoospermia in response to contraceptive steroids. Possible explanations offered for the more pronounced response to contraceptive steroids are: 1) differences in testicular structure and decreased spermatogenic potential, 2) an earlier and more marked suppression in LH secretion by exogenous androgens. The differences may be due to genetical and/or environmental factors influencing the peripheral testosterone metabolism. Dietary factors such as the higher intake of phytoestrogens in Asians might exert effects on 5α-reductase activity and/or on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels,thus having an impact on the biological efficay of circulating androgens. ( Asian J Androl 2000; 2:13 - 20 )

  1. HIV-1 subtype D infections among Caucasians from Northwestern Poland--phylogenetic and clinical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miłosz Parczewski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV-1 subtype D infections, which are associated with a faster rate of progression and lymphocyte CD4 decline, cognitive deficit and higher mortality, have rarely been found in native Europeans. In Northwestern Poland, however, infections with this subtype had been identified. This study aimed to analyze the sequence and clinical data for patients with subtype D using molecular phylogeography and identify transmission clusters and ancestry, as well as drug resistance, baseline HIV tropism and antiretroviral treatment efficacy. METHODS: Phylogenetic analyses of local HIV-1 subtype D sequences were performed, with time to the most recent common ancestor inferred using bayesian modeling. Sequence and drug resistance data were linked with the clinical and epidemiological information. RESULTS: Subtype D was found in 24 non-immigrant Caucasian, heterosexually infected patients (75% of females, median age at diagnosis of 49.5 years; IQR: 29-56 years. Partial pol sequences clustered monophyletically with the clades of Ugandan origin and no evidence of transmission from other European countries was found. Time to the most common recent ancestor was 1989.24 (95% HPD: 1968.83-1994.46. Baseline drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was observed in 54.5% of cases (mutations: M41L, K103N, T215S/D with evidence of clustering, no baseline integrase or protease resistance and infrequent non-R5 tropism (13.6%. Virologic failure was observed in 60% of cases and was associated with poor adherence (p<0.001 and subsequent development of drug resistance (p = 0.008, OR: 20 (95%CI: 1.7-290. CONCLUSIONS: Local subtype D represented an independently transmitted network with probably single index case, high frequency of primary drug resistance and evidence of transmission clusters.

  2. What Makes Them Pay? Values of Volunteer Tourists Working for Sea Turtle Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa M.; Smith, Christy

    2006-07-01

    As charismatic mega-fauna, sea turtles attract many volunteers to conservation programs. This article examines the ways in which volunteers value sea turtles, in the specific context of volunteers working with the Caribbean Conservation Corporation, at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. The complexity of volunteer values is explored using a qualitative approach. In-depth interviews with 31 volunteers were conducted in July of 1999 and 2000. Interviews probed, among other things, interest in sea turtles and their conservation, motives for participating, and the most gratifying parts of their volunteer experience. Results show that volunteers hold multiple and complex values for sea turtles, but particular values dominate. Results have implications for understanding human-environment relations and the emerging study of volunteer tourism. There are also management implications for volunteer programs hoping to attract participants.

  3. Organizational Structures and Data Use in Volunteer Monitoring Organizations (VMOs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shelby Gull; Nelson, Stacy A. C.; Stubbs, Harriett S.; James, April L.; Menius, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Complex environmental problems call for unique solutions to monitoring efforts alongside developing a more environmentally literate citizenry. Community-based monitoring (CBM) through the use of volunteer monitoring organizations helps to provide a part of the solution, particularly when CBM groups work with research scientists or government…

  4. Disseminating Improved Practices: Are Volunteer Farmer Trainers Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuyu, B.; Place, F.; Franzel, S.; Kiptot, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the effectiveness of volunteer farmer trainers in promoting adoption of agricultural technologies in western Kenya. Specifically, the purpose was to assess the type of information they disseminated, farmer trainers' characteristics desirable to farmer trainees, and how trainees evaluate farmer trainers.…

  5. Systemic Pharmacokinetics of Rifaximin in Volunteers with Shigellosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, David N.; McKenzie, Robin; Durbin, Anna; Carpenter, Colleen; Haake, Robert; Bourgeois, A. Louis

    2007-01-01

    Rifaximin is an oral antibiotic indicated for treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin pharmacokinetics were evaluated in individuals challenged with Shigella flexneri. Peak plasma rifaximin concentrations were low after nine consecutive doses, and no accumulation was observed. Rifaximin serum levels were minimal and similar to those previously reported in studies of healthy volunteers.

  6. PILOT VOLUNTEER TRAINING FOR WETLAND MONITORING AND HEALTH ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Bays Estuary Program expressed a need to better assess and monitor the health of their saltmarshes. By training citizen volunteers in the methodologies of saltmarsh bioassessment, Mass Bays saw the additional opportunity to engage the public in their estuary protec...

  7. Volunteer computers in homes to fight against Malaria in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Africa@home, a project conceived and coordinated by CERN1, was launched publicly this week. It is recruiting volunteer computers in homes and offices to run a computer-intensive simulation program called MalariaControl.net, developed by researchers at the Swiss Tropical Institute (STI)" (1 page)

  8. Sense of Cohesion among Community Activists Engaging in Volunteer Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Drorit; Itzhaky, Haya; Zanbar, Lea; Schwartz, Chaya

    2012-01-01

    The present article attempts to shed light on the direct and indirect contribution of personal resources and community indices to Sense of Cohesion among activists engaging in community volunteer work. The sample comprised 481 activists. Based on social systems theory, three levels of variables were examined: (1) inputs, which included personal…

  9. Physiologic effects of intravenous fluid administration in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Jensen, Peter; Kehlet, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    fluid administration. These findings may serve as a basis for clinical studies applying the same type of fluid in different amounts to determine the optimal amount of perioperative fluid in various surgical procedures. IMPLICATIONS: Infusion of 40 mL/kg of lactated Ringer's solution in volunteers led to...

  10. Armenian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, Vartan; Vartanian, Margaret

    The instructional materials for Armenian are designed for the language training of Peace Corps volunteers in Armenia. They use a competency-based approach focusing on content, cultural context, and communication purpose simultaneously. Some are closely tied to work tasks, others to daily communication needs. A brief introductory section gives an…

  11. A coordinated state/federal volunteer training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the sinking of the Tenyo Maru and resultant oil spill off Washington's Olympic Peninsula in July 1991 was tragic, it fostered the birth of a cooperative effort by federal and state agencies to train volunteer responders prior to another oil spill. This effort, under the auspices of an Oregon nonprofit group known as SOLV (Stop Oregon Littering and Vandalism), is known as the SOS (SOLV Oil Spill) Steering committee. The purpose of the group is to train volunteer responders to aid federal, state, and local agencies in future oil spill cleanup activities. For the first time in the nation, governmental agencies have joined with corporations and environmental organizations in coordinating educational programs involving citizens in oil spill remediation efforts before the advent of a major spill that could affect coastal areas or inland waterways. Free classes meeting federal and state hazardous waste training criteria are offered quarterly to citizens interested in either volunteer wildlife rehabilitation or beach cleanup. The four-hour course was developed by the US Coast Guard, Oregon State Department of Environmental Quality, and Oregon OSHA. Topics covered include agency responsibilities, site safety plans, general safety, toxicology, material safety data sheets, personal protective equipment, decontamination, heat stress, helicopter safety, and wildlife safety. In addition to course materials, participants receive a certificate and identification card verifying their training. A 1-800 number, computer data base, and newsletter are used to maintain contact with graduates. So far more than 600 volunteers have been trained and are ready to assist should the need arise

  12. Informed consent in healthy volunteers: Whom does it protect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliet, A.A.; Wemer, J.; Wilffert, B.; De Vroedt, J.W.P.; Jonkman, J.H.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the next decade, centres for research on the safety, tolerability or bioequivalence of new molecular entities will be confronted with numerous compounds, a narrowing time frame for performing Phase I research activities, and a growing demand for healthy volunteers for participation in non-therape

  13. Galaxy Zoo: Exploring the Motivations of Citizen Science Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Zoo citizen science website invites anyone with an Internet connection to participate in research by classifying galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. As of April 2009, more than 200,000 volunteers have made more than 100 million galaxy classifications. In this article, we present results of a pilot study into the motivations and…

  14. Adults Who Learn Differently: Help through a Volunteer Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Louise; Gillespie, Phyllis; Balkam, Lynda

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of preservice volunteer training at READ/San Diego, an adult literacy program. It discusses the program's informal assessment procedures that help identify possible language/learning disabilities and provide valuable information for instructional planning. Also described are selected multisensory teaching techniques designed…

  15. Systemic Pharmacokinetics of Rifaximin in Volunteers with Shigellosis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David N.; McKenzie, Robin; Durbin, Anna; Carpenter, Colleen; Haake, Robert; Bourgeois, A. Louis

    2008-01-01

    Rifaximin is an oral antibiotic indicated for treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Rifaximin pharmacokinetics were evaluated in individuals challenged with Shigella flexneri. Peak plasma rifaximin concentrations were low after nine consecutive doses, and no accumulation was observed. Rifaximin serum levels were minimal and similar to those previously reported in studies of healthy volunteers. PMID:18086855

  16. Identifying Critical Thinking Styles to Enhance Volunteer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Keegan D.; Terry, Bryan; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2015-01-01

    Diversity in learning options can increase efficacy of volunteer development systems. The University of Florida Critical Thinking Inventory (UFCTI) is designed to explicate an individual's critical thinking style based upon a continuum from Seeking Information to Engagement. Static and interpretive materials are best used with individuals of a…

  17. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  18. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Joel N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital. Mice underwent a baseline methacholine challenge, exposure to either aerosolized saline or xylitol (5% solution for 150 minutes and then a follow-up methacholine challenge. The saline and xylitol exposures were repeated after eosinophilic airway inflammation was induced by sensitization and inhalational challenge to ovalbumin. Normal human volunteers underwent exposures to aerosolized saline (10 ml and xylitol, with spirometry performed at baseline and after inhalation of 1, 5, and 10 ml. Serum osmolarity and electrolytes were measured at baseline and after the last exposure. A respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered at baseline, after the last exposure, and five days after exposure. In another group of normal volunteers, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was done 20 minutes and 3 hours after aerosolized xylitol exposure for levels of inflammatory markers. Results In naïve mice, methacholine responsiveness was unchanged after exposures to xylitol compared to inhaled saline (p = 0.49. There was no significant increase in Penh in antigen-challenged mice after xylitol exposure (p = 0.38. There was no change in airway cellular response after xylitol exposure in naïve and antigen-challenged mice. In normal volunteers, there was no change in FEV1 after xylitol exposures compared with baseline as well as normal saline exposure (p = 0.19. Safety laboratory values were also unchanged. The only adverse effect reported was stuffy nose by half of the subjects during the 10 ml xylitol exposure, which promptly resolved after exposure completion. BAL

  19. Fatores determinantes do nível de disclosure voluntário das companhias abertas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dal-ri murcia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é identificar os fatores que explicam o nível de disclosure voluntário das companhias abertas no Brasil. A pesquisa está fundamentada na Teoria do Disclosure Voluntário de Verrecchia (2001. O nível de disclosure das empresas foi definido a partir de uma métrica composta por seis categorias e 43 subcategorias: Ambiente de Negócios (8, Atividade Operacional (8, Aspectos Estratégicos (8, Informações Financeiras (7, Índices Financeiros (4 e Governança Corporativa (8. A análise do disclosure voluntário foi realizada a partir das Demonstrações Financeiras Padronizadas (DFPs, do exercício findo em 2007, por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo. A amostra é composta pelas 100 maiores companhias abertas não-financeiras. Por meio de um modelo de regressão múltipla, foram testadas nove hipóteses: auditoria, rentabilidade, internacionalização, tamanho, governança corporativa, endividamento, controle acionário, emissão de ações e setor. Os resultados evidenciam que empresas maiores, pertencentes ao setor elétrico, que possuem American Depositary Receipts (ADRs nos níveis II e III na Bolsa de Nova Iorque (NYSE e que aderem aos níveis diferenciados de governança corporativa da Bolsa de São Paulo (Bovespa, possuem, em média, um maior nível de disclosure voluntário. Esses resultados podem ser interpretados à luz da hipótese do vínculo (bonding hypothesis e também dos custos políticos (political costs hypothesis, na medida em que grandes empresas e aquelas com melhores práticas de governança corporativa possuem maiores níveis de disclosure voluntário. Nota-se também que a regulação setorial, especificamente no setor elétrico, também é um fator significativo para explicar o nível de disclosure voluntário das companhias abertas.

  20. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  1. TREM2 is associated with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sheng Chih; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Benitez, Bruno A.; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Patel, Dwani; Lincoln, Sarah; Krishnan, Siddharth; Kachadoorian, Michaela; Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard; Wingo, Thomas S.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Murrell, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background TREM2 encodes for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and has rare, coding variants that associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) in Caucasians of European and North-American origin. This study evaluated the role of TREM2 in LOAD risk in African-American (AA) subjects. We performed exonic sequencing and validation in two independent cohorts of >800 subjects. We selected six coding variants (p.R47H, p.R62H, p.D87N, p.E151K, p.W191X, and p.L211P) for...

  2. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)...

  3. N-terminal Prohormone B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiovascular Function in Africans and Caucasians: The SAfrEIC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Ruan; Schutte, Rudolph; Huisman, Hugo W; Hindersson, Peter; Olsen, Michael H; Schutte, Aletta E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compared NT-proBNP levels and the association with cardiovascular markers between Africans and Caucasians from South Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 201 Africans and 255 Caucasians from the North West province, South Africa. Serum NT-proBNP concentratio......, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and arterial compliance were measured. RESULTS: NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher (P...

  4. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  5. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  6. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  7. Dream Interpretation Sessions: Who Volunteers, Who Benefits, and What Volunteer Clients View as Most and Least Helpful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of college students participating in a dream interpretation session found that compared to nonvolunteers, students who volunteered had more positive attitudes towards dreams, recalled dreams more frequently, were more open, were higher in absorption, and were more often female. Helpful aspects of dream interpretations included insights…

  8. Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna R Velez

    Full Text Available Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3 and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6 with PTB. The odds ratio (OR for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3. The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA gene for allele (p = 0.01 and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4. The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3. Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952 and FVII (rs3211719 (p

  9. The effect of BCMO1 gene variants on macular pigment optical density in young healthy Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eKyle-Little

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z positively correlate with macular pigment optical density (MPOD, hence the latter is a valuable indirect tool for measuring L and Z content in the macula. L and Z have been attributed antioxidant capacity and protection from certain retinal diseases but their uptake within the eye is thought to depend on genetic, age and environmental factors. In particular gene variants within beta-carotene monooxygenase (BCMO1 are thought to modulate MPOD in the macula.Objectives: To determine the effect of BCMO1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs11645428, rs6420424 and rs6464851 on macular pigment optical density (MPOD in a cohort of young healthy participants of Caucasian origin with normal ocular health.Design: In this cohort study, MPOD was assessed in 46 healthy participants (22 male and 24 female with a mean age of 24 ± 4.0 years (range 19-33. The three SNPs, rs11645428, rs6420424, rs6564851 that have established associations with MPOD were determined using MassEXTEND (hME Sequenom assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on groups segregated into homozygous and heterozygous BCMO1 genotypes. Correlations between body mass index (BMI, iris colour, gender, central retinal thickness (CRT, diet and MPOD were investigated.Results: MPOD did not significantly vary with BCMO1 rs11645428 (F2,41 = 0.700, p = 0.503, rs6420424 (F2,41 = 0.210, p = 0.801 nor rs6464851 homozygous or heterozygous genotypes (F2,41 = 0,13, p = 0.88, in this young healthy cohort. The combination of these three SNPs into triple genotypes based on plasma conversion efficiency did not affect MPOD (F2,41 = 0.07, p = 0.9. There was a significant negative correlation with MPOD and central retinal thickness (r = - 0.39, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between BMI, iris colour, gender and MPOD. Conclusion: Our results indicate that macular pigment deposition within the central retina is not dependent on BCMO1 gene variant

  10. "Do-It-Ourselves Science": Case Studies of Volunteer-Initiated Citizen Science Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, Jordan; Bracey, G.; Gay, P. L.

    2009-05-01

    Galaxy Zoo is a citizen science website in which members of the public volunteer to classify galaxies, thereby helping astronomers conduct publishable research into galaxy morphologies and environments. Although the site was originally created to answer a few specific questions, some members of the community - both scientists and volunteers - have spontaneously developed an interest in a wider variety of questions. Volunteers have pursued answers to these questions with guidance from professional astronomers; in completing these projects, volunteers have independently used some of the same data viewing and analysis tools that professional astronomers use, and have even developed their own online tools. They have created their own research questions and their own plans for data analysis, and are planning to write scientific papers with the results to be submitted to peer-reviewed scientific journals. Volunteers have identified a number of such projects. These volunteer-initiated projects have extended the scientific reach of Galaxy Zoo, while also giving volunteers first-hand experience with the process of science. We are interested in the process by which volunteers become interested in volunteer-initiated projects, and what tasks they participate in, both initially and as their involvement increases. What motivates a volunteer to become involved in a volunteer-initiated project? How does his or her motivation change with further involvement? We are conducting a program of qualitative education research into these questions, using as data sources the posts that volunteers have made to the Galaxy Zoo forum and transcripts of interviews with volunteers.

  11. Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bebia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and com-position of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of

  12. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Piérard-Franchimont

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe. Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence.

  13. Characteristics of Volunteers, Nonvolunteers, and No Shows in a Clinical Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Ralph Mason; Johnson, William E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts to relate "successful" clinic handling of cases to various characteristics, including willingness to participate in research. Found that volunteers were less anxious and had greater sociability and self-esteem than non-volunteers. (Author/PC)

  14. Personality attributes of volunteers and paid workers engaged in similar occupational tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaug, C; Metzer, J

    2001-12-01

    The authors' primary aim was to determine whether Australian volunteers and paid workers who were engaged in similar activities differed on aspects of a 5-factor model of personality. Their secondary aim was to determine whether personality attributes were similar between volunteers involved in different activities. The participants were 36 volunteer food preparers, 38 paid food preparers, and 31 volunteer firefighters. Each participant completed a personality inventory (P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) and a brief demographic questionnaire. As predicted, the volunteer food preparers were more agreeable and extraverted than were their paid counterparts. The two volunteer groups differed only on the personality facet of assertiveness. The results support the existence of a constellation of traits that constitute a volunteering disposition; such traits may be relatively stable across time and situations. These results have scientific and practical implications for the literature on volunteering. PMID:11827223

  15. The prognostic value of four interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms in caucasian women with breast cancer – a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Although IL-1 gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, their influence on survival of Caucasian breast cancer patients remains to be shown. We studied the influence of four common gene polymorphisms (IL1A -889C/T, IL1B -511C/T, IL1B +3953E1/E2, and IL1RN long/2) of the IL-1 family on survival in 262 Caucasian patients with breast cancer by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The combined effect of the four gene polymorphisms on overall survival was studied by haplotype analysis. In the present study 38 cases of cancer related death and a median time of follow-up (range) of 55.3 (0.4–175.8) months was observed. IL1RN 2/2 (homozygous mutant) gene polymorphism was associated with shortened disease free and overall survival in a univariate (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.002, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 3.6 [1.6–8.0] and p = 0.05, Odds Ratio = 3.0 [1.1–9.3], respectively). Presence of the homozygous mutant genotype of the IL1A -889 and IL1B +3953 gene polymorphism was associated with overall survival in the univariate (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively), but not in the multivariate analysis. No association was observed between all possible haplotype combinations and overall survival. Carriage of the mutant alleles of IL1RN was independently associated with shortened disease free and overall survival rates in Caucasian patients with breast cancer

  16. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat. PMID:26088757

  17. The Caucasian-Arabian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt:Geology, volcanism and neotectonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Sharkov; V. Lebedev; A. Chugaev; L. Zabarinskaya; A. Rodnikov; N. Sergeeva; I. Safonova

    2015-01-01

    The Caucasian-Arabian belt is part of the huge late Cenozoic Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt formed by collision of continental plates. The belt consists of two domains:the Caucasian-Arabian Syntaxis (CAS) in the south and the EW-striking Greater Caucasus in the north. The CAS marks a zone of the indentation of the Arabian plate into the southern East European Craton. The Greater Caucasus Range is located in the south of the Eurasian plate;it was tectonically uplifted along the Main Caucasian Fault (MCF), which is, in turn, a part of a megafault extended over a great distance from the Kopetdag Mts. to the Tornquist-Teisseyre Trans-European Suture Zone. The Caucasus Mts. are bounded by the Black Sea from the west and by the Caspian Sea from the east. The SN-striking CAS is characterized by a large geophysical isostatic anomaly suggesting presence of mantle plume head. A 500 km long belt of late Cenozoic volcanism in the CAS extends from the eastern Anatolia to the Lesser and Greater Caucasus ranges. This belt hosts two different types of volcanic rocks: (1) plume-type intraplate basaltic plateaus and (2) suprasubduction-type calc-alkaline and shoshonite-latite volcanic rocks. As the CAS lacks signatures of subduction zones and is characterized by relatively shallow earthquakes (50e60 km), we suggest that the “supra-subduction-type”magmas were derived by interaction between mantle plume head and crustal material. Those hybrid melts were originated under conditions of collision-related deformation. During the late Cenozoic, the width of the CAS reduced to ca. 400 km due to tectonic “diffluence” of crustal material provided by the continuing Arabia-Eurasia collision.

  18. Association between XRCC1 polymorphism 399 G->A and glioma among Caucasians: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Daniel I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The x-ray cross complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1 is crucial to proper repair of DNA damage such as single-strand DNA breaks. A non-synonymous polymorphism in XRCC1, 399 G → A, has been shown to reduce effectiveness of such DNA repair and has been associated with the risk of certain cancers. The known risk for glioma from high dose ionizing radiation makes associations between this polymorphism and glioma of particular interest. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association between XRCC1 399 G → A and glioma. Subgroup analyses by grade, gender, genotyping method, country in which study was conducted, and study size were conducted when data were available and validity of the results were assessed by influence analyses and exploration of potential publication bias. Results Six studies were eligible for meta-analysis including data on 2,362 Caucasian glioma cases and 3,085 Caucasian controls. Pooled analysis yielded a significant association between the variant of interest and risk of glioma (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30 which was found to be disproportionately driven by a single study. Exclusion of this study, in an influence analysis, produced no statistically significant evidence of association with glioma (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.98-1.23, and no evidence of publication bias. Conclusions This meta-analysis does not suggest a major role of the XRCC1 399 G → A polymorphism in influencing risk of glioma among Caucasians. Future studies should report data separately for glioma subtypes to permit stratified analyses for Grade III and Grade IV glioma and examine other polymorphisms in this gene.

  19. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  20. Volunteered Geographic Information and Computational Geography: New Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), one of the most important types of user-generated web content, has been emerging as a new phenomenon. VGI is contributed by numerous volunteers and supported by web 2.0 technologies. This chapter discusses how VGI provides new perspectives for computational geography, a transformed geography based on the use of data-intensive computing and simulations to uncover the underlying mechanisms behind geographic forms and processes. We provide several exemplars of computational geography using OpenStreetMap data and GPS traces to investigate the scaling of geographic space and its implications for human mobility patterns. We illustrate that the field of geography is experiencing a dramatic change and that geoinformatics and computational geography deserve to be clearly distinguished, with the former being a study of engineering and the latter being a science. Keywords geoinformatics, openstreetmap, scaling of geographic space, spatial heterogeneity

  1. ALICE Connex : Mobile Volunteer Computing and Edutainment Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Chalumporn, Gantaphon

    2016-01-01

    Mobile devices are very powerful and trend to be developed. They have functions that are used in everyday life. One of their main tasks is to be an entertainment devices or gaming platform. A lot of technologies are now accepted and adopted to improve the potential of education. Edutainment is a combination of entertainment and education media together to make use of both benefits. In this work, we introduce a design of edutainment platform which is a part of mobile volunteer computing and edutainment platform called ‘ALICE Connex’ for ALICE at CERN. The edutainment platform focuses to deliver enjoyment and education, while promotes ALICE and Volunteer Computing platform to general public. The design in this work describes the functionality to build an effective edutainment with real-time multiplayer interaction on round-based gameplay, while integrates seamless edutainment with basic particle physic content though game mechanism and items design. For the assessment method we will observe the enjoyment o...

  2. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov; Qvist, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced ...... preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008....

  3. Personality, sensation seeking and motivation differences between high and low risk volunteer groups

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Volunteers fill a large variety of important roles in society, roles which differ substantially depending on the nature of the job. The majority of current literature focuses on the personality traits and motivations that serve to distinguish volunteers as a whole from the general population. Acknowledging this, the present study examines differences within the volunteer population, comparing two volunteer groups with roles deemed either high or low personal risk, on measures o...

  4. Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of cefuroxime axetil in volunteers during repeated dosing.

    OpenAIRE

    Sommers, D K; van Wyk, M.; Williams, P. E.; Harding, S M

    1984-01-01

    A total of 158 volunteers each received 21 repeated oral doses of 500 mg of cefuroxime axetil (CAE) during four comparative cross-over trials. Pharmacokinetics were studied in 8 volunteers (CAE versus ampicillin), relative bioavailability and tolerance were studied in 100 volunteers (CAE versus pivmecillinam and CAE versus pivampicillin), and tolerance alone was studied in 50 volunteers (CAE versus ampicillin). Overall, urinary recoveries of the active antibiotics ranked absorption of the dru...

  5. Volunteer bias in sex research :effects of variable stimuli content and intrusiveness of measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Mary Kathleen

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of volunteer bias in sex research found that volunteers for such studies differed from nonâ volunteers in terms of reporting increased heterosexual experience; more liberal attitudes toward sex; increased exposure to commercialized erotica; and an increase in sexual trauma. The object of this study was to investigate the effects that varying the stimuli content (i.e. heterosexual vs gay male vs lesbian) of films used in sexual arousal studies would have on volunteer rate an...

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ambroxol and clenbuterol tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yong-Ge; Song, Li-Xue; Jiang, Nan; Xu, Xue-Ting; Di, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in Chinese healthy volunteers after a single or multiple dosages oral administration. Methods: A total of 9 healthy adult subjects were given Ambroxol and Clenbuterol Tablets in a single dosage or multiple dosages respectively. LC/MS/MS were used for the determination of Ambroxol and Clenbuterol of in plasma. The important pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software (compartment model). Resul...

  7. MCPLOTS. A particle physics resource based on volunteer computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karneyeu, A. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mijovic, L. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Irfu/SPP, CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Prestel, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics; Skands, P.Z. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    The mcplots.cern.ch web site (MCPLOTS) provides a simple online repository of plots made with high-energy-physics event generators, comparing them to a wide variety of experimental data. The repository is based on the HEPDATA online database of experimental results and on the RIVET Monte Carlo analysis tool. The repository is continually updated and relies on computing power donated by volunteers, via the LHC rate at HOME 2.0 platform.

  8. The pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous nalbuphine in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Aitkenhead, A R; Lin, E S; Achola, K J

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine were studied in 10 healthy volunteers on two separate occasions following administration by either the intravenous (20 mg) or oral (60 mg) route. After administration, serum concentrations of nalbuphine were measured for 12 h using a high pressure liquid chromatography assay, and pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using a three compartment model. After i.v. administration, elimination half-life was 222 (111-460) min (mean and range) and total body clear...

  9. MCPLOTS. A particle physics resource based on volunteer computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mcplots.cern.ch web site (MCPLOTS) provides a simple online repository of plots made with high-energy-physics event generators, comparing them to a wide variety of experimental data. The repository is based on the HEPDATA online database of experimental results and on the RIVET Monte Carlo analysis tool. The repository is continually updated and relies on computing power donated by volunteers, via the LHC rate at HOME 2.0 platform.

  10. Selective nociceptor activation in volunteers by infrared diode laser

    OpenAIRE

    Nemenov Mikhail I; Crottaz-Herbette Sonia; Klukinov Michael; Tzabazis Alexander Z; Angst Martin S; Yeomans David C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Two main classes of peripheral sensory neurons contribute to thermal pain sensitivity: the unmyelinated C fibers and thinly myelinated Aδ fibers. These two fiber types may differentially underlie different clinical pain states and distinctions in the efficacy of analgesic treatments. Methods of differentially testing C and Aδ thermal pain are widely used in animal experimentation, but these methods are not optimal for human volunteer and patient use. Thus, this project aim...

  11. Respiratory and sedative effects of clobazam and clonazepam in volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wildin, J D; Pleuvry, B J; Mawer, G E; Onon, T; Millington, L

    1990-01-01

    1. The respiratory and psychomotor effects of two benzodiazepines used mainly as anticonvulsants were compared in healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo controlled design. 2. Clobazam (10 and 20 mg) produced significantly fewer psychomotor side effects than clonazepam (0.5 and 1 mg). Neither drug at either dose affected the ventilatory response to CO2. 3. Although clonazepam produced significant effects on psychomotor performance, these did not correlate with plasma drug concentrati...

  12. Apomorphine-induced blinking and yawning in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Blin, O; Masson, G.; Azulay, J P; Fondarai, J; Serratrice, G

    1990-01-01

    Yawning and spontaneous blink rate (SBR) are two physiological reflexes which have been incompletely examined but one neurobiological step of these two behaviours seems, at least in part, dopamine-dependent. The reference dopaminergic agonist, apomorphine hydrochloride (0.5, 1, and 2 micrograms kg-1 s.c.), was compared with a placebo in a double-blind latin-square design, and was shown to induce yawning and increase SBR in a population of eight healthy volunteers. These two behavioral effects...

  13. A New Mechanism for Tracking Publicly Available Study Volunteer Demographics

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckerman, Rachael; Getz, Kenneth; Kaitin, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The importance of gathering and monitoring aggregate demographic data on the annual population of study volunteers in FDA-regulated clinical trials is widely acknowledged. To date, no formal mechanism exists to capture this information. The Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development identified and tested a publicly available source of information on clinical trial participant data, NDA Reviews stored in the FDA’s drugs@FDA database, to determine its accuracy, reliability, and feasibility....

  14. Bioequivalence Study of Donepezil Hydrochloride Tablets in Healthy Male Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean; Sukit Roongapinun; Nutthiya Hanprasertpong; Siriluk Aunmuang; Noppamas Rojanasthien

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bioequivalence of two formulations of 5 mg donepezil HCL tablets: Tonizep as the test and Aricept as the reference. The two products were administered as a single oral dose according to a randomized two-phase crossover with a 3-week washout period in 20 healthy Thai Male volunteers. After drug administration, serial blood samples were collected over a period of 216 hours. Plasma donepezil concentrations were measured by high performance liqui...

  15. Exploring Massive Volunteered Geographic Information for Geographic Knowledge Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Conventionally geographic data produced and disseminated by the national mapping agencies are used for studying various urban issues. These data are not commonly available or accessible, but also are criticized for being expensive. However, this trend is changing along with the rise of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI, known as user generated content, is the geographic data collected and disseminated by individuals at a voluntary basis. So far, a huge amount of geographic data ha...

  16. Formal and Informal Volunteering in a State Friendly Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Rosdahl, David; Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    Citizens’ civic engagement and participation in voluntary associations is shaped by several factors, some of which are institutional while others are characteristics about the individual and the environment to which s/he belongs. Based on a comprehensive population survey carried out as part of t...... Danish Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project, this article explores determinants of formal and informal volunteering in a ‘state friendly society’ like the Danish....

  17. Indomethacin and cognitive function in healthy elderly volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce-Jones, P N; Crome, P.; Kalra, L.

    1994-01-01

    1. Cognitive function was studied after single and multiple doses of indomethacin (I) and matched placebo (P) in 20 healthy elderly volunteers using a double-blind crossover design. 2. Arousal, attention, integration, coordination, memory and mood were investigated using a battery of psychomotor tests and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Assessments were performed before and after the first and last doses of a 7 day course of medication. 3. Critical flicker fusion threshold fell by ...

  18. Shirodhara: A psycho-physiological profile in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpana D Dhuri; Prashant V Bodhe; Ashok B Vaidya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Shirodhara is a classical and a well-established ayurvedic procedure of slowly and steadily dripping medicated oil or other liquids on the forehead. This procedure induces a relaxed state of awareness that results in a dynamic psycho-somatic balance. Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the psychological and physiological effects of Shirodhara in healthy volunteers by monitoring the rating of mood and levels of stress, electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram...

  19. Should desperate volunteers be included in randomised controlled trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P; Mason, S

    2006-09-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) sometimes recruit participants who are desperate to receive the experimental treatment. This paper defends the practice against three arguments that suggest it is unethical first, desperate volunteers are not in equipoise. Second clinicians, entering patients onto trials are disavowing their therapeutic obligation to deliver the best treatment; they are following trial protocols rather than delivering individualised care. Research is not treatment; its ethical justification is different. Consent is crucial. Third, desperate volunteers do not give proper consent: effectively, they are coerced. This paper responds by advocating a notion of equipoise based on expert knowledge and widely shared values. Where such collective, expert equipoise exists there is a prima facie case for an RCT. Next the paper argues that trial entry does not involve clinicians disavowing their therapeutic obligation; individualised care based on insufficient evidence is not in patients best interest. Finally, it argues that where equipoise exists it is acceptable to limit access to experimental agents; desperate volunteers are not coerced because their desperation does not translate into a right to receive what they desire. PMID:16943339

  20. Antioxidant Capacity of Plasma after Pomegranate Intake in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi Mannan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary antioxidants including phenolic compounds are believed to be effective nutrients in the prevention of oxidative stress related disease. Pomegranate has been used for centuries in ancient cultures for its medicinal purpose and is widely acknowledged for antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to assess the effect of pomegranate fresh fruit consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Volunteers were randomly divided into three groups (pomegranate, vitamin E and water consumption. Blood samples were collected, after at least 12 hours overnight fast, the day before beginning supplementation period and the day after supplementation had finished. Total antioxidant capacity measurement by FRAP method and clinical laboratory test were performed for all volunteers in two selected times. The obtained data revealed that consumption of 100 grams pomegranate and vitamin E per day for ten days resulted in a significant rise (14.05%, 8.28% plasma antioxidant capacity respectively, but this difference was not significant for water group.

  1. Tapping Global Resources: A Guide to Involving and Managing Online Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Laurie

    2002-01-01

    People with Disabilities Uganda has a corps of 150 online volunteers who work on research, website management, newsletters, marketing and promotions, and program development. People volunteer online for convenience and anonymity. Management of online volunteers requires attention to written communication; a web group is a useful management tool.…

  2. Volunteering in a Culturally Diverse Context: Implications for Project Designers and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jay

    1999-01-01

    The volunteer pool of social services organizations often does not reflect the cultural diversity of their clientele. Cultural values and past experiences of discrimination are among the reasons for this limited diversity in volunteers. An Australian project found that refugees were reluctant to be clients of agencies whose volunteers did not…

  3. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  4. Volunteers Supporting Children with Reading Difficulties in Schools: Motives and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Danielle; Hornery, Samantha; Seaton, Marjorie; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research on volunteer mentor programs has demonstrated mostly positive outcomes for mentees. As a result, many schools seek to attract and retain volunteers to assist children in need of support. The researchers interviewed 26 adult volunteers (from Australian companies) who help children with reading difficulties and examined intervention effects…

  5. Adult 4-H Volunteer Empowerment in 4-H Youth Development Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine which factors related to adult 4-H volunteer empowerment in 4-H youth development settings. This study examined the relationship of adult 4-H volunteers' perceived leadership styles of Oregon 4-H Youth Development Educators (YDE) to the adult 4-H volunteer sense of empowerment. In addition,…

  6. Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Roland Bazin,2 Sabine Laquieze,3 Virginie Rubert,1 Elisa Simonpietri,4 Bertrand Piot1 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L'Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2RB Consult, Bievres, France; 3Private Dermatology Consultancy Practice, Montpellier, France; 4BIOTHERM International, Levallois-Perret, France Objectives: Aging signs can be classified into four main categories: wrinkles/texture, lack of firmness of cutaneous tissues (ptosis, vascular disorders, and pigmentation heterogeneities. During a lifetime, skin will change in appearance and structure not only because of chronological and intrinsic processes but also due to several external factors such as gravity, sun and ultraviolet exposure, and high levels of pollution; or lifestyle factors that have important and obvious effects on skin aging, such as diet, tobacco, illness, or stress. The effect of these external factors leads to progressive degradations of tegument that appear with different kinetics. The aim of this study was to clinically quantify the effect of sun exposure on facial aging in terms of the appearance of new specific signs or in terms of increasing the classical signs of aging. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 298 Caucasian women from 30 years to 78 years old. The participants were divided into two groups according to their sun exposure history: 157 women were characterized as sun-seeking, and the other 141 were classified as sun-phobic. This division was made possible by dermatologist grading of heliodermal status on the basis of several observations of classic criteria: wrinkles, sagging, pigmentation heterogeneities, vascular disorders, elastosis, and so on. This work was an opportunity to complete clinical photographic tools by adding in our portfolio new scales for signs observed in the two groups. Thus, 22 clinical parameters were investigated by a panel of twelve trained experts to characterize each woman

  7. Political Origins of the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, 1960–1965: Why the State Sends Young Volunteers Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, Yasunobu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the political origins of the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) through the lens of two research questions: (1) Why did the Japanese government undertake the JOCV project in 1965? and (2) Why did the project pursue multifaceted objectives –technical assistance, international friendship, and youth development? These questions are important for two reasons. First, as the country was struggling economically, experiencing domestic turmoil, and vulnerable to internati...

  8. Pigmentation and vitamin D metabolism in Caucasians: low vitamin D serum levels in fair skin types in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may play a protective role in many diseases. Public health messages are advocating sun avoidance to reduce skin cancer risk but the potential deleterious effects of these recommendations for vitamin D metabolism have been poorly investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OHD, skin type and ultraviolet exposure in 1414 Caucasian females in the UK. Mean age of the cohort was 47 years (18-79 and mean 25(OHD levels were 77 nmol/L (6-289. 25(OHD levels were strongly associated with season of sampling with higher levels in the spring and summer months (p<0.0001. Light skin types (skin type 1 and 2 have lower levels of 25(OHD (mean 71 nmol/L compared to darker skin types (skin type 3 and 4 (mean 82 nmol/L after adjusting for multiple confounders (p<0.0001. The trend for increasing risk of low vitamin D with fairer skin types was highly significant despite adjustment for all confounders (p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Contrary to previous studies across different ethnic backgrounds, this study within Caucasian UK females shows that fair skin types have lower levels of 25(OHD compared to darker skin types with potential detrimental health effects. Public health campaigns advocating sun avoidance in fair skinned individuals may need to be revised in view of their risk of vitamin D deficiency.

  9. The Catalase –262C/T Promoter Polymorphism and Diabetic Complications in Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Gonçalves dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase is a central antioxidant enzyme constituting the primary defense against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether the functional –262C/T polymorphism in the promoter of catalase gene is associated with the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR, diabetic nephropathy (DN and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 520 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes. The –262C/T polymorphism was also examined in 100 Caucasian blood donors. Patients underwent a clinical and laboratory evaluation consisting of a questionnaire, physical examination, assessment of diabetic complications and laboratory tests. Genotype analysis was performed using the polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with restriction enzyme. The genotype and allele frequencies of the –262C/T polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were very similar to those of blood donors (T allele frequency = 0.20 and 0.18, respectively. Likewise, there were no differences in either genotype or allele frequencies between type 2 diabetic patients with or without DR, DN or IHD. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis that the –262C/T polymorphism is related to the development of DR, DN or IHD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of catalase gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

  10. Molecular portrait of breast cancer in China reveals comprehensive transcriptomic likeness to Caucasian breast cancer and low prevalence of luminal A subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence across China with progressive urbanization and economic development has signaled the urgent need for molecular and clinical detailing of breast cancer in the Chinese population. Our analyses of a unique transethnic collection of breast cancer frozen specimens from Shanghai Fudan Cancer Center (Chinese Han) profiled simultaneously with an analogous Caucasian Italian series revealed consistent transcriptomic data lacking in batch effects. The prevalence of Luminal A subtype was significantly lower in Chinese series, impacting the overall prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease in a large cohort of Chinese/Caucasian patients. Unsupervised and supervised comparison of gene and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of Chinese and Caucasian samples revealed extensive similarity in the comprehensive taxonomy of transcriptional elements regulating breast cancer biology. Partition of gene expression data using gene lists relevant to breast cancer as “intrinsic” and “extracellular matrix” genes identified Chinese and Caucasian subgroups with equivalent global gene and miRNA profiles. These findings indicate that in the Chinese and Caucasian groups, breast neoplasia and the surrounding stromal characteristics undergo the same differentiation and molecular processes. Transcriptional similarity across transethnic cohorts may simplify translational medicine approaches and clinical management of breast cancer patients worldwide

  11. Considerations on Law no. 78/2014 regarding the Regulation of the Volunteering Activity in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache BOCĂNIALĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at highlighting the progress in the regulation of volunteering activity in Romania through the recent adoption by the Parliament of the Law no. 78/2014 on the regulation of volunteering in Romania. The new legislative act, which replaced Volunteering Law no. 195 / 2001 (republished tries and we believe that it actually succeeds in providing consistent and harmonized solutions at European level to problems of organizations working with volunteers and thus creating a modern legal framework, appropriately adapted to the national and European context in the field of volunteering.

  12. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  13. The Val142Ile transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis: not only an Afro-American pathogenic variant? A single-centre Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Francesco; Frusconi, Sabrina; Bergesio, Franco; Grifoni, Elisa; Fabbri, Alessia; Giuliani, Costanza; Falconi, Serena; Bonifacio, Stefania; Perfetto, Federico

    2016-02-01

    Transthyterin amyloidosis is a life-threatening disorder caused by the deposition of hepatocyte-derived transthyretin (TTR) amyloid in various tissues and organs. The most common worldwide pathogenic variant with almost exclusive cardiac involvement is Val142Ile with an allele frequency of 3.5% in U.S. African-American population, but supposed extremely rare, with only sporadic cases in Caucasian patients. Unexpectedly, in our amyloidosis referral centre, we identified five patients (15.1% of all TTRm diagnosed patients, three families, two singleton) with Val142Ile variant belonging to unrelated families of Caucasian origin. Molecular study was performed in a total of 10 individuals of which three were Italian families (three affected individuals and five unaffected individuals) and two were singleton (one Italian patient and one patient from Argentine with Spanish ancestry). Sequence analysis of TTR gene revealed the presence of the heterozygous Val142Ile in the five affected patients and in five asymptomatic individuals. All probands underwent, at diagnosis, a complete clinical, echocardiographic and biohumoral evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, we describe the larger report of Caucasian patients with Val142Ile cardiomyopathy. All patients at diagnosis showed symptoms of heart failure with increased thickness of left ventricular walls and systo-diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. They also showed increased plasma values of NT-proBNP and troponin I. Our data confirm that Caucasian patients with the Val142Ile pathogenic variant have phenotypic manifestations similar to that of African-American one. Moreover, our data clearly show that Val142Ile pathogenic variant is not only an African-American mutation but could be also an underestimated Caucasian variant. PMID:26428663

  14. Cytochrome P450 2D6 variants in a Caucasian population: Allele frequencies and phenotypic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachse, C.; Brockmoeller, J.; Bauer, S.; Roots, I. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) metabolizes many important drugs. CYP2D6 activity ranges from complete deficiency to ultrafast metabolism, depending on at least 16 different known alleles. Their frequencies were determined in 589 unrelated German volunteers and correlated with enzyme activity measured by phenotyping with dextromethorphan or debrisoquine. For genotyping, nested PCR-RFLP tests from a PCR amplificate of the entire CYP2D6 gene were developed. The frequency of the CYP2D6*1 allele coding for extensive metabolizer (EM) phenotype was .364. The alleles coding for slightly (CYP2D6*2) or moderately (*9 and *10) reduced activity (intermediate metabolizer phenotype [IM]) showed frequencies of .324, .018, and .015, respectively. By use of novel PCR tests for discrimination, CYP2D6 gene duplication alleles were found with frequencies of.005 (*1 x 2), .013 (* 2 x 2), and .001 (*4 x 2). Frequencies of alleles with complete deficiency (poor metabolizer phenotype [PM]) were .207 (*4), .020 (*3 and *5), .009 (*6), and .001 (*7, *15, and *16). The defective CYP2D6 alleles *8, *11, *12, *13, and *14 were not found. All 41 PMs (7.0%) in this sample were explained by five mutations detected by four PCR-RFLP tests, which may suffice, together with the gene duplication test, for clinical prediction of CYP2D6 capacity. Three novel variants of known CYP2D6 alleles were discovered: *1C (T{sub 1957}C), *2B (additional C{sub 2558}T), and *4E (additional C{sub 2938}T). Analysis of variance showed significant differences in enzymatic activity measured by the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (MR) between carriers of EN/PM (mean MR = .006) and IM/PM (mean MR = .014) alleles and between carriers of one (mean MR = .009) and two (mean MR = .003) functional alleles. The results of this study provide a solid basis for prediction of CYP2D6 capacity, as required in drug research and routine drug treatment. 35 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Political advocacy by the American Society for Cell Biology and its partners

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    I trace how the American Society for Cell Biology became a strong political advocate for the scientific community. I celebrate how good leadership and an effective staff enabled its energetic volunteer organization to have an impact, but I also ask how the effort can be made more successful.

  17. Radionuclide cisternography and computed tomography in 30 healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological assessments of patients with symptoms of impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation are usually based on observations of anatomical and functional alterations using computed tomography (CT) and radionuclide cisternography (RC). In order to define criteria of normality for these two techniques, 30 healthy volunteers have been studied. In the studies of CSF flow the radiopharmaceutical sup(99m)Tc-DTPA was used and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed as a complement to planar scintigraphy. In 16 of the 30 volunteers the pattern of CSF flow was normal according to conventional criteria. In these subjects the radioactivity was symmetrically located over the parietal cortex 24 h after the injection and no intraventricular activity could be recorded. In 11 (41%) of the subjects, radioactivity could be observed in the lateral ventricles 6 h after injection. One of these subjects had a reflux of radioactivity into the lateral ventricles. The intraventricular radioactivity persisted for at least 24 h. This subject also had signs of obstruction of CSF flow over the convexities. Asymmetric distribution of radioactivity within the CSF spaces was observed in the images obtained after 6 but not 24 h in two cases. One of those also demonstrated transient intraventricular radioactivity. The results of the computed tomography were interpreted to be normal in 19 (63%) of the 30 volunteers. One subject had an asymmetric ventricular system. The CT scans of six subjects (20%) differed considerably from the others as they displayed wide cortical or vermian sulci at the borderline of normal variations. The case with the pathological RC belonged to the group of subjects who had wide sulci. He also had a wide third ventricle. No subject had dilated lateral ventricles on CT. (orig.)

  18. Volunteer Program Assessment at the University of Nebraska at Omaha: A Metropolitan University's Collaboration with Rural and Spanish-Speaking Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Lisa L.; Graeve-Cunningham, Victoria M.; Trent, Sheridan B.; Weddington, Stephanie A.; Thurley, Adam R.; Prange, Kelly A.; Allen, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    The Volunteer Program Assessment at UNO (VPA-UNO), a faculty-led student group, partners with nonprofit and governmental agencies to provide free assessments and consultations to enhance volunteer engagement, organizational commitment and retention. Three recent initiatives are discussed representing an intentional effort of a metropolitan…

  19. Pharmacokinetics of moxalactam and cefazolin compared in normal volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, S.; Fu, K P; Neu, H C

    1981-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of moxalactam, a new beta-lactam antibiotic with an unusually broad spectrum of activity, were studied in normal volunteers and compared with the pharmacokinetics of cefazolin. After a 1,000-mg intramuscular injection of moxalactam, a mean peak serum level of 49 +/- 10 micrograms/ml was achieved at 30 to 60 min which was equivalent to the level achieved with 0.5 g of cefazolin. Serum levels of 4.57 +/- 0.63 micrograms/ml, above the inhibitory levels for most organisms, we...

  20. The extensometer--use in spontaneously ventilating awake volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, J; MacFie, A; Masters, A

    1992-10-01

    The extensometer is a new device with potential in the field of respiratory pattern analysis. This paper describes the physical principles upon which the extensometer depends and also assesses its performance as a noninvasive respiratory monitor in respect of its ability to measure tidal volume and to determine obstructive breathing patterns in awake volunteers in the supine position over a limited time period. Further developments of the device are outlined and the current status of torso transducers in anaesthesia and intensive care are discussed. PMID:1443482