... ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. 72.21 Section 72.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... exposed to ticks subject to same restrictions as cattle. Animals other than cattle which are infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation shall not be moved interstate unless they are treated, handled,...
de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Pérez de la Lastra, José Manuel; Kocan, Katherine M; Willadsen, Peter
Ticks are important ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, and tick infestations economically impact cattle production worldwide. Control of cattle tick infestations has been primarily by application of acaricides which has resulted in selection of resistant ticks and environmental pollution. Herein we discuss data from tick vaccine application in Australia, Cuba, Mexico and other Latin American countries. Commercial tick vaccines for cattle based on the Boophilus microplus Bm86 gut antigen have proven to be a feasible tick control method that offers a cost-effective, environmentally friendly alternative to the use of acaricides. Commercial tick vaccines reduced tick infestations on cattle and the intensity of acaricide usage, as well as increasing animal production and reducing transmission of some tick-borne pathogens. Although commercialization of tick vaccines has been difficult owing to previous constraints of antigen discovery, the expense of testing vaccines in cattle, and company restructuring, the success of these vaccines over the past decade has clearly demonstrated their potential as an improved method of tick control for cattle. Development of improved vaccines in the future will be greatly enhanced by new and efficient molecular technologies for antigen discovery and the urgent need for a tick control method to reduce or replace the use of acaricides, especially in regions where extensive tick resistance has occurred. PMID:17692140
Almazan, C.; Lagunes, R.; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; R Rosario-Cruz; Jongejan, F; de la Fuente, J.
The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, ...
Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José
Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549
Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose
The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633
Canales, Mario; Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Prudencio, Carlos R; de la Fuente, José
The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that the recombinant chimeric protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane was protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. This system provides a novel and simple approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on live E. coli and suggests the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions for vaccination against cattle tick infestations. PMID:19835826
Species identification and coordinates of geographical premises for infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and R. (B.) microplus (Canestrini) were determined for 782 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory during the eleven years betw...
Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P
Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827
Galaï, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Ben Saïd, Mourad; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de La Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed-Aziz
The Rhipicephalus microplus recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of several Hyalomma cattle ticks genera, namely H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum. However, H. scupense species, the most important tick in North Africa has never been studied. Vaccination trials using either a recombinant Bm86-based vaccine or a recombinant Hd86-based vaccine (the Bm86 ortholog in H. scupense) were conducted in cattle against immature and adult H. scupense ticks and adult H. excavatum ticks. The results showed a 59.19% reduction in the number of scupense nymphs engorging on Hd86 vaccinated cattle. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 or Hd86 did not have an effect on H. scupense or H. excavatum adult ticks infestations. These results showed that Hd86 vaccines are selectively effective against H. scupense immature instars and emphasize on an integrated anti-tick vaccine control in North Africa. PMID:23036501
Almazán, Consuelo; Lagunes, Rodolfo; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, José
The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant Rhipicephalus microplus Bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. However, variable efficacy of Bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. Herein, we describe the analysis of R. microplus glutathione-S transferase, ubiquitin (UBQ), selenoprotein W, elongation factor-1 alpha, and subolesin (SUB) complementary DNAs (cDNAs) by RNA interference (RNAi) in R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus. Candidate protective antigens were selected for vaccination experiments based on the effect of gene knockdown on tick mortality, feeding, and fertility. Two cDNA clones encoding for UBQ and SUB were used for cattle vaccination and infestation with R. microplus and R. annulatus. Control groups were immunized with recombinant Bm86 or adjuvant/saline. The highest vaccine efficacy for the control of tick infestations was obtained for Bm86. Although with low immunogenic response, the results with the SUB vaccine encourage further investigations on the use of recombinant subolesin alone or in combination with other antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. The UBQ peptide showed low immunogenicity, and the results of the vaccination trial were inconclusive to assess the protective efficacy of this antigen. These experiments showed that RNAi could be used for the selection of candidate tick-protective antigens. However, vaccination trials are necessary to evaluate the effect of recombinant antigens in the control of tick infestations, a process that requires efficient recombinant protein production and formulation systems. PMID:19943063
Hope, M.; Jiang, X.; Gough, J.; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; Jonsson, N.; P. Willadsen
Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant p...
Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D
Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073
Hajdusek, Ondrej; Almazán, Consuelo; Loosova, Gabriela; Villar, Margarita; Canales, Mario; Grubhoffer, Libor; Kopacek, Petr; de la Fuente, José
Ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in Europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. The cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. However, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. Herein, the tick iron metabolism pathway was targeted in an effort to identify new tick protective antigens. Recombinant I. ricinus (IrFER2) and Rhipicephalus microplus (RmFER2) ferritin 2 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and used to immunize rabbits and cattle, respectively. Vaccination with IrFER2 reduced I. ricinus tick numbers, weight and fertility in rabbits with an overall vaccine efficacy (E) of 98%. Control of cattle tick, R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations was obtained in vaccinated cattle with overall E of 64% and 72%, respectively. Notably, the efficacy of the RmFER2 vaccine was similar to that obtained with Bm86 against R. microplus. These collective results demonstrated the feasibility of using ferritin 2 to develop vaccines for the control of tick infestations. PMID:20171306
The prevalence of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus cattle infestations have significantly expanded beyond the original quarantine zone established in south Texas as part of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program. Major obstacles for containment of ticks...
Nady M. Asmaa
Full Text Available An epidemiological study was conducted at Benisuef district to determine the current situation and associated determinants of tick infestations in ruminants and to assess the efficacy of three different types of insecticides against tick infestation under field conditions. Total of (1082 animals of different species (540 cattle, 230 buffaloes, 108 of each sheep & goats and 96 camels were selected randomly and examined carefully for tick infestation. About (30.1% of total observed animals were found tick infested with highest rate in cattle (60.5% followed by goats (25.9%, buffaloes (17.8%, sheep (14.8% while no tick infestation recorded in camels. The most prevalent tick's species affecting ruminants was Boophilus annulatus (26.5% followed by Hyalomma anatolicum (6.1% then Rhipicephalus turanicus (3.4%. Regarding the associated risk factors, tick infestation was found statistically significant (P 3 years (78.8% followed by at age, ≤2 months (57.8% and during summer months were found highly significant (P < 0.01 in cattle ( 76.5% followed by goats and sheep (33.3% & 22.9% resp., comparing with results in winter. The preferred sites of ticks' attachment to infested animals were udders and external genitalia (70.7% of each then Neck & chest (63.0% of each, inner thighs (61.1%, perineum (41.7%, ears (14.6%, around eyes (11.7%. The obtained results revealed that poor husbandry practices of small holder farmers be a determinant making the animals more prone to tick infestation in this district. Improving the hygienic conditions associated with treatment of infested cattle with Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg b.wt, S/C and spraying of Deltamethrin (1% for surrounding environment twice every 14 days are recommended for control of tick infestation under field condition.
Zhao, G; Yu, M; Cui, Q-W; Zhou, X; Zhang, J-C; Li, H-X; Qu, K-X; Wang, G-L; Huang, B-Z
We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. PMID:23479166
Jongejan Frans; Naranjo Victoria; Almazán Consuelo; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José
Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia past...
Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.
Carreón, Diana; de la Lastra, José M Pérez; Almazán, Consuelo; Canales, Mario; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Villarreal, Ricardo; de la Fuente, José
Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence while reducing the use of acaricides. Our hypothesis is that vaccination with vector protective antigens can be used for the control of tick infestations in deer. Herein, three experiments were conducted to characterize (1) the antibody response in red deer immunized with recombinant BM86, the antigen included in commercial tick vaccines, (2) the antibody response and control of cattle tick infestations in white-tailed deer immunized with recombinant BM86 or tick subolesin (SUB) and experimentally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and (3) the antibody response and control of Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. field tick infestations in red deer immunized with mosquito akirin (AKR), the SUB ortholog and candidate protective antigen against different tick species and other ectoparasites. The results showed that deer produced an antibody response that correlated with the reduction in tick infestations and was similar to other hosts vaccinated previously with these antigens. The overall vaccine efficacy was similar between BM86 (E=76%) and SUB (E=83%) for the control of R. microplus infestations in white-tailed deer. The field trial in red deer showed a 25-33% (18-40% when only infested deer were considered) reduction in tick infestations, 14-20 weeks after the first immunization. These results demonstrated that vaccination with vector protective antigens could be used as an alternative method for the control of tick infestations in deer to reduce tick populations
Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Finally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, engorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.
Biswa Ranjan Maharana
Full Text Available Immunological interaction at the tick host interface involves both innate and acquired host defenses against infestation and Immunomodulatory countermeasures by thetick. Acquired resistance to tick infestation involves humoral and cellular immlmoregulatory effector pathways. Tick-borne disease-causing agentspr exploit tick suppression of host defenses during transmission and initiation of infection. Because of the public health importance of ticks and tick-borne diseases, it is crucial that we understand these interactions and exploit them in novel immunological control. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 131-135
Rand, K N; Moore, T.; Sriskantha, A; Spring, K; Tellam, R; P. Willadsen; Cobon, G S
Glycoproteins located on the luminal surface of the plasma membrane of tick gut epithelial cells, when used to vaccinate cattle, are capable of stimulating an immune response that protects cattle against subsequent tick infestation. One such tick gut glycoprotein, designated Bm86, has been purified to homogeneity and the amino acid sequences of peptide fragments generated by endoproteinase Lys-C digestion have been determined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that e...
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332
Fernanda Ferreira Pessoa
Full Text Available Grooming is an important factor on animal resistance to ticks. Rhipicephalus microplus is the most pathogenic cattle tick in Brazil causing death in susceptible animals. Cortisol is the hormone of stress. The influence of grooming on tick infestation and serum cortisol level was studied in 16 Holstein heifers from fifth to eight-month-old. They were infested with 10,000 larvae in June/20/2011. Half of them used a necklace made of wood strips and had an infestation chamber made by cotton cloth covering about 50 cm diameter of the shaved flank, fixed at the skin in both sides with adhesive to prevent larvae to escape from the infestation chamber and the amount of larvae was divided into the two chambers. Such artifacts had the purpose to avoid grooming. The heifers remained all the tick parasitic life cycle in individual pens inside a closed shed at Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo State. Tick females bigger than 4.5 mm were counted in the right side from day 20 to 22 after the artificial infestation. The tick recovery rate was calculated by adding and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that 5,000 female larvae had infested the cattle. Immediately before infestation (day 0 and in day2, day8, and day17 after infestation, blood samples were collected using vacuum tubes, in the morning (8:30 – 10:00 A.M.. Cortisol was measured by immunoassay (EIA and the D.O. (optical density at 420 nm was converted in ng of cortisol/mL of serum sample. The experimental design was randomized with 8 replications. Data from serum cortisol were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using the presence of the artifacts (necklace and chamber and sampling day as independent variables and serum cortisol as the dependent variable. In the analyse of tick recovery rate, the presence of artifacts was the independent variable and tick recovery rate the dependent variable. The presence of
Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W
Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646
Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.
Moslem Sarani; Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy; Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam; Kamal Azam; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat
Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution.Methods:collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS.Results:In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalussanguineus A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area.Conclusions:Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.
Klaus, Christine; Gethmann, Jörn; Hoffmann, Bernd; Ziegler, Ute; Heller, Martin; Beer, Martin
The importance of ticks and tick-borne pathogens for human and animal health has been increasing over the past decades. For their transportation and dissemination, birds may play a more important role than wingless hosts. In this study, tick infestation of birds in Germany was examined. Eight hundred ninety-two captured birds were infested with ticks and belonged to 48 different species, of which blackbirds (Turdus merula) and song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) were most strongly infested. Ground feeders were more strongly infested than non-ground feeders, sedentary birds more strongly than migratory birds, and short-distance migratory birds more strongly than long-distance migratory birds. Mean tick infestation per bird ranged between 2 (long-distance migratory bird) and 4.7 (sedentary bird), in some single cases up to 55 ticks per bird were found. With the exception of three nymphs of Haemaphysalis spp., all ticks belonged to Ixodes spp., the most frequently detected tick species was Ixodes ricinus. Birds were mostly infested by nymphs (65.1 %), followed by larvae (32.96 %). Additionally, ticks collected from birds were examined for several pathogens: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Sindbisvirus with real-time RT-PCR, Flaviviruses, Simbuviruses and Lyssaviruses with broad-range standard RT-PCR-assays, and Borrelia spp. with a Pan-Borrelia real-time PCR. Interestingly, no viral pathogens could be detected, but Borrelia spp. positive ticks were collected from 76 birds. Borrelia (B.) garinii, B. valaisiaina, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. afzelii were determined. The screening of ticks and birds for viral pathogens with broad range PCR-assays was tested and the use as an "early warning system" is discussed. PMID:27048511
Lorusso, Vincenzo; Picozzi, Kim; de Bronsvoort, Barend Mc; Majekodunmi, Ayodele; Dongkum, Charles; Balak, Gyang; Igweh, Augustine; Welburn, Susan C
Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau ...
García-García, J C; Montero, C; Redondo, M; Vargas, M; Canales, M; Boue, O; Rodríguez, M; Joglar, M; Machado, H; González, I L; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J
The recombinant Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac(TM) against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proved its efficacy in a number of experiments, especially when combined with acaricides in an integrated manner. However, tick isolates such as the Argentinean strain A, show low susceptibility to this vaccine. In this paper we report on the isolation of the Bm95 gene from the B. microplus strain A, which was cloned and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris producing a glycosylated and particulated recombinant protein. This new antigen was effective against different tick strains in a pen trial, including the B. microplus strain A, resistant to vaccination with Bm86. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions, lowering the number of ticks on vaccinated animals and, therefore, reducing the frequency of acaricide treatments. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen to protect cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. PMID:10717348
Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*
Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.
Kaewmongkol, S; Kaewmongkol, G; Inthong, N; Lakkitjaroen, N; Sirinarumitr, T; Berry, C M; Jonsson, N N; Stich, R W; Jittapalapong, S
Anti-tick vaccines based on recombinant homologues Bm86 and Bm95 have become a more cost-effective and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides commonly used to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. However, Bm86 polymorphism among geographically separate ticks is reportedly associated with reduced effectiveness of these vaccines. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation of Bm86 among cattle ticks collected from Northern, Northeastern, Central and Southern areas across Thailand. Bm86 cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences representing 29 female tick midgut samples were 95.6-97.0 and 91.5-93.5 % identical to the nucleotide and amino acid reference sequences, respectively, of the Australian Yeerongpilly vaccine strain. Multiple sequence analyses of these Bm86 variants indicated geographical relationships and polymorphism among Thai cattle ticks. Two larger groups of cattle tick strains were discernable based on this phylogenetic analysis of Bm86, a Thai group and a Latin American group. Thai female and male cattle ticks (50 pairs) were also subjected to detailed morphological characterization to confirm their identity. The majority of female ticks had morphological features consistent with those described for R. (B.) microplus, whereas, curiously, the majority of male ticks were more consistent with the recently re-instated R. (B.) australis. A number of these ticks had features consistent with both species. Further investigations are warranted to test the efficacies of rBm86-based vaccines to homologous and heterologous challenge infestations with Thai tick strains and for in-depth study of the phylogeny of Thai cattle ticks. PMID:25777941
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B
Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given. PMID:19265581
Knowles Donald P; Ueti Massaro W; Bastos Reginaldo G; Scoles Glen A
Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifyin...
Barre, N; Bianchi, M; De Garine-Wichatitsky, M
The wild population of rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia (South Pacific) is nearly as large as the cattle population. The cattle tick is widespread and occurs all year round. Opinions are divided on the role of deer in the biological cycle of the tick: i) Do they maintain a sustainable tick population that is secondarily available for cattle? ii) Do they decrease the infestation of the environment by collecting larvae on the pasture, but preventing their development to the engorged female stage? or iii) Do they contribute to both situations? An experiment was conducted in three groups of pastures, each seeded with 450 000 larvae/ha and allowed to be grazed only by cattle, only by deer, and by a mixed herd of deer and cattle (deer representing 30% of the biomass), at approximately the same stocking rate (470-510 kg/ha). After 15 months of exposure, the tick burden per weight unit of host was 42 ticks/kg for the steers-only herd and 0.01/kg for the deer-only herd. The steers in the "mixed group" harbored 7 times fewer ticks (6.2/kg) than the cattle-only group, and the deer in the "mixed group," 130 times more (1.3/kg) than the deer-only group. Five emergency acaricide treatments had to be applied in the cattle-only group, but none in the other groups. The long-term sustainability of a viable tick population on deer as well as the potential benefit resulting from the association of deer and susceptible cattle in the tick control of cattle are highlighted. PMID:12381606
Yaşar Goz; Ali Bilgin-Yilmaz; Abdulalim Aydin; Yalçın Dicle
Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey.Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgeh...
Rai, Ruju; Yoon, Michael K; Stacy, Rebecca C
Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided. PMID:25025390
Full Text Available Background: Boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. The aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.Methods: Immune sera against tick were collected from experimentally infested cattle with ticks. One and two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blotting methods were used for the detection of immunogenic proteins in larval tick extract and eight of these proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry.Results: In non-reducing one-dimensional SDS- PAGE, some bounds between 12 to more than 250-kDa appeared. In two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, numerous spot appeared and the identified immunogenic proteins by parallel immunoblotting weighted between 14 and 97 kDa. Amino acid sequences of protein spot with 37-kDa molecular weight had identity to tropomyosin based on Mascot search in NCBI.Conclusion: Anti tropomyosin antibodies can be induced in experimentally infested hosts with ticks and it seems that tropomyosin can be useful for the development of anti tick vaccines.
Alberto A. Guglielmone
Full Text Available Studies were carried out to determine the differential aptitude to sustain the only vector of cattle babesiosis in Argentina, the tick Boophilus microplus, throughout the infested region of this country. Tick counts on Bos taurus cattle were used as the main criterion to classify favourable (F, intermediate (I and unfavourable (U areas for its development. The geographical limits of each area set up using data of non-parasitic tick stages, temperature, water balance and map recognition of flooded and unflooded zones. The F area contained 16.5 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with a cattle population of 6 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência; the I and U areas had 25 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência ha with 2.7 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência cattle and 198 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência with population of 2.4 x 10(elevado a sexta potência cattle, respectively. Research on the relationship amongst Babesia-Boophilus-cattle is needed in the F area for tick development which coincides with the best region for cattle breeding.
Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Carreón, Diana; Almazán, Consuelo; de la Fuente, José
Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas. PMID:25047078
Full Text Available Cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. White tailed deer (WTD sustain and spread cattle tick populations. The aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of WTD to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. Agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches and climatic conditions were built in a GIS environment to simulate WTD vaccine effectiveness under conditions where unvaccinated cattle shared the landscape. Published and validated information on tick life cycle was used to build models describing tick mortality and developmental rates. Data from simulations were applied to a large territory in northeastern Mexico where cattle ticks are endemic and WTD and cattle share substantial portions of the habitat. WTD movements were simulated together with tick population dynamics considering the actual landscape and climatic features. The size of the vegetation patches and the distance between patches were critical for the successful control of tick infestations after WTD vaccination. The presence of well-connected, large vegetation patches proved essential for tick control, since the tick could persist in areas of highly fragmented habitat. The continued application of one yearly vaccination on days 1-70 for three years reduced tick abundance/animal/patch by a factor of 40 and 60 for R. annulatus and R. microplus, respectively when compared to non-vaccinated controls. The study showed that vaccination of WTD alone during three consecutive years could result in the reduction of cattle tick populations in northeastern Mexico. Furthermore, the results of the simulations suggested the possibility of using vaccines to prevent the spread and thus the re-introduction of cattle ticks into tick-free areas.
Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.
Jamal Gharekhani; Abbas Gerami-Sadeghian; Zivar Sadeghi-Dehkordi; Mohammadreza Youssefi
Objective: To determine the fauna and frequency of hard tick species on sheep and cattle in Hamedan Province, Western Iran. Methods: Tick sampling was performed on the whole body of 18000 sheep and 4200 cattle in 3 rural regions (mountain, plateau, and plain-mountainous zone) during the year of 2010 to 2011. The ticks were identified with appropriate identification keys. Results: A total of 1534 hard ticks (62.1% male and 37.9% female) were collected in animals. The infestation rate was found 2.4% in animals (4.2% in cattle and 2.0% in sheep). The ticks were classified into 3 genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma marginatum (34.1%), Hyalomma excavatum (29.7%), Rhipicephalus bursa (13.8%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (7.5%), Hyalomma detritum (7.1%), Haemaphysalis punctata (5.1%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (2.7%). Conclusions: Current study is the first report of fauna and frequency of hard ticks in this region. The results showed that Hyalomma marginatum is the dominant hard tick species. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of Ixodidae ticks of veterinary and public health in this region of Iran.
Antunes, Sandra; Merino, Octavio; Mosqueda, Juan; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Fragkoudis, Rennos; Weisheit, Sabine; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Alberdi, Pilar; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José
BackgroundTicks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographi...
Bunch Rowan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infestations on cattle by the ectoparasite Boophilus (Rhipicephalus microplus (cattle tick impact negatively on animal production systems. Host resistance to tick infestation has a low to moderate heritability in the range 0.13 - 0.64 in Australia. Previous studies identified a QTL on bovine chromosome 10 (BTA10 linked to tick burden in cattle. Results To confirm these associations, we collected genotypes of 17 SNP from BTA10, including three obtained by sequencing part of the ITGA11 (Integrin alpha 11 gene. Initially, we genotyped 1,055 dairy cattle for the 17 SNP, and then genotyped 557 Brahman and 216 Tropical Composite beef cattle for 11 of the 17 SNP. In total, 7 of the SNP were significantly (P P P Conclusions These analyses confirm the location of a QTL affecting tick burden on BTA10 and position it close to the ITGA11 gene. The presence of a significant association in such widely divergent animals suggests that further SNP discovery in this region to detect causal mutations would be warranted.
Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.
Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Jolles, Anna E
Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estima...
Waleed Ibrahem Jalil; Mohammad Mushgil Zenad
Objective: To highlight the presence of aerobic bacteria in live ticks infested sheep, in Diyala Governorate, Iraq. Methods: One hundred and thirty adult alive ticks were picked up from sheep which were reared in different farms in Diyala Governorate, Iraq, during the period from November 2012 to May 2013. Ticks were classified in the Natural History Museum in Baghdad. They were dissected aseptically for extraction of the salivary gland and mid-gut. The removed tissue from each organ was inoculated in buffer peptone water (1%) and incubated for 2 h at 37℃, to maintain weak and/or injured bacterial cells, then transmitted to nutrient broth incubated at 37℃ for 18 h. Culturing was done on three solid bacteriological media (nutrient, blood and McConkey agars), and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 h. Bacterial identification was performed by using multiple biochemical tests and API-20 strips. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Analysis System version 9.1, 2010. Chi-square test was used for comparison at significant level of P ≤0.05. Results: Two species of ticks were identified [Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Hyalomma turanicum]. High bacterial isolation rate was observed (483 isolates). A significant high isolation rate was recorded from Rhipicephalus annulatus (63.14%). Six bacterial species were identified [Escherichia coli (28.36%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.01%), Bacillus cereus (14.69%), Staphylococcus aureus (13.66%), Citrobacter freundii (13.04%), and Enterobacter species (12.21%)]. Also the high bacterial isolation rates were recorded in the temperate months (November, March and April); these coin-cided with high reproductive performance of ticks. Conclusions: The high isolation rate of aerobic pathogens from ticks might reflect the active contribution of this arthropod in environmental contamination and increase the probability of transmitting bacterial pathogens to their hosts.
Miller, Robert; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Almazán, Consuelo; Allen, Andrew; Jory, Lauren; Yeater, Kathleen; Messenger, Matthew; Ellis, Dee; Pérez de León, Adalberto A
Bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the United States. It was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (PQZ) in south Texas along the border with Mexico. Keeping the U.S. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical national agricultural biosecurity issue. The efficacy of a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine commercialized outside of the U.S. was evaluated against a strain of R. annulatus originated from an outbreak in Texas. Vaccination controlled 99.9 and 91.4% of the ticks 8 weeks and 5.5 months after the initial vaccination, respectively. Computer modeling of habitat suitability within the PQZ typically at risk of re-infestation with R. annulatus from Mexico predicted that at a level of control greater than 40%, eradication would be maintained indefinitely. Efficacy and computer modeling data indicate that the integration of vaccination using a Bm86-based anti-tick vaccine with standard eradication practices within the northwestern half of the PQZ could incentivize producers to maintain cattle on pasture thereby avoiding the need to vacate infested premises. Implementing this epidemiologically proactive strategy offers the opportunity to prevent R. annulatus outbreaks in the U.S., which would represent a significant shift in the way the CFTEP operates. PMID:22687762
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle ticks, Boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The recombinant B. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Recently, the gene coding for B. annulatus Bm86 ortholog, Ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris. Results Recombinant Ba86 (Israel strain was used to immunize cattle to test its efficacy for the control of B. annulatus (Mercedes, Texas, USA strain and B. microplus (Susceptible, Mexico strain infestations. Bm86 (Gavac and Mozambique strain and adjuvant/saline were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Vaccination with Ba86 reduced tick infestations (71% and 40%, weight (8% and 15%, oviposition (22% and 5% and egg fertility (25% and 50% for B. annulatus and B. microplus, respectively. The efficacy of both Ba86 and Bm86 was higher for B. annulatus than for B. microplus. The efficacy of Ba86 was higher for B. annulatus (83.0% than for B. microplus (71.5%. The efficacy of Bm86 (Gavac; 85.2% but not Bm86 (Mozambique strain; 70.4% was higher than that of Ba86 (71.5% on B. microplus. However, the efficacy of Bm86 (both Gavac and Mozambique strain; 99.6% was higher than that of Ba86 (83.0% on B. annulatus. Conclusion These experiments showed the efficacy of recombinant Ba86 for the control of B. annulatus and B. microplus infestations in cattle and suggested that physiological differences between B. microplus and B. annulatus and those encoded in the sequence of Bm86 orthologs may be responsible for the differences in susceptibility of these tick species to Bm86 vaccines.
Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available The heat and Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation are limiting factors to the livestock production in the tropics. Therefore, in a tropical sustainable livestock, cattle should be tick resistant and heat tolerant. The relationship between the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick infestation and heat characteristics like rectal temperature and respiratory frequency was studied in 6 Nellore and 4 Holstein, seven-month-old steers. They were submitted to an artificial infestation (a.i. with 10,000 larvae (Holstein and 20,000 larvae (Nellore of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick in 16/Apr/2011. Females ticks bigger than 4.0 mm were counted in the left side from day 19 to 27 after the artificial infestation. The infestation rate was calculated by summing and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that females are half of infesting larvae (5,000 for Holstein and 10,000 for Nellore. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female fourteen days after. The rectal temperature (RT, measured by a digital thermometer in the animal’s rectum and respiratory frequency (RF, respiratory movements per minute were measured on days 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and on day 05/May (19 days after the a.i.. The RT and RF were measured in the morning and in the afternoon, after they had been exposed to noon sun. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Analyses of variance for the random variables RT and RF to evaluate the effects of period of day, date and breed were performed using the SPSS 12.0. The RF was greater in the afternoon (64.82 ± 2.44 mov/min versus 38.42 ± 2.44 mov/min in the morning, P<0.001 and did not varied between dates; Nellore cattle had lower RF (41.50 ± 2.20 mov/min than Holstein (61.75 ± 2.70 mov/min, P<0.001. About RT, breed
Fragoso, H; Rad, P H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Herrera, L; de la Fuente, J
Tick infestations by Boophilus spp. constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The use of traditional control methods has been only partially successful and tick infestations remain a serious problem. Recently, the gut antigen Bm86 was isolated from B. microplus. Recombinant preparations of this antigen have been used in vaccines for the control of B. microplus infestations. However, in several regions of the world, B. microplus coexists with other Boophilus species, mainly B. annulatus and B. decoloratus. Therefore, there is a need for the simultaneous control of infestations by different Boophilus species. To test the capacity of the P. pastoris-derived Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana) to control B. annulatus infestations, controlled experiments were conducted in Mexico and Iran. Cattle were vaccinated with Gavac or not vaccinated and then artificially infested with B. annulatus larvae. The results showed for the first time a high protection efficacy (> 99.9%) of Gavac in the control of B. annulatus infestations. These results support the application of Bm86-containing vaccines for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:9796055
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ticks ; interstate movement of... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.1 Ticks ; interstate movement of infested or exposed animals prohibited. No animals infested with ticks or exposed to tick infestation...
de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Redondo, M; Montero, C; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enriquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R; de Armas, C A; Rey, S; Rodríguez, J L; Artiles, M; García, L
The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remains a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. These vaccines have been shown to control tick infestations in the field. However, extensive field studies investigating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of vaccination have not been reported and are needed to appraise the effect of this new approach for tick control. Here is reported the results of the application of Gavac in a field trial including more than 260,000 animals in Cuba. In this study the correlation between the antibody response to vaccination and the effect on ticks fertility is determined. Physiological status of the animals was found to affect the primary response to vaccination but not the antibody titers after revaccination. A cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of $23.4 animal-1 year-1. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for tick control. PMID:9607057
Owen, I L
The rusa deer (Cervus timorensis) is more resistant to the cattle tick (Boophlilus microplus) than are Britsh breed cattle in Papua New Guinea. The average yield of replete female ticks from deer was 1.6% (0.3-3.2%) as compared to 11.2% (3.4-23.1%) from calves. Ticks from deer were more slender, lighter in weight and produced fewer eggs (mean 1,800) than did ticks from calves (mean 2,200) but the deer was shown to be an effective host. A cervid population can maintain a tick population in the absence of bovine hosts thus presenting an important factor in eradication programs. Nutritional stress appears to result in a higher seasonal prevalence of infestation amongst males and non-pregnant females. PMID:864854
Lodos, J; Boue, O; de la Fuente, J
This paper describes a vaccination model to simulate the effect of cattle vaccination with concealed antigens on Boophilus tick spp. The model considers the vaccination effect in three parts: antibody titer, accumulation of damaging vaccination effects by parasite stages, and the effect of accumulated damage on all tick life stages. Biological parameters for ticks and hosts, as well as parameters describing tick-host interaction, were included. The validity of this model, integrated with the TICKSIM simulation program, was demonstrated for the Bm86-containing vaccine Gavac by comparing simulated and real data for several geographic locations in the Americas. All model parameters were estimated using field data collected in the different geographic locations. The model sensitivity to changes in antibody titer level and titer half-life was studied, and the impact on tick population density of changes in these parameters was evaluated. Simulation results showed that to achieve a higher level of tick control, an increase in the maximum antibody titer levels was more important than extending titer half-life in geographical locations with short seasonal peaks of tick infestation. The TICKSIM program, integrated with the new vaccination model, proved to be a framework for designing and evaluating tick control strategies, including vaccination with GavacTM. PMID:10669101
Odongo, David; Kamau, Lucy; Skilton, Robert; Mwaura, Stephen; Nitsch, Cordula; Musoke, Anthony; Taracha, Evans; Daubenberger, Claudia; Bishop, Richard
Vaccines based on recombinant Bm86 gut antigen from Boophilus microplus are a useful component of integrated control strategies against B. microplus infestations of cattle. The capacity of such vaccines to control heterologous infestations by two African tick species was investigated. The mean weight of engorged female ticks and mean egg mass per tick were significantly reduced in B. decoloratus infestations, but there was no effect of the vaccine against adult Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. We cloned, sequenced and expressed two Bm86 homologues (Bd86) from B. decoloratus. Amino acid sequence identity between Bd86 homologues (Bd86-1 and Bd86-2) and Bm86 was 86% and 85%, respectively, compared to 93% identity between the variants. Native Bd86 protein in B. decoloratus tick mid-gut sections and recombinant Bd86-1 reacted strongly with sera from TickGARD vaccinated cattle. TickGARD can therefore protect against a heterologous tick species with multiple antigen sequences. Epitope mapping using sera from TickGARD-vaccinated cattle identified two linear peptides conserved between the Bd86 homologues and Bm86. These epitopes represent candidate synthetic peptide vaccines for control of Boophilus spp. and the pathogens transmitted by these tick vectors. PMID:17070625
Heylen, Dieter J. A.; Müller, Wendt; Vermeulen, Anke; Sprong, Hein; Matthysen, Erik
Lyme disease cases caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in Europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, Ixodes ricinus. Wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. Understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host’s health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. Here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a common songbird (Parus major). Birds were exposed three times in succession to ticks collected in a Borrelia endemic area. Health and immune measures were analyzed in order to investigate changes in response to tick infestation and Borrelia infection rate. Nitric oxide levels increased with the Borrelia infection rate, but this effect was increasingly counteracted by mounting tick infestation rates. Tick infestations equally reduced haematocrit during each cycle. But birds overcompensated in their response to tick feeding, having higher haematocrit values during tick-free periods depending on the number of ticks they had been previously exposed to. Body condition showed a similar overshooting response in function of the severity of the Borrelia infection. The observed overcompensation increases the bird’s energetic needs, which may result in an increase in transmission events.
Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A.; de la Fuente, José
A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14–15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC).
Schetters, Theo; Bishop, Richard; Crampton, Michael; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, Alicja; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Miller, Robert; Mosqueda, Juan; Patarroyo, Joaquín; Rodriguez-Valle, Manuel; Scoles, Glen A; de la Fuente, José
A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14-15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC). PMID:26911668
Barré, N; Bianchi, M; Chardonnet, L
Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of Rusa deer in the development of the cattle tick Boaphilus microplus in comparison with that of steers in the same pastures and under the same conditions of infestation. No difference was noted between a mixed steer/deer herd and a pure steer or pure deer herd in the infestation pattern of each host, suggesting that attachment to the alternative host is mechanical and not affected by the simultaneous presence of the primary host on the pasture. Deer are capable of producing engorged viable females, with weight and reproductive performances similar to or even better than females fed on steers. For moderate levels (1 million larvae per hectare) and high levels (32 million larvae per hectare) of pasture infestation, tick burdens on steers were not very different (e.g. average 1,911 and 2,681 ticks per m2 skin, respectively, on day 24). This may be because of saturation of steer skin sites at the moderate larval dose. Deer harboured 2.7-33 times fewer ticks than steers and produce no engorged females at the moderate larval level and 32 times fewer engorged females than steers at the high larval level. Infestation of deer was dose-dependent with averages of 12 and 399 ticks per m2 skin on day 25 at the moderate and high larval levels, respectively. At a high infestation level of the environment, Rusa deer may contribute, but to a limited extent, to infestation of pastures and, consequently, of cattle. However, their role in sustaining a viable tick population requires further investigation. PMID:11508531
Nirbhay Kumar Singh; Shitanshu Shekhar Rath
Objective:To determine the epidemiology of ixodid ticks in bovines of different agro-climatic zones ofPunjab state,India.Methods:A total of4459 cattle of all age groups and sex were examined from eighteen districts of five major agro-climatic zones ofPunjab state, India.Results:The overall prevalence of ixodid ticks,Rhipicephalus microplus(R. microplus), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum(H. a. anatolicum) and mixed infestation were58.06%,50.16%, 11.34% and3.45%, respectively.Amongthe various agro-climatic zones highest prevalence rate ofR. microplus andH. a. anatolicumwere recorded in submountain undulating region(79.36%) and western region(20.40%), respectively indicating thatR. microplus prefers a hot and humid environment whereas, arid and semi arid conditions suit better forH. a. anatolicum.The overall prevalence of ixodid ticks was highest in monsoon season(83.74%), followed by summer(69.01%) and least in winters(31.64%) and a significant variation(P1year age group(55.02%) and the difference was statistically significant(P<0.01). Also a significantly higher(P<0.01) infestation rates of ixodid ticks was observed in males. Conclusions:The findings of the current study would provide a basis for evolving effective control strategy for the management of ticks in bovines of the region.
Knowles Donald P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick infestation; however their efficacy as a stand-alone solution for tick control has been questioned. Understanding the role of the Bm86 gene product in tick biology is critical to identifying additional methods to utilize Bm86 to reduce R. microplus infestation and babesia transmission. Additionally, the role played by Bm86 in R. microplus fitness during B. bovis infection is unknown. Results Here we describe in two independent experiments that RNA interference-mediated silencing of Bm86 decreased the fitness of R. microplus females fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Notably, Bm86 silencing decreased the number and survival of engorged females, and decreased the weight of egg masses. However, gene silencing had no significant effect on the efficiency of transovarial transmission of B. bovis from surviving female ticks to their larval offspring. The results also show that Bm86 is expressed, in addition to gut cells, in larvae, nymphs, adult males and ovaries of partially engorged adult R. microplus females, and its expression was significantly down-regulated in ovaries of ticks fed on B. bovis-infected cattle. Conclusion The R. microplus Bm86 gene plays a critical role during tick feeding and after repletion during blood digestion in ticks fed on cattle during acute B. bovis infection. Therefore, the data indirectly support the rationale for using Bm86-based vaccines, perhaps in combination with acaricides, to control tick infestation particularly in B. bovis endemic areas.
Jeyanthi B.P. Gopalraj
Full Text Available Changes in serum gamma globulin levels, numbers of replete female ticks and engorged tick mass were used as parameters to monitor the acquired immune response (antibody mediated immune response elicited by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations. Three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations were applied to South African Indigenous goats (Nguni, Saanen goats and cross-bred goats (Saanen goats crossed with South African Indigenous goats [Nguni] under laboratory conditions. During the three consecutive Rhipicephalus appendiculatus adult tick infestations the serum gamma globulin levels increased in all three breeds, whilst the mean replete female tick numbers and engorged tick mass decreased. Even though all three goat breeds exhibited an acquired immune response, the South African Indigenous goats (Nguni response was significantly higher than that of the Saanen and cross-bred goats. However, the acquired immune response elicited by Saanen goats was significantly lower when compared with cross-bred goats.
... premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. 72.24 Section 72.24 Animals and Animal... manure from carriers and premises of tick-infested animals; destruction or treating required. The litter... destroyed or treated by the transportation or yard company, or other owner thereof, under APHIS...
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Pacheco, Richard C; Uezu, Alexandre; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B
Brazil has the third richest bird diversity of the world; however, there are few data concerning ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) parazitizing birds. The aim of the study was to report tick infestations on wild birds from an Atlantic rain forest region of Brazil. During 2 yr, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in 12 forest sites. A total of 1,725 birds were captured representing 80 species from 24 families. In total, 223 (13%) birds were found infested by immature stages of Amblyomma ticks: 1,800 larvae and 539 nymphs. The prevalence of ticks was higher among birds from the families Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, and Momotidae. The most common tick parasitizing birds was Amblyomma nodosum Koch. Other tick species, Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense (F.), Amblyomma ovale Koch, Amblyomma longirostre (Koch), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, and Amblyomma naponense (Packard), were found sporadically. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense was the most common, followed by A. coelebs, A. naponense, Amblyomma brasilense Aragão, and Hemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley. PMID:19769058
Bersissa E. Kumsa; Shewit Mekonnen
This study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around Hawassa in southern Ethiopia. In total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from November 2008 to April 2009. Of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. The overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. A total of six different species of ectoparasites were colle...
Richards, Sabine A; Stutzer, Christian; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Maritz-Olivier, Christine
Managing the spread and load of pathogen-transmitting ticks is an important task worldwide. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, not only impacts the economy through losses in dairy and meat production, but also raises concerns for human health in regards to the potential of certain transmitted pathogens becoming zoonotic. However, novel strategies to control R. microplus are hindered by lack of understanding tick biology and the discovery of suitable vaccine or acaricide targets. The importance of transmembrane proteins as vaccine targets are well known, as is the case in tick vaccines with Bm86 as antigen. In this study, we describe the localization and functional annotation of 878 putative transmembrane proteins. Thirty proteins could be confirmed in the R. microplus gut using LC-MS/MS analysis and their roles in tick biology are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, 19 targets have not been reported before in any proteomics study in various tick species and the possibility of using the identified proteins as targets for tick control are discussed. Although tissue expression of identified putative proteins through expansive proteomics is necessary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using bioinformatics for the identification of targets for further evaluation in tick control strategies. PMID:26096851
Hajdušek, Ondřej; Almazán, C.; Loosová, Gabriela; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; Grubhoffer, L.; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, J.
Roč. 28, č. 17 (2010), s. 2993-2998. ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick ferritin 2 * tick-protective vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.572, year: 2010
Anderson, Kadie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E
Ticks are of vast importance to livestock health, and contribute to conflicts between wildlife conservation and agricultural interests; but factors driving tick infestation patterns on wild hosts are not well understood. We studied tick infestation patterns on free-ranging African buffalo (Syncercus caffer), asking (i) is there evidence for niche segregation among tick species?; and (ii) how do host characteristics affect variation in tick abundance among hosts? We identified ticks and estimated tick burdens on 134 adult female buffalo from two herds at Kruger National Park, South Africa. To assess niche segregation, we evaluated attachment site preferences and tested for correlations between abundances of different tick species. To investigate which host factors may drive variability in tick abundance, we measured age, body condition, reproductive and immune status in all hosts, and examined their effects on tick burdens. Two tick species were abundant on buffalo, Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi. A. hebraeum were found primarily in the inguinal and axillary regions; R. e. evertsi attached exclusively in the perianal area. Abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the host were unrelated. These results suggest spatial niche segregation between A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on the buffalo. Buffalo with stronger innate immunity, and younger buffalo, had fewer ticks. Buffalo with low body condition scores, and pregnant buffalo, had higher tick burdens, but these effects varied between the two herds we sampled. This study is one of the first to link ectoparasite abundance patterns and immunity in a free-ranging mammalian host population. Based on independent abundances of A. hebraeum and R. e. evertsi on individual buffalo, we would expect no association between the diseases these ticks transmit. Longitudinal studies linking environmental variability with host immunity are needed to understand tick infestation patterns and the dynamics of tick
Rodríguez, M; Massard, C L; da Fonseca, A H; Ramos, N F; Machado, H; Labarta, V; de la Fuente, J
Current methods for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Recent advances have introduced the possibility for the immunological control of the parasite through the use of recombinant vaccines. Recently, it was shown that the recombinant vaccine Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.) is able to control B. microplus populations in artificially infected grazing dairy cattle in Cuba. To assay the effect of the vaccine on a different B. microplus strain and under different ecological conditions, we conducted a trial in Brazil on grazing dairy and beef pure and cross-bred cattle under natural infestation conditions. A farm in the northeast of the state of Sao Paulo was selected and two groups of animals per breed were included in the experiment and were maintained grazing on separate but similar pastures. For each breed, one group was vaccinated with the vaccine Gavac and the second group was not vaccinated and was employed as a control. In vaccinated cattle, during 36 weeks of experiment, the average infestation rate was maintained below 78 ticks per animal while average infestation peaks (mean +/- S.E.) of 144 +/- 44 ticks per animal (for dairy cross-bred cattle) and 195 +/- 42 ticks per animal (for beef cross-bred cattle) were recorded in the control groups. Tick infestation rates showed statistical significant differences (p = 0.04) between both experimental groups throughout the experiment. These results clearly showed, as in the Cuban study, that the vaccine controlled tick numbers in successive generations in the field. PMID:8701597
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1
... quarantined areas not eradicating ticks. 72.6 Section 72.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... areas not eradicating ticks. Cattle in quarantined areas where tick eradication is not being conducted 3... inspector just prior to final dipping, found to be apparently free of ticks, and be certified as such...
Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte
The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...
This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.;
Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult ticks......, without providing complete tick control. In one trial, which tested a threshold dipping regimen, 20 heifers were dipped only once in 6 months to control a flush of Boophilus microplus. Unimmunised controls showed serological evidence of exposure to T. parva and B. bigemina, and one died of ECF, but there...... were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically...
Toni G Patton
Full Text Available Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted to humans from the bite of Ixodes spp. ticks. During the borrelial tick-to-mammal life cycle, B. burgdorferi must adapt to many environmental changes by regulating several genes, including bba64. Our laboratory recently demonstrated that the bba64 gene product is necessary for mouse infectivity when B. burgdorferi is transmitted by an infected tick bite, but not via needle inoculation. In this study we investigated the phenotypic properties of a bba64 mutant strain, including 1 replication during tick engorgement, 2 migration into the nymphal salivary glands, 3 host transmission, and 4 susceptibility to the MyD88-dependent innate immune response. Results revealed that the bba64 mutant's attenuated infectivity by tick bite was not due to a growth defect inside an actively feeding nymphal tick, or failure to invade the salivary glands. These findings suggested there was either a lack of spirochete transmission to the host dermis or increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response. Further experiments showed the bba64 mutant was not culturable from mouse skin taken at the nymphal bite site and was unable to establish infection in MyD88-deficient mice via tick infestation. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BBA64 functions at the salivary gland-to-host delivery interface of vector transmission and is not involved in resistance to MyD88-mediated innate immunity.
Skotarczak, Bogumiła; Wodecka, Beata; Rymaszewska, Anna; Adamska, Małgorzata
Ixodes ricinus has the potential to transmit zoonotic pathogens to humans and domestic animals. The feeding I. ricinus (n = 1737) collected from 49 Shetland ponies and questing ones from vegetation (n = 371) were tested for the presence and differentiation of the bacterial species. DNA of I. ricinus ticks was examined with PCR and sequencing analysis to identify species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. Altogether, 24.3 % I. ricinus of the infested horses and 12.4 % ticks from vegetation carried at least one pathogen species. Horse-feeding ticks (19.2 %) were significantly more frequently infected with Borrelia spp. than questing ticks (4.8 %). Among Bbsl species, in I. ricinus infesting ponies, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. valaisiana and B. lusitanie and one species, B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group, were detected. The 73 flaB gene sequences of Borrelia obtained from feeding I. ricinus have been deposited in GenBank. Among Rickettsia species, two were identified: R. helvetica which was dominant and R. monacensis. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Bbsl and R. helvetica were detected in 6.3 % of infected ticks collected from horses. Shetland ponies may play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of Bbsl and probably could contribute to the natural cycle of A. phagocytophilum and R. helvetica as host for infected ticks. The awareness about these infectious agents in ticks from ponies might be an important criterion for the risk assessment of human diseases, especially as these animals are maintained for recreational purposes. PMID:26920921
Kammlah Diane M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and R. (B. annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controlling these vectors. Vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the midgut antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against cattle fever ticks. A possible explanation for this variation in vaccine efficacy is amino acid sequence divergence between the recombinant Bm86 vaccine component and native Bm86 expressed in ticks from different geographical regions of the world. Results There was 91.8% amino acid sequence identity in Bm86 among R. microplus and R. annulatus sequenced from South Texas infestations. When South Texas isolates were compared to the Australian Yeerongpilly and Cuban Camcord vaccine strains, there was 89.8% and 90.0% identity, respectively. Most of the sequence divergence was focused in one region of the protein, amino acids 206-298. Hydrophilicity profiles revealed that two short regions of Bm86 (amino acids 206-210 and 560-570 appear to be more hydrophilic in South Texas isolates compared to vaccine strains. Only one amino acid difference was found between South Texas and vaccine strains within two previously described B-cell epitopes. A total of 4 amino acid differences were observed within three peptides previously shown to induce protective immune responses in cattle. Conclusions Sequence differences between South Texas isolates and Yeerongpilly and Camcord strains are spread throughout the entire Bm86 sequence, suggesting that geographic variation does exist. Differences within previously described B-cell epitopes between South Texas isolates and vaccine strains are minimal; however, short regions of hydrophilic amino acids found unique to South Texas isolates suggest that additional unique surface exposed
Abd El-Halim, Azza S; Allam, Kamilia A M; Metwally, A M; El Boraey, A M
Four species of mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glusgowi, Echinolaelaps echinolelaps & Dermanyssus gallinae), two species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus & Hyalomma dromedarrii) and one species of lice (Polyplax spinulose) were identified on rodents during 4 successive seasons (2005) trapped in five governorates (Suez, Menoufia, Giza, Damietta and Beni-Sewaf). The rodents were Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus alexandrinus, Rattus rattus frugivourus, Acomys cahirinus and Mus musculus Rodents in Suez were the highly ecto-parasites infested ones. PMID:19795768
Hales, J R; Schleger, A V; Kemp, D H; Fawcett, A A
The responses of skin capillary blood flow (BF) to infestation by larvae of B. microplus have been determined using radioactive microspheres. Larvae were placed in gauze-covered rings glued to the closely clipped skin. In pilot experiments on three Brahman-cross calves which had prior exposure to ticks, BF measurements at intervals up to 25 h post-infestation revealed a continuing increase. 'High' rates of infestation (5000 larvae per ring) elicited up to an 80-fold increase in BF. In four Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) calves with prior exposure to ticks, BF had increased by 0.5 h post-infestation, it reached a peak at 24 h, and fell markedly by 48 and 75 h. In contrast, two AIS calves without prior tick exposure showed no significant increase in BF until 24 h and this increase continued until observations were terminated at 72 h. BF in the neck area (normally favoured by ticks) increased most in calves of highest resistance to ticks, but the flank area (normally unfavoured) showed no consistent difference in BF response between animals of different tick resistance. It is concluded that skin capillary hyperaemia is triggered by the host's immune response to larval attachment. Within the relatively narrow range of tick resistance in the present animals, the degree of hyperaemia was directly related to level of resistance to the tick in skin regions normally favoured by ticks and therefore it may play a role in determining resistance to ticks. PMID:7259632
Cardoso, F F; Gomes, C C G; Sollero, B P; Oliveira, M M; Roso, V M; Piccoli, M L; Higa, R H; Yokoo, M J; Caetano, A R; Aguilar, I
One of the main animal health problems in tropical and subtropical cattle production is the bovine tick, which causes decreased performance, hide devaluation, increased production costs with acaricide treatments, and transmission of infectious diseases. This study investigated the utility of genomic prediction as a tool to select Braford (BO) and Hereford (HH) cattle resistant to ticks. The accuracy and bias of different methods for direct and blended genomic prediction was assessed using 10,673 tick counts obtained from 3,435 BO and 928 HH cattle belonging to the Delta G Connection breeding program. A subset of 2,803 BO and 652 HH samples were genotyped and 41,045 markers remained after quality control. Log transformed records were adjusted by a pedigree repeatability model to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values (EBV) and subsequently used to obtain deregressed EBV. Estimated heritability and repeatability for tick counts were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.01, respectively. Data were split into 5 subsets using k-means and random clustering for cross-validation of genomic predictions. Depending on the method, direct genomic value (DGV) prediction accuracies ranged from 0.35 with Bayes least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to 0.39 with BayesB for k-means clustering and between 0.42 with BayesLASSO and 0.45 with BayesC for random clustering. All genomic methods were superior to pedigree BLUP (PBLUP) accuracies of 0.26 for k-means and 0.29 for random groups, with highest accuracy gains obtained with BayesB (39%) for k-means and BayesC (55%) for random groups. Blending of historical phenotypic and pedigree information by different methods further increased DGV accuracies by values between 0.03 and 0.05 for direct prediction methods. However, highest accuracy was observed with single-step genomic BLUP with values of 0.48 for -means and 0.56, which represent, respectively, 84 and 93% improvement over PBLUP. Observed random
Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...
Ariyarathne, S; Apanaskevich, D A; Amarasinghe, P H; Rajakaruna, R S
Tick infestation in humans is a major public health concern. The diversity and distribution of tick species associated with human otoacariasis was studied in five districts: Anuradhapura, Kandy, Kurunegala, Nuwara Eliya and Ratnapura in the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka. Ticks from patients attending the ear, nose and throat clinics of the General Hospitals were collected during a 3 year period. In total 426 ticks were collected. Most human otoacariasis cases were reported from Kandy (33.8 %) and the fewest from Nuwara Eliya (8.2 %). Of the five tick species identified, nymphs of Dermacentor auratus constituted 90.6 % of the collection. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma isaaci, Haemaphysalis bispinosa and Otobius megnini were found rarely infesting humans possibly as an accidental host; H. bispinosa and O. megnini in the human ear canal were first time records in Sri Lanka. Females and children under 10 years were identified as risk groups of human otoacariasis. Subsequently, a field study was carried out to determine socio-ecological risk factors of human tick infestations in the five districts. Based on hospital data, eight villages with high prevalence of otoacariasis were selected from each district. A total 40 villages were visited and 1674 household members were interviewed. Involvement in outdoor activities, presence of wild animals around the house, location of the house in close proximity to a forest and occupation were identified as major risk factors. PMID:27382981
Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer
To determine whether and which spirochetes are cleared from Ixodes ricinus ticks during feeding on ruminants, ticks were removed from goats and cattle grazing on tick-infested pastures. Although about a quarter of ticks questing on the pasture were infected by spirochetes, no molted ticks that had previously engorged to repletion on ruminants harbored Lyme disease spirochetes. Borrelia miyamotoi spirochetes, however, appear not to be eliminated. Thus, the more subadult ticks are diverted from...
Contreras, Marinela; de la Fuente, José
Diseases transmitted by ticks greatly impact human and animal health and their control is important for the eradication of tick-borne diseases. Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. Recent results have suggested that Subolesin/Akirin (SUB/AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations. Here, we describe the effect of vaccination with the Q38 chimera containing SUB/AKR conserved protective epitopes on Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus tick larval mortality, feeding and molting. We demonstrated that Q38 vaccination had an efficacy of 99.9% and 46.4% on the control of I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae by considering the cumulative effect on reducing tick survival and molting. The effect of the Q38 vaccine on larval feeding and molting is essential to reduce tick infestations and supports that Q38 might be a candidate universal antigen for the control of multiple tick species that can infest the same host. PMID:27154388
Maria Alice Zacarias do Amaral; Márcia Cristina de Azevedo Prata; Erik Daemon; John Furlong
With the objective of encouraging the use of rabbits as alternative hosts for the cattle tick, four rabbits were infested on the ears and back. From the second day of infestation the developmental stages were observed. e duration of larval engorgement and changes were estimated between six and eight days in the region of the back and between 've and seven days in the pinna. e nymphal engorgement and changes occurred at approximately 10.80 ± 2.65 days in the dorsal and 11.00 ± 2.52 days in the...
Maryam Ganjali; Mansour Dabirzadeh; Masoud Sargolzaie
Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethan...
Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S
In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed
Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime
Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the
Khalaf-Allah, S S
Forty Egyptian native cattle calves of 4-6 months old randomly allocated into two groups of twenty animals each were used to assess the effect of immunization of animals with a recombinant Bm86 antigen derived from Boophilus microplus ticks on induction of immunity that could protect calves during tick season. The immunization protocol involved two injections administered intramuscularly, the first was applied with complete Freund's adjuvant and the second was given with incomplete Freund's adjuvant two months later. Control calves were given saline plus adjuvant. Immunization reduced the number of adult ticks developing from a subsequent challenge infestation by 78% in immunized calves. Vaccination also, significantly reduced the weight of adult ticks in immunized calves (30.51%). The results of skin delayed hypersensitivity reaction revealed that the diameter of sites injected with the recombinant Bm86 antigen was significantly larger in immunized calves than those in controls. Analysis of the immune response indicated that there was a significant increase in the level of IgG and IgA antibodies in serum of immunized calves and protection from reinfestation was correlated with the levels of circulating antibodies. PMID:10422372
Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Encinosa, Pedro E; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Bello, Yamil; Rodríguez Fernández, Rafmary; Garay, Hilda; Cabrales, Ania; Méndez, Luis; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo
Current strategies to control cattle ticks use integrated control programs (ICP) that include vaccination. Reduction in the use of chemicals and in the cost of tick control, the delay or elimination of acaricide resistance and the decreasing of environmental pollution are the advantages of using these programs. This integrated program is potentially applicable to all genotypes of chemical resistant ticks. However, the problem here is to improve the efficacy of anti-tick vaccines. The P0 protein is a structural component of the ribosome of all organisms. We have identified an immunogenic region of ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus spp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to the orthologous protein in their hosts. A synthetic 20 amino acid peptide from this sequence was effective as a vaccine against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment using rabbits. In this paper, the same peptide used as vaccine against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus shows a significant diminution in the number of engorged females recovered, in the weight of females and the weight of egg masses. The number of eggs hatched was also significantly reduced for the vaccinated group, with an overall effectivity for the antigen pP0 of 96%. These results, together with the conserved sequence of the P0 peptide among ticks, suggest that this antigen could be a good broad spectrum vaccine candidate. It would be expected to be active against many species of ticks and thus has promise in an ICP for effective control of ticks and thereby to improve the efficiency and productivity of the livestock industry. PMID:25958782
Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...
Full Text Available Babesia sp. is a protozoan hemoparasite that affects livestock worldwide. The Colombian Middle Magdalena is an enzootic region for babesiosis, but there is no previous research providing detail on its transmission cycle. This study aims to assess some Babesia sp. infection indicators in cattle and ticks from the area, by using direct microscopic and molecular techniques to detect the infection. In the cattle, 59.9% and 3.4 % positivity values for B. bigemina and mixed infection (B. bovis + B. bigemina were found respectively. In ticks, the positivity of B. bigemina reached 79.2% and 9.4% for the mixed infection. The degree of infestation in the region was 3.2 ticks per bovine. There was positive correlation between tick control acaricide frequencies and infestation in bovines. This leads us to infer that control periodicity greater than 90 days, in stable zones, is an abiotic factor that benefits the acquisition of protective immunity in calves, the natural control of the infection and eventual disease absence. It is necessary to monitor the disease by applying new entomological and parasitological indicators showing the complexity of this phenomenon.
Bendele Kylie G; Guerrero Felix D; Dowd Scot E; Pérez de León Adalberto A; Andreotti Renato; Scoles Glen A
Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to cha...
Kammlah Diane M; Kappmeyer Lowell S; Davey Ronald B; Freeman Jeanne M; Olafson Pia U
Abstract Background Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controlling these vectors. Vaccines developed in Australia and Cuba based on the midgut antigen Bm86 have variable efficacy against cattle fever ticks. A possible explanation for this v...
Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...
Cooney, Joseph C; Burgdorfer, Willy; Painter, Martin K; Russell, Cynthia L
Studies were conducted over a four-county area of northwest Alabama to determine the association of eastern cottontail rabbits with Dermacentor variabilis, the eastern United States vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A secondary objective was to compare infestations of this tick on rabbits with infestations on commonly encountered rodent species as a means of determining the relative importance of each in the disease transmission cycle. These epidemiologic surveys were conducted in response to reported fatal cases of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in two counties of the study area. From 202 eastern cottontail rabbits, 3,956 ticks were collected. Of this total, 79.87% were Haemphysalis leporispalustris, 9.15% Amblyomma americanum, 8.22% Ixodes dentatus, and 2.76% D. variabilis. Only immature stages of D. variabilis were collected from cottontail rabbits. Ticks were collected on rabbits in all months except November, and only one specimen was taken in January. Based on the average number of ticks per host collected in each month, April was the peak month for D. variabilis and I. dentatus. High values for H. leporispalustris also occurred at this time, but even higher values occurred in October and December. The heaviest infestation of A. americanum occurred during the month ofAugust and coincides with the activity period for the larvae of this species. Two hundred sixty-nine of the smaller Rodentia, comprising 13 species, yielded 264 ticks, all D. variabilis, and all but two were immature stages. Five rodent species, Microtus ochragaster Orozomys palustris, Peromyscus gossypinus, Peromyscus leucopus, and Sigmodon hispidus accounted for 95.83% of the ticks collected, and appeared to be preferred hosts for D. variabilis; all five had higher infestation levels per host than did the eastern cottontail rabbit. Data on host relationships in association with seasonal activity are presented. PMID:16599149
Guerrero, Felix D; Miller, Robert J; Pérez de León, Adalberto A
The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is arguably the world's most economically important external parasite of cattle. Sustainable cattle tick control strategies are required to maximise the productivity of cattle in both large production operations and small family farms. Commercially available synthetic acaricides are commonly used in control and eradication programs, but indiscriminate practices in their application have resulted in the rapid evolution of resistance among populations in tropical and subtropical regions where the invasive R. microplus thrives. The need for novel technologies that could be used alone or in combination with commercially available synthetic acaricides is driving a resurgence of cattle tick vaccine discovery research efforts by various groups globally. The aim is to deliver a next-generation vaccine that has an improved efficacy profile over the existing Bm86-based cattle tick vaccine product. We present a short review of these projects and offer our opinion on what constitutes a good target antigen and vaccine, and what might influence the market success of candidate vaccines. The previous experience with Bm86-based vaccines offers perspective on marketing and producer acceptance aspects that a next-generation cattle tick vaccine product must meet for successful commercialisation. PMID:22549026
Mapholi, N O; Maiwashe, A; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Bishop, S C; MacNeil, M D; Banga, C; Taylor, J F; Dzama, K
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are among the main causes of economic loss in the South African cattle industry through high morbidity and mortality rates. Concerns of the general public regarding chemical residues may tarnish their perceptions of food safety and environmental health when the husbandry of cattle includes frequent use of acaricides to manage ticks. The primary objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with host resistance to ticks in South African Nguni cattle. Tick count data were collected monthly from 586 Nguni cattle reared in four herds under natural grazing conditions over a period of two years. The counts were recorded for six species of ticks attached in eight anatomical locations on the animals and were summed by species and anatomical location. This gave rise to 63 measured phenotypes or traits, with results for 12 of these traits being reported here. Tick count (x) data were transformed using log10(x+1) and the resulting values were examined for normality. DNA was extracted from hair and blood samples and was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 assay. After quality control (call rate >90%, minor allele frequency >0.02), 40,436 SNPs were retained for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated and association analysis for tick resistance was carried out using two approaches: a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using the GenABEL package and a regional heritability mapping (RHM) analysis. The Bonferroni genome-wide (Psire models ranged from 0.02±0.00 to 0.17±0.04 for the transformed tick count data. Several genomic regions harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for different tick count traits by both the GWA and RHM approaches. Three genome-wide significant regions on chromosomes 7, 10 and 19 were identified for total tick count on the head, total body A. hebraeum tick count and total A. hebraeum on the perineum region, respectively. Additional regions
YBAÑEZ, Adrian Patalinghug; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; YBAÑEZ, Rochelle Haidee Daclan; RATILLA, Jowarren Catingan; PEREZ, Zandro Obligado; GABOTERO, Shirleny Reyes; Hakimi, Hassan; KAWAZU, Shin-Ichiro; MATSUMOTO, Kotaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; INOKUMA, Hisashi; 河津, 信一郎; 松本, 高太郎; 横山, 直明; 猪熊,壽
Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A. marginale in cattle and ticks in Cebu, Philippines. A total of 12 bovine blood samples and 60 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were collected on the Cebu Island in 2011. 16S rRNA-based screening-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed 8 cattle (66.7%) and 8 ticks (13.3%) to be positive for A. marginal...
Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp, were eradicated from the U.S. but regularly make incursions along the border with Mexico. The USDA maintains a quarantine buffer zone with surveillance for stray Mexican cattle and inspection of herds in the counties along the Rio Grande. The year 2...
Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan
... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Avoiding Ticks Preventing tick bites Preventing ticks on your pets ... ticks in the yard New materials for this tick season: Medscape Expert Commentary â€” Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: ...
Masoomeh Shemshad; Khadijeh Shemshad; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Majid Shokri; Alireza Barmaki; Mojgan Baniardalani; Javad Rafinejad
Objective: To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods:Nearly about 2 638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results:The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan’s livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions:The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken.
Full Text Available Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.
Domingos, Ana; Antunes, Sandra; Borges, Lara; Rosário, Virgílio Estólio do
Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the fi rst commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry. PMID:23559344
Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R
The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. PMID:25958152
Here we summarize highlights of research conducted as part of a NIFA-AFRI funded grant. Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, have been found on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) complicating eradication efforts of the USDA’s Cattle Fever Tick Eradic...
de la Fuente, José; Merino, Octavio
Ticks are a threat to human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, the most important vectors of diseases that affect cattle industry worldwide and important vectors of diseases affecting pets. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. These premises stress the need for developing improved tick vaccines in a more efficient way. In this context, development of improved vaccines for tick-borne diseases will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick–host–pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to tick research. Tick vaccines that affect both tick infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide. PMID:24396872
Wallmenius, Katarina; Barboutis, Christos; Fransson, Thord; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Nyström, Fredrik; Olsen, Bjorn; Salaneck, Erik; Nilsson, Kenneth
Background: A few billion birds migrate annually between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering grounds in Africa. Many bird species are tick-infested, and as a result of their innate migratory behavior, they contribute significantly to the geographic distribution of pathogens, including spotted fever rickettsiae. The aim of the present study was to characterize, in samples from two consecutive years, the potential role of migrant birds captured in Europe as disseminators of Ric...
Barros Antonio Thadeu M
Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically important parasite of cattle and can transmit several pathogenic microorganisms to its cattle host during the feeding process. Understanding the biology and genomics of R. microplus is critical to developing novel methods for controlling these ticks. Results We present a global comparative genomic analysis of a gene index of R. microplus comprised of 13,643 unique transcripts assembled from 42,512 expressed sequence tags (ESTs, a significant fraction of the complement of R. microplus genes. The source material for these ESTs consisted of polyA RNA from various tissues, lifestages, and strains of R. microplus, including larvae exposed to heat, cold, host odor, and acaricide. Functional annotation using RPS-Blast analysis identified conserved protein domains in the conceptually translated gene index and assigned GO terms to those database transcripts which had informative BlastX hits. Blast Score Ratio and SimiTri analysis compared the conceptual transcriptome of the R. microplus database to other eukaryotic proteomes and EST databases, including those from 3 ticks. The most abundant protein domains in BmiGI were also analyzed by SimiTri methodology. Conclusion These results indicate that a large fraction of BmiGI entries have no homologs in other sequenced genomes. Analysis with the PartiGene annotation pipeline showed 64% of the members of BmiGI could not be assigned GO annotation, thus minimal information is available about a significant fraction of the tick genome. This highlights the important insights in tick biology which are likely to result from a tick genome sequencing project. Global comparative analysis identified some tick genes with unexpected phylogenetic relationships which detailed analysis attributed to gene losses in some members of the animal kingdom. Some tick genes were identified which had close orthologues to mammalian genes
Lodos, J; Ochagavia, M E; Rodriguez, M; De La Fuente, J
This paper describes a simulation model to evaluate different control strategies for Boophilus microplus. The model combines a dynamic life-history module for tick-population dynamics with other modules for vaccination, sterile-hybrid larval release and use of acaricide dipping vats. The tick life-history module considers the cattle's nutritional level and allows for distribution of ticks by age at all stages of growth. Appropriately, the model was sensitive to host resistance and to host-nutritional status. The validity of the life-history module--as well as that of the vaccination and acaricide dipping--vats modules--was demonstrated by comparing simulated and real data for several geographical locations in Cuba and Brazil. Optimum tick-control strategies for the first year of vaccination were designed and the effect of long-term vaccination on tick population was also studied. PMID:10022052
Field study of the relationship between skin-sensitizing antibody production in the cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus, and infestation by the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Acri: Ixodidae).
McGowan, M J; Camin, J H; McNew, R W
The resistance of cottontail rabbits to tick feeding appears correlated with the rabbits' development of skin-sensitizing antibodies. Resistance appeared to be greatest in adult rabbits which had been repeatedly infested with ticks. Rabbits with little exposure to ticks, usually the young cottontails, showed little or no skin-sensitizing antibody present in their blood and usually had relatively high tick loads when compared with adult rabbits. Models used to interpret the data show promise as tools for predicting tick population fluctuations and, perhaps, incidence of vector borne disease outbreaks. The existence of resistance to tick attachment has important implications for the host-parasite relationship. The research lends support to the hypothesis that the resistance may function as a homeostatic regulatory mechanism capable of maintaining the size of the tick population in equilibrium with the size of the rabbit population. In this way, host resistance may be advantageous to the parasite as well as to the host. PMID:512764
Barré, N; Uilenberg, G
Like all parasites, ticks can be spread easily along with their hosts. Ticks are obligate parasites of vertebrates, to which they attach themselves for varying periods of time, and are well-adapted to this mode of transport. Once the transport stage is complete and they have detached at destination, they are also able to wait several months for the arrival of a new host on which they will continue their life cycle. This leads to the establishment of a secondary tick population. Two tropical cattle tick species, Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma variegatum, have perfected this strategy of colonisation and occupation of favourable zones. Rhipicephalus microplus, which originated from South and Southeast Asia, is highly specific for ungulates, and thanks to cattle movements it has spread throughout the tropical belt, apart from the remotest areas. Amblyomma variegatum, which originated in Africa, was transported to Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, as well as to the West Indies, during the time of the Atlantic triangular trade. These two ticks are vectors of particularly serious cattle diseases: babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the case of R. microplus, and heartwater (cowdriosis) in the case of A. variegatum. Anticipated climate changes are likely to modify the potential geographical range of these two parasite species and numerous others. Even now there are still many areas of the Americas, Asia and Oceania into which A. variegatum has not yet spread, but which it would find favourable. It could be spread not only by the transport of cattle, but also by the migration of some of its other hosts, such as birds. Surveillance--and know-how--is needed to identify these parasites when they first appear and to rapidly contain new outbreaks. Efforts should be made to raise the awareness of livestock professionals about the risks of transporting cattle. Regulations should be implemented and precautions taken to avoid such artificial expansion of the range of ticks and
Full Text Available We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of Ixodide ticks, their predilection sites and relation to breed, sex, and age group of animals. A total of 560 animals were examined of which 186 (33.21% found infested with one or more ticks. Among the total 1446 ticks collected three generas; Amblyomma, Boophilus, and Rhipicephalus, and five species identified. The relative prevalence of each species was Amblyomma variegatum (38.87%, Amblyomma coherence (8.30%, Boophilus decoloratus (31.54%, Rhipicephalus pulchellus (6.64%, and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (14.66%. A.variegatum and A. coherence shows higher preference to axial, scrotum/ udder, and groin & belly. B. decoloratus species were found prominently on the back & neck. R. evertsi evertsi and R. pulchelus showed high preference to the under tail and peri-anal &vulva regions of the body. The male to female sex ratio of the collected ticks was found 1.96:1, showing higher proportion of male than their counter parts. The prevalence of tick infestation was found significantly higher (P0.05.
Cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. (B.) annulatus, vector bovine and equine babesiosis, and have significantly expanded beyond the permanent quarantine zone established in South Texas. Currently, there are no vaccines approved for use within the United States for controll...
Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J
In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677
E. A. Bessolitsyna
Full Text Available The objects of this study are Ixodes ticks which were collected in different areas of Kirov province. The aim of the study is to determine the proportion of TBEV infected ticks using the reverse transcription and PCR, dependingon time, place, and methods of collection in the Kirov province as well as of ticks specific and sexual identity. The study found that from the two tick species that were tested only taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus but not the meadow thick (Dermacentor reticulatus was the TBEV vector. Study also has shown that both males and females ticks can be the TBEV vectors. Moreover, it was proved the importance of ticks testing which were gathered not only from human but also from animals, primary from dogs, and from the plants.
The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is involved in the transmission of the protozoan Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Interactions between ticks and protozoa are poorly understood and the investigation of tick genes that affect tick fitness and protozoan inf...
Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303
Full Text Available Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Considering that the captive Margay lived close to domestic dogs and cats, this interaction might be the source of that infestation. Based on this finding, careful attention should be paid to wildlife and domestic animals interactions as ectoparasites can be easily transmitted and new host-pathogen interactions are possible.
Wesonga, F D; Orinda, G O; Ngae, G N; Grootenhuis, J
The main objective of the study was to determine the possible influence of host species on the maintenance of ticks in the field by determining the relative contribution of game animals compared to domestic animals. The study was carried out on a game ranch 32 km south-east of Nairobi. Tick counts were carried out on 30 Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) aged 1 to 3 years and 20 red Maasai sheep (Ovis aries) aged 6 months to 1 year grazing with game animals in a common area for a period of 2 years and these counts were compared with those on eland and Thomson's gazelle. Half-body counts were carried out on the cattle and sheep once every week. To avoid excessive stress, the animals were dipped in amitraz whenever the half body counts exceeded 50 fully engorged female ticks of any species. Tick counts on two wild animal species (eland (Taurotragus oryx) and Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsonii)) were carried out during the weekly culling of the herbivores. The results revealed that there was no significant difference in the number ticks per square metre between the wild ungulates and the domestic animals. PMID:17405627
Jennett, Amy L; Smith, Faith D.; Wall, Richard
Background Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10–20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wild...
Paulauskas, Algimantas; Rosef, Olav; Galdikaite, Egle; Radzijevskaja, Jana
Ticks are known to carry several pathogenic agents of human diseases. To define the role of migrating birds as host and disseminators of ticks in Lithuania and Norway we analysed immature stage of ticks feeding on different passerine bird species. During April-May of 2006-2007 and August-September of 2008, migrating passerine birds were captured at ornithological stations in southern Norway and in Lithuania respectively. In Norway were investigated 152 passerine birds representing...
Filipe Dantas-Torres; Edmilson F. Oliveira-Filho; Fábio Ângelo M. Soares; Bruno O.F. Souza; Raul Baltazar P. Valença; Fabrício B. Sá
Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard a...
We used gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to investigate differences in protein expression in ovarian tissues from Babesia bovis-infected and uninfected southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Soluble and membrane proteins were extracted from ovaries of adult female ticks,...
Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Canevari, José T; Guglielmone, Alberto A
Strategic applications of long-acting acaricides for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in northwestern Argentina were evaluated for one year. In addition, tick distribution among cattle was analyzed to evaluate if partial selective treatment or culling the small proportion of most heavily infested animals were feasible options to control R. (B.) microplus. Two different treatments schemes based on two applications of fluazuron and one application of 3.15% ivermectin were performed. Treatments were made in late winter and spring so as to act on the small 1st spring generation of R. (B.) microplus, in order to preclude the rise of the larger autumn generation. The overall treatment effect was positively significant in both schemes. The number of ticks observed in the control group was significantly higher than in the treated groups on all post-treatment counts. Group 2 exhibited more than 80% of efficacy almost throughout the study period, whereas Group 1 exhibited an efficacy percentage higher than 80% in September, October, December, February, April and May, but not in November (73.4%), January (58.3%), March (45.2%) or June (53.4%). Absolute control was observed in Group 2 in the counts of September and October, and in Group 1 in the count of February. The control strategies evaluated in this work provide an acceptable control level with only three applications of acaricides; at the same time, they prevent the occurrence of the autumn peak of tick burdens, which is characteristic of R. (B.) microplus in northwestern Argentina. Tick distribution was markedly aggregated in all counts. Although ticks were not distributed evenly among calves, the individual composition of the most heavily infested group was not consistent throughout the study period. In addition, the level of aggregation varied with tick abundance. These results suggest that applying acaricides to a portion of the herd or culling the most infested individuals at a given moment of the
Canales, M; Enríquez, A; Ramos, E; Cabrera, D; Dandie, H; Soto, A; Falcón, V; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
A gene coding for the Bm86 tick protein was recently cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and shown to induce an inmunological response in cattle against ticks. Moreover, the Gavac vaccine (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), which contains this recombinant protein, has proved to control the Boophilus microplus populations under field conditions. This paper reviews the development and large-scale production of this vaccine, the efficacy of the resulting product and the strategy followed in designing its production plant. The production plant fulfills biosafety requirements and GMP. PMID:9141213
AdalbertoA.Pérez de León; PeteD.Teel; AllanN.Auclair; MatthewT.Messenger; RobertJ.Miller; GretaSchuster
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...
Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Teel, Pete D.; Auclair, Allan N.; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J.
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain a...
RAJPUT Z.I.; HU Song-hua; ARIJO A.G.; HABIB M.; KHALID M.
A comparative study on the prevalence of Anaplasma parasite was conducted on ticks carrying buffaloes and cattle.Five hundred blood samples of both animals (250 of each) were collected during February, March and April. Thin blood smears on glass slides were made, fixed in 100% methyl alcohol and examined. Microscopic examination revealed that 205 (41%) animals had Anaplasma parasites, out of which 89, 44 and 72 animals had Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale and mixed infection respectively. Infected buffaloes and cattle were 75 and 130 respectively. The infection in female was 53 and 92 in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Twenty-two and 92 blood samples of male were found positive in buffaloes and cattle respectively. Comparative study revealed that the cattle were 26.82% more susceptible than buffaloes. The parasite prevailing percentage in female of both animals was slightly higher than that of the male. This investigation was aimed at studying the comparative prevalence of Anaplasma parasite in tick carrying buffaloes and cattle.
Popara, Marina; Villar, Margarita; Mateos-Hernández, Lourdes; de Mera, Isabel G Fernández; Marina, Anabel; del Valle, Mercedes; Almazán, Consuelo; Domingos, Ana; de la Fuente, José
Infestations with cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proteome in R. annulatus and R. microplus female ticks after feeding on BM86-vaccinated and control cattle. The results showed that cattle proteins were under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus, suggesting that R. annulatus ticks ingested less blood, a difference that increased when feeding on vaccinated cattle, probably reflecting the effect of antibody-BM86 interactions on this process. The results also showed that tick protein degradation machinery was under represented in R. annulatus when compared to R. microplus. BM86 mRNA and protein levels were similar in both tick species, suggesting that lesser protease activity in R. annulatus results in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and higher vaccine efficacy. These results have important
Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that act as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes modulating a large diversity of biological processes. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new opportunities to understand the biology of a number of species. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, causes significant economic losses in cattle production worldwide and this drives us to further understand their biology so that effective control measures can be developed. To be able to provide new insights into the biology of cattle ticks and to expand the repertoire of tick miRNAs we utilized Illumina technology to sequence the small RNA transcriptomes derived from various life stages and selected organs of R. microplus. Results To discover and profile cattle tick miRNAs we employed two complementary approaches, one aiming to find evolutionary conserved miRNAs and another focused on the discovery of novel cattle-tick specific miRNAs. We found 51 evolutionary conserved R. microplus miRNA loci, with 36 of these previously found in the tick Ixodes scapularis. The majority of the R. microplus miRNAs are perfectly conserved throughout evolution with 11, 5 and 15 of these conserved since the Nephrozoan (640 MYA, Protostomian (620MYA and Arthropoda (540 MYA ancestor, respectively. We then employed a de novo computational screening for novel tick miRNAs using the draft genome of I. scapularis and genomic contigs of R. microplus as templates. This identified 36 novel R. microplus miRNA loci of which 12 were conserved in I. scapularis. Overall we found 87 R. microplus miRNA loci, of these 15 showed the expression of both miRNA and miRNA* sequences. R. microplus miRNAs showed a variety of expression profiles, with the evolutionary-conserved miRNAs mainly expressed in all life stages at various levels, while the expression of novel tick-specific miRNAs was mostly limited to particular life stages and/or tick organs. Conclusions
De La Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; García-García, J C
The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the scientific community. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful. Recently, vaccination with recombinant Boophilus microplus gut antigens has been shown to control tick infestations. Our Bm86-containing vaccine formulation (Gavac) has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus, and chemically sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America, and Iran. Preliminary results with Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. suggest partial cross protection. In field trials, vaccination with Gavac controlled B. microplus and B. annulatus infestations and reduced the transmission of babesiosis, resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. Different degrees of susceptibility to the vaccination with Bm86 and sequence variations in the Bm86 locus have been reported. The Bm95 antigen was isolated from the Argentinean Bm86-resistant B. microplus strain A. A Bm95-based vaccine was used to protect cattle against tick infestations under production conditions with similar results to that obtained with Gavac. The Bm95 antigen from strain A was able to protect against infestations with Bm86-sensitive and Bm86-resistant tick strains, thus suggesting that Bm95 could be a more universal antigen in protecting cattle against infestations by B. microplus strains from different geographical areas. These results clearly demonstrate the advantage and possibilities for the immunological control of ticks. PMID:11193686
Doramectin concentration in the serum of pastured cattle treated repeatedly at 28 d intervals at two dosage rates was used to predict the probability that cattle fever ticks could successfully feed to repletion during the interval between treatments. At ~270 µg/kg, the doramectin concentration dropp...
Evidence for the role of white-tailed deer(Artiodactyla:Cervidae)in the epidemiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (Acari:Ixodidae)in reinfestations along the Texas/Mexico border in South Texas-A review and update
From 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933 the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [SCT, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini)], until failures began to oc...
Potterat, Olivier; Hostettmann, Kurt; Höltzel, Alexandra; Jung, Günther; Diehl, Peter A.; Petrini, Orlando
Boophiline (1), a new sterol amide was isolated from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Ixodidae). The structure was assigned as N-[3-(sulfooxy)-25ξ-cholest-5-en-26-oyl]-L-isoleucine by detailed 2D NMR investigations in conjunction with FAB mass spectrometry and acidic hydrolyses. Complete assignment of the diastereotopic methylene protons of the ring system could be deduced from the NMR data. In agar dilution assays, 1 exhibited antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum and an...
INOKUMA, Hisashi; Beppu, Takeshi; OKUDA, Masaru; Shimada, Yojiro; Sakata, Yoshimi
Tick DNA samples from dogs in Japan were examined for Ehrlichia infection by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and sequencing. Three positive samples were detected from Haemaphysalis ticks, and higher levels of similarity (98.46 to 99.06%) were found to recently detected Ehrlichia spp. from cattle ticks in Tibet, Thailand, and Africa.
The cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, and the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Pp), are vectors of infectious agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitor profile of acetylcholinesterases from R. microplus(BmAChE1) and Pp (PpAchE) for c...
García-García, J C; Gonzalez, I L; González, D M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; Lamberti, J; D'Agostino, B; Citroni, D; Fragoso, H; Ortiz, M; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Cattle tick infestations constitute a major problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful, hampered by the selection of chemical-resistant tick populations. The Boophilus microplus Bm86 protein was isolated from tick gut epithelial cells and shown to induce a protective response against tick infestations in vaccinated cattle. Vaccine preparations including the recombinant Bm86 are used to control cattle tick infestations in the field as an alternative measure to reduce the losses produced by this ectoparasite. The principle for the immunological control of tick infestations relies on a polyclonal antibody response against the target antigen and, therefore, should be difficult to select for tick-resistant populations. However, sequence variations in the Bm86 locus, among other factors, could affect the effectiveness of Bm86-containing vaccines. In the present study we have addressed this issue, employing data obtained with B. microplus strains from Australia, Mexico, Cuba, Argentina and Venezuela. The results showed a tendency in the inverse correlation between the efficacy of the vaccination with Bm86 and the sequence variations in the Bm86 locus (R2 = 0.7). The mutation fixation index in the Bm86 locus was calculated and shown to be between 0.02 and 0.1 amino acids per year. Possible implications of these findings for the immunoprotection of cattle against tick infestations employing the Bm86 antigen are discussed. PMID:10668863
Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an economically important tick of cattle involved in the transmission of Babesia bovis, the etiological agent of bovine babesiosis. Commercial anti-tick vaccines based on the R. microplus Bm86 glycoprotein have shown some effect in controlling tick ...
Bendele Kylie G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP technique to characterize its bacterial diversity. Pyrosequencing was performed on adult males and females, eggs, and gut and ovary tissues from adult females derived from samples of R. microplus collected during outbreaks in southern Texas. Results Raw data from bTEFAP were screened and trimmed based upon quality scores and binned into individual sample collections. Bacteria identified to the species level include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Staphylococcus sciuri, Serratia marcescens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Finegoldia magna. One hundred twenty-one bacterial genera were detected in all the life stages and tissues sampled. The total number of genera identified by tick sample comprised: 53 in adult males, 61 in adult females, 11 in gut tissue, 7 in ovarian tissue, and 54 in the eggs. Notable genera detected in the cattle tick include Wolbachia, Coxiella, and Borrelia. The molecular approach applied in this study allowed us to assess the relative abundance of the microbiota associated with R. microplus. Conclusions This report represents the first survey of the bacteriome in the cattle tick using non-culture based molecular approaches. Comparisons of our results with previous bacterial surveys provide an indication of geographic variation in the assemblages of bacteria associated with R. microplus. Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be
CARLOS CRUZ-VAZQUEZ; MANUEL FERNANDEZ-RUVALCABA; JAIME SOLANO-VERGARA; ZEFERINO GARCIA-VAZQUEZ
ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differenc...
Full Text Available Experimental transmissions of cloned Theileria parva in cattle with Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks were compared to transmissions with uncloned T. parva during studies on the potential for genetic recombination during syngamy of Theileria to produce antigenic diversity for evasion of bovine immunity. Prevalence and abundance of T. parva infection in adult ticks, which resulted from the feeding of nymphs on the calves, were significantly higher in the uncloned compared to the cloned T. parva. Development of sporoblasts of T. parva in the ticks to produce infective sporozoites was similar. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical course of infection in cattle between cloned and uncloned T. parva. It was concluded that cloned T. parva has characteristics that reduce its viability during the tick stages of its life cycle.
Ndumu, P A; George, J B; Choudhury, M K
The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadiracta indica, family: Meliaceae, 'Dogon yaro' in Hausa -language) was tested against the larvae of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum (family: Ixodidae or hard tick) parasitic to cattle commonly found in Nigeria. Undiluted neem oil (100% concentration) was found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 48 h. The toxicity was concentration and time dependent. PMID:10479769
The treatment of cattle every 14 days for the eradication of cattle fever ticks carries a high financial burden for producers. Thus, most producers who have ticks detected on their property choose to vacate the premises of all livestock instead of dipping animals every 14 days. However, the vacation...
Nava Santiago; José A. Caparrós; Mangold, Atilio J.; Alberto A. Guglielmone
Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W) and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W) in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1) specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeo...
Choudhury, M. K.
The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectiv...
Full Text Available The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.
Choudhury, M K
The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively. PMID:20502579
In Sri Lanka both Babesiosis bigemina and Babesiosis bovis are present. These parasites cause considerable economic losses among susceptible Bos. Taurus (European) cattle. Control of Babesiosis is by four main methods-management, tick control, chemotherapy and immunization. A vaccine containing Co-60 irradiated B. bigemina to immunize calves in state forms was used. The aims of the study was to produce a vaccine that would be both protective and safe so that vaccination could be extended to small former units as well. Experimental data and results are given
Fiorini, Leonardo Costa; Craveiro, Adriana Bentes; Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Chiesorin Neto, Laerzio; Silveira, Ronis Da
The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites. PMID:25517537
Leonardo Costa Fiorini
Full Text Available The Boa constrictor is one of the world's largest vertebrate carnivores and is often found in urban areas in the city of Manaus, Brazil. The morphological identification of ticks collected from 27 snakes indicated the occurrence of Amblyomma dissimile Koch 1844 on all individuals sampled. In contrast, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was found on only two snakes. An analysis of the 16S rRNA molecular marker confirmed the morphological identification of these ectoparasites.
Mikhail, Micheal W; Soliman, Mohamed Ismail; Abd, El-Halim Azza S
A preliminary survey of domestic rodent species and their ectoparasites tick, mite and lice was carried out in ten centers of Menoufia (Quesna, Shebeen El-Kom, Berka El-Saabe, El-Bagour, El-Shohada, Tala, Menoff, Searth El-Lian, Ashmon and El-Sadat) Governorate. Frequency of rodent species and ectoparasites indices (tick, mite and lice) were recorded in spring (2009). The main species of rodent was Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, the grey-bellied rat, Rattus rattus alexandrinus, the white-bellied rat, Rattus rattus frugivorus and the house mouse, Mus musculus. The common tick species attacking rodents were: Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp. The common mite species attacking rodents were: Dermanyssus sangineus, Orithonysus bacoti, Haemolaelaps glas-gowi, Laelaps nutalli, Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. The only common lice species was Polyplax spinulosa. The fur mites Radfordia sp. and Myobia sp. were recorded at Quesna, Searth El-Lian and El-Sadat centers on R. norvegicus for the first time at Menoufia Governorate. PMID:21246950
Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-De-Albuquerque, Luciana C; Da Silva E Souza, Denisson; Zanotti, Alexandre P; Ferreira, Débora R A; Martins, Thiago F; De Senna, Michelle B; Wagner, Paulo G C; Da Silva, Marcio A; Marvulo, Maria F V; Labruna, Marcelo B
From September 2008 to March 2010, 397 ticks (315 larvae, 33 nymphs, 23 females, and 26 males) were collected from captive and free-living wildlife species in northeastern Brazil. Six tick species were identified, including Amblyomma auricularium (Conil) on Tamandua tetradactyla (L.), Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann on Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (L.), Nectomys rattus (Pelzen) and T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma parvum Aragão on T. tetradactyla, Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Boa constrictor L., Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Kinosternon scorpioides (L.) and Rhinella jimi (Stevaux), Amblyomma oarium Koch on Bradypus variegatus Schinz, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Lycalopex vetulus (Lund). Nectomys rattus and T. tetradactyla are new hosts for A. dubitatum. This study extends the known distribution ofA. dubitatum in South America and provides evidence that its geographical range has been underestimated because of the lack of research. Four (A. dubitatum, A. parvum, A. rotundatum, and R. sanguineus) of six tick species identified in this study have previously been found on humans in South America, some of them being potentially involved in the transmission of pathogens of zoonotic concern. PMID:21175080
Quevedo, M.; Gomez, L.; J. Lescano
Interaction between wild and domestic animals can increase the risk for transmission of parasites in both directions, and thus, affects the ecology of diseases. Wild felids have been proven to be sensitive to infectious agents commonly found in domestic animals, and those agents have had detrimental effects on wildlife conservation. A margay Leopardus wiedii which had been kept captive as a pet for about fifteen days, was found moderately infested with the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguin...
Ali Abdirahman A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK or ‘pinkeye’ is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified species eggs per gram of faeces and growth traits in Australian tropically adapted Bos taurus cattle were estimated. Methods Animals were clinically examined for the presence of IBK infection before and after weaning when the calves were 3 to 6 months and 15 to 18 months old, respectively and were also recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for the post-weaning dataset. Genetic correlations between tick and helminth eggs counts were moderate and positive for both datasets. Phenotypic correlations of IBK incidence with helminth eggs per gram of faeces were moderate and positive for both datasets, but were close to zero for both datasets with tick counts. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic selection against IBK incidence in tropical cattle is feasible and that calves genetically prone to acquire IBK infection could also be genetically prone to have a slower growth. The positive genetic correlations among weight traits and between tick and helminth eggs counts suggest that they are controlled by common genes (with pleiotropic effects. Genetic correlations between IBK incidence
Labarta, V; Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M; Lleonart, R; Luaces, L L; de la Fuente, J
Current strategies for the control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus include the use of chemicals as the principal control method. These methods, however, have met with partially successful results. The recent development of immunological methods for the control of the cattle tick has opened new possibilities for the design of control strategies. Employing the results obtained by us in experiments testing the effect of vaccination with the recombinant vaccine, Gavac (Heber Biotec S.A.), on tick populations, we have developed a model to evaluate, through a computer program, the efficacy of the vaccine as a control method. The action of the vaccine on the control of tick populations was simulated and the specific serum antibody titers required to decrease the tick population in the field were calculated. The specific serum antibody titer required to decrease the tick population in the field after the first vaccination scheme was found to be > or = 57,200 and the antibody titer required to maintain this effect when the vaccine is already acting and after successive revaccinations was found to be > or = 27,500. Considerations about revaccination schemes and combination between vaccination and acaricide treatments as possible control strategies are discussed. PMID:8792587
Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and T...
Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo
The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. PMID:25899078
The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and ...
Mousa Tavassoli; Mohammad Tabatabaei; Mosleh Mohammadi; Bijan Esmaeilnejad; Hemn Mohamadpour
Background Babesiosis is a haemoparasitic disease of domestic and wild animals caused by species of the genus Babesia. Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens are known to be pathogenic in cattle. The disease is transmitted during blood feeding by infected ticks and is the most economically important tick-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. Ixodid ticks are vectors in the transmission of babesiosis. The classic presentation is a febrile syndrome with apparent anemia and hemog...
Adalberto A. Pérez de León
Full Text Available The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus and R. (B. microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT. Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S. through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change.
Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Auclair, Allan N; Messenger, Matthew T; Guerrero, Felix D; Schuster, Greta; Miller, Robert J
The ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and R. (B.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. They affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. The monumental scientific discovery of certain arthropod species as vectors of infectious agents is associated with the history of research on bovine babesiosis and R. annulatus. Together, R. microplus and R. annulatus are referred to as cattle fever ticks (CFT). Bovine babesiosis became a regulated foreign animal disease in the United States of America (U.S.) through efforts of the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) established in 1906. The U.S. was declared free of CFT in 1943, with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone in south Texas along the border with Mexico. This achievement contributed greatly to the development and productivity of animal agriculture in the U.S. The permanent quarantine zone buffers CFT incursions from Mexico where both ticks and babesiosis are endemic. Until recently, the elimination of CFT outbreaks relied solely on the use of coumaphos, an organophosphate acaricide, in dipping vats or as a spray to treat livestock, or the vacation of pastures. However, ecological, societal, and economical changes are shifting the paradigm of systematically treating livestock to eradicate CFT. Keeping the U.S. CFT-free is a critical animal health issue affecting the economic stability of livestock and wildlife enterprises. Here, we describe vulnerabilities associated with global change forces challenging the CFTEP. The concept of integrated CFT eradication is discussed in reference to global change. PMID:22712018
Logullo, C; Moraes, J; Dansa-Petretski, M; Vaz, I S; Masuda, A; Sorgine, M H F; Braz, G R; Masuda, H; Oliveira, P L
We have previously shown (, Curr. Biol. 9, 703-706) that the cattle tick Boophilus microplus does not synthesize heme, relying solely on the recovery of the heme from the diet to make all its hemeproteins. Here we present evidence that Vitellin (VN(1)), the main tick yolk protein, is a reservoir of heme for embryo development. VN was isolated from eggs at different days throughout embryogenesis. Immediately after oviposition, Boophilus VN contains approximately one mol of heme/mol of protein. During embryo development about one third of egg VN is degraded. The remaining VN molecules bind part of the heme released. These results suggest that VN functions as a heme reservoir, binding any free heme that exceeds the amount needed for development. In vitro measurement of the binding of heme to VN showed that each VN molecule binds up to 31 heme molecules. The association of heme with VN strongly inhibits heme-induced lipid peroxidation, suggesting that binding of heme is an important antioxidant mechanism to protect embryo cells from oxidative damage. This mechanism allows this hematophagous arthropod to safely store heme obtained from a blood meal inside their eggs for future use. Taken together our data suggest that, besides its known roles, VN also plays additional functions as a heme deposit and an antioxidant protective molecule. PMID:12429132
Golezardy, Habib; Oosthuizen, Marinda C; Penzhorn, Barend L
Ticks were collected from 191 cheetahs at three breeding centres in North West and Limpopo Provinces, South Africa. Haemaphysalis elliptica, a common tick of large felids, was the most abundant species collected, while Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus simus occurred in lower numbers. In addition to these three species, drag-sampling of the vegetation revealed the presence of Amblyomma marmoreum, Rhipicephalus (B.) decoloratus and Rhipicephalus zambeziensis. The presence of free-ranging antelopes, murid rodents and tortoises at the breeding centres probably contributed to the availability of immature tick stages on the vegetation. Diurnal and seasonal questing patterns of ixodid ticks were investigated at monthly intervals at the largest cheetah-breeding centre. Questing ticks were most abundant on the vegetation during the warm summer months. Most questing H. elliptica larvae and nymphs were collected from the vegetation in the early morning and late afternoon and fewest during the middle of the day. PMID:27020735
Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia
Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62
Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E
A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025
Full Text Available Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012.Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethanol, then transported to the laboratory of Zabol University of Medical Sciences. Following examinations under stereomicroscope, ticks were identified using available taxonomic keys.In this study, a total number of 469 adult ticks (381 males and 88 females were collected. Ticks were classified into 2 genera and 9 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (17.3%, Hy. schulzei (1.8%, Hy. marginatum (0.5%, Hy. anatolicum excavatum (12.60%, Hy. anatolicum anatolicum (11.2%, Hy. asiaticum asiaticum (11.0%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (21.2%, Rh. bursa (10.2% and Rh. turacunis (13.911%. The frequency of genus Hyalomma (54.6% was higher than Rhipicephalus. Rh. sanguineus was the predominant tick species and accounted for 21.26% of the ticks. The ratio of males was more than the female ticks.Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus species are commonly distributed in the study area. Further investigations are needed to identify the role of above tick species as vectors of pathogenic organisms.
Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Babamahmoudi Farhang; Mohtarami Fatemeh
Objective:To determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern Iran. Methods:About 425 domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr city in northern Iran were inspected for tick infestations. Twenty tick specimens (13 females and 7 males) of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (R. sanguineus), the most common tick in the study area, were tested by PCR amplification against 18s rRNA genome of Theileria spp using specie specific primers and then the PCR products were sequenced for species identification by comparison with data base available in GenBank. Results:About 323 ticks were collected from 102 animals (88 sheep, 12 goats and 2 cattle). The prevalence of ticks infesting animals was R. sanguineus (82.35%), Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa) (0.3%), Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus) (15.2%), Boophilus annulatus (B. annulatus) (1.2%), Haemaphysalis punctata (H. punctata) (0.3%) and Haemaphysalis numidiana (H. numidiana) (0.6%). Eleven (55%) tick specimens were PCR positive against genome of Theileria ovis (T. ovis). Sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed presence of T. ovis in one R. sanguinus. Conclusions:This is the first report of tick infection to T. ovis in Iran. Due to dominant prevalence of R. sanguineus as well as its infection to T. ovis, it is postulated this tick is the main vector of ovine theileriosis in northern Iran.
Hosseini Vasoukolaei Nasibeh; Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Vatandoost Hassan; Yaghoobi Ershadi Mohammad Reza; Hosseini Vasoukolaei Morteza; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali
Objective:To determine the tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants in Ghaemshahr county in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran.Methods:About361 sheep, 54 goats and10cattle of18 herds in several villages in Ghaemshahr were inspected for tick infestation. Separated ticks were preserved in70% alcohol and identified.Results:About323 ticks (207female,116 male) were collected, the occurrence of ticks on sheep, goats and cattle were28.3%, 22.2% and20.0%respectively. The mean number of ticks on each animal was low (3-5ticks per animal).Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Boophilus annulatus, Haemaphysalis punctata andHaemaphysalis numidiana were the tick species we found.Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most abundant species in the study area. The largest number of ticks were generally present from April to July, mostly in animal ears and tails. Ixodes, Boophilus andHaemaphysalis occurred in mountainous areas of Ghaemshahr, whereas Rhipicephalus were present in both mountains and plains of the study area.Conclusions: The result of this study is a survey of tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.
Full Text Available Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials. New tick-host associations and locality records are given.Os carrapatos encontrados infestando anfíbios e répteis no Estado de Pernambuco são revisados com base na literatura atual e em novas coletas realizadas recentemente pelos autores. Até o momento, três espécies de carrapatos foram encontradas sobre anfíbios e répteis em Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum parece estar exclusivamente associado à Boa constrictor, seu hospedeiro-tipo. Amblyomma rotundatum tem uma especificidade parasitária relativamente baixa, sendo encontrado em sapos, serpentes e iguana. Amblyomma dissimile já foi encontrado sobre um lagarto e também sobre pequenos mamíferos (isto é, roedores e marsupiais. Novas associações carrapato-hospedeiro e novos registros de localidades são apresentados.
Paula Hocayen de Paula
consisted of a phase in summer, with a longer photoperiod, and in winter, with a shorter photoperiod. Twelve weekly experimental repetitions, of 24 hours duration, were carried out in each of these seasons. For each repetition, eight non-lactating, 7/8 Holstein-Friesian x Zebu cows, naturally infested with B. microplus and maintained on pastures, were removed to an experimental area on the day in which the observations were to be made and maintained in individual stalls. At each hour, over 24 hours, all fully engorged ticks that had dropped off naturally from the cattle were collected from the stalls. The results showed a significant difference in the rhythm of their drop-off in the summer compared to winter. In the summer the greater proportion of ticks dropped off between 07 and 10 (35.3% with a maximum at 09. In winter, there were two daily periods of greater drop-off of ticks, the first between 06 and 09 (19.69% with a maximum at 06, and the second between 14 and 17 (21.79% with a maximum at 15. The percentage of ticks dropping off during the traditional milking time (05-08 and 13-16 would have been 35.15%, while those falling during an alternative sytem under consideration for Central Brazil (08-11 and 16-19 would be 45.48%, during the summer. During the winter, the proportion of ticks falling from the cattle is 40.51% and 32.71% for the two times of milking, respectively. Considering the time that the animals remain in stalls for feed supplement during the period between milkings during the dry season (May to September, the proportion of ticks falling would be 55.83% for the traditional system (05-16 and 52.36% for the milking period under consideration (08-19.
Pipano, Eugene; Alekceev, Eugene; Galker, Felicia; Fish, Lea; Samish, Michael; Shkap, Varda
Friesian cattle were immunized with two inoculations of anti-tick Bm86 (Tick-GARD) vaccine and were challenged 30 or 90 d later with Boophilus annulatus larvae derived from 1.2 g of eggs. No nymphs or adult ticks were found on the immunized cattle during four weeks after challenge. Repeated infestations (2 to 4) with larvae on three other calves during a period of 160 and 390 d after the immunization did not result in development of nymphal and adult stages. In control, non-immunized cattle infested with corresponding batches of larvae 1380 to 4653 replete adult female ticks were collected. Larvae issued from Babesia bovis-infected female ticks transmitted the infection to Bm86-immunized cattle, but the progeny of B. bigemina-infected females did not. Since B. bigemina is transmitted exclusively by nymphal stages of Bo. annulatus these results support the observation that immunity induced by Bm86 affects the larval stage of this tick. PMID:14580066
Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Mahabir, Sean P; Farkas, Robert; Six, Robert H
Two randomised, blinded, multi-centered field studies were conducted in Europe to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of three monthly oral doses of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) administered at a minimum dosage of 2.0mg/kg (range 2-4mg/kg) against natural flea or tick infestation of dogs presented as veterinary patients. In the flea study, the improvement in clinical signs associated with flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) was also investigated. The palatability of the sarolaner chewable tablet formulation was evaluated in both studies. Spinosad (Comfortis(®) Chewable Tablets, Elanco) and fipronil (Frontline(®) Spot on, Merial) were used as positive controls in the flea and tick study, respectively. Treatments were administered on Days 0, 30 and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live parasite counts on post-treatment days 14, 30, 60 and 90 versus the pre-treatment count on Day 0. Non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control products was assessed at each time-point using a margin of 15% at the one-sided 0.025 significance level. Dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 285 flea- and 181 tick-infested dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and 137 and 48 dogs were assessed for safety only, in the flea and tick study, respectively. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Efficacy against fleas was 98.8%, 99.4%, >99.9% and >99.9% in the sarolaner-treated group and 98.9%, 93.7%, 96.8% and 95.1% in the spinosad-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively. Sarolaner was non-inferior to spinosad at all time-points and was superior on Day 30. For the 42 dogs identified as having FAD at enrolment, the clinical signs of FAD improved in all dogs and the incidence was markedly reduced by the end of the study. Efficacy against ticks was 97.4%, 97.6%, 99.8% and 100% in the sarolaner-treated group and 94.1%, 88.5%, 89.9% and 98.1% in the fipronil-treated group on Days 14, 30, 60 and 90, respectively
de la Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F
Ticks transmit pathogens that cause diseases which greatly impact both human and animal health. Vaccines developed against Boophilus spp. using Bm86 and Bm95 tick gut antigens demonstrated the feasibility of using vaccines for control of tick infestations. These vaccines also reduced transmission of tick-borne pathogens by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts to ticks. The recently discovered tick antigens, 64P putative cement protein and subolesin involved in the regulation of tick feeding and reproduction, were also shown to reduce tick infestations. These antigens, together with the TROSPA receptor for Burrelia burgdorferi OspA were effective against tick-borne pathogens by reducing the infection levels in ticks and/or the transmission of the pathogen. Development of a vaccine targeted at both the tick vector and pathogen would contribute greatly to the control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. These results have demonstrated that tick vaccines can be developed for control tick infestations and show promise for the prevention of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:17682852
Full Text Available Ticks were collected at approximately bi-monthly intervals between June 1996 and June 1997 from crested francolins, Francolinus sephaena, and from the vegetation on a mixed cattle and wildlife farm in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The birds were infested with the immature stages of 13 tick species, of which Amblyomma hebraeum, Amblyomma marmoreum and Hyalomma marginatumrufipes were the most numerous and prevalent. Ten ixodid tick species were collected from the vegetation, of which the immature stages of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were the most numerous. No adult ticks were collected from the birds and only two from the vegetation. The restricted home range of crested francolins implies that they could serve as a source of tick infestation only for other animals within the same habitat as the birds.
Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.
Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W
Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224
Recombinant Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut (Ra86 and salivary gland cement (Trp64 proteins as candidate antigens for inclusion in tick vaccines: protective effects of Ra86 on infestation with adult R. appendiculatus
Full Text Available Margaret Saimo1,2,*, David O Odongo3,4,*, Stephen Mwaura3, Just M Vlak1, Anthony J Musoke5, George W Lubega2, Richard P Bishop3, Monique M van Oers11Laboratory of Virology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands; 2School of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda; 3International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; 4School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa *These two authors made an equal contribution to this workAbstract: Rhipicephalus appendiculatus gut protein Ra86 (variants Ra85A and Ra92A and the salivary gland cement protein (Trp64 were expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The recombinant gut proteins expressed as soluble proteins and the recombinant cement protein, as insoluble inclusion bodies, were used to immunize rabbits, which were then challenged with larval, nymphal, and adult stages of R. appendiculatus ticks. High tick mortality (23.3% occurred on adult ticks that fed on rabbits vaccinated with the gut proteins, compared with 1.9% mortality in ticks that fed on unvaccinated naïve control rabbits. The mean weight of engorged female ticks was significantly reduced by 31.5% in rabbits vaccinated with the Ra86 recombinant protein compared with controls, as was egg production. Marked effects on these parameters were also observed in adult ticks as a result from vaccination using Trp64, but these were not statistically significant. For both antigens, there was no demonstrable effect on larval or nymphal ticks. This study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of a homolog of Boophilus microplus Bm86 in reducing tick infestation by the adult stage of the three-host tick R. appendiculatus. The results demonstrate the potential of Ra86 for vaccine development against this tick and for the control of East Coast fever.Keywords: baculovirus, Ra85A, Ra92A, Boophilus
Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.;
Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive for...
Ana Domingos; Sandra Antunes; Lara Borges; Virgilio Estolio do Rosario
Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a co...
Clair Jorge Olivo
Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de várias formulações feitas com fumo em corda no controle do carrapato (Boophilus microplus de bovinos leiteiros da raça Holandesa naturalmente infestados. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por Amitraz a 0,025%; extrato aquoso de fumo em corda (EFC a 1,25% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (em três aspersões, com intervalos de 24 horas entre elas; EFC a 1,25% + cal extinta a 1,25% (três aspersões; EFC a 5,0% + cal extinta a 2,0%, (três aspersões; EFC a 3,75% + detergente neutro a 0,5% (uma aspersão, e pelo grupo controle. Para a avaliação, foram observadas fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato, com comprimento superior a 4,0mm, antes da aplicação e no 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, 5°, 6°, 7° e 14° dias após a aplicação de cada tratamento. A eficácia média de controle do carrapato no 14° dia foi de 100,0; 77,5; 22,0; 63,80; 25,3 e 0,0%, respectivamente. Verificou-se diferença significativa (PThis study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of severals concentrations of rope tobacco against the tick (Boophilus microplus naturally infested on Rolstein dairy cattle. The treatments used were Amitraz at 0.025%; rope tobacco aqueous extract (RT at 1.25% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (tree aspersions, with interval of 24 hours among them, RT at 1.75% + withewash at 0.5% (tree aspersions; RT at 5.0% + withewash at 2.0% (tree aspersions; RT at 3.75% + neutral detergent at 0.5% (one aspersion and the control group. Engorged ticks were evaluate with length superior to 4.0 mm, before and at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th and 14th day after treatment. The mean efficacy was 100.0; 77.5; 22.0; 63.8; 25.3 and 0.0%, respectively. Differences (P<0.05 among treatments with chemical product and rope tobacco formulations were observed.
Hurtado, Ana; Barandika, Jesús F; Oporto, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Povedano, Inés; García-Pérez, Ana L
This study was designed to investigate an outbreak of high mortality that occurred in naïve Assaf sheep introduced into a Latxa sheep flock in the Basque Country, a region where piroplasmosis is endemic. To identify the causes of this outbreak, a panel of different methods, including traditional pathological, biopathological and parasitological analyses combined with recently developed molecular methods, was used. These novel molecular methods included a multiplex real-time PCR assay to screen for the presence of the most important tick-borne pathogens (piroplasms and anaplasmas), followed by a second species-specific multiplex real-time PCR assay for the identification of Anaplasma-positive samples. The identification of piroplasm-positive samples was carried out by a multiplexed microsphere-based suspension array using a Luminex(®) xMAP technology-based procedure. Anaplasmas and/or piroplasms were detected in 7/10 lambs and 11/13 ewes, with Babesia ovis being detected in 12 of the 23 animals, Theileria ovis in 6 and Anaplasma ovis in 4, both as single and mixed infections. Most of the animals infected with B. ovis had a marked decrease in the values of the red blood cell parameters. Ticks collected from the animals were identified as Riphicephalus bursa, recognised vector of B. ovis. Other haemolytic pathologies (clostridial disease, copper poisoning and leptospirosis) were ruled out and, considering all clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data, babesiosis by B. ovis was diagnosed. A detailed description of the clinical outcome, with ca. 60% of mortality, laboratory results and epidemiological findings are provided. The implications of the introduction of naïve animals into a piroplasmosis endemic area are discussed. PMID:25257849
Raquel Salazar B; Rolando Barahona-Rosales; María-Solange Sánchez P
Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS) (Lucerna) or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela). Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remain...
Full Text Available From blood collected from 94 cattle at 12 locations in the eastern and northeastern areas of Zimbabwe, DNA was extracted and analysed by polymerase chain reaction with primers previously reported to be specific for Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis. Overall, DNA of Babesia bigemina was detected in the blood of 33/94 (35 % cattle and DNA from B. bovis was detected in 27/58 (47 % of cattle. The prevalence of DNA of B. bigemina was significantly higher in young animals (<2 years (23/46 than in animals over 2 years of age (10/48; (chi2 = 8.77; P < 0.01 %. Although tick sampling was not thorough, Boophilus decoloratus could be collected at 7/9 sites sampled and Boophilus microplus at 4/9 sites. Of the 20 B. decoloratus allowed to oviposit before PCR analysis, 1 (5 % contained DNA that could be amplified with primers for B. bigemina while 12 (60 % were positive with primers for B. bovis. Of the B. microplus allowed to oviposit, 11/16 (69 % were positive for B. bovis DNAby PCR and 2/16 (12 % were positive for B. bigemina.
Full Text Available Ticks infesting humans were collected from September 2004 to August 2005 in Northwestern Córdoba in an area with a southern limit in the locality of Dean Funes (30°25´S 64°20´W and San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W in the North. The collections consisted in ticks found attached on man obtained from three sources: 1 specimens fixed on two workers during two successive days per month of field work in the northern part of the area which belongs to Western Chaco district of the phytogeographical Chaco domain, 2 ticks attached to a man working in a farm close to Dean Funes in the Chaco Serrano district of the Chaco domain and, 3 ticks collected from a collaborator visiting daily a suburban property with dogsin the vicinities of Dean Funes. Most ticks collected were larvae, nymphs and adults of Amblyomma neumanni from the Chaco Serrano district where a nymph of Otobius megnini was also found on man. Adults of Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma tigrinum were detected feeding on humans in the Western Chaco district and in the property close to Dean Funes, respectively. Amblyomma neumanni was absent on man from December to April while most specimens of A. parvum and A. tigrinum were collected during summer. Their role as potential vector of ticktransmitted diseases in the area is unknown.Se recolectaron garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae infestando humanos entre septiembre de 2004 y agosto de 2005 en un área del noroeste de Córdoba cuyo límite al sur es la localidad Deán Funes (30º25´S 64°20´W y el límite al norte es la localidad de San José de las Salinas (30°00´S 64°37´W. Las colecciones consistieron en garrapatas fijadas a humanos obtenidas de tres fuentes: 1 garrapatas fijadas sobre dos trabajadores durante dos días sucesivos por mes de trabajo de campo en la parte norte del área, la cual pertenece al distrito chaqueño occidental del dominio fitogeográfico del Chaco, 2 garrapatas fijadas a un trabajador en
Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Cesio, Maria Veronica; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Heinzen, Horacio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro
Leaves of Palicourea marcgravii were extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol in order to evaluate their acaricidal activity on larvae and adult stages of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest bioactivity of the tested extracts, which contained 0.12% monofluoroacetic acid. On engorged female, the ethyl acetate extract showed a lethal concentration 50% - LC(50)=30.08 mg ml(-1), inhibitory concentration 50% - IC(50)=5.79 mg ml(-1) and lethal time 50% - LT(50)=4.72 days; 100% reproduction was controlled at concentrations of 50 mg ml(-1) and on larvae the ethyl acetate extract showed a LC(50)=2.46 mg ml(-1). No alkaloids were detected in any of the extracts. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of P. marcgravii extracts against R. microplus as well as the acaricidal properties of a plant species containing monofluoroacetic acid. PMID:21411227
de la Fuente, J; Rodríguez, M; Montero, C; Redondo, M; García-García, J C; Méndez, L; Serrano, E; Valdés, M; Enríquez, A; Canales, M; Ramos, E; Boué, O; Machado, H; Lleonart, R
The control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases remain a challenge for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Traditional control methods have been only partially successful and the parasites continue to result in significant losses for the cattle industry. Recently, vaccines containing the recombinant B. microplus gut antigen Bm86 have been developed. Our vaccine formulation (Gavac, Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) has been registered and is commercially available in Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Brazil and Mexico. In controlled pen trials, Gavac has been effective for the control of artificial infestations of B. annulatus, B. decoloratus and chemical-sensitive and resistant B. microplus strains from Australia, Africa, America and Iran. In controlled field trials in Cuba, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, Gavac has shown a 55-100% efficacy in the control of B. microplus infestations in grazing cattle 12-36 weeks after the first vaccination. Field trials under production conditions have been conducted in Cuba, Colombia, Brazil and Mexico in pure and cross-bred cattle herds. The application of Gavac has increased the time between acaricide treatments by an average of 32 /-21 days (P = 0.0005) resulting in important savings for the cattle industry. In Cuba, a cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in more than 260000 animals. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed a 60% reduction in the number of acaricide treatments, together with the control of tick infestations and transmission of babesiosis, which resulted in savings of 23.4 dollars animal(-1) year (-1). These results clearly demonstrate the advantage of vaccination and support the application of Gavac for the control of Boophilus spp. infestations. PMID:10596754
Full Text Available During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through induction of reproductive diapause in engorged females, and behavioural diapause in unfed nymphs and adult ticks. Many ticks showed morphological anomalies and malformations, the study of which could possibly be used for monitoring of environmental pollution.
Molia, Sophie; Frebling, Mathieu; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Pinarello, Valérie; Petitclerc, Martial; Rousteau, Alain; Martinez, Dominique; Lefrançois, Thierry
We report Marie Galante as one of the Caribbean islands most heavily infested by the tropical bont tick (TBT) Amblyomma variegatum which is associated with two major diseases of ruminants: heartwater and dermatophilosis. In 2005, a survey was undertaken to assess the prevalence of TBT infestation in cattle, the prevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in TBTs, and the tick control measures implemented by livestock owners. A random sample of 195 cattle herds out of 1885 recorded on the island was investigated by thoroughly counting adult ticks on each animal and filling a questionnaire. A randomly collected sample of 136 TBTs was tested for infection by E. ruminantium by pCS20 nested PCR. Cattle herd prevalence (hp) was 73.8% for infestation by at least one TBT, 17.9% for infestation by at least one engorged female TBT, and 8.2% for clinical dermatophilosis. Cattle individual prevalence was 42.3% for infestation by at least one TBT, 6.6% for infestation by at least one engorged female TBT, and 2.2% for clinical dermatophilosis. The minimum, maximum and average numbers of TBTs per infested animal were, respectively 1, 108 and 11.5. Prevalence of TBT infection by E. ruminantium was 19.1%. No significant difference in herd prevalence was found among parishes or among ecological zones. For cattle owners treating against ticks (97.9% of all owners), all used aspersion of amitraz and herd prevalence was significantly different among those treating every 1-2-week (hp=69.6%, n=148), and less often than every 2-week (hp=88.6%, n=35) (P=0.031). Of the 42 herd subunits treated less than 4 days before the survey, 27 (64%) were infested with at least one TBT, and 6 (14%) with at least one engorged female TBT. These results indicate a high level of TBT infestation in Marie Galante, the inefficacy of tick treatments currently performed, and the need for an improved tick control strategy. Persisting high levels of infestation in Marie Galante threaten the success of on
Carlos Henrique Miguita; Carolina da Silva Barbosa; Lidilhone Hamerski; Ulana Chaves Sarmento; José Nicácio do Nascimento; Walmir Silva Garcez; Fernanda Rodrigues Garcez
Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effect...
Yim, Wei Tsun; Bhandari, Bhesh; Jackson, Louise; James, Peter
Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) is a one host tick responsible for major economic loss in tropical and subtropical cattle production enterprises. Control is largely dependent on the application of acaricides but resistance has developed to most currently registered chemical groups. Repellent compounds that prevent initial attachment of tick larvae offer a potential alternative to control with chemical toxicants. The repellent effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (TTO) emulsions and two β-cyclodextrin complex formulations, a slow release form (SR) and a modified faster release form (FR), were examined in a series of laboratory studies. Emulsions containing 4% and 5% TTO applied to cattle hair in laboratory studies completely repelled ascending tick larvae for 24h whereas 2% and 3% formulations provided 80% protection. At 48h, 5% TTO provided 78% repellency but lower concentrations repelled less than 60% of larvae. In a study conducted over 15 days, 3% TTO emulsion applied to cattle hair provided close to 100% repellency for 2 days, but then protection fell to 23% by day 15. The FR formulation gave significantly greater repellency than the emulsion and the SR formulation from day 3 until the end of the study (Prepellency at day 3 (99.5%), then decreasing over the period of the study to 49% repellency at day 15. Proof of concept is established for the use of appropriately designed controlled-release formulations to extend the period of repellency provided by TTO against R. australis larvae. PMID:27369582
Cattle tick control remains a serious problem for cattle farms in Brazil due to the limited success achieved with chemicals. In Brazil, the use of vaccines for tick control associated with the use of chemicals and pasture rotation may open possibilities for integrated control. However, it is important to know whether regional Boophilus microplus strains are sensitive to antibodies produced by the available antigens: antigen preparations Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS). The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of two Bm86 antigen vaccine formulation against tick using crossbred bovines in stall test antigen against a regional B. microplus strain. The experiment was carried out in central Brazil (20 degrees 27'S, 54 degrees 37'W). A trial was conducted in stall conditions on crossbred cattle under controlled infestation. Two groups of 16 animals each, homogeneous in weight and sex, were vaccinated with Gavac™ or TickGard(PLUS), two groups of eight animals as control. Challenge was performed on three alternate days, with 5,000 larvae each time, beginning 21 days after the second injection. The antibody response was measured by ELISA and vaccinated animals presented immune response considering IgG levels. The results showed 49.2% and 46.4% protection efficacy for Gavac™ and TickGard(PLUS), respectively. PMID:16978472
De Garine-Wichatitsky, M
Ticks do not usually infest sympatric hosts species according to their availability in a given environment, and it has been suggested that habitat use by hosts is a major determinant of tick burdens. The knowledge of such infestation patterns and their relationship with host habitat use is important for the control of the vectors of some major stock diseases in Africa, particularly in the context of mixed game/cattle ranching. In a ranch of Zimbabwe, we monitored the number of adult ticks found on cattle and wild ungulates. Tick burdens were measured weekly during one year on 12 heifers of an experimental herd (no acaricide used), and on wild ungulates occasionally shot for meat. Adult ticks were not evenly distributed among wild hosts, and infestation patterns corresponded to observations made by several authors in similar conditions. However, these infestation patterns could not be related to habitat use by ungulates, which had been previously monitored by road transect at the scale of the ranch, as these authors found a high niche overlap and no habitat segregation between ungulate species. In an attempt to relate habitat use by Brahman and Simmental heifers with the number of adult ticks collected during one day of grazing, we followed the heifers and recorded their position and activity (one or two days per week; each recording session was 7 h 30 min on average, for a total of 940 hours of survey). No correlation was found between the number of ticks collected and the distance (or time spent) traveled in each vegetation type or the number of grooming episodes. The possible role of other behavioral and physiological parameters is discussed, and the results are compared with those found for other tick-host associations. PMID:12381610
Full Text Available Abstract Background The size and repetitive nature of the Rhipicephalus microplus genome makes obtaining a full genome sequence fiscally and technically problematic. To selectively obtain gene-enriched regions of this tick's genome, Cot filtration was performed, and Cot-filtered DNA was sequenced via 454 FLX pyrosequencing. Results The sequenced Cot-filtered genomic DNA was assembled with an EST-based gene index of 14,586 unique entries where each EST served as a potential "seed" for scaffold formation. The new sequence assembly extended the lengths of 3,913 of the 14,586 gene index entries. Over half of the extensions corresponded to extensions of over 30 amino acids. To survey the repetitive elements in the tick genome, the complete sequences of five BAC clones were determined. Both Class I and II transposable elements were found. Comparison of the BAC and Cot filtration data indicates that Cot filtration was highly successful in filtering repetitive DNA out of the genomic DNA used in 454 sequencing. Conclusion Cot filtration is a very useful strategy to incorporate into genome sequencing projects on organisms with large genome sizes and which contain high percentages of repetitive, difficult to assemble, genomic DNA. Combining the Cot selection approach with 454 sequencing and assembly with a pre-existing EST database as seeds resulted in extensions of 27% of the members of the EST database.
Jorgensen Wayne; Ren Qiaoyun; Liu Aihong; Liu Junlong; Liu Zhijie; Ma Miling; Li Youquan; Xu Zongke; Fu Yuguang; Yang Jifei; Guan Guiquan; Niu Qingli; Luo Jianxun; Yin Hong
Abstract Background Lyme disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex is an important endemic zoonosis whose distribution is closely related to the main ixodid tick vectors. In China, isolated cases of Lyme disease infection of humans have been reported in 29 provinces. Ticks, especially ixodid ticks are abundant and a wide arrange of Borrelia natural reservoirs are present. In this study, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) to identify Borrelia spp. in ticks collected from sh...
Maria Alice Zacarias do Amaral
Full Text Available With the objective of encouraging the use of rabbits as alternative hosts for the cattle tick, four rabbits were infested on the ears and back. From the second day of infestation the developmental stages were observed. e duration of larval engorgement and changes were estimated between six and eight days in the region of the back and between 've and seven days in the pinna. e nymphal engorgement and changes occurred at approximately 10.80 ± 2.65 days in the dorsal and 11.00 ± 2.52 days in the ear, with the engorgement of adults and copulation occurring at 7.03 ± 2.45 days, on the dorsal region and 8.55 ± 1.82 days in the region of the pinna. e parasitic period ranged from 21 to 29 days (back and from 23 to 30 days (pinna. e engorged females of the back and ear weighed on average 34.43 ± 18.73 and 36.30 ± 18.10 mg, respectively. e nutritional and reproductive e/ciency indexes were 17.38 ± 14.27 and 26.85 ± 17.13% (back and 17.42 ± 12.22% and 30.70 ± 19.80% (pinna. Although not appropriate to maintain successive generations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, rabbits can be used for di:erent stages of engorgement of the ixodid, allowing experimental studies.Com objetivo de viabilizar o uso de coelhos como hospedeiros alternativos do carrapato bovino, foram infestados quatro coelhos nas orelhas e no dorso. A partir do segundo dia da infestação, foram observados os estágios de desenvolvimento dos carrapatos. A duração do ingurgitamento e muda larval foi estimada entre seis e oito dias na região do dorso e entre cinco e sete dias no pavilhão auricular. O ingurgitamento e muda ninfal ocorreram em aproximadamente, 10,80 ± 2,65 dias na região dorsal e 11,00 ± 2,52 dias no pavilhão auricular; e o ingurgitamento e cópula dos adultos ocorreu em 7,03 ± 2,45 dias, na região do dorso e em 8,55 ± 1,82 dias na região do pavilhão auricular . O período parasitário variou de 21 a 29 dias (dorso e de 23 a 30 dias (pavilhão auricular
Effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) on the reproductive parameters of a field population of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus on experimentally infested cattle.
Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Cruz, André Cayeiro; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José
The current study assessed the deleterious effects of two formulations of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg fluazuron and a combination of 3.0 mg/kg fluazuron + 0.5 mg/kg abamectin) on the reproductive parameters of engorged Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus females that naturally detached from experimentally infested cattle in two experiments. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) showed deleterious effects only on the hatchability percentage in the period of 2-7 post-treatment days of this ectoparasite's engorged females. On the other hand, the fluazuron (3.0 mg/kg) + abamectin (0.5 mg/kg) combination presented harmful effects over reproductive parameters of this tick species. Further studies should be performed with a known tick population (reference susceptible strain) to determine the effect of these formulations on the reproductive parameters and to elucidate if this field population is fluazuron resistant. PMID:24837997
In the present work, the potential of acaricidal activity of chamomile flowers' extract was studied against engorged Rhipicephalus annulatus tick under laboratory condition. For this purpose, the engorged females of Rhipicephalus annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0% and 8.0%) using "dipping method" in vitro. The engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (five ticks for each dilution) for 1 min and they were immediately incubated in separate Petri dishes for each replicate at 26 ℃ and 80% relative humidity. Mortality rate for each treatment was recorded 5 d after incubation.The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of chamomile flowers' extract ranged from 6.67% to 26.7%, whereas no mortality was recorded for non-treated control group. The mass of produced eggs varied from 0.23 g (in 8.0% solution) to 0.58 g (in control), with no statistical differences between the treatments and control (P＞0.05). Also the chamomile flowers' extract in highest concentration used (8.0%) caused 46.67% failure in egg laying in engorged females while no failure was observed for non-treated control group. Macroscopic observations indicated that in effective concentrations of plant (4.0% and 8.0%), patchy hemorrhagic swelling appeared on the skin of treated ticks. The results presented for the first time in this study imply that chamomile may be considered as a promising plant for biocontrol of cattle fever tick disease in the field condition.
As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)
de la Fuente, José; Contreras, Marinela
Ticks and tick-borne diseases are a growing problem affecting human and animal health worldwide. Traditional control methods, based primarily on chemical acaricides, have proven not to be sustainable because of the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks. Tick vaccines appear to be a promising and effective alternative for control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. The purpose of this review is to summarize previous tick vaccine development and performance and formulate critical issues and recommendations for future directions for the development of improved and effective tick vaccines. The development of effective screening platforms and algorithms using omics approaches focused on relevant biological processes will allow the discovery of new tick-protective antigens. Future vaccines will likely combine tick antigens with different protective mechanisms alone or pathogen-derived antigens. The application of tick vaccines as a part of integrated control strategies will ultimately result in the control of tick-borne diseases. PMID:26289976
Reck, José; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Webster, Anelise; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Scheffer, Ramon; Souza, Ugo Araújo; Corassini, Vivian Bamberg; Vargas, Rafael; dos Santos, Julsan Silveira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza
The control of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is based mainly on the use of chemical acaricides, which has contributed to the emerging problem of selection of resistant tick populations. Currently, there are six main classes of acaricides commercially available in Brazil to control cattle ticks, with fluazuron, a tick growth regulator with acaricidal properties, being the only active ingredient with no previous reports of resistance. Ticks (designated the Jaguar strain) were collected in a beef cattle ranch located at Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil, after a complaint of fluazuron treatment failure. To characterise the resistance of this strain against acaricides, larval tests were performed and showed that the Jaguar strain was resistant to all of the drugs tested: cypermethrin (resistance ratio, RR=31.242), chlorpyriphos (RR=103.926), fipronil (RR=4.441), amitraz (RR=11.907) and ivermectin (3.081). A field trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fluazuron treatment in heifers that had been experimentally infested with the Jaguar or a susceptible strain. Between 14 and 28 days after treatment, the average efficacy in cattle experimentally infested with the susceptible strain was 96%, while for the Jaguar strain the efficacy was zero. Additionally, the Jaguar strain response to fluazuron was evaluated in vitro using a modified adult immersion test (AIT) and the artificial feeding assay (AFA). With the AIT, 50 ppm of fluazuron inhibited 99% of larvae hatching in the susceptible strain (POA) and less than 50% in the Jaguar strain. Results of the AFA showed a larval hatching rate of 67% at 2.5 ppm of fluazuron with the Jaguar strain; conversely, only 3% of larvae of the susceptible strain hatched at the same fluazuron concentration. The results showed here demonstrated the first case of fluazuron resistance in R. microplus and the first tick population resistant to six classes of acaricides in Brazil. PMID:24560364
João Ricardo Martins
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência de formas epimastigotas de um tripanosomatideo na hemolinfa do carrapato do bovino Boophilus microplus no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Evidências morfológicas sugerem tratar-se de Trypanosoma theileri , espécie descrita como não patogênica aos bovinos e que usualmente é transmitida por tabanídeos.Findings of epimastigotes forms of a tripanosomatide is reported in the hemolymph of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Morphological evidences suggest they are similar to Trypanosoma theileri, a species described as non pathogenic to cattle, and usually transmitted by tabanids.
Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto
The Cerrado is Brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the Amazon rainforest. The Cerrado Biome of tropical South America covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The Cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. Information about ticks from the Cerrado biome is scarce. In this report tick species free-living, on domestic animals and on a few wild animals in two farms in the Cerrado biome (Nova Crixás and Araguapaz municipalities, Goiás State, Brazil) are described. Amblyomma cajennense was the first and Amblyomma parvum the second host-seeking tick species found. Only two other tick species were found free-living: one Amblyomma nodosum and three Amblyomma naponense nymphs. Cattle were infested with Boophilus microplus and A. cajennense. Buffalos were infested with B. microplus and A. parvum. Dogs were infested with A. cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, A. parvum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Anocentor nitens, B. microplus, A. cajennense, and A. parvum were found on horses. Amblyomma auricularium were found attached to nine-banded armadillos and Amblyomma rotundatum to red-footed tortoise, cururu toads and a rattlesnake. The latter was also infested with an adult A. cajennense. No tick was found on a goat, a tropical rat snake and a yellow armadillo. Among the observations the infestation of several domestic animals with A. parvum seems be the main feature. It suggests that this species might become a pest. However, the life cycle of A. parvum in nature, as well as its disease vectoring capacity, are largely unknown. It would be important to determine if it is a species expanding its geographic range by adaptation to new hosts or if it has been maintained in high numbers at definite locations by
Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes
Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.
Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)
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Carlos Henrique Miguita
Full Text Available Chemical investigation of Guarea kunthiana fruits, guided by their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus—a major economic problem to the livestock industry worldwide—led to isolation of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol, a new protolimonoid, from the bioactive hexane phase obtained by partitioning the crude ethanol extract. An adult immersion test was performed. The compound strongly inhibited egg-laying and hatchability (99.2% effectiveness at a 0.01% concentration. Melianone, isolated from the same phase, yielded unremarkable results in the adult immersion test. From the dichloromethane phase, melianol, melianodiol, meliantriol, and a new protolimonoid, 3β-O-tigloylmeliantriol, were isolated, all of which, in the same manner as melianone, exhibited unremarkable results in the test. The structures of new and known compounds were mostly established by 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses and mass spectrometry data. This is the first report on the bioactivity of protolimonoids on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of R. (B. microplus. 3β-O-Tigloylmelianol proved a promising candidate for the development of a biocontrol agent against the cattle tick investigated, as an alternative to environmentally hazardous synthetic acaricides.
Lohmeyer, K H; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; Klavons, J A
A gel formulation formed by incorporating technical doramectin into a 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose aqueous solution was used to subcutaneously inject steers at varying dosages. Doramectin serum concentration of steers receiving 600 microg (AI)/kg body weight declined from 21.9 ppb at 0.5 wk to below detectable at 8 wk postinjection. The 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection resulted in serum concentrations of 29.1 ppb at 0.5 wk and declined to 0.5 ppb at 8 wk postinjection. Both the 600 and 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injections provided 100% inhibition of index of fecundity (IF) in adult lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum L. (Acari: Ixodidae) through week 8, after which inhibition declined to 79.4 and 45.3%, respectively, during the 12th week posttreatment. For steers treated at 600 microg (AI)/kg, mortality of adult horn flies, Hematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), declined from 16.9% during week 2 to 3.1% during week 7 postinjection. The blood from steers treated at 1,200 microg (AI)/kg resulted in a similar decline in mortality of blood fed adult horn flies from 29.4% during week 1 to 4.0% during week 7. The 600 microg (AI)/kg treatment provided complete control of larval horn flies in the manure for 9 wk, whereas the 1,200 microg (AI)/kg injection gave complete control for 14 wk posttreatment. The doramectin gel formulation provided long-lasting delivery of doramectin to cattle and extended control of lone star ticks and larval horn flies. Such a simple and inexpensive formulation could be useful in tick eradication programs by reducing the frequency of gathering cattle. PMID:19449664
KİRECCİ, Ekrem; Özer, Ali; BALKAYA, İbrahim; TANIŞ, Hüseyin; DEVECİ, Sümeyra
Abstract: This study was made to identify the tick types causing infestation in tortoises living in orchards in the city centre of Kahramanmaraş and the microorganisms they carried. Eighty-four tortoises were included in the study. Species determination of ticks collected from animals in which infestation was seen and their microbiological analyses were conducted. Species determination of 272 ticks on 60 of 84 (71.4%) tortoises taken for the study was made. The tick supernatants were us...
Perceptions and attitudes among milk producers in Minas Gerais regarding cattle tick biology and control Percepções e atitudes entre produtores de leite em Minas Gerais relacionado a biologia e controle de carrapatos em bovinos
Maria Alice Zacarias do Amaral
Full Text Available This study evaluates milk producers' knowledge regarding cattle ticks and practices for controlling them. Ninety-three dairymen in Minas Gerais were interviewed. These producers had no information regarding acaricide efficiency tests. To analyze the information, open responses were categorized through "content analysis", and descriptive analysis consisting of extracting the profile highlighted by the highest frequencies. The association between schooling level and knowledge was tested by means of chi-square trend tests. It was observed that 92.3% had no knowledge of the non-parasitic period. For 96.4%, what determined the time to apply treatment was the degree of tick infestation; 93.3% used spray guns to apply the acaricide. In seeking to cross-correlate the biological and control variables with education, cooperative action, length of experience and herd size, it was found that there was a linear association between schooling level and implementation of acaricide solution preparation. The other factors didn't show any significant association. These data demonstrated the need to instruct the producers in relation to the biology and control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. It was concluded that the majority of milk producers were unaware of cattle tick biology and the factors that influence choosing an acaricide, which makes it difficult to implement strategic control.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o conhecimento dos produtores de leite sobre o carrapato dos bovinos e seu controle. Foram entrevistados 93 produtores de leite de Minas Gerais. Estes produtores não tinham informação sobre testes de eficiência de carrapaticidas e controle de carrapatos. Foi testada associação entre a escolaridade e as práticas e conhecimento sobre os carrapatos e constatou-se que 92,3% dos produtores nada sabiam sobre o período não-parasitário. Para 96,4%, o que determinava o momento do tratamento era o grau de infestação de carrapatos; e 93
Luis E Fazzio; Nicolas Yacachury; Walter R. Galvan; Elias Peruzzo; Sánchez, Ricardo O.; Eduardo J.Gimeno
The aim was to evaluate for 75 days the impact on production of the remaining burden of ivermectin (IVM)-resistant parasites in naturally infected feedlot calves. The herds came from tick-infested areas of cattle breeding where the systematic use of IVM to control tick increases the gastrointestinal parasites resistant to this drug. This investigation was carried out in two commercial feedlots in Buenos Aires province. In feedlot A, two groups of 35 animal each received IVM 1% and the other r...
J. Olivares-Pérez*, S. Rojas-Hernández, M.T. Valencia-Almazan, I. Gutiérrez-Segura and E.J. Míreles-Martínez
Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to the cattle industry worldwide. The prevalence of resistant strains of Rhipicephalus microplus to different acaricides on cattle farms in the tropical region of Tecpan of Galeana, Guerrero, Mexico, and risk factors related to prevalence of resistant strains of R. microplus. Sixty one ranches infested were sampled; in each ranch were collected 30-50 fully-engorged female R. microplus ticks, of 10 cattle randomly selected, and evaluated in their progeny resistance to acaricides, using the larval packet test. The prevalence of resistant strains was total pyrethroids and amitraz. In organophosphorus 31.1, 48.3 and 82.2% of strains were resistant to clorpyriphos, coumaphos and diazinon, respectively. Risk factors favored (P<0.05 the development of resistant strains of acaricides. We concluded that the resistance of R. microplus to acaricides used to control a problem, and risk factors (livestock management have accelerated the development of resistance.
... Images Lyme disease, erythema migrans Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Deer and dog ...
Full Text Available The tortoise tick Amblyomma marmoreum was collected from large numbers of reptiles and other animals during the course of numerous surveys conducted in South Africa. A total of 1 229 ticks, of which 550 were adults, were recovered from 309 reptiles belonging to 13 species, with leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis being the most heavily infested. The 269 birds sampled harboured 4 901 larvae, 217 nymphs and no adult ticks, and the prevalence of infestation was greatest on hel meted guinea fowls, Numida meleagris. Only two larvae were recovered from 610 rodents, including 31 spring hares, Pedetes capensis, whereas 1 144 other small mammals yielded 1 835 immature ticks, of which 1 655 were collected from 623 scrub hares, Lepus saxatilis. The 213 carnivores examined harboured 2 459 ticks of which none were adult. A single adult tick and 6 684 larvae and 62 nymphs were recovered from 656 large herbivores, and a total of 4 081 immature ticks and three adults were collected from 1 543 domestic animals and 194 humans. Adult male and female A. marmoreum were most numerous on reptiles during January and February, and larvae during March. The largest numbers of larvae were present on domestic cattle and helmeted guineafowls in the Eastern Cape Province during March or April respectively, whereas larvae were most numerous on helmeted guineafowls, scrub hares and the vegetation in north-eastern Mpumalanga Province during May. In both provinces nymphs were most numerous between October and December. Amblyomma marmoreum appears to be most prevalent in the western regions of the Western and Eastern Cape and Free State provinces, and the north-eastern regions of the Northern Cape, KwaZulu- Natal, Mpumulanga and Limpopo provinces.
Full Text Available Background:The distribution and preferences of ticks of animals in central of Iran were studied four times a year. Methods: One thousand seven tick specimens were collected from different localities including Isfahan, Chaharmahalbakhtiary, EastAzarbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Kordestan, Kermanshah, Lorestan and Fars. Results: Most of sampled animals in this area were infested. We also encountered with a wild goat (Capra hircus aegagrus in Kolah Qazi national park in this part that was infested intensively by Boophilus kohlsi. Fifteen ixodid tick species were identified over the study period from cattle, sheep and domestic and wild goats namely B. kohlsi (3.6% Rhipicephalus sanguineus (4.5%, Rh.bursa (21.9%, Rh.turanicus (2.9%, Dermacentor niveus (12.9%, D.raskemensis (4.1%, D.marginatus (7.3%, Haemaphysalis punctata (3.5%, H. Parva (0.6%, H. Choldokovskyi (2%, Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum (4.8%, H.anatolicum anatolicum (5.2%, H. asiaticum asiaticum (7.3%, H. marginatum marginatum (13%, and H. detritum detritum (5.9%. The only soft tick found was Ornithodoros canestrinii which occurred in all localities of Isfahan Province but with significant differences in abundance. Clear pattern of seasonality was evident for this species and it was generally present from November to March, while ixodid ticks were present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult ixodid ticks were generally present from April to August. Conclusion: The results showed that Rh.bursa, D.niveus and H.marginatum marginatum are dominant tick species
Fernanda Carlini Cunha dos Santos
Full Text Available The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an ectoparasite which causes high financial losses to the production of Brazilian cattle. The control of this parasite is accomplished by the administration of chemical products, but they are not adequately used, leading to high costs and stimulating the selection of resistant parasites. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to assess the in vitro efficiency of different formulations containing an association of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, Santa Maria herb (Chenopodium ambrosioides and quassia (Quassia amara tinctures on the bovine tick R. microplus. For this, engorged females of the parasite were submitted to the laboratory immersion test. The solutions containing all three plants were tested in different concentrations. Approximately 84% of the treatments presented efficiency equal or superior to 95%. The treatments with citronella in concentration equal or superior to 5% showed better results and the concentration of 10% showed maximum efficiency, independently of the concentrations of the other two plants. The high efficiency of the solutions was attributed mainly to the reduction of egg laying and hatching rate, and, in a minor scale, to death of the engorged females. It suggests that the phytotherapic solutions are able to induce alterations on the system and reproductive capacity of the females of R. microplus in in vitro tests, besides presenting a tickicide action.
孙明; 王淑芳; 王多全; 杨永彪; 马超
[目的]了解甘肃省武威市蜱和蜱媒病的种类和分布情况，便于建立牛、羊等草食家畜疫病的科学防控模式。[方法]通过布旗法、家畜体表捕捉法与分子生物学方法，对武威市所辖的4个县（区）进行了蜱传播疫病及其传播媒介的流行病学调查。[结果]在全市41个乡镇均发现有蜱的存在，主要以硬蜱属为主，但也发现有软蜱属；全市各县区均发现有梨形虫的感染。[结论]蜱在武威市分布广泛，该地区的蜱媒病感染情况也比较严重；软蜱属的发现增大了外来动物疫病的感染风险；威武地区需加强对蜱及蜱媒病危害和防控的认识，采取以灭蜱和杀灭病畜体内病原相结合的方法，来控制虫媒病的传播。%s:[Objective] To understand the tick species and tick-borne diseases, as to establish animal disease prevention and control model for herbivores such as cattle and sheep in Wuwei city.[Methods] Epidemiological investigation for tick-borne diseases and the vectors was conducted by methods of cloth flag, capture surface ticks of livestock body, and molecular biology in 41 counties within Wuwei city.[Results] the investigation showed that there were dominant hard ticks and some soft ticks distribution, and infestation of Piroplasmosis in all 41 counties of Wuwei City.[Conclusion] Ticks were widely distributed and infestations of tick-borne diseases were serious; the existed ticks increased the risk of infection of exotic animal diseases; the awareness of the risks and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases should be raised, and the spread of the tick-borne diseases should be controlled by combination of killing ticks and inactivating pathogens within infected animals.
Antunes, S.; Galindo, R. C.; Almazán, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Shkap, V.; do Rosário, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Domingos, A.
Roč. 42, č. 2 (2012), s. 187-195. ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Genomics * Babesia * Rhipicephalus * Boophilus * RNA interference * Vaccine Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000033
Redondo, M; Fragoso, H; Ortíz, M; Montero, C; Lona, J; Medellín, J A; Fría, R; Hernández, V; Franco, R; Machado, H; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Throughout most of the twentieth century, tick infestations on cattle have been controlled with chemical acaricides, typically administered by dipping or spraying. This approach can cause environmental and residue problems and has created a high incidence of acaricide resistance within tick populations in the field. Recently we developed a vaccine against Boophilus microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 antigen preparation (Gavac), (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba) which has been shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals. Here we show for the first time under field conditions a near 100% control of B. microplus populations resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates, by an integrated system employing vaccination with Gavac and amidine treatments. This method effectively controls tick infestations while reducing the number of chemical acaricide treatments and consequently the rise of B. microplus populations resistant to chemical acaricides. PMID:10581714
Clair Jorge Olivo
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito in vitro e in vivo do óleo de eucalipto (Corymbia citriodora sobre o carrapato bovino (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Na experimentação in vitro, foi utilizado o grupo controle negativo e oito concentrações de óleo de eucalipto (0,5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%, em fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 30,5; 75,5; 91; 100; 100; 100; 100 e 100%, respectivamente. Para a experimentação in vivo, foram constituídos três grupos (controle negativo; óleo de eucalipto a 3,5% - nível estimado mediante análise de regressão, correspondendo a 95% de eficácia de controle do carrapato da pesquisa in vitro e amitraz a 0,025%, com dezoito vacas da raça Holandesa. Antes (média dos dias -3, -2,-1 e após a aplicação do produto (1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21dias, foram contadas fêmeas ingurgitadas de carrapato. A eficácia de controle foi de 0; 96,4 e 69%, respectivamente, 21 dias após o tratamento. Na 1ª e na 2ª ordenha após a aplicação dos tratamentos, foram avaliadas variáveis fisiológicas e coletadas amostras de leite para avaliar as propriedades organolépticas no leite e no iogurte (controle negativo x tratamento fitoterápico. O teste de aceitação sensorial do leite e das variáveis fisiológicas avaliadas foram similares entre os tratamentos.This research was aimed at evaluating in vitro and in vivo effects of eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora oil on cattle ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. Negative control group and eight concentrations of eucalyptus oil (0.5; 1; 2; 5; 10; 20; 50; 100%, were used on in vitro trials with engorged female ticks. The efficacy of control ticks was 0; 30.5; 75.5; 91; 100; 100; 100; 100 and 100%, respectively. At the in vivo trial eighteen Holstein cows were allocated to three groups (negative control, eucalyptus oil at 3.5% - level estimated by regression analysis, accounting for 95% efficacy of
Turnbull, I F; Smith, D R; Sharp, P. J.; Cobon, G S; Hynes, M J
A cell surface glycoprotein (Bm86) from cells of the digestive tract of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, which has been shown to elicit a protective immunological response in vaccinated cattle, was expressed and secreted in the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger by using the fungal amdS promoter system. The cloned gene coded for the Bm86 secretory signal and all of the Bm86 mature polypeptide except for the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal segment. High levels of Bm8...
V.N. Belozerov; D.J. van Niekerk; H. J.B. Butler
During winter populations of Argas arboreus from heronries of the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, in South Africa are composed of adults, with some predominance of males, and II-IV instar nymphs, in a state of diapause. The period of tick activity, including reproduction and development of eggs, larvae and N1 nymphs, is synchronized with the nesting and breeding season of their avian hosts. It begins during spring with the return of birds to the heronry, and ceases in autumn through inducti...
Maritz-Olivier, Christine; van Zyl, Willem; Stutzer, Christian
In the post-genomic era, reverse vaccinology is proving promising in the development of vaccines against bacterial and viral diseases, with limited application in ectoparasite vaccine design. In this study, we present a systematic approach using a combination of functional genomics (DNA microarrays) techniques and a pipeline incorporating in silico prediction of subcellular localization and protective antigenicity using VaxiJen for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. A total of 791 candidates were identified using this approach, of which 176 are membrane-associated and 86 secreted soluble proteins. A preliminary analysis on the antigenicity of selected membrane proteins using anti-gut antisera yielded candidates with an IgG binding capacity greater than previously identified epitopes of Bm86. Subsequent vaccination trials using recombinant proteins will not only validate this approach, but will also improve subsequent reverse vaccinology approaches for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. PMID:22521592
Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Lutz, Hans; Braun, Ueli
A total of 1,523 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from regions where bovine ehrlichiosis is endemic and were examined for Ehrlichia phagocytophila via PCR. Of the ticks from cattle with ehrlichiosis, the ticks from healthy cattle, and the free-living ticks, 26.5% (18 of 68), 4.4% (35 of 802), and 0.8% (5 of 653), respectively, were positive.
Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT. Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20% with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05. The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.
... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...
de Vos, S; Zeinstra, L; Taoufik, O; Willadsen, P; Jongejan, F
The Bm86 antigen, as originally identified in Boophilus microplus, is the basis of commercial tick vaccines against this tick species. The potential for using this antigen or homologues of the antigen in vaccination against other tick species has been assessed. We have conducted vaccine trials in cattle using the B. microplus-derived recombinant Bm86 vaccine (TickGARD) using pairs of vaccinated calves and control calves. These were infested with B. microplus and Boophilus decoloratus larvae simultaneously. For both species, the numbers of engorged female adult ticks, their weight and egg-laying capacity were all reduced, leading to a reduction in reproductive capacity of 74% for B. microplus and 70% for B. decoloratus. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were fed both as immatures as well as adults on vaccinated calves and non-vaccinated controls. There was an overall 50% reduction in the total weight of nymphs engorging on vaccinated calves, and a suggestion of a subsequent effect on feeding adults. For Hyalomma dromedarii there was a 95% reduction in the number of nymphs engorging and a further 55% reduction in weight of those ticks surviving. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Amblyomma variegatum ticks were fed simultaneously both as immatures and subsequently as adults. There was no evidence for a significant vaccination effect. Finally, the amino acid sequence of a Bm86 homologue found in H. a. anatolicum unequivocally demonstrated the conservation of this molecule in this species. Our strategy for the development of multivalent anti-tick vaccines is discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:11523920
Canales, Mario; Almazán, Consuelo; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José
The surface display of heterologous proteins on live Escherichia coli using anchoring motifs from outer membranes proteins has impacted on many areas of biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. The Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) contains N-terminal surface-exposed repeated peptides (28-289 amino acids) that are involved in pathogen interaction with host cell receptors and is surface-displayed when the recombinant protein is expressed in E. coli. Therefore, it was predicted that MSP1a would surface display on E. coli peptides inserted in the N-terminal repeats region of the protein. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 glycoproteins are homologous proteins that protect cattle against tick infestations. In this study, we demonstrated that a recombinant protein comprising tick BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the A. marginale MSP1a N-terminal region is displayed on the E. coli surface and is recognized by anti-BM86 and anti-MSP1a antibodies. This system provides a novel approach to the surface display of heterologous antigenic proteins on live E. coli and suggests the possibility to use the recombinant bacteria for immunization studies against cattle tick infestations. PMID:18582976
Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993
Use of biotherapic in the control of the natural infestation by Boophilus microplus: pilot study Uso de bioterÃƒÂ¡pico en el control de la infestaciÃƒÂ³n natural por Boophilus microplus: estudio piloto
Laerte Francisco Filippsen; JosÃƒÂ© Luiz Moletta; Nilceu Lemos Silva; Alessandro Pelegrine Minho
In the control of tick-borne disease (TBD), resistance to chemical products has been reported and a concern with the preservation of the environment requires alternative procedures to control infestation by Boophilus microplus worldwide. The use of biotherapic preparations is one of such alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a biotherapic mixture including B. microplus in naturally infested cattle. 27 animals were divided in 3 groups (n=9): I Ã¢â‚¬â€œ control, re...
Vera Lúcia Sardá Ribeiro
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar as espécies de carrapatos que parasitam os cães da área urbana de Porto Alegre e conhecer suas prevalências nesta população. Para isso, foram examinados 450 cães de rua de Porto Alegre, colhidos os carrapatos nos animais infestados e estes identificados ao estereomicroscópio por espécie e por estágio. Dentre os animais examinados, 52,44% albergavam carrapatos e destes, 93,22% estavam parasitados por Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 2,97% por Amblyomma aureolatum e 3,81% pelas duas espécies simultaneamente. Do total de carrapatos colhidos, a espécie mais abundante nos animais foi R. sanguineus representando 99,43% desse total; foram encontrados ínstares de todos os estágios parasitários de R. sanguineus e só do estágio adulto de A.aureolatum.The purpose of this study was to identify and to know the prevalence of ticks recovered from dogs of urban area of Porto Alegre, RS. Four hundred and fifty stray dogs were examined and the ticks found were identified according to the species and parasitic stage. A percentage of 52.44% of those dogs were infested with ticks, among these, 93.22% were parasitized by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 2.97% by Amblyomma aureolatum and 3.81% by both species. R. sanguineus was the more prevalent species among infested animals representing 99.43% of the total number of ticks sampled. All parasitic stages of R. sanguineus were present on the stray dogs but only the adult stage of A. aureolatum was found.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the ‘acaricidal effect' of Zataria multiflora and Artemisia annua essential oils on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus.Methods: This study was carried out in 2009 in the Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Shahrekord University, west central Iran. Six dilutions (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µL/cm3 of both essential oils were used against engorged female R. (Boophilus annulatus ticks using an in vitro immersion method. The mortality rates for each treatment were recorded 6, 15 and 24 hours post inoculation (hpi. Mortality rate was analyzed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, and comparison of means was carried out using General Linear Models Procedure.Results: The mortality rate caused by different dilutions of Z. multiflora essential oil ranged from 26.6% (using 10 µL/cm3 to 100% (using 40 µL/cm3 and for A. annua essential oil it was 33.2 to 100% (using 20 and 80 µL/cm3, respectively by the end of the experiment (36 hpi. No mortality was recorded for the non-treated control group or for dilutions less than 5 and 10 µL/cm3 using Zataria and Artemisia essential oils, respectively. For Z. multiflora mortality peaked at 15 hpi for all concentrations other than 20 µL/cm3 and took 24 h to achieve its maximum effect while for A. annua the two highest concentrations needed 24 hpi to reach their full effect. In addition, essential oils applied at more than 20 and 60 µL/cm3 caused 100% egg-laying failure in engorged female ticks by Zataria and Artemisia, respectively while no failure was observed for the non-treated control group. The mortality rate in both botanical acaricides was dose-dependent.Conclusion: Both these medicinal plants have high potential acaricidal effects on the engorged stage of R. (Boophilus annulatus in vitro.
Among approximately 670 tick species in the world, the southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and the black-legged tick Ixodes scapularis received the most attention in the United States due to their roles as the vectors of disease agents affecting cattle and humans, respectively. ...
Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.
The redwood chipmunk contributes to the maintenance of tick-borne diseases in northern California. The range of redwood chipmunks overlaps that of western black-legged ticks and tick-borne disease, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme borreliosis. Chipmunks have high Anaplasma phagocytophilum PCR- and seroprevalence, are infested with a diversity of Ixodes spp. ticks, and are reservoir competent for Borrelia burgdorferi. We hypothesized that chipmunks could maintain tick-borne disease...
Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Shahein, Yasser E.; Hussein, Nahla; Khan, Rizwan H.
Electrostatic interaction plays an important role in protein aggregation phenomenon. In this study, we have checked the effect of anionic - Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and cationic-Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) surfactant on aggregation behavior of Ra-sHSPI, a small heat shock protein purified from Rhipicephalus annulatus tick. To monitor the effect of these surfactants, we have employed several spectroscopic methods such as Rayleigh light scattering measurements, ANS (8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid) fluorescence measurements, ThT (Thioflavin T) binding assays, Far-UV CD (Circular Dichroism) and dynamic light scattering measurements. In the presence of anionic surfactant-SDS, Ra-sHSPI forms amyloid fibrils, in contrast, no amyloid formation was observed in presence of cationic surfactant at low pH. Enhancement of ANS fluorescence intensity confirms the exposition of more hydrophobic patches during aggregation. ThT binding assay confirms the amyloid fibrillar nature of the SDS induced Ra-sHSPI aggregates and supported by PASTA 2.0 (prediction of amyloid structural aggregation) software. This study demonstrates the crucial role of charge during amyloid fibril formation at low pH in Ra-sHSPI.
Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto® in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP. Methods 232 (IVP and 81 (CP cats and 271(IVP and 129 (CP dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP + 47 (CP cats and 197 (IVP + 94 (CP dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%. Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7% throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%. The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in
Rubaire-Akiiki, C.; J.Okello-Onen; G.W. Nasinyama; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E. K.; W. Mwayi; Musunga, D.; Wandukwa, W.
Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-preva...
Utech, K B; Wharton, R H
Breeding for resistance to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was undertaken in a herd of Australian Illawarra Shorthorn (AIS) cattle from 1961 to 1978 and in a herd of Braham x AIS cattle from 1970 to 1979. Breeder cows and their progeny were assessed for tick resistance during October to January. Resistance levels were determined as the average percentage mortality of female ticks from two artificial infestations with cohorts of c 20,000 larvae. Resistance increased from 89.2% to 99% in the AIS breeding herd, as a result of the yearly introductions of more resistant individuals and culling of less resistant ones. Concurrently resistance in the AIS progeny increased from 93.7% to 97.7%, thus demonstrating that the selection and breeding of the cows and bulls resulted in genetic improvement in the resistance of the progeny. Milk production tests on heifers from the selected AIS herd during 1975 to 79 indicated that selection for tick resistance did not select against milk production. Resistance of the Brahman x AIS increased from 98.4% to 99.3% in the breeding herd and from 97.6% to 99.6% in the progeny. Female calves of both breeds were more resistant than males. PMID:7082236
Masood Akhtar*, Faqir Muhammad, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi, Iftikhar Hussain and M. Irfan Anwar1
Full Text Available Tick and tick borne diseases cause many problems to man and domestic animals world wide. These problems are most closely associated with domestic animals in tropical and subtropical areas around the globe. Currently tick control depends largely on the use of different chemicals. But the development of resistance against commonly available acaricides has created problem in this regard and animal population is becoming susceptible to both the ticks and diseases they transmit, with disastrous outcomes. The ability of manipulating organisms on molecular level and recent advancement in immunological procedures has provided alternatives for tick control. The objective of this review is to update/summarize the recent advances in the development of immunity against tick infestation in animals.
S. Ghosh, P. Azhahianambi & M.P. Yadav
Ticks are distributed worldwide and significantly impact human and animal health. Due to severeproblems associated with the continuous use of acaricides on animals, integrated tick management isrecommended. Increasing public health concern over the tick-borne diseases demands the strategiccontrol of ticks on animals that transmit diseases to human beings. Immunological control of tickvector of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) on cattle and other wild reservoir hosts is one of thepossible alterna...
Laupland, Kevin B; Louis Valiquette
Summary: This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a trul...
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size
González, Luis J; Cremata, José A; Guanche, Yazmín; Ramos, Yassel; Triguero, Ada; Cabrera, Gleysin; Montesino, Raquel; Huerta, Vivian; Pons, Tirso; Boué, Oscar; Farnós, Omar; Rodríguez, Manuel
Bm95 is an antigen isolated from Boophilus microplus strains with low susceptibility to antibodies developed in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant Bm86 antigen (Gavac, HeberBiotec S.A., Cuba). It is a Bm86-like surface protein, which by similarity contains seven EGF-like domains and a lipid-binding GPI-anchor site at the C-terminal region. The primary structure of the recombinant (rBm95) protein expressed in Pichia pastoris was completely verified by LC/MS. The four potential glycosylation sites (Asn 122, 163, 329, and 363) are glycosylated partially with short N-glycans, from Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to Man(9)GlcNAc(2) of which, Man(8-9)GlcNAc(2) were the most abundant. O-Glycopeptides are distributed mostly towards the protein N-terminus. While the first N-glycosylated site (Asn(122)) is located between EGF-like domains 2 and 3, where the O-glycopeptides were found, two other N-glycosylated sites (Asn(329) and Asn(363)) are located between EGF-like domains 5 and 6, a region devoid of O-glycosylated Ser or Thr. PMID:15542059
Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael
Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531
Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência da Piroplasmose equina e sua associação com infestação por carrapatos no Estado de São Paulo
Claudia E. Kerber
Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for B. caballi or T. equi as a function of the independent variables (presence or abundance of each one of the tick species found on the farms. A higher overall prevalence of B. caballi (54.1% than of T. equi (21.6% was found by the two tests. The ticks Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 were present on horses on 38 (95%, 20 (50%, and 4 (10% farms, respectively. Infestations by D. nitens were statistically associated with B. caballi-positive horses on the farms by either the CFT or cELISA. Infestations by A. cajennense were statistically associated with T. equi-positive horses on the farms by either CFT or cELISA.Amostras de soro sanguineo foram coletadas de 582 equinos de 40 haras no estado de São Paulo, onde as infestações por carrapatos foram avaliadas nos animais. Os soros foram testados por reação de fixação do complemento (RFC e ELISA competitivo por inibição (cELISA com antígenos de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para construir modelos multivariados que pudessem explicar as variáveis dependentes (equinos positivos para B. caballi ou T. equi em função de variáveis independentes (presença e abundância de cada uma das espécies de carrapatos encontradas nos equinos dos haras. Em geral, os dois testes sorológicos indicaram uma prevalência maior para B. caballi (54,1% do que para T. equi (21,6%. Os carrapatos Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897
Rodríguez, M; Penichet, M L; Mouris, A E; Labarta, V; Luaces, L L; Rubiera, R; Cordovés, C; Sánchez, P A; Ramos, E; Soto, A
Current methods for the control of cattle tick Boophilus microplus infestations are not effective and the parasite remains a serious problem for the cattle industry in tropical and subtropical areas. Recently, we developed a vaccine against B. microplus employing a recombinant Bm86 (rBm86) antigen preparation (Gavac, Heber Biotec) and it was shown to induce a protective response in vaccinated animals under controlled conditions. Here we show that, under field conditions in grazing cattle, the vaccine is able to control B. microplus populations. Two parasite-free farms were employed for the study. In the first farm, animals were vaccinated with the recombinant vaccine, while, in the second, animals received a saline injection in adjuvant. After immunization, animals were artificially infected and the infestation rate was recorded. Over the 33 weeks of the experiment, the infestation rate was lower in the vaccinated group compared with the control group. At the end of the experiment it was necessary to use chemicals in the control farm after serious losses in production and animals. PMID:7660571
Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge
In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the
Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan
Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus. PMID:26847630
Horak, I G; McKay, I.J.; B.T. Henen; Heloise Heyne; Margaretha D. Hofmeyer; A.L. De Villiers
A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven speci...
Ramani, N; K. Prakasan
Considering the lacunae of knowledge on the tick fauna of Kerala, South India, a three year study was carried out to understand the species diversity, distribution pattern and systematic details of the ixodid ticks infesting our domestic animals. Attention was also focussed on the damage symptoms induced by individual tick species to respective host animals including man. During the study period, 3758 host animals representing 12 species and 12 genera were examined for the presence of ticks. ...
Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter
This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol. PMID:19822895
Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90
Ação larvicida de derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+- cânfora e da (+- isopinocanfona sobre o carrapato Boophilus microplus Larvicidal action of (+-camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives on Boophilus microplus cattle tick
Full Text Available Testou-se a atividade larvicida de 33 derivados arilsulfonílicos da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona no carrapato B. microplus, na busca de princípios ativos menos tóxicos para o seu controle. Os produtos foram obtidos por clorossulfonação da (+-cânfora e da (+-isopinocanfona. Eles foram submetidos à solubilização e testados separadamente e em conjunto contra larvas de carrapato encerradas em envelopes contendo papéis impregnados e acondicionadas em estufa climatizada. A mortalidade média não atingiu 5% em todos os testes realizados, indicando que a clorossulfonação não é a rota de síntese mais adequada para a obtenção de derivados sintéticos com efeito larvicida sobre B. microplus. Os 33 produtos testados sob a forma de triagem biológica não podem ser considerados como potenciais acaricidas.It was investigated the acaricidal activity of (+- camphor and (+- isopinocamphone arilsulphonyl derivatives against Boophilus microplus cattle tick. The products were obtained through the camphor and isopinocamphone clorosulfonation. Thirty-three products were submitted to solubilization and tested alone and together, against tick larvae. Ticks were caught in filter paper envelopes impregnated with products, which were incubated under controlled conditions. The average mortality did not reach 5% in all trials, indicating that clorosulfonation is not an appropiate procedure to obtain derivatives with larvicidal effect against B. microplus. The 33 products tested in the biological screening could not be considered as potential acaricides.
Peconick, A P; Sossai, S; Girão, F A; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Souza E Silva, C H; Guzman Q, F; Patarroyo V, A M; Vargas, M I; Patarroyo, J H
The synthetic vaccine SBm7462 is based on three immunogenic epitopes (4822, 4823 and 4824) contained within protein Bm86 derived from the Australian Yeerongpilly strain of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Twenty strains of the tick originating from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Uruguay were analysed in order to identify differences compared with sequences present in components of vaccine SBm7462. For each parasite population, three cDNA fragments containing the nucleotides coding for the epitopes 4822, 4824 and 4823 were sequenced, and the amino acid sequences were deduced and compared with those of the homologous bm86 gene. The results indicate that the epitope sequences of vaccine SBm7462 are conserved in the South American populations of the tick. The conservation of such sequences is very important for the immunological response of different populations of R. (B.) microplus. PMID:18226809
Ruiz Patrícia M Gonçalves
Full Text Available A crude antigenic preparation of Babesia bigemina was used to develop an ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies. Optimal dilutions of the antigen, using positive and negative reference sera, were determined by checkerboard titrations. Negative sera from cattle imported from tick-free areas, serum samples collected from infected B. bigemina cattle were used to validate the test. The specificity was 94% and sensitivity of the Elisa 87.5%. Sera from 385 cattle deriving from areas free from tick-borne diseases, which were submitted to a preimmunization process, were screened by this technique. The Elisa detected seroconversion on the 14th day post-inoculation in animals either infested with Boophilus microplus ticks (infected with B. bigemina, or inoculated with B. bigemina infected blood. Antibody titers decreased after day 33; however, all animals remained positive until the end of the experiment (124 days. The ELISA described may prove to be an appropriate serological test for the detection of IgM antibodies against B. bigemina.
Detección de resistencia a los acaricidas en la garrapata del ganado Boophilus microplus mediante análisis de zimogramas (Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus by zymograms analysis.
Miranda, Miranda, Estefan
Full Text Available La identificación de resistencia a los productos acaricidas en la garrapata B. microplus, se hace mediante un complicado bioensayo, que requiere garrapatas de referencia y de campo cultivadas sobre bovinos vivos y restringidos durante semanas. Con el fin de evaluar una posible alternativa diagnóstica, se hicieron ensayos enzimáticos en geles de poliacrilamida-SDS, usando extractos de larvas de garrapatas provenientes de cuatro cepas de referencia con diferentes niveles de resistencia y susceptibilidad a productos acaricidas. Los ensayos que se diseñaron para detectar las enzimas esterasa, fosfodiesterasa, glutatión peroxidasa y catalasa, fueron procesados como zimogramas en imágenes digitalizadas, a partir de las cuales se obtuvieron sus respectivos densitogramas, valorando las movilidades electroforéticas relativas (Rf, así como las diferentes masas moleculares (MM en miles de Daltons (kDa y actividades enzimáticas específicas (AEE. Se identificó una elevada actividad de esterasa en posición Rf 0.52 con una MM de 47 kDa en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento en AEE del 317 % cuando se compara con las garrapatas susceptibles a los acaricidas. También se identificó una fosfodiesterasa en Rf. 0.1 con MM de 130 kDa presente en las cepas resistentes, con un incremento de AEE del 340% con respecto al nivel basal de la cepa susceptible. Se concluyó que estos ensayos enzimáticos pueden ser utilizados como indicadores de resistencia a los acaricidas en poblaciones de garrapatas aisladas de campo, constituyendo un procedimiento rápido, eficaz y económico, como alternativa al complicado bioensayo actualmente utilizado. Acaricide resistance detection in the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, is achieved by a complex bioassay which requires reference strains of ticks as well as field isolated ticks, cultured on living cattle restrained for weeks. In order to assess an alternate diagnostics procedure, enzymatic assays were performed on
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gavac™ vaccine against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proven its efficacy in a large number of controlled and field experiments. However, this vaccine could be further improved by searching for new alternative adjuvants that would induce a stronger long-lasting immune response. We conducted several experiments to assay the adjuvant effect of fractions of the recombinant yeast Pichia pastoris in mouse and cattle models. In previous experiments, the combination of the yeast membrane with saponin was the most effective formulation in stimulating the humoral immune response in mice, eliciting a response higher than Montanide 888. The response was predominantly of the IgG1 isotype. Here, we evaluated the response in cattle and compared the results with that obtained in mice. Results Bm86 on the membrane of P. pastoris plus saponin produced high antibody titers in cattle, though the protection level against tick infestations was lower when compared to Gavac™, probably due to a decrease in the IgG1/IgG2 ratio. The predictive value of the mouse model was studied through correlation analysis between the isotype levels in mice and the efficacy of formulations in cattle. Good correlation was established between the level of antibodies in mice and cattle, and between the amount of anti -Bm86 IgG1 in mice and the degree of protection in cattle. Conclusion Mouse model have the potential to predict immunogenicity and efficacy of formulations in cattle. These results also support the use of the yeast expression system for recombinant vaccine formulations, enabling the prediction of more cost - effective formulations.
Silva, Fabyano Fonseca; Tunin, Karen P; Rosa, Guilherme J M; da Silva, Marcos V B; Azevedo, Ana Luisa Souza; da Silva Verneque, Rui; Machado, Marco Antonio; Packer, Irineu Umberto
Now a days, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP) may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized) with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr × Holstein) population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable. PMID:22215960
Fabyano Fonseca Silva
Full Text Available Nowadays, an important and interesting alternative in the control of tick-infestation in cattle is to select resistant animals, and identify the respective quantitative trait loci (QTLs and DNA markers, for posterior use in breeding programs. The number of ticks/animal is characterized as a discrete-counting trait, which could potentially follow Poisson distribution. However, in the case of an excess of zeros, due to the occurrence of several noninfected animals, zero-inflated Poisson and generalized zero-inflated distribution (GZIP may provide a better description of the data. Thus, the objective here was to compare through simulation, Poisson and ZIP models (simple and generalized with classical approaches, for QTL mapping with counting phenotypes under different scenarios, and to apply these approaches to a QTL study of tick resistance in an F2 cattle (Gyr x Holstein population. It was concluded that, when working with zero-inflated data, it is recommendable to use the generalized and simple ZIP model for analysis. On the other hand, when working with data with zeros, but not zero-inflated, the Poisson model or a data-transformation-approach, such as square-root or Box-Cox transformation, are applicable.
Serial blood passage of virulent Babesia bovis in splenectomized cattle results in attenuated derivatives that do not cause neurologic disease. Tick transmissibility can be lost with attenuation, and has been reported to result in a reversion to virulence following tick passage. This study provides ...
Luciana G. Brito; Barbieri, Fábio S.; Rocha, Rodrigo B.; Márcia C. S. Oliveira; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales
The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The anti-tick effect of Stylosanthes humilis and Stylosanthes hamata was evaluated for mature plants on plots experimentally infested with larvae of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Cenchurus ciliaris was used as control grass. The effect was evaluated counting the total number of live tick larvae recovered by the double flannel flag technique from the experimental plots during a four week period. The effect observed in both Stylosanthes species did not show significant differences (p > 0.05 between them and the larval survival percentage was 5.1 % for S. humilis and 7.5 % for S. hamata. In the first specie the anti-tick effect was lower than the one reported for young plants, but in S. hamata this effect was similar in young and mature plants. Further studies are necessary to complement the knowledge about this plant and to establish their use in field conditions..RESUMEN El efecto anti-garrapata de plantas maduras de las leguminosas tropicales Stylosanthes humilis y Stylosanthes hamata , fue evaluado en parcelas experimentalmente infestadas con larvas de garrapata Boophilus microplus, utilizando al pasto Cenchurus ciliaris como tratamiento testigo. El efecto fue evaluado contando el número total de larvas vivas recuperadas de las parcelas experimentales por la técnica de bandera de doble recorrido durante un periodo de cuatro semanas. El efecto anti-garrapata observado en ambas especies de Stylosanthes no mostró diferencias entre ellas (p<0.05, el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de larvas fue del 5.1% para S. humilis y 7.5% para S. hamata. En la primera especie el efecto anti-garrapata fue menor que el reportado en plantas jóvenes, pero en S. hamata este efecto fue similar en plantas maduras y jóvenes. Es necesario realizar más estudios para complementar el conocimiento que se tiene acerca de estas plantas y establecer su uso en condiciones de campo
HORAK, IVAN G.; Shaun Welman; Stacey L. Hallam; Heike Lutermann; Nomakwezi Mzilikazi
Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus) were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They w...
Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania
The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity. PMID:26670314
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of ticks and how to protect yourself from them. Created: 4/9/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/9/2013.
... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Tick Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Tick Bites ... find on the skin. Signs and Symptoms Of Tick-Related Diseases: a red bump ringed by an ...
... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...
Brito, Luciana G; Barbieri, Fábio S; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Oliveira, Márcia C S; Ribeiro, Elisana Sales
The adult immersion test (AIT) was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) acaricides were the least effective (48.35-76.84%), followed by SP + organophosphate (OP) associations (68.91-81.47%) and amidine (51.35-100%). For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs), the milbemycin (94.84-100%) was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21-100%) and the avermectins (81.34-100%). The phenylpyrazole (PZ) group had similar efficacy (99.90%) to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed. PMID:21547224
Mancini, Fabiola; Toma, Luciano; Ciervo, Alessandra; Di Luca, Marco; Faggioni, Giovanni; Lista, Forigio; Rezza, Giovanni
The role of migratory birds in circulation tick-borne viruses needs to be better defined. In order to assess the potential role of migratory birds in exotic virus spread, we conducted a study to identify ticks collected from migratory birds in the Central Region of Italy, and performed molecular investigation for Crimea-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), West Nile fever (WNFV) and Usutu (USUV) in the vectors. A total of 137 competent ticks were collected with predominance of Hyalomma species. Although, negative results were obtained for all viruses considered, the high proportion of Hyalomma ticks highlights the potential risk for the dissemination of tick-borne viruses through infested migratory birds. PMID:24177308
Giglioti, R; Oliveira, H N; Santana, C H; Ibelli, A M G; Néo, T A; Bilhassi, T B; Rabelo, M D; Machado, R Z; Brito, L G; Oliveira, M C S
The levels of infection by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative PCR technique (qPCR). Fifty-one contemporaneous Angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. The number of standard female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA. The blood samples were submitted to DNA extraction and used to quantify the number of copies (NC) of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina by qPCR. The data on tick count and number of DNA copies were transformed for normalization and analyzed by a mixed model method. A multivariate model with repeated measures of the same animal, including the effects of collection, parasite species and their interaction, was used. The repeatability values were obtained from the matrix of (co)variances and were expressed for each species. The correlations between the counts of different species on the same animal, in the same collection or different collections, were also estimated. The results showed the qPCR could distinguish the two between infection by the two Babesia species. Infection levels by B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 100% and 98% of the animals, respectively. Significant differences were found (PDNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina and the tick counts suggests that the variation of parasitemia by the hemoparasites did not depend on the tick infestation levels at the moment of each collection. The repeatability values estimated indicate that under the study conditions, the variations in the tick infestation levels and of parasitemia by B. bovis and B. bigemina depend more on factors related to each collection than on intrinsic factors of the animal. PMID:26907097
Full Text Available The spread of tick-borne pathogens represents an important threat to human and animal health in many parts of Eurasia. Here, we analysed a 9-year time series of Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on Apodemus flavicollis mice (main reservoir-competent host for tick-borne encephalitis, TBE sampled in Trentino (Northern Italy. The tail of the distribution of the number of ticks per host was fitted by three theoretical distributions: Negative Binomial (NB, Poisson-LogNormal (PoiLN, and Power-Law (PL. The fit with theoretical distributions indicated that the tail of the tick infestation pattern on mice is better described by the PL distribution. Moreover, we found that the tail of the distribution significantly changes with seasonal variations in host abundance. In order to investigate the effect of different tails of tick distribution on the invasion of a non-systemically transmitted pathogen, we simulated the transmission of a TBE-like virus between susceptible and infective ticks using a stochastic model. Model simulations indicated different outcomes of disease spreading when considering different distribution laws of ticks among hosts. Specifically, we found that the epidemic threshold and the prevalence equilibria obtained in epidemiological simulations with PL distribution are a good approximation of those observed in simulations feed by the empirical distribution. Moreover, we also found that the epidemic threshold for disease invasion was lower when considering the seasonal variation of tick aggregation.
Masoumeh Ghane Kisomi
Full Text Available Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers.A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013.A total of 151 (72.2% out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91 reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05 a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2 from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1 from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1 farms, (2 job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers, (3 perceived severity of tick bites, and (4 perceived barriers to tick bite prevention.A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived barriers of tick bite prevention.
Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin
Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived
Dubska, Lenka; Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Taragelova, Veronika; Sychra, Oldrich
Borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the Czech Republic. During the postbreeding period (July to September 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 Ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. Borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, Borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. After analysis of infections in which the...
Luciana G. Brito
Full Text Available The adult immersion test (AIT was used to evaluate the efficacy of acaricide molecules used for control of Rhipicephalus microplus on 106 populations collected in five municipalities in the state of Rondônia in the Brazilian South Occidental Amazon region. The analysis of the data showed that the acaricide formulations had different efficacies on the tick populations surveyed. The synthetic pyrethroids (SPs acaricides were the least effective (48.35–76.84%, followed by SP + organophosphate (OP associations (68.91–81.47% and amidine (51.35–100%. For the macrocyclic lactones (MLs, the milbemycin (94.84–100% was the most effective, followed by spinosad (93.21–100% and the avermectins (81.34–100%. The phenylpyrazole (PZ group had similar efficacy (99.90% to the MLs. Therefore, SP acaricides, including associations with OP, and formulations based on amidine presented low in vitro efficacy to control the R. microplus populations surveyed.
de la Fuente, José; Almazán, Consuelo; Naranjo, Victoria; Blouin, Edmour F; Kocan, Katherine M
Tick proteins have been shown to be useful for the development of vaccines which reduce tick infestations. Potential tick protective antigens have been identified and characterized, in part, by use of RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi allows for analysis of gene function by characterizing the impact of loss of gene expression on tick physiology. Herein, we used RNAi in Rhipicephalus sanguineus to evaluate gene functions of two tick protective antigens, 4D8 and Rs86, the homologue of Bm86, on tick infestation, feeding and oviposition. Silencing of 4D8 alone resulted in decreased tick attachment, survival, feeding and oviposition. Although the effect of Rs86 RNAi was less pronounced, silencing of this gene also reduced tick weight and oviposition. Most notably, simultaneous silencing of 4D8 and Rs86 by RNAi resulted in a synergistic effect in which tick survival, attachment, feeding, weight and oviposition were profoundly reduced. Microscopic evaluation of tick tissues revealed that guts from dual injected ticks were distended with epithelial cells sparsely distributed along the basement membrane. These results demonstrated the synergistic effect of the silencing expression of two tick protective genes. Inclusion of multiple tick protective antigens may, therefore, enhance the efficacy of tick vaccines. PMID:16518610
Flavio Alves Lara
Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may
Marcotty, T.; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D. (Dirk); Chaka, G.; Besa, R.; Madder, M.; Dolan, T.; Losson, B.; J. Brandt
Immunization against the protozoan Theileria parva by infection and treatment has proved to be very efficient for the control of East Coast fever, an acute and often-fatal lymphoproliferative tick-borne disease of cattle in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. The immunizing dose of live T. parva sporozoites used in this method is usually determined by in vivo titration. An alternative in vitro method of quantification of sporozoites in whole tick-derived stabilates is proposed. The method c...
Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitzky, Igor; Zamir, Shmuel; Molad, Thea; Shkap, Varda
A quantitative PCR, based on the gene encoding Babesia ovis Surface Protein D (BoSPD) was developed and applied to investigate the presence of Babesia ovis (B. ovis) in its principal vector, the tick Rhipicephalus bursa (R. bursa), and in the ovine host. Quantification of B. ovis in experimentally-infected lambs showed a sharp increase in parasitemia 10-11days in blood-inoculated and adult tick-infested lambs, and 24days in a larvae-infested lamb. A gradual decrease of parasitemia was observed in the following months, with parasites detectable 6-12 months post-infection. Examination of the parasite load in adult R. bursa during the post-molting period using the quantitative PCR assay revealed a low parasite load during days 2-7 post-molting, followed by a sharp increase, until day 11, which corresponded to the completion of the pre-feeding period. The assay was then used to detect B. ovis in naturally-infected sheep and ticks. Examination of samples from 8 sheep and 2 goats from infected flocks detected B. ovis in both goats and in 7 out of the 8 sheep. Additionally, B. ovis was detected in 9 tick pools (5 ticks in each pool) and two individual ticks removed from sheep in infected flocks. PMID:27084469
Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Barbara; Turchi; Dario; Filogari; Domenico; Cerri
Objective: To determine the prevalence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in feeding ticks removed from hunted wild animals. Methods: PCR was executed on DNA extracted from 77 tick pools to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. Results: A total of 432 ticks were collected: 30(6.94%) Haemaphysalis punctata, 72(16.7%) Dermacentor marginatus and 330(76.38%) Ixodes ricinus. For each animal one or two pools of 3 ticks of the same species was constituted. Seventy-seven tick pools were examined by PCR: 58(75.32%) resulted infected and among them 14(18.18%) showed co-infections. In particular, 29(37.66%) pools were positive for Bartonella spp., 23(29.87%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 16(20.78%) for Rickettsia spp., and 5(6.49%) for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. All samples were negative for Coxiella burnetii. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the presence of several zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in the studied area, and underline the risk of exposure to infections for hunters not only during the outdoor activity, but also when they manipulate hunted animals infested by infected ticks.
Kaal, J F; Baker, K; Torgerson, P R
The results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern Libya is reported. Of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. Likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested No fleas were recovered from camels or horses. Of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were Ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were Pulex irritans. Dogs from farms and local clinics were also examined. Eight farms dogs were found to be infested with P. irritans. Of 79 infested dogs examined in veterinary clinics, 53 were found infested with P. irritans, 11 with Ctenocephalides felis felis, 12 had a mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. felis felis. Single dogs had mixed infestation of P. irritans and C. canis; C. felis felis and C. canis; and P. irritans, C. felis felis and Echidnophaga gallinacia. C. felis felis was also found on 15 infested cats. C. felis felis was never found on large farm animals despite frequently sharing their environment with dogs or cats. Likewise C. felis stongylus was never isolated from dogs or cats. This is consistent with the hypothesis that C. felis strongylus has become adapted to large farm animals, whilst C. felis felis is better adapted to dogs and cats. However, four stockmen were found infested with a total of 176 C. felis strongylus, which suggests that this subspecies is also a potential zoonosis. A significantly higher proportion of intensive farms had animals with flea infestation compared to semi-intensive farms. Fleas were not found in nomadic herds. Infested farm animals often presented with excoriation, alopecia, pruritus and hyperkeratitis particularly on the lower limbs. These signs are consistent with the generation of flea-bite hypersensitivity. PMID:16962246
Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J
Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. PMID:24861806
Mihalca Andrei D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are among the most important vectors of zoonotic diseases in temperate regions of Europe, with widespread distribution and high densities, posing an important medical risk. Most ticks feed on a variety of progressively larger hosts, with a large number of small mammal species typically harbouring primarily the immature stages. However, there are certain Ixodidae that characteristically attack micromammals also during their adult stage. Rodents are widespread hosts of ticks, important vectors and competent reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens. Micromammal-tick associations have been poorly studied in Romania, and our manuscript shows the results of a large scale study on tick infestation epidemiology in rodents from Romania. Methods Rodents were caught using snap-traps in a variety of habitats in Romania, between May 2010 and November 2011. Ticks were individually collected from these rodents and identified to species and development stage. Frequency, mean intensity, prevalence and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the EpiInfo 2000 software. A p value of Results We examined 423 rodents (12 species collected from six counties in Romania for the presence of ticks. Each collected tick was identified to species level and the following epidemiological parameters were calculated: prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance. The total number of ticks collected from rodents was 483, with eight species identified: Ixodes ricinus, I. redikorzevi, I. apronophorus, I. trianguliceps, I. laguri, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Haemaphysalis sulcata. The overall prevalence of tick infestation was 29.55%, with a mean intensity of 3.86 and a mean abundance of 1.14. Only two polyspecific infestations were found: I. ricinus + I. redikorzevi and I. ricinus + D. marginatus. Conclusions Our study showed a relatively high diversity of ticks parasitizing rodents in Romania. The most common tick in rodents
Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M
The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1
Hilpertshauser, Heidi; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela; Gern, Lise; Mathis, Alexander
Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in Switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as Babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. Therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant Babesia spp. and their tick vectors in Switzerland was conducted. A total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of Switzerland and identified morphologically...
La Barbera Giuseppa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are vectors of pathogens worldwide that cause diseases in humans and animals. Ticks and pathogens have co-evolved molecular mechanisms that contribute to their mutual development and survival. Subolesin was discovered as a tick protective antigen and was subsequently shown to be similar in structure and function to akirins, an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins in insects and vertebrates that controls NF-kB-dependent and independent expression of innate immune response genes. The objective of this study was to investigate subolesin expression in several tick species infected with a variety of pathogens and to determine the effect of subolesin gene knockdown on pathogen infection. In the first experiment, subolesin expression was characterized in ticks experimentally infected with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Subolesin expression was then characterized in questing or feeding adult ticks confirmed to be infected with Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, Babesia or Theileria spp. Finally, the effect of subolesin knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi on tick infection was analyzed in Dermacentor variabilis males exposed to various pathogens by capillary feeding (CF. Results Subolesin expression increased with pathogen infection in the salivary glands but not in the guts of tick vector species infected with A. marginale. When analyzed in whole ticks, subolesin expression varied between tick species and in response to different pathogens. As reported previously, subolesin knockdown in D. variabilis infected with A. marginale and other tick-borne pathogens resulted in lower infection levels, while infection with Francisella tularensis increased in ticks after RNAi. When non-tick-borne pathogens were fed to ticks by CF, subolesin RNAi did not affect or resulted in lower infection levels in ticks. However, subolesin expression was upregulated in D. variabilis exposed to Escherichia coli
Olds, Cassandra Leah
Infection of cattle with the tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva results in the fatal lympho-proliferative disease known as East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa affecting all sectors of livestock production. The three-host brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of T. parva with all tick life stages adapted to feeding on cattle. Currently, there is no effective vaccine ag...
... abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Geographic distribution of ticks that bite humans Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... and may be difficult to identify. American dog tick ( Dermacentor variabilis ) Where found: Widely distributed east of ...
Nuttall, P A; Trimnell, A R; Kazimirova, M; Labuda, M
Tick vaccines derived from Bm86, a midgut membrane-bound protein of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, are currently the only commercially available ectoparasite vaccines. Despite its introduction to the market in 1994, and the recognized need for alternatives to chemical pesticides, progress in developing effective antitick vaccines (and ectoparasite vaccines in general) is slow. The primary rate-limiting step is the identification of suitable antigenic targets for vaccine development. Two sources of candidate vaccine antigens have been identified: 'exposed' antigens that are secreted in tick saliva during attachment and feeding on a host and 'concealed' antigens that are normally hidden from the host. Recently, a third group of antigens has been distinguished that combines the properties of both exposed and concealed antigens. This latter group offers the prospect of a broad-spectrum vaccine effective against both adults and immature stages of a wide variety of tick species. It also shows transmission-blocking and protective activity against a tick-borne pathogen. With the proliferation of molecular techniques and their application to vaccine development, there are high hopes for new and effective antitick vaccines that also control tick-borne diseases. PMID:16542317
Full Text Available Background: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Methods: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care- man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all provinces. A total of 553 questionnaires sheets and 168 flea samples were collected from sixteen provinces. Results: One hundred fifty six specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 92.8% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (84.6%, Ctenocephalides canis (12.9% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.5%. Two hundred and eighty nine cases of animal and 244 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the"nlowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to flea's bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran. Keywords: Flea, Farm animal, Human, Iran.
Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; James J Valdés
Introduction As an ecological adaptation venoms have evolved independently in several species of Metazoa. As haematophagous arthropods ticks are mainly considered as ectoparasites due to directly feeding on the skin of animal hosts. Ticks are of major importance since they serve as vectors for several diseases affecting humans and livestock animals. Ticks are rarely considered as venomous animals despite that tick saliva contains several protein families present in venomous taxa and that many...
Full Text Available In 2002, cases with Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF were diagnosed in Turkey and increasing numbers of those similar cases in following years have caused a big concern around the whole country. Because of the increasing numbers of patients referred to the dermatology clinics with tick related skin conditions or just with the need for a tick extraction, we found it necessary to review the recent information about ticks and tick-related skin diseases.
Alexandre Secorum Borges
Full Text Available A retrospective study of Cattle Tick Fever was made with animals up to one year old, which occurred from 1986-2007 in Botucatu-SP in the influence area of the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science – UNESP. There were 232 cases and 57 deaths. The main etiological agent causing the disease on this region is Anaplasma marginale identified as a single agent in 31.5% of the cases. Most of the cases occurred on autumn in mixed-blood animals two to six months old. Predominant clinical signs included apathy, hyporexia or anorexia, dehydration, weight loss and pale mucosa. The high incidence and mortality observed justify prophylactic actions to have the balance between host, agent, vector, and environment, thus avoiding the clinical form of disease and death of livestock herds in the region.Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de tristeza parasitária bovina (TPB em bovinos com até um ano de idade ocorridos na região de Botucatu-SP, área de influência do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia de Botucatu – UNESP, entre os anos de 1986 e 2007. Ocorreram, nesse período, 232 casos da doença e 57 mortes. O principal agente etiológico causador da doença nesta região foi o Anaplasma marginale, identificado como um único agente em 31,5% dos episódios da doença. A maioria dos casos ocorreu no Outono, em animais mestiços e com dois a seis meses de idade. Os sinais clínicos predominantes foram: apatia, hiporexia ou anorexia, desidratação, perda de peso e palidez das mucosas. A elevada incidência e mortalidade observados justificam ações profiláticas visando o equilíbrio entre hospedeiro, agente, vetor, e meio ambiente, evitando, assim, a forma clínica da doença e morte dos animais em rebanhos da região.
Perspectives for the use of plant extracts to control the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Perspectivas para o uso de extratos de plantas para o controle do carrapato de bovinos Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus
Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges
Full Text Available The evolution of resistance of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus to synthetic acaricides has given rise to the need for new scientific investigations on alternative ways to control this tick. In this regard, various studies on plants have been developed in an attempt to find extracts with acaricidal properties. Evaluations on plant extracts for controlling R. (B. microplus have grown intensely over the last decade. There are many advantages from using plant extracts: for example, they can be used in organic cattle farming or even replace synthetic acaricides and they are associated with lower environmental and food contamination, slower development of resistance and lower toxicity to animals and humans. In vitro studies on plant extracts have shown promising results, but most of these extracts have not been tested on animals to validate their use. Difficulties in preparing proper formulations, differences in the chemical composition of plants of the same species due to extrinsic and intrinsic factors and sparse information on active acaricide compounds are hindrances that need to be addressed in order to enable progress within this scientific field.A evolução da resistência do Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas sintéticos tem impulsionado novas investigações científicas sobre métodos alternativos para controlar este carrapato. Considerando isso, vários estudos com plantas têm sido desenvolvidos numa tentativa de encontrar extratos com propriedades acaricidas. Avalições de extratos de plantas para o controle de R. (B. microplus tem sido intensificadas nesta última década. Existem muitas vantagens com o uso de extratos de plantas no controle deste carrapato, como: eles podem ser utilizados na produção orgânica de bovinos, ou mesmo substituir os acaricidas sintéticos, além do mais, estão associados com baixa contaminação ambiental e dos alimentos, desenvolvimento mais lento de resistência e baixa toxicidade
Y Salim abadi
Full Text Available Background: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008-2009.Methods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20% and plateau (80% regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the laboratory of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then were identified to space level using valid identification key.Results: A total of 583 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into three genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma dromedarii (55.92%, Hy. marginatum (13.20%, Hy. anatolicum (9.78%, Hy. detritum (4.98%, Hy. asiaticum (3.94%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.84%, and Dermacentor marginatus (0.34%. The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The prevalence of the Ixodidae ticks was more evident in plateaus area in Yazd Province. Among the hosts including: cow, goat, sheep and camel, the ticks that collected from camel was more prevalent. The ratio of male was more than female ticks. Hyalomma. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 55.92% of the ticks.Conclusion: Some of the collected ticks may play an important role for transmission of vector borne disease to human; therefore, the results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of disease control.
Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...
Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)
Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, NC (United States); Hamrick, Harvey J. [University of North Carolina Hospitals, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill (United States)
Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)
Langhansová, Helena; Chagas, A. C.; Andersen, J. F.; Kopecký, Jan; Kotsyfakis, Michalis
New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2012 - (Woldemeskel, M.), s. 19-36. (Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods: Biology, Chemistry and Behavior). ISBN 978-1-62081-136-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/11/J029; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick infestation * host system modulation * bioactive molecules * tick-borne pathogens * saliva-assisted transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=36294
Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.
Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794 is distributed in Europe and Asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. However, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of D. reticulatus. Tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted and are exposed to extremely stressing conditions. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to get an insight into the mechanisms active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, with special emphasis on stress response. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results support the use of paired end RNA sequencing and proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT for the analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics data, particularly for organisms such as D. reticulatus with little sequence information available. The results showed that metabolic and cellular processes involved in protein synthesis were the most active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, suggesting that ticks are very active during this life stage. The stress response was activated in D. reticulatus unfed larvae and a Rickettsia sp. similar to R. raoultii was identified in these ticks. SIGNIFICANCE: The activation of stress responses in D. reticulatus unfed larvae likely counteracts the negative effect of temperature and other stress conditions such as Rickettsia infection and favors tick adaptation to environmental conditions to increase tick survival. These results show mechanisms that have evolved in D. reticulatus ticks to survive under stress conditions and suggest that these mechanisms are conserved across hard tick species. Targeting some of these proteins by vaccination may increase tick susceptibility to natural stress conditions, which in turn reduce tick survival and reproduction, thus reducing
Maaz, Denny; Rausch, Sebastian; Richter, Dania; Krücken, Jürgen; Kühl, Anja A; Demeler, Janina; Blümke, Julia; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Hartmann, Susanne
Small rodents serve as reservoir hosts for tick-borne pathogens, such as the spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Whether natural coinfections with other macroparasites alter the success of tick feeding, antitick immunity, and the host's reservoir competence for tick-borne pathogens remains to be determined. In a parasitological survey of wild mice in Berlin, Germany, approximately 40% of Ixodes ricinus-infested animals simultaneously harbored a nematode of the genus Heligmosomoides We therefore aimed to analyze the immunological impact of the nematode/tick coinfection as well as its effect on the tick-borne pathogen Borrelia afzelii Hosts experimentally coinfected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus and larval/nymphal I. ricinus ticks developed substantially stronger systemic type 2 T helper cell (Th2) responses, on the basis of the levels of GATA-3 and interleukin-13 expression, than mice infected with a single pathogen. During repeated larval infestations, however, anti-tick Th2 reactivity and an observed partial immunity to tick feeding were unaffected by concurrent nematode infections. Importantly, the strong systemic Th2 immune response in coinfected mice did not affect susceptibility to tick-borne B. afzelii An observed trend for decreased local and systemic Th1 reactivity against B. afzelii in coinfected mice did not result in a higher spirochete burden, nor did it facilitate bacterial dissemination or induce signs of immunopathology. Hence, this study indicates that strong systemic Th2 responses in nematode/tick-coinfected house mice do not affect the success of tick feeding and the control of the causative agent of Lyme disease. PMID:26883594
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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF in febrile patients in Kenitra district. The prevalence of Borrelia infections was assessed by nested PCR amplification in ticks and the brain tissue of small mammals, and by evaluation of thick blood films in patients. A high proportion of burrows were infested with ticks of the O. erraticus complex in all regions of Morocco, with a mean of 39.5% for the whole country. Borrelia infections were found in 39/382 (10.2% of the ticks and 12/140 (8.6% of the rodents and insectivores studied by PCR amplification, and 102 patients tested positive by thick blood film. Five small mammalian species were found infected: Dipodillus campestris, Meriones shawi, Gerbillus hoogstrali, Gerbillus occiduus and Atelerix algirus. Three Borrelia species were identified in ticks and/or rodents: B. hispanica, B. crocidurae and B. merionesi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tick populations belonging to O. erraticus complex are widely distributed in Morocco and a high proportion of ticks and small mammals are infected by Borrelia species. Although rarely diagnosed, TBRF may be a common cause of morbidity in all regions of Morocco.
With the continuing progression of blacklegged ticks and the agents causing Lyme disease from infestations in Maryland southward into Virginia, many citizens living in northern Virginia have asked the Governor for ARS-Patented ‘4-Poster’ Deer Treatment Stations to be deployed as an aid in reducing t...
... Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Preventing ticks on your pets Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... your cats without first consulting your veterinarian! Kill Ticks on Dogs A pesticide product that kills ticks ...
Full Text Available To study the tick and tick borne protozoan diseases of livestock in the hilly areas of Bangladesh, an attempt was made to collect tick and blood samples from cattle, goat and gayal (Bos frontalis from different areas of the three hill districts. In this study, two species of ticks namely, Boophilus microplus (92% and Amblyomma testudinarium (21.6% and two species of blood protozoa like Babesia bigemina (16.63% and Anaplasma marginale (14.94% were recorded. Seasonal prevalence of ticks was highest in summer (97% in comparison to rainy (95% and winter (86% season. On the other hand, the seasonal prevalence of blood protozoa was highest in rainy season (45.45% in comparison to summer (27.87% and winter (16.55%. Again, animals aged more than 2 (two years of age (52% found to be more susceptible to blood protozoan diseases than animals aged between 1-2 years of age (33.97%. But none of the animals under one year of age were found to be infected with blood protozoan diseases.
Infestation by Haematopinus quadripertusus on cattle in São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil Infestação por Haematopinus quadripertusus em bovinos de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil
Full Text Available Severe infestation with lice was observed on crossbred cattle (Bos taurus indicus ×Bos taurus taurus in the municipality of São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará, Brazil. Sixty-five animals were inspected and the lice were manually collected, preserved in 70% alcohol and taken to the Animal Parasitology Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Pará, Brazil, for identification. The adult lice were identified as Haematopinus quadripertusus, and all the cattle examined were infested by at least one development stage of this ectoparasite. The specimens collected were located only on the tail in 80% (52/65 of the cattle, while they were around the eyes as well as on the ears and tail in 20% (13/65. Nits, nymphs and adults of the parasite were respectively collected from 98.46% (64/65, 38.46% (25/65 and 23.08% (15/65 of the animals examined. This is the first report of bovine pediculosis caused by H. quadripertusus in the state of Pará, Brazil. Further studies should be conducted to determine the occurrence pattern of this species in Brazil and its importance to livestock production.Alta infestação por piolhos foi observada em vacas mestiças Bos taurus indicus e Bos taurus taurus do município de São Domingos do Capim, Estado do Pará, Brasil. Sessenta e cinco animais foram inspecionados e os piolhos foram coletados manualmente, armazenados em álcool 70% e transportados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia Animal da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Pará para a identificação. Os exemplares adultos foram identificados como Haematopinus quadripertusus e todos os animais examinados apresentaram pelo menos um estágio de desenvolvimento do ectoparasito. Em 80% (52/65 dos animais, os exemplares coletados localizavam-se somente na cauda e em 20% (13/65 na região periocular, orelha e cauda. Lêndeas, ninfas e adultos foram coletados, respectivamente, em 98,46% (64/65, em 38,46% (25/65 e em 23
Hoogstraal, H.; Aeschlimann, André
A review the various patterns of tick-host relationships are discussed in detail in order to answer the following questions : 1. How, when and where did host specificity of each parasite group evolve ? 2. How strict is specificity in each case ? 3. Why and under what circumstances does specificity break down ? The authors present several definitions which characterize the various degrees of parasitic specificity existing today between ticks and their hosts. Tick-host relationships are ...
Emmanuel Do Linh San
Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2004, 160 badger carcasses (mainly road casualties and culled animals were collected in a 600-km2 rural area of Western Switzerland (Broye region. Body and fur inspections indicated that 88.4% of the animals were infested with at least one of the following ectoparasite categories: lice (76.0%, ticks (57.5% and fleas (19.7%. Nevertheless, the number of parasites was low, in average 2.6 fleas, 4.8 ticks and/or 17.1 lice per infested animal. No significant intersexual and age-related differences (adults vs subadults, adults vs young were found as concerns prevalence and abundance of ectoparasites. The lower, and more constant infection by fleas in the course of the year, is concordant with the hypothesis which proposes that badgers frequently switch sleeping places in order to avoid a build up of ectoparasites in the nest material. It remains unclear whether the low loads of ticks and lice recorded in both low and high density badger populations are due to the efficiency of auto- and allo-grooming in this species, to frequent replacement or aeration of the bedding material by individual badgers, or to another, yet to be discovered mechanism. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these results are therefore indicative of a limited role of Eurasian badgers as a potential reservoir of diseases transmitted by ectoparasites.
Horak, Ivan G; Welman, Shaun; Hallam, Stacey L; Lutermann, Heike; Mzilikazi, Nomakwezi
Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus) were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis) were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis. PMID:23327207
Ivan G. Horak
Full Text Available Several studies on ticks infesting small mammals, including elephant shrews, have been conducted in South Africa; however, these studies have included only a single four-toed elephant shrew and no hedgehogs. This study thus aimed to identify and quantify the ixodid ticks infesting four-toed elephant shrews and Southern African hedgehogs. Four-toed elephant shrews (Petrodromus tetradactylus were trapped in dense shrub undergrowth in a nature reserve in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal. They were separately housed, first in cages and later in glass terraria fitted with wire-mesh bases to allow detached ticks to fall through for collection. Southern African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis were hand caught on a farm in the eastern region of the Northern Cape Province and all visible ticks were collected by means of tweezers while the animals were anaesthetised. The ticks from each animal were preserved separately in 70% ethanol for later identification and counting. The immature stages of five ixodid tick species were collected from the elephant shrews, of which Rhipicephalus muehlensi was the most common. It has not been recorded previously on any species of elephant shrew. Three ixodid tick species were collected from the hedgehogs. Large numbers of adult Haemaphysalis colesbergensis, which has not been encountered previously on hedgehogs, were collected from these animals. Four-toed elephant shrews are good hosts of the larvae and nymphs of R. muehlensi, and Southern African hedgehogs are good hosts of adult H. colesbergensis.
Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C
The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed. PMID:25633262
Arthur M. Spickett
Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.
Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Bruyeres, Anthea G; Zhang, Bing; Rodriguez Valle, Manuel
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks cause economic losses for cattle industries throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world estimated at $US2.5 billion annually. Lack of access to efficacious long-lasting vaccination regimes and increases in tick acaricide resistance have led to the investigation of targets for the development of novel tick vaccines and treatments. In vitro tick feeding has been used for many tick species to study the effect of new acaricides on the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. Few studies have reported the use of in vitro feeding for functional genomic studies using RNA interference and/or the effect of specific anti-tick antibodies. In particular, in vitro feeding reports for the cattle tick are limited due to its relatively short hypostome. Previously published methods were further modified to broaden optimal tick sizes/weights, feeding sources including bovine and ovine serum, optimisation of commercially available blood anti-coagulant tubes, and IgG concentrations for effective antibody delivery. Ticks are fed overnight and monitored for ∼5-6 weeks to determine egg output and success of larval emergence using a humidified incubator. Lithium-heparin blood tubes provided the most reliable anti-coagulant for bovine blood feeding compared with commercial citrated (CPDA) and EDTA tubes. Although >30mg semi-engorged ticks fed more reliably, ticks as small as 15mg also fed to repletion to lay viable eggs. Ticks which gained less than ∼10mg during in vitro feeding typically did not lay eggs. One mg/ml IgG from Bm86-vaccinated cattle produced a potent anti-tick effect in vitro (83% efficacy) similar to that observed in vivo. Alternatively, feeding of dsRNA targeting Bm86 did not demonstrate anti-tick effects (11% efficacy) compared with the potent effects of ubiquitin dsRNA. This study optimises R. microplus tick in vitro feeding methods which support the development of cattle tick vaccines and
Avaliação in vitro da ação do óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre o carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus In vitro evaluation of the action of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus
Full Text Available O uso indiscriminado de produtos químicos no controle do carrapato bovino constitui a principal causa do gradativo aumento do número de cepas resistentes deste parasita às bases disponíveis no mercado. A utilização de óleos essenciais e extratos vegetais é uma prática antiga no controle de carrapatos, porém só recentemente tem recebido a devida atenção dos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar a eficácia in vitro do óleo de capim limão (Cymbopogon citratus sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus através do exame de biocarrapaticidograma. Foram testadas seis diluições do óleo de C. citratus (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 e 100% em uma população de carrapatos resistentes a amidínicos e piretróides sintéticos. A inibição de postura foi de 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 e 46%, a eclosão larval foi de 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 e 25% e a eficácia do tratamento foi de 32; 64; 83; 100; 88 e 82%, respectivamente. O óleo de C. citratus apresentou controle parcial do carrapato R. microplus in vitro, mesmo frente a populações resistentes a produtos químicos.The indiscriminate use of chemical products to control the cattle tick is the main cause of the gradual increase in the number of strains of this parasite that are resistant to the bases currently available in the market. The use of essential oils and plant extracts is an ancient practice for tick control; however, only recently has it received due attention by researchers. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil on engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus through immersion test. Six concentrations of Cymbopogon citratus oil (1; 5; 10; 25; 50 and 100% were tested against a tick population resistant to synthetic formamidines and pyrethroids. The inhibition of egg-laying was 3; 23; 46; 66; 46 and 46%, the hatching was 83; 58; 31; 0; 38 and 25%, and the treatment efficacy was 32
Marcos Valério Garcia
Full Text Available Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle, which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti, 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.Neste trabalho são descritas as espécies de carrapatos de animais selvagens e domésticos e do ambiente coletados por um ano na EMBRAPA Gado de Corte localizado na área urbana de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Dos 55 hospedeiros selvagens de seis espécies diferentes (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla e Dasyprocta aguti foram coletados 323 carrapatos. Amblyomma ovale foi encontrado apenas em quatis e Amblyomma nodosum apenas sobre tamanduás. Nenhum carrapato foi encontrado sobre macacos-prego. Por outro lado, Amblyomma cajennense foi encontrado em todos os hospedeiros
Boretti, Felicitas S; Perreten, Andrea; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Willi, Barbara; Wengi, Nicole; Hornok, Sándor; Honegger, Hanspeter; Hegglin, Daniel; Woelfel, Roman; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
Rickettsia helvetica, a tick-borne member of the spotted-fever-group rickettsiae, is a suspected pathogen in humans; however, its role in animals is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish a R. helvetica-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assay and apply it to the analysis of tick vectors (to determine potential exposure risk) and blood samples from Canidae and humans (to determine prevalence of infection). The newly designed 23S rRNA gene assay for R. helvetica was more sensitive than a published citrate synthase gene (gltA) assay for several rickettsiae. Blood samples from 884 dogs, 58 foxes, and 214 human patients and 2,073 ticks (Ixodes spp.) collected from either vegetation or animals were analyzed. Although the maximal likelihood estimate of prevalence was 12% in unfed ticks and 36% in ticks collected from animals, none of the 1,156 blood samples tested PCR positive. Ticks from cats were more frequently PCR positive than ticks from dogs. Sequencing of the 23S rRNA and/or the gltA gene of 17 tick pools confirmed the presence of R. helvetica. Additionally, Rickettsia monacensis, which has not been previously found in Switzerland, was identified. In conclusion, R. helvetica was frequently detected in the tick population but not in blood samples. Nevertheless, due to the broad host range of Ixodes ticks and the high rate of infestation with this agent (i.e., R. helvetica was 13 times more frequent in unfed ticks than the tick-borne encephalitis virus), many mammals may be exposed to R. helvetica. The PCR assay described here represents an important tool for studying this topic. PMID:19329665
Janet E. Foley; Nieto, Nathan C.; Adjemian, Jennifer; Dabritz, Haydee; Brown, Richard N.
A total of 2,121 small mammals in California were assessed for Anaplasma phagocytophilum from 2006 through 2008. Odds ratios were >1 for 4 sciurids species and dusky-footed woodrats. High seroprevalence was observed in northern sites. Ten tick species were identified. Heavily infested rodent species included meadow voles, woodrats, deer mice, and redwood chipmunks.
England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. PMID:27232135
Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.
Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.
Dupejová, J.; Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor
Roč. 4, January (2011), s. 4. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ORNITHODOROS PARKERI * BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * MASS-SPECTROMETRY * CATTLE TICK * SOFT TICK * DORIN M * PROTEINS * HEMOLYMPH * VITELLOGENIN * LIPOPROTEIN Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011
Graham, R I; Mainwaring, M C; Du Feu, R
Migratory birds are known to play a role in the long-distance transportation of microorganisms. To investigate whether this is true for rickettsial agents, we undertook a study to characterize tick infestation in populations of the migratory passerine bird Riparia riparia (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae), the sand martin. A total of 194 birds were sampled and ticks removed from infested birds. The ticks were identified as female Ixodes lividus (Acari: Ixodidae) using standard morphological and molecular techniques. Tick DNA was assayed to detect Rickettsia spp. using polymerase chain reaction and DNA was sequenced for species identification. A single Rickettsia spp. was detected in 100% of the ticks and was designated Rickettsia sp. IXLI1. Partial sequences of 17-kDa and ompA genes showed greatest similarity to Rickettsia sp. TCM1, an aetiological agent of Japanese spotted fever-like illness, previously described in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Rickettsia sp. IXLI1 fitted neatly into a group containing strains Rickettsia japonica, Rickettsia sp. strain Davousti and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis. In conclusion, this research shows that U.K. migratory passerine birds host ticks infected with Rickettsia species and contribute to the geographic distribution of spotted fever rickettsial agents. PMID:20546129
Manzano-Román, Raúl; Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Oleaga, Ana; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo
Subolesin/akirin is a well characterized protective antigen highly conserved across vector species and thus potentially useful for the development of a broad-spectrum vaccine for the control of arthropod infestations including hard ticks, mosquitoes, sand flies and the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Soft ticks could be also targeted by this vaccine if proved that the soft tick subolesin orthologs are conserved and induce protective immune responses too. However, to date no soft tick subolesin orthologs have been fully characterized nor tested as recombinant antigens in vaccination trials. The objectives of the present work were to clone and characterize the subolesin orthologs from two important vector species of soft ticks as Ornithodoros erraticus and O. moubata, to evaluate the effect of subolesin gene silencing by RNAi, and to test the protective value of the recombinant antigens in vaccination trials. The obtained results demonstrate that both soft tick subolesins are highly conserved showing more than 69% and 74% identity with those of hard ticks in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate that both soft ticks possess fully operative RNAi machinery, and that subolesin gene silencing by dsRNA injection inhibits oviposition indicating the involvement of subolesin in tick reproduction. Finally, vaccination with the recombinant soft tick subolesins induced a partial protective effect resulting in the reduction of the oviposition rate. These preliminary results encourage further studies on the use of recombinant subolesins as vaccines for the control of soft tick infestations, either alone or in combination with other specific molecules. PMID:22105082
Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A
Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:26790745
Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB, the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway. Methods 6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S-rrl (23S intergenetic spacer. Results B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%, followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%, B. afzelii (8.3% and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%. Conclusion Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.
Full Text Available Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita, were initially screened (at two doses for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg. Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%, dihydrotagetone (16.71%, piperitenone (10.15%, trans-tagetone (8.67%, 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10diene (6.47%, β-ocimene (3.25%, and cis-tagetone (1.95%, whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α-pinene (63.64%, β-pinene (15.00%, isocaryophyllene (7.62%, nerolidol (3.70%, 1-tridecanol (1.75%, limonene (1.52%, and sabinene (1.00%. The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus.
Wanzala, Wycliffe; Hassanali, Ahmed; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; Takken, Willem
Essential oils of eight plants, selected after an ethnobotanical survey conducted in Bukusu community in Bungoma County, western Kenya (Tagetes minuta, Tithonia diversifolia, Juniperus procera, Solanecio mannii, Senna didymobotrya, Lantana camara, Securidaca longepedunculata, and Hoslundia opposita), were initially screened (at two doses) for their repellence against brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a dual-choice climbing assay. The oils of T. minuta and T. diversifolia were then selected for more detailed study. Dose-response evaluations of these oils showed that T. minuta oil was more repellent (RD50 = 0.0021 mg) than that of T. diversifolia (RD50 = 0.263 mg). Gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analyses showed different compositions of the two oils. T. minuta oil is comprised mainly of cis-ocimene (43.78%), dihydrotagetone (16.71%), piperitenone (10.15%), trans-tagetone (8.67%), 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,8(10)diene (6.47%), β -ocimene (3.25%), and cis-tagetone (1.95%), whereas T. diversifolia oil is comprised mainly of α -pinene (63.64%), β -pinene (15.00%), isocaryophyllene (7.62%), nerolidol (3.70%), 1-tridecanol (1.75%), limonene (1.52%), and sabinene (1.00%). The results provide scientific rationale for traditional use of raw products of these plants in controlling livestock ticks by the Bukusu community and lay down some groundwork for exploiting partially refined products such as essential oils of these plants in protecting cattle against infestations with R. appendiculatus. PMID:24693417
Godfrey, S S; Bull, C M; Nelson, N J
The conservation of threatened vertebrate species and their threatened parasites requires an understanding of the factors influencing their distribution and dynamics. This is particularly important for species maintained in conservation reserves at high densities, where increased contact among hosts could lead to increased rates of parasitism. The tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) (Reptilia: Sphenodontia) is a threatened reptile that persists at high densities in forests (approximately 2700 tuatara/ha) and lower densities in pastures and shrubland (ectoparasites (the tuatara tick, Amblyomma sphenodonti, and trombiculid mites, Neotrombicula sp.) in a mark-recapture study in three forest study plots from November 2004 to March 2007, and compared infestation levels among habitat types in March 2006. Tick loads were lowest over summer and peaked from late autumn (May) until early spring (September). Mating and engorgement of female ticks was highest over spring, and larval tick loads subsequently increased in early autumn (March). Nymphal tick loads increased in September, and adult tick loads increased in May. Our findings suggest the tuatara tick has a 2- or 3-year lifecycle. Mite loads were highest over summer and autumn, and peaked in March. Prevalences (proportion of hosts infected) and densities (estimated number of parasites per hectare) of ticks were similar among habitats, but tick loads (parasites per host) were higher in pastures than in forests and shrub. The prevalence and density of mites was higher in forests than in pasture or shrub, but mite loads were similar among habitats. We suggest that a higher density of tuatara in forests may reduce the ectoparasite loads of individuals through a dilution effect. Understanding host-parasite dynamics will help in the conservation management of both the host and its parasites. PMID:19120965
Růžek, Daniel; Bilski, B.; Günther, G.
Florida : CRC Press, 2013, s. 211-237. ISBN 9781466567207 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * neuroviral Infections * viruses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine
Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.
Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.
Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José
The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle. PMID:25728230
Boxler, B; Odermatt, P; Haag-Wackernagel, D
The medically and veterinary important feral pigeon tick Argas reflexus (Ixodida: Argasidae) Fabricius usually feeds on pigeons, but if its natural hosts are not available, it also enters dwellings to bite humans that can possibly react with severe allergic reactions. Argas reflexus is ecologically extremely successful as a result of some outstanding morphological, physiological, and ethological features. Yet, it is still unknown how the pigeon tick finds its hosts. Here, different host stimuli such as living nestlings as well as begging calls, body heat, smell, host breath and tick faeces, were tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Of all stimuli tested, only heat played a role in host-finding. The heat stimulus was then tested under natural conditions within a pigeon loft. The results showed that A. reflexus is able to find a host over short distances of only a few centimetres. Furthermore, it finds its host by random movements and recognizes a host only right before direct contact is made. The findings are useful for the control of A. reflexus in infested apartments, both to diagnose an infestation and to perform a success monitoring after disinfestation. PMID:26959079
Full Text Available Abstract Background Varying reports concerning the duration and reliability of different permethrin preparations' efficacy can be found in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the distribution and efficacy of four different spot-on formulations with permethrin as the active ingredient formulated with different solvents. To examine the influence of these solvents on the speed of distribution and the acaricidal activity of permethrin in the coat, an in vivo study under laboratory conditions was performed. Six dogs per test period were treated with the recommended dose and 1, 14 and 28 days after treatment dogs were infested with Dermacentor reticulatus ticks: a on the back, near the application site, and b on the hind leg, the greatest possible distance from the application site. Efficacies were determined 6 hours after tick infestation to examine the repellent effect and the speed of kill of the products which plays an important role in the context of tick transmitted diseases. Results After six hours of exposure, a significant acaricidal efficacy (p 9 on Day 28. However, most of these ticks were dead even 28 days after treatment, as the mean of live attached ticks was still 0.05. Conclusions All products were able to kill ticks within six hours following infestation from Day 1 to Day 28 after treatment. Additionally, no significant difference between the tick numbers on the back and the hind leg could be found at any time, which implies a homogenous distribution of permethrin over the body. The efficacy of all four products was comparable during the whole study period, showing that the different solvents do not significantly affect the dynamics of distribution.
Lee YC; Chiu CJ
Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix...
Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan
Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361
Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian
Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....
Maturano, Ralph; Faccini, João L H; Daemon, Erik; Fazza, Patrícia O C; Bastos, Ronaldo R
The habits of birds make them more or less susceptible to parasitism by certain tick species. Therefore, while some bird species are typically found to be intensely infested, others are relatively unaffected. This study investigated the occurrence of ticks in Passeriformes inhabiting an Atlantic Forest fragment in southeastern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons, by means of parasitological indexes and multiple correspondence analysis, to determine the factors that influence tick parasitism in these birds. Data were collected on 2391 ticks, all classified in the Amblyomma genus, from 589 birds. The ticks identified to the species level were A. longirostre, A. nodosum, A. calcaratum, A. parkeri, and A. ovale. Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae, Thraupidae, Dendrocolaptidae, and Platyrinchidae were the families with the highest prevalence. In terms of parasite intensity, the families Conopophagidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Furnariidae, and Pipridae stood out with the highest values. Bird species that are generalists regarding eating habits and habitat occupation tended to have higher parasite loads, as did larger species and those inhabiting the understory. The tick prevalence was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The majority of the ticks were collected from the head region, mainly around the eyes and in the nape. Also, this work reports 22 new bird-parasite relations. PMID:26253798
Chmielewski, Tomasz; Podsiadly, Edyta; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanislawa
Ticks are recognized as the main vectors and reservoirs of spotted fever group rickettsiae. We searched for the most prevalent Rickettsia spp. in Poland and found R. slovaca and R. helvetica bacteria in ticks in southern and central Poland; R. raoulti was found in ticks in all parts of Poland.
It’s Open Season on Ticks Protect yourself from tickborne disease this hunting season Ticks feed on the blood of animals (such as rodents, rabbits, deer, and birds), but will bite humans too. Ticks live in grassy or wooded areas, or on ...
Full Text Available Aim: An investigation on ticks and haemoparasites of dogs that belonged to Maiduguri metropolis (Borno State was conducted. Materials and Methods: Survey of ticks and haemo-parasites on 400 stray dogs was conducted in Maiduguri from December 2009 to November 2011, using a stratified random sampling technique from different locations of the town. The town was divided into 10 districts out of which a total of 40 dogs were sampled at random from each district. Results: Four genera of ticks were identified on the infested dogs 384 (96.0, all of which belonged to the family Ixodidae (hard ticks. The genus Boophilus was predominant with a prevalence of 88.0%, Rhipicephalus 10.8%, Hyalomma 0.9% and Amblyomma 0.3% at (p ˂ 0.05. Dogs within the age-group of 6-12 months were the most infested, while those within the age-group of 24 –120 months were the least infested. Sex appeared to have a less significant influence (p > 0.05 on the prevalence of ticks among the dog population as females were more infested than the males. The perineum and the ear were the most commonly infested areas, with 328 (85.4% and 252 (65.4% respectively, while the scrotal and abdominal regions were the least infested areas 12 (3.1% each. The month of August showed the highest mean tick burden of 462.5±3.2 ranging from 450-475, while the month of February showed the least number of ticks with a mean of 244.5±3.8 ranging from 239-250. Dogs found to be infected with Babesia canis are all harboring ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus. Female dogs were more infected (66.7% with Babesia canis than their male counterparts (33.3% (p ˂ 0.05 and dogs within the age group of 1-6 months were more infected. Conclusion: Prevalence of ticks on dogs in this study area is relatively high and the occurrence of Babesia species is vector dependent, with ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus sanguineous being the most common vector in transmission of the parasite. Seasons also play a vital role in the
Full Text Available A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalli was present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.
Motaghipisheh, Shahrzad; Akhtardanesh, Baharak; Ghanbarpour, Reza; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Mohammad; Nourollahifard, Saeed Reza; Mokhtari, Saghar
Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Recently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemiology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners. Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a commercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples. Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods. Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be considered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Most fleas infest their host temporarily then pass to another of the same kind, while others move from one to a different host species. Although the comprehensive list of fleas reported from Iran, but there still exists considerable gap in our knowledge of zoonotic aspect of flea infestation. The present study was undertaken to determine correlation between domestic animals and man as host of fleas. Approach: The questionnaires on the base of flea infestation of animals flock and animal care-man were prepared and distributed to veterinary stations of all townships of Eeast-Azerbaijan province. A total of 297 questionnaires sheets and 156 flea samples were collected from 10 township of East-Azerbaijan province. Results: One hundred forty nine specimens of Pulex irritans were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, chicken and human, which consisted of 91.2% of all recovered fleas. Chickens infested by three species of fleas including Pulex irritans (81.7%, Ctenocephalides canis (11.2% and Ceratophilus gallinae (2.1%. Three hundred and twenty five cases of animal and 239 cases of human infestation were recorded among the suspicious populations, the most prevalence of infestation was found in sheep and goat herds whilst chicken flocks infested with the lowest rate and cattle were infested moderately. The major health problem was occurred in farmers, animal care-men and their relatives. The observations showed they had different skin reactions to fleas bites. Conclusion: The results showed that fleas are approximately a widespread parasite of farm animals and it seems that they may play an important role in occurring of zoonotic infestation in Iran.
Livio, M; Mobilia, A; Abbate, S; Saffioti, G; Nicolosi, L; Isaia, S; Calabrese, C; Graceffa, C
The objective of the study is evalutation of the risk for ticks strings on foresters. The sample constituted by 325 foresters belong to Messina province as been submitted to medical examination venous tests. Whole sample had to answer to a questionnaire to consider. The prevalence of systemic and skin reactions and we have dose Immunoglobulines versus Brucella Melitensis, Rickettsie Conorii e Borrelia Burgdorferi. The results showed that the 19% has declared past stings of tick, and 4.9% reported symptoms probably deriving to a past infections determined by inquired microorganisms. The serum tests showed that 70% was positive for all microorganisms, instead only 31%. Was never infected by inquired microorganisms. In conclusion our study shows that zoonos is risk linked to stings of tick is relatively high in foresters. PMID:18409975
Full Text Available Parasitism is the major problem affecting livestock in many parts of the world. Amongst these parasitic problems, the warble fly infestation (hypodermosis is a notorious and common malady of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in Pakistan. The disease is endemic in cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in semi-hilly and mountainous areas of Pakistan. Keeping in view the importance of buffaloes an epidemiological survey was conducted to find the prevalence of hypodermosis in district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan, during the year 2005- 2006. Buffaloes are mainly kept for milk purpose in the study area. Out of 2000 buffaloes examined clinically, for grub infestation in the study area 125 (6.25% and 37 (5.20% found to be positive for the warble fly infestation in slaughter house as well as in the field. A prevalence variation among the male and female animals was also observed during the study. The factors of climatic conditions that favor the fly activity and contribute in the onset of disease.
Olds, Cassandra; Mwaura, Stephen; Crowder, David; Odongo, David; van Oers, Monique; Owen, Jeb; Bishop, Richard; Daubenberger, Claudia
Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host tick R. appendiculatus, the vector of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. When transmitted to cattle, T. parva causes the often fatal disease East Coast fever. Here, we used insect cell-expressed recombinant versions of the R. appendiculatus homologs of Bm86, named Ra86, to vaccinate cattle. We measured multiple fitness characteristics for ticks that were fed on cattle Ra86-vaccinated or unvaccinated. The Ra86 vaccination of cattle significantly decreased the molting success of nymphal ticks to the adult stage. Modeling simulations based on our empirical data suggest that repeated vaccinations using Ra86 could reduce tick populations over successive generations. Vaccination with Ra86 could thus form a component of integrated control strategies for R. appendiculatus leading to a reduction in use of environmentally damaging acaricides. PMID:22658857
Over the past 10 years the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has had a program of research into the use of radioisotope techniques for studying termite infestations. The studies have been divided between two aspects of termite behaviour: their behaviour in a natural environment, and their behaviour in an urban environment where they co-exist with man and have to cope with his attempts to disturb or eradicate them. Scandium-46 oxide was incorporated into a sawdust-agar gel mixture packed into a hole drilled in wood dowelling. Later lanthanum 140 in a diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex was used, both in the natural environment and in surveys of historic buildings in Sydney. Other termites will accept a bait made from agar gel into which either gold-190 colloid or iodine-131 iodide has been incorporated
Hd86, the Bm86 tick protein ortholog in Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum): expression in Pichia pastoris and analysis of nucleotides and amino acids sequences variations prior to vaccination trials.
Ben Said, Mourad; Galai, Yousr; Canales, Mario; Nijhof, Ard Menzo; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jedidi, Mohamed; de la Fuente, José; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
The genus Hyalomma includes the most frequent tick species infesting livestock in North Africa, one of these species, Hyalomma scupense (syn. H. detritum) is particularly important due to its role in the transmission of tropical theileriosis to cattle (Theileria annulata infection). We have cloned and characterized the orthologs of the Bm86 gene from H. scupense strains collected over Tunisia in 2006 and 2009. The recombinant protein rHd86 was expressed in Pichia pastoris for vaccination purpose using a transcript from the 2006 strain. The rHd86 was then purified from the yeast culture supernatant by a filtration and a size exclusion process. It was recognized by specific anti-Bm86 antisera. An important extent of inter-specific diversity ranging from 35 to 40% was recorded between Hd86 and Bm86/Bm95 proteins whilst a very limited level of intra-specific diversity (1.7%) occurred between the Hd86 vaccine candidate protein and its homologues from H. scupense strains collected in 2009. These results emphasise the need for assessing the efficacy against H. scupense and others important cattle Hyalomma species in Tunisia of our Hd86 vaccine candidate alongside with a Bm86 vaccine. PMID:21871736
Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Cieniuch, Stella
The aim of this study was to assess the importance of forest passerine birds in spreading ixodid ticks infected with rickettsiae of spotted fever group (SFG) in sylvatic habitats in western Poland. In total, 834 immature Ixodes ricinus ticks were found on 64 birds of 11 species which were captured during the tick-questing season between May and September of 2006. Ground-foraging passerines hosted most of the ticks compared with arboreal species, and therefore, only the former group was included into a detailed analysis. Significant predominance of larvae over nymphs was observed (581 vs. 253, respectively). Blackbirds and song thrushes hosted 82 % (n = 681) of the ticks collected from all infested passerines. The overall prevalence range of SF rickettsiae (including Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis) in bird-derived ticks was 10.5-26.9 %, exceeding that in questing ticks, and in ticks feeding on rodents and deer reported earlier from the same study area. This high prevalence of infection in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on passerine birds strongly implies that they are involved in the enzootic maintenance of spotted fever group rickettsiae in the tick vector populations occurring in sylvatic habitats. PMID:27164834
Rodriguez, Idalia A.; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R.
At Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, mouse lemurs (Microcebus griseorufus) are parasitized by multiple species of haemaphysaline ticks. At present we know little about the role ticks play in wild lemur populations and how they can alter interspecies relationships within communities or impact host fitness. In order to better understand these dynamics at BMSR, we examined parasite-host interactions as well as the ecology of mouse lemurs and their infesting ticks, Haemaphysalis lemuris and H. sp. cf. simplex. We show that season, host sex, and habitat influence the relative abundance of ticks on mouse lemurs. Specifically, infestations occur only during the dry season (May–October), are higher in males, and are higher at the study site with the most ground cover and with greater density of large-bodied hosts. Microcebus likely experience decreased susceptibility to tick infestations during the wet season because at that time they rarely if ever descend to the ground. Similarly, male mouse lemurs have higher infestation rates than females because of the greater time they spend traveling and foraging on the ground. During the dry season, Microcebus likely serve as hosts for the tenrec tick, H. sp. cf. simplex, when tenrecs hibernate. In turn, during the wet season when mouse lemurs rarely descend to the ground, other small mammals at the reserve may serve as maintenance hosts for populations of immature ticks. The synchronous development of larvae and nymphs could present high risk for vector-borne disease in Microcebus. This study also provides a preliminary description of the ecology and life cycle of the most common lemur tick, H. lemuris. PMID:26767168
Idalia A. Rodriguez
Full Text Available At Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR, Madagascar, mouse lemurs (Microcebus griseorufus are parasitized by multiple species of haemaphysaline ticks. At present we know little about the role ticks play in wild lemur populations and how they can alter interspecies relationships within communities or impact host fitness. In order to better understand these dynamics at BMSR, we examined parasite-host interactions as well as the ecology of mouse lemurs and their infesting ticks, Haemaphysalis lemuris and H. sp. cf. simplex. We show that season, host sex, and habitat influence the relative abundance of ticks on mouse lemurs. Specifically, infestations occur only during the dry season (May–October, are higher in males, and are higher at the study site with the most ground cover and with greater density of large-bodied hosts. Microcebus likely experience decreased susceptibility to tick infestations during the wet season because at that time they rarely if ever descend to the ground. Similarly, male mouse lemurs have higher infestation rates than females because of the greater time they spend traveling and foraging on the ground. During the dry season, Microcebus likely serve as hosts for the tenrec tick, H. sp. cf. simplex, when tenrecs hibernate. In turn, during the wet season when mouse lemurs rarely descend to the ground, other small mammals at the reserve may serve as maintenance hosts for populations of immature ticks. The synchronous development of larvae and nymphs could present high risk for vector-borne disease in Microcebus. This study also provides a preliminary description of the ecology and life cycle of the most common lemur tick, H. lemuris.
Rodriguez, Idalia A; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R
At Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar, mouse lemurs (Microcebus griseorufus) are parasitized by multiple species of haemaphysaline ticks. At present we know little about the role ticks play in wild lemur populations and how they can alter interspecies relationships within communities or impact host fitness. In order to better understand these dynamics at BMSR, we examined parasite-host interactions as well as the ecology of mouse lemurs and their infesting ticks, Haemaphysalis lemuris and H. sp. cf. simplex. We show that season, host sex, and habitat influence the relative abundance of ticks on mouse lemurs. Specifically, infestations occur only during the dry season (May-October), are higher in males, and are higher at the study site with the most ground cover and with greater density of large-bodied hosts. Microcebus likely experience decreased susceptibility to tick infestations during the wet season because at that time they rarely if ever descend to the ground. Similarly, male mouse lemurs have higher infestation rates than females because of the greater time they spend traveling and foraging on the ground. During the dry season, Microcebus likely serve as hosts for the tenrec tick, H. sp. cf. simplex, when tenrecs hibernate. In turn, during the wet season when mouse lemurs rarely descend to the ground, other small mammals at the reserve may serve as maintenance hosts for populations of immature ticks. The synchronous development of larvae and nymphs could present high risk for vector-borne disease in Microcebus. This study also provides a preliminary description of the ecology and life cycle of the most common lemur tick, H. lemuris. PMID:26767168
Gassner, F.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Smallegange, R.C.; Spitzen, J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Takken, W.
The effect of introduced large herbivores on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and their Borrelia infections was studied in a natural woodland in The Netherlands. Oak and pine plots, either ungrazed or grazed by cattle, were selected. Ticks were collected weekly by blanket dragging. Borrelia inf
Rafael Antonio Nascimento Ramos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cercopithifilaria bainae is a filarioid parasite that infects dogs, being transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus group ticks in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. This study assessed the incidence density rate (IDR of infection by C. bainae in dogs and the probability of co-infection with other tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis, in an area of high endemicity in southern Italy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2011 to October 2012, a field study involving 58 young dogs naturally exposed to tick infestation was conducted. Skin and blood samples obtained from each dog six times during an 18-month period were tested for C. bainae by parasite detection within skin snip sediments, with subsequent confirmation through PCR and DNA sequencing. Dogs examined monthly for ticks and A. platys, B. vogeli and H. canis were microscopically and/or molecularly diagnosed and after the first and the second summer seasons, the IDR for positive animal-month at risk was 3.8% and 1.7% in November 2011 and October 2012, respectively. All 58 C. bainae-infected dogs were simultaneously infected with at least one other tick-borne pathogen. After the first summer season (assessment in November 2011, a C. bainae-infected dog had a 33% probability of being infected with H. canis or A. platys, whereas after the second tick season (assessment in October 2012 the probability of co-infection was 78%, 22% and 11% for H. canis, A. platys and B. vogeli, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that tick-infested dogs are at risk of acquiring infection by C. bainae. In addition, the detection of C. bainae microfilariae indicates a prior tick exposure and, should stimulate testing for other tick-borne disease causing pathogens.
Šikutová, Silvie; Hornok, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Doležálková, I.; Juřicová, Zina; Rudolf, Ivo
Roč. 135, 3-4 (2009), s. 267-271. ISSN 0378-1135 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme EC(XE) GOCE-2003-010284 EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Bhanja virus * Cattle * Horse * Sheep * Hungary Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2009
The protozoan parasite Babesia bovis, a reemerging threat to U.S. cattle, is acquired by adult female ticks of the subgenus Boophilus, and is transovarially transmitted as the kinete stage to developing larval offspring. Sporozoites develop within larvae and are transmitted during larval feeding on ...
Heinze Dar M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis ticks are hematophagous arthropods capable of transmitting many infectious agents to humans. The process of blood feeding is an extended and continuous interplay between tick and host responses. While this process has been studied extensively in vitro, no global understanding of the host response to ticks has emerged. Methods To address this issue, we used PCR-arrays to measure skin-specific expression of 233 discrete genes at 8 time points during primary and secondary infestations of mice with pathogen-free I. scapularis nymphs. Selected results were then validated at the mRNA and protein levels by additional real-time PCR and bioplex assay. Results Primary infestation was characterized by the late induction of an innate immune response. Lectin pattern recognition receptors, cytokines, and chemokines were upregulated consistent with increased neutrophil and macrophage migration. Gene ontology and pathway analyses of downregulated genes suggested inhibition of gene transcription and Th17 immunity. During the secondary infestation, additional genes were modulated suggesting a broader involvement of immune cells including CD8 and CD4 positive T lymphocytes. The cytokine response showed a mixed Th1/Th2 profile with a potential for T regulatory cell activity. Key gene ontology clusters observed during the secondary infestation were cell migration and activation. Matrix metalloproteinases were upregulated, apoptosis-related genes were differentially modulated, and immunoreceptor signaling molecules were upregulated. In contrast, transcripts related to mitogenic, WNT, Hedgehog, and stress pathways were downregulated. Conclusions Our results support a model of tick feeding where lectin pattern recognition receptors orchestrate an innate inflammatory response during primary infestation that primes a mixed Th1/Th2 response upon secondary exposure. Tick feeding inhibits gene transcription and Th17 immunity. Salivary
Full Text Available We herein describe ticks parasitizing birds in forest fragments along the Uberabinha River, a major watercourse that cuts through patches of remnants of Brazilian savannah in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Overall 352 birds from 62 species, overwhelmingly, Passeriformes, were captured with mist-nets. The most abundant bird species was Basileuterus hypoleucus (n=36, followed by Lanio penicillata (n=24 and Thalurania furcata (n=23. Thirty one birds, all Passeriformes, were found infested with 56 ticks from which 12 were larvae and 44 nymphs, all from the Amblyomma genus. Highest infestation prevalence was found on Taraba major (66.6%, Thamnophilus pelzeni (60% and Saltator maximus (50%. The mean intensity of tick infestation was low (1.8 tick per infested bird with most of the parasites located on the neck (60% of birds, followed by the head (20%. All larvae were attached to the skin around the eyes of birds. Amblyomma nodosum was the most numerous tick species found attached to birds (n=23 nymphs, 52.3% of nymphs followed by Amblyomma longirostre (n=5, 11.4% of nymphs. Ecological relationships are discussed.
A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)
Dr. Chris Paddock, a rickettsiologist and infectious disease pathologist discusses a tick-transmitted bacterium, Rickettsia parkeri. Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/18/2011.
Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.
Roč. 11, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 47. ISSN 1742-9994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ticks * venom * secreted proteins * toxicoses * pathogens * convergence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.051, year: 2014
Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.
Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162. ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010
Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren
The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...
Niveles de infestación parasitaria y condición corporal en bovinos doble propósito infestados en condiciones naturales (Degree of infestation and body condition in dual purpose naturally infected cattle
work was carried out in a dual purpose farm oriented to milk production, located in San Antonio, Municipality of Pedraza in Barinas State. 65 cattle were coprologically examined by mean of McMaster technique with a oversaturated solution of NaCl as flotation liquid. The body condition of the animals was evaluated by mean the method of the scale with scores from 1 to 5 and 2,5 as inflection point. The packed cell volume was evaluated by mean of the microhaematocrit microcentrifugation method. The conjuntive color of each animal was evaluated as well. The highest e.p.g. count were observed in animals with a body condition ≤ 2,5. This animals can be considered as wormy animals, a small fraction of the herd showed a good body condition (≥ 3 and high e.p.g. count. This animals can be considered as resilient. Both group of animals are strong grass contaminants. The haematocrit values were similar between no wormy animals and resilient and higher than wormy animals. No association was found between haematocrit and conjuntive color. No anthelmintic resistance was diagnosed against the drugs used in the farm (Doramectine, Ivermectine and Albendazole.
Foil, L D; Coleman, P; Eisler, M; Fragoso-Sanchez, H; Garcia-Vazquez, Z; Guerrero, F D; Jonsson, N N; Langstaff, I G; Li, A Y; Machila, N; Miller, R J; Morton, J; Pruett, J H; Torr, S
This manuscript provides a summary of the results presented at a symposium organized to accumulate information on factors that influence the prevalence of acaricide resistance and tick-borne diseases. This symposium was part of the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), held in New Orleans, LA, USA, during August 10-14, 2003. Populations of southern cattle ticks, Boophilus microplus, from Mexico have developed resistance to many classes of acaricide including chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT), pyrethroids, organophosphates, and formamidines (amitraz). Target site mutations are the most common resistance mechanism observed, but there are examples of metabolic mechanisms. In many pyrethroid resistant strains, a single target site mutation on the Na(+) channel confers very high resistance (resistance ratios: >1000x) to both DDT and all pyrethroid acaricides. Acetylcholine esterase affinity for OPs is changed in resistant tick populations. A second mechanism of OP resistance is linked to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. A PCR-based assay to detect a specific sodium channel gene mutation that is associated with resistance to permethrin has been developed. This assay can be performed on individual ticks at any life stage with results available in a few hours. A number of Mexican strains of B. microplus with varying profiles of pesticide resistance have been genotyped using this test. Additionally, a specific metabolic esterase with permethrin-hydrolyzing activity, CzEst9, has been purified and its gene coding region cloned. This esterase has been associated with high resistance to permethrin in one Mexican tick population. Work is continuing to clone specific acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase genes that appear to be involved in resistance to organophosphates. Our ultimate goal is the design of a battery of DNA- or ELISA-based assays capable of rapidly genotyping individual ticks to
Coxiella burnetii, as an obligata intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of Q-fever. It is widely distributed in nature and is responsible for infection in various animals (cattle, sheep, goat) and humans. C. burnetii has been isolated from milk, ticks and human patients with acute and chronic Q fever. Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of C. burnetii. Since over 40 species of ticks have been found to be infected with C. burnetii, ticks can serve as indicators of infection in nature. In this study, total of 2472 ticks (1446 female, 1021 male and 5 nymphs) were collected from 38 provinces of Turkey. The ticks were gathered into groups of 1 to 7 ticks as to the provinces, species and gender for DNA extraction. Following DNA extraction, the groups were examined for the presence of C. burtii by using the CB1and CB2. The ticks collected from the province of Denizli (56 in total) were gathered into 13 groups according to the species and gender. From these groups, 6 were positive for C. burnetii. The ticks collected from Ankara province, total of 160 ticks, were grouped into 53 as to their species and gender, only one group was found to be positive for C. burnetii. The specificities of PCR products were evaluated by restriction analysis. The positive PCR products were digested with the enzyme Taq1 and for bands in order of 118, 57, 43 and 39 bp's were appeared such as seen in the positive control DNA (C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493)
Full text: An assessment of the parasites of cattle along a major trans-boundary route was carried out in Yewa division of Ogun State, Nigeria between February 2006 and July 2007. The location of study is bound to the west by the Republic of Benin, with which it shares 155 kilometres of International boundary, within latitude 6 deg. 151 N and 7 deg. 581 N in a deciduous/derived Savannah zone of Nigeria. A total of 62 herds of between 56 and 98 heads of cattle entering Nigeria from neighbouring West African Countries by hoof along the Iwoye - Imeko - Olodo - Abeokuta route were observed for various haemo- and ecto-parasites. About 5ml of blood was collected from the jugular vein of each of 245 randomly selected animals into sterile bijou bottles containing 250il of 200 mM disodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (Na2EDTA) as anticoagulant. Animals infested with ectoparasites were noted and the parasites on each of the animals were collected into universal bottles containing 1% formaldehyde. The pus expressed from skin nodules on 18 animals and skin scabs from 15 animals were also collected for Parasitology and Microbiology respectively. All the samples were analysed at the College of veterinary medicine, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. The blood samples were screened for the presence of trypanosomes using the buffy coat centrifugation method and for other blood parasites by examination of Giemsa-stained thin blood smear. Of the 245 blood samples analysed, 123 (50.20%) were positive for blood protozoans. Of these, Babesia spp. infection accounted for 50 (40.65%); Trypanosoma spp. accounted for 29 (23.58%); Anaplasma spp. 14 (11.38%); mixed Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. 9 (7.32%) and mixed Babesia spp. and Trypanosoma spp. 21 (17.07%). All the animals sampled had varying degrees of tick infestation ranging from a total count of 26 to 280 ticks per cattle. Of the 3756 ticks collected, 1080 (28.75%) were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, 917 (24.41%) were
This is a close-up photograph of a tick embedded in the skin. Ticks are important because they can carry diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever, Lyme disease, and others.
Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A. marginale (reticulated and dense occur within a parasitophorous vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm. However, the role of tick genes in pathogen development is unknown. Four genes, found in previous studies to be differentially expressed in Dermacentor variabilis ticks in response to infection with A. marginale, were silenced by RNA interference (RNAi to determine the effect of silencing on the A. marginale developmental cycle. These four genes encoded for putative glutathione S-transferase (GST, salivary selenoprotein M (SelM, H+ transporting lysosomal vacuolar proton pump (vATPase and subolesin. Results The impact of gene knockdown on A. marginale tick infections, both after acquiring infection and after a second transmission feeding, was determined and studied by light microscopy. Silencing of these genes had a different impact on A. marginale development in different tick tissues by affecting infection levels, the densities of colonies containing reticulated or dense forms and tissue morphology. Salivary gland infections were not seen in any of the gene-silenced ticks, raising the question of whether these ticks were able to transmit the pathogen. Conclusion The results of this RNAi and light microscopic analyses of tick tissues infected with A. marginale after the silencing of genes functionally important for pathogen development suggest a role for these molecules during pathogen life cycle in ticks.
Full Text Available Background: The distribution and ecological preferences of ticks of domestic animals in North of Iran were studied four times a year from 2002 to 2005. Methods: A total of 1720 tick specimens were collected from cattle, sheep and goats from different localities of Caspian Sea areas consisting of Guilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Ardebil provinces, Iran. Results: Fourteen tick species were identified as Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (5.23%, H.marginatum (20.34%, H.detritum (3.48%, Haemaphysalis punctata (12.79%, Haem. Parva (0.58%, Haem.concinna (0.58%, Haem.choldokovsky (6.97%, Ixodes ricinus (2.32%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.76%, Rh.bursa (4.65%, Boophilus annulatus (9.88%, Dermacentor niveus (6.39%, D. marginatus (1.74% and Ornithodoros lahorensis (5.23%. Both Dermacentor and Ornithodoros were found only in Ardebil with cold climatic conditions and high altitude. The only ticks, which were found in forest area, were Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Conclusion: The veterinary and public health importance of the above species should be emphasized.
Duzlu, Onder; Yildirim, Alparslan; Inci, Abdullah; Gumussoy, Kadir Semih; Ciloglu, Arif; Onder, Zuhal
This study was carried out to investigate the molecular prevalence of Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) and Francisella tularensis in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes in Turkey. Genomic DNA pools were constructed from a total of 1477 adult hard ticks of Rhipicephalus (Rh.) annulatus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, Rh. bursa, Haemaphysalis (Hae.) parva, Hae. sulcata, Hyalomma marginatum marginatum, H. anatolicum anatolicum, H. anatolicum excavatum, H. detritum detritum, H. dromedarii, Dermacentor marginatus, and Ixodes ricinus species, which were collected from several barns, cattle, and people. Genomic DNA was also extracted from pools consisting of 6203 adult female mosquito species belonging to Aedes vexans, Culex (Cx.) pipiens, Cx. hortensis, Cx. theileri, Culiseta annulata, and Anopheles maculipennis species. Conventional PCR and TaqMan probe-based real- time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene for FLEs and the lpnA gene for F. tularensis, respectively, were performed on the DNA isolates obtained. FLEs and F. tularensis were not found in any genomic DNA pools constructed from ixodid ticks and mosquitos. This study represents the first investigation of F. tularensis and FLEs in potential vector ticks and mosquitoes by molecular methods in Turkey. The present study provides useful insights into the molecular epidemiology of F. tularensis and FLEs. One of the major conclusions of the study is that tularemia outbreaks may be essentially due to direct transmission from the environment (especially from water) in Turkey and not to vector-borne transmission. PMID:26741324
Zhang, Tiantian; Cui, Xuejiao; Zhang, Jincheng; Wang, Hui; Wu, Meng; Zeng, Hua; Cao, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jingze; Hu, Yonghong
In order to explore tick proteins as potential targets for further developing vaccine against ticks, the total proteins of unfed female Dermacentor silvarum were screened with anti-D. silvarum serum produced from rabbits. The results of western blot showed that 3 antigenic proteins of about 100, 68, and 52 kDa were detected by polyclonal antibodies, which means that they probably have immunogenicity. Then, unfed female tick proteins were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and target proteins (100, 68, and 52 kDa) were cut and analyzed by LC-MS/MS, respectively. The comparative results of peptide sequences showed that they might be vitellogenin (Vg), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60), and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), respectively. These data will lay the foundation for the further validation of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by D. silvarum. PMID:26797451
Full Text Available Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV, the causative agent for the fatal life-threatening infectious disease, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS, was first identified in the central and eastern regions of China. Although the viral RNA was detected in free-living and parasitic ticks, the vector for SFTSV remains unsettled.Firstly, an experimental infection study in goats was conducted in a bio-safety level-2 (BSL-2 facility to investigate virus transmission between animals. The results showed that infected animals did not shed virus to the outside through respiratory or digestive tract route, and the control animals did not get infected. Then, a natural infection study was carried out in the SFTSV endemic region. A cohort of naïve goats was used as sentinel animals in the study site. A variety of daily samples including goat sera, ticks and mosquitoes were collected for viral RNA and antibody (from serum only detection, and virus isolation. We detected viral RNA from free-living and parasitic ticks rather than mosquitoes, and from goats after ticks' infestation. We also observed sero-conversion in all members of the animal cohort subsequently. The S segment sequences of the two recovered viral isolates from one infected goat and its parasitic ticks showed a 100% homology at the nucleic acid level.In our natural infection study, close contact between goats does not appear to transmit SFTSV, however, the naïve animals were infected after ticks' infestation and two viral isolates derived from an infected goat and its parasitic ticks shared 100% of sequence identity. These data demonstrate that the etiologic agent for goat cohort's natural infection comes from environmental factors. Of these, ticks, especially the predominant species Haemaphysalis longicornis, probably act as vector for this pathogen. The findings in this study may help local health authorities formulate and focus preventive measures to contain
Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh
A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels. PMID:27065608
Andreina C. Araujo
Full Text Available Abstract:This study aimed to report the prevalence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the urban and rural areas of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Serum and peripheral blood samples of 404 dogs were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and by blood smears, respectively. The presence of tick infestation was evaluated, and some specimens were submitted to DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The presence of antibodies anti-B. canis vogeli was determinate in 57.9% (234/404 of dogs. The direct detection of Babesia spp was obtained in 0.5% (2/404 dogs by visualization of intraerythrocytic forms. Infestation by Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato was observed in 54.5% (220/404 of dogs in both urban and rural areas. DNA of Babesia canis vogeli were obtained by PCR in 6% individual (3/50 and 8.7% of pool of ticks (7/80. The risk factors for the presence of anti-B. canis vogeli antibodies, as determined through the application of logistic regression models (P<0.05, were the following: medium breed size variables (P<0.001; contact with areas of forest (P=0.021; and access on the street (P=0.046. This study describes, for the first time, the confirmation of infection of B. canis vogeli in dogs and ticks in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil.
Full Text Available Considering the lacunae of knowledge on the tick fauna of Kerala, South India, a three year study was carried out to understand the species diversity, distribution pattern and systematic details of the ixodid ticks infesting our domestic animals. Attention was also focussed on the damage symptoms induced by individual tick species to respective host animals including man. During the study period, 3758 host animals representing 12 species and 12 genera were examined for the presence of ticks. Results of the taxonomic analysis revealed a total of 19 species including 2 subspecies belonging to 6 genera and one subgenus of the family Ixodidae. Of these, 2 new species viz., Haemophysalis knobigera and Nosomma keralensis infesting buffalo are described here with detailed illustrations. The unique features of H. knobigera include the presence of a small knob like spur on coax-I, cornua less than the size of basis capitulum and ventral palpal spur reaching near to mid length of palpal segment 2. The specific characters of N.keralensis include features like less ornamented and more stout body and spurs on coxa I equal in length.
George, J E; Davey, R B; Ahrens, E H; Pound, J M; Drummond, R O
Four groups of cattle infested with Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were each dipped in a different concentration of amitraz diluted from a 12.5% EC formulation to determine the efficacy and performance of the product in an 11,400 l dipping vat. Except for the period when heifers were dipped, animals were restrained in stanchions placed individually inside 3.3 x 3.3 m2 stalls within an open-sided barn. The amitraz in the vat was stabilized with hydrated lime to maintain a pH of ca. 12. Analyses of vat samples showed that concentrations of amitraz in the vat were 7.6 to 13% lower than the targeted concentrations of 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, and 0.025% active ingredient (AI) for dilutions prepared according to instructions on the manufacturer's label. The large quantity of hydrated lime added to the vat (10 kg/1000 l) interfered with the HPLC analysis of vat samples. Therapeutic efficacy of each of the four observed concentrations (0.0088, 0.0131, 0.0174, and 0.0231% AI) of amitraz was excellent (> 99% control). However, the rapid detachment of all ticks from an animal within a few hours after treatment with amitraz, that has been frequently observed, was not pronounced in the present study. Only 47% of the B. microplus detached in the first 4 h post-treatment, and 84% detached within the first 24 h. All of the treatments, except the lowest concentration, provided protection of cattle against re-infestation by B. microplus larvae for 14 days post-treatment. Possibly as a result of the formation of a compact layer of lime and amitraz on the bottom after the vat was undisturbed for six weeks, intense agitation was required to re-suspend the active ingredient. PMID:9879580
Diyes, G C P; Rajakaruna, R S
Otobius megnini is a one host, nidicolous soft tick (Family Argasidae) whose larvae and nymphs parasitize the external ear canal of many wild and domestic animals and occasionally humans. The present study was conducted to determine the seasonal dynamics of O. megnini infesting stabled horses in Nuwara Eliya racecourses. Ticks were sampled biweekly for two years from May 2013 to May 2015 from the ear canal of seven thoroughbred male horses. Weather data: temperature, rainfall and humidity for the study period were obtained from the Meteorological Department, Colombo. A total of 23, 287 ticks of O. megnini were collected from the ear canal of horses and all of which were immature stages comprising 41.4% larvae and 59.6% nymphs. Larval counts were high during warmer months of the year with minimum numbers recording September-November. High larval abundance may be due to the high hatching rate of eggs at high temperatures. Larval abundance was significantly affected by maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity and average relative humidity (Multiple regression; r(2)=0.5, F=3.7, p=0.01). Population peaks for nymphs occurred in May, October and January. Nymph counts were low in March and April. Weather conditions did not have any correlation with the abundance of nymphs. Rainfall had no effect on both larvae and nymph counts. Even though control measures have been taken, O. megnini infestation is a serious problem for the stable owners especially because these horses are used in racing and other recreational purposes. Further, there is a high risk of spreading this tick within the country due to the presence of suitable hosts and the adaptability of the tick to survive in changing climatic conditions. Information on the seasonal dynamics of the tick population is important for employing control measures. PMID:27012721
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arthropods are a diverse group of organisms including Chelicerata (ticks, mites, spiders, Crustacea (crabs, shrimps, and Insecta (flies, mosquitoes, beetles, silkworm. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, is an economically significant ectoparasite of cattle affecting cattle industries world wide. With the availability of sequence reads from the first Chelicerate genome project (the Ixodes scapularis tick and extensive R. microplus ESTs, we investigated evidence for putative RNAi proteins and studied RNA interference in tick cell cultures and adult female ticks targeting Drosophila homologues with known cell viability phenotype. Results We screened 13,643 R. microplus ESTs and I. scapularis genome reads to identify RNAi related proteins in ticks. Our analysis identified 31 RNAi proteins including a putative tick Dicer, RISC associated (Ago-2 and FMRp, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (EGO-1 and 23 homologues implicated in dsRNA uptake and processing. We selected 10 R. microplus ESTs with >80% similarity to D. melanogaster proteins associated with cell viability for RNAi functional screens in both BME26 R. microplus embryonic cells and female ticks in vivo. Only genes associated with proteasomes had an effect on cell viability in vitro. In vivo RNAi showed that 9 genes had significant effects either causing lethality or impairing egg laying. Conclusion We have identified key RNAi-related proteins in ticks and along with our loss-of-function studies support a functional RNAi pathway in R. microplus. Our preliminary studies indicate that tick RNAi pathways may differ from that of other Arthropods such as insects.
Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio
We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %). PMID:27392740
CDCâs tick expert, Dr. Christopher Paddock, discusses ticks found in a new location. Created: 8/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 8/4/2016.
Ferrari, N; Cattadori, I M; Rizzoli, A; Hudson, P J
Free-living animals are usually inhabited by a community of parasitic species that can interact with each other and alter both host susceptibility and parasite transmission. In this study we tested the prediction that an increase in the gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus would increase the infestation of the tick Ixodes ricinus, in free-living yellow-necked mice, Apodemus flavicollis. An extensive cross-sectional trapping survey identified a negative relationship between H. polygyrus and I. ricinus counter to the prediction. An experimental reduction of the nematode infection through anthelmintic treatment resulted in an increase in tick infestation, suggesting that this negative association was one of cause and effect. Host characteristics (breeding condition and age) and habitat variables also contributed to affect tick infestation. While these results were counter to the prediction, they still support the hypothesis that interactions between parasite species can shape parasite community dynamics in natural systems. Laboratory models may act differently from natural populations and the mechanism generating the negative association is discussed. PMID:19154651
Full Text Available Abstract Background The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The morphological and genetic differences among R. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from America/Africa and those from Australia being different species. To test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we performed a series of experiments to characterize the reproductive performance of crosses between R. microplus from Australia, Africa and America and the genetic diversity of strains from Australia, Asia, Africa and America. Results The results showed that the crosses between Australian and Argentinean or Mozambican strains of boophilid ticks are infertile while crosses between Argentinean and Mozambican strains are fertile. These results showed that tick strains from Africa (Mozambique and America (Argentina are the same species, while ticks from Australia may actually represent a separate species. The genetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA and microsatellite loci were not conclusive when taken separately, but provided evidence that Australian tick strains were genetically different from Asian, African and American strains. Conclusion The results reported herein support the hypothesis that at least two different species share the name R. microplus. These species could be redefined as R. microplus (Canestrini, 1887 (for American and African strains and probably the old R. australis Fuller, 1899 (for Australian strains, which needs to be redescribed. However, experiments with a larger number of tick strains from different geographic locations are needed to corroborate these results.
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Lawrence, J. A.; Kafuwa, P. T.;
were then issued to smallholder farmers, together with unvaccinated controls, where many of them were exposed to heavy tick infestation. Vaccination was shown to provide a significant degree of protection against babesiosis on the smallholder farms; 15/32 unvaccinated controls developed clinical...
Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf-Sani, Ali Asghar; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this
Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.
Patarroyo, J H; Portela, R W; De Castro, R O; Pimentel, J Couto; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E; Vargas, M I; Prates, A A; Mendes, M A Dias
Three synthetic peptides (SBm4912, SBm7462 and SBm19733), derived from the Bm86 glycoprotein from Boophilus microplus gut, were constructed and used to immunize cattle from a tick-free area. The immunized animals received three subcutaneous doses of the peptides, with saponin as adjuvant, at 30-day intervals. The immune response was evaluated by IgG elicited against the peptides by the detection of anti-Bm86 specific antibodies in situ and by Western blotting analysis. After tick challenge, reduction in the number, weight and oviposition capacity of engorged females was observed in the tick population that had fed on immunized animals. The results pointed a high efficacy (81.05%) for the SBm7462 synthetic peptide in relation to the others (p<0.01), demonstrating the efficiency of the immune response elicited by synthetic peptides to control the cattle tick B. microplus. PMID:12127414
The aim of the bachelor thesis was to compare various methods of Ixodes ricinus tick infection with the tick-borne encephalitis virus. For infection by immersion method, less virulent TBE virus strain Neudoerfl was used resulting in 5 % of infected ticks. Using more virulent strain Hypr provided 60 % of infected ticks. 75 % of ticks became infected with the Neudoerfl virus by capillary feeding. Infection of ticks by feeding on viraemic mice was unsuccessful. Applicability of tested methods fo...
van Nunen, Sheryl
Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this a...
Willadsen, P; Smith, D; Cobon, G; McKenna, R V
Cattle were vaccinated either with a single recombinant tick antigen, Bm86 or with a combination of two recombinant antigens, Bm86 and Bm91 from the tick Boophilus microplus. In three experiments, the responses of cattle to subsequent challenge with the tick were assessed. The addition of the Bm91 antigen enhanced the efficacy of the vaccination over that with Bm86 alone to a statistically significant degree. Moreover, co-vaccination with two antigens did not impair the response of cattle to the Bm86 antigen. Finally, responses of individual cattle to the two antigens were independent. All of these results may be relevant to the increase in efficacy expected from a dual antigen vaccine. PMID:9229376
Cysteine proteases have been shown to be highly relevant for Apicomplexan parasites. In the case of Babesia bovis, a tick-transmitted hemoparasite of cattle, inhibitors of these enzymes were shown to hamper intraerythrocytic replication of the parasite, underscoring their importance for survival. Da...
Over the past 70 years, the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has developed resistance to every acaricide available for its control. Recently, populations of R. microplus have evolved simultaneous resistance to multiple classes of acaricides. These multi-resistant population...
Van Oosten, A R; Heylen, D J A; Matthysen, E
Host specialisation in parasites can be due to either limited exposure or limited adaptation to different host types. When the first barrier is lifted experimentally, the degree of adaptive specialisation can be studied. The tree-hole tick Ixodes arboricola is an endophilic parasite with a narrow host range, found in nest boxes used mainly by great and blue tits (Parus major, Cyanistes caeruleus) and to a lesser extent by pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and nuthatches (Sitta europaea). In the current study, we exposed two nestlings per nestbox of pied flycatchers (N = 14), blue tits (N = 18), great tits (N = 14), and nuthatches (N = 16) to ten I. arboricola nymphs each. We found no differences in attachment success 2 days after infestation (56 ± 4% across species) nor were there any differences in tick engorgement weight (1.95 ± 0.03 mg across species), and moulting success was >90% for ticks from all bird species. Hence, our data suggest that all bird species investigated here are suitable host species. This may enhance the ticks' chances for persistence in cavities and dispersal among cavities inhabited by multiple host species, and supports the hypothesis that host use by ticks is limited by host ecology rather than by host specialisation. PMID:25231076
Patrícia V.B. Leite
Full Text Available We evaluated the dynamics of ear infestations caused by Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp., which were correlated with animal age, intensity of clinical signs and climate factors. Sixty-four Gir cattle were distributed into three groups: GA - 23 calves with 4 to 6 months of age; GB - 18 calves with 7 to 12 months of age; and GC - 23 heifers with 13 to 33 months of age. Five samplings, defined as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 were performed every three months from August 2008 to August 2009. The ear secretion was collected using the auricular washing method for the right ear and a swab for the left ear. A clinical assessment of the animals was performed, and they were classified according to the presence and severity of otitis. The highest relative frequency of rhabditosis was 52.2% in GC at the last sampling. In the first sampling, 42.2% of the animals were infested by Raillietia spp. The older cattle were more susceptible to infestations by both parasites. No correlation of Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp. parasitism with climate factors was found. The results showed that both parasites could infest Gir cattle, and in most cases, there was no co-infestation. Only older animals parasitized by the nematode showed clinical signs of the disease.
Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva
Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.
Full Text Available Background: Ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by the family of Anaplasmatacea. Recently, outbreak of human monocytic ehrlichiosis was reported in northern part of Iran. Besides, serological evidence of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis was reported from southeastern of Iran but the epidemiology of this disease is almost undetermined in Iran. The present study was designed to use PCR for detection of Ehrlichia spp. in tick infested household dogs and determination of risks of disease transmission to dog’s owners.Method: Blood samples were prepared from 100 tick infested household dogs after complete clinical examination. Complete cell blood count was done for each sample. DNA extraction was done and PCR was carried out by a commercial kit afterwards. Regarding to PCR results, blood samples were collected from owners and family members who were exposed to infected and non-infected dogs. A similar method was utilized for DNA extraction and PCR in human samples.Result: Ehrlichial DNA was detected by PCR in six percent of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick pools and 9% of the examined dogs. No positive sample was detected among the 67 examined human bloods.Conclusion: Ehrlichiosis could be considered as an emerging canine disease but owning a dog should not be considered a major risk factor for ehrlichiosis in humans. Further serological and molecular studies in different parts of Iran are required to clarify the epidemiology of ehrlichiosis in canine, ticks, and human population.
Sandra Regina Maruyama
Full Text Available Transcripts similar to those that encode the nonstructural (NS proteins NS3 and NS5 from flaviviruses were found in a salivary gland (SG complementary DNA (cDNA library from the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Tick extracts were cultured with cells to enable the isolation of viruses capable of replicating in cultured invertebrate and vertebrate cells. Deep sequencing of the viral RNA isolated from culture supernatants provided the complete coding sequences for the NS3 and NS5 proteins and their molecular characterisation confirmed similarity with the NS3 and NS5 sequences from other flaviviruses. Despite this similarity, phylogenetic analyses revealed that this potentially novel virus may be a highly divergent member of the genus Flavivirus. Interestingly, we detected the divergent NS3 and NS5 sequences in ticks collected from several dairy farms widely distributed throughout three regions of Brazil. This is the first report of flavivirus-like transcripts in R. microplus ticks. This novel virus is a potential arbovirus because it replicated in arthropod and mammalian cells; furthermore, it was detected in a cDNA library from tick SGs and therefore may be present in tick saliva. It is important to determine whether and by what means this potential virus is transmissible and to monitor the virus as a potential emerging tick-borne zoonotic pathogen.
Offerdahl, Danielle K.; Clancy, Niall G.; Bloom, Marshall E.
The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate the survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.
Danielle K Offerdahl
Full Text Available The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus members of the group (TBEV often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.
Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L
High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647
Jittapalapong, S; Kaewhom, P; Kengradomkij, C; Saratapan, N; Canales, M; de la Fuente, J; Stich, R W
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an important cause of economic losses in Thailand through direct effects of feeding on cattle and pathogen transmission. Current tick control methods rely on expensive chemical acaricides that result in environmental contamination, residues in food animal products and acaricide-resistant ticks. Anti-tick vaccines based on concealed antigens have shown promising results in the control of cattle tick. Thus, recombinant Bm95 (rBm95) from Thai R. microplus (KU-VAC1) was cloned and expressed to test as an anti-tick vaccine in Thailand. The objective of this study was to compare antibody responses induced by KU-VAC1 to that obtained after vaccination with Gavac that is based on the Bm86 homologue. Four groups of six cattle each were immunized with KU-VAC1, Gavac, adjuvant or phosphate-buffered saline, and boosted three times at 21-day intervals. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent serologic assay were used to measure the humoral antibody responses specific to Thai rBm95. Cattle immunized with either KU-VAC1 or Gavac showed significantly greater antibody production than the controls. Antibody titres were detected after the first immunization and peaked after the seventh week. These results indicated that KU-VAC1 and Gavac are similarly immunogenic, and that further studies are warranted to compare performance parameters of ticks fed on immunized cattle. PMID:20537117
... Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... muscle pain. The red-spotted rash usually happens 2 to 5 days after the fever begins. Antibiotics ...
Estrada-Pena, A.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo
Hoboken: Wiley, 2013 - (Singh, S.), 573-602 ISBN 9781118297872 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : climate change * Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) * tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) * tick-transmitted viruses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology
Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A
Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413
Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be...
Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, F.
Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases and the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic- and wild animals. A number of emerging tick-borne pathogens are already discovered; however, the proportion of undiagnosed infectious diseases, especially in tropical regions, may suggest that there are still more pathogens associated with ticks. Moreover, the identification of bacteria associated with ticks may provide new tool for th...
Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie
Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman...
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available Several studies describe anatomical, morphological and histological analysis of domestic and wild animals tongue. The tongue is an extendable muscular organ that performs gripping, chewing, and swallowing food actions and executes tasting and mechanical body self-cleaning functions (grooming. The distribution of these tongue characteristics may vary, according to different species, but studies made with different animals classes reveal the filiform papilla acting in mechanical body cleaning function. In order to evaluate these mechanical functions, especially the self-cleaning one, we proposed to investigate filiform papillae length or its base dimensions would be related to the heifers resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus tick. Biopsies were performed in eight (8 Holstein heifers’ tongues, with a 6 mm diameter punch, in the anterior third of tongues, at the distance of 3 cm from its tip. The animals were anesthetized with xylazine hydrochloride 2%, a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant and received local anesthetic, hydrochloride 2.0 g lidocaine. After tissue removal, the local lesions received an ointment of triamcinolone acetonide, 1.0 mg g-1. The Holstein heifers were one year and half old and naturally infested with ticks in a paddock situated at “Instituto de Zootecnia”. We monitored their natural infestation by counting females ticks, greater than 4.5 mm, presents in every animal, in four weekly evaluations (from 8 to 28 December – 2011. These samples were submitted to technical process of fixation and dehydration (as required by in the scanning electron microscope study, in the laboratory NAP/MEPA - ESALQ-USP. The papillae were visualized and measured with the aid of the measurement tool between two points of the software in the scanning electron microscope Zeiss LEO 435VP. Statistically analyses were performed by the SPSSP 12.0 program in a complete randomized design. We employed the Oneway method for variance analysis to
M A Alonso-Díaz
Full Text Available La resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es uno de los principales problemas que afectan a los productores bovinos en el subtrópico y trópico, donde las garrapatas, especialmente Boophilus microplus y los agentes que transmiten, tienen un efecto costo-beneficio en la producción. El objetivo de la presente revisión es dar a conocer los principales hallazgos de la resistencia de B. microplus. Se presenta la definición, desarrollo, evolución y el diagnóstico de la resistencia. Asimismo, se presenta la distribución mundial de la resistencia de las garrapatas, especialmente en México. Se concluye que la resistencia de las garrapatas a los ixodicidas es un problema importante en la producción bovina y se necesitan implementar medidas estratégicas para reducir o retardar el impacto en la ganadería bovina.The tick is a major problem for cattle producers in subtropical and tropical areas where ticks, especially Boophilus microplus, and the disease agents that they transmit, are a constraint to cost-effective production. The aim of the present review is to present the most important findings of acaricide resistance in the B. microplus tick. The definition, development, evolution and diagnosis of tick resistance are presented. The distribution of tick resistance in the world, especially in Mexico is also presented. It is concluded that tick resistance is an important problem for cattle production and strategies need to be developed to reduce the impact on cattle.
Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620
Cruz-Vazquez, C; Carvajal Márquez, J; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R; Vitela-Mendoza, I; Ramos-Parra, M
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae applied by aspersion to control of Stomoxys calcitrans flies in dairy cattle naturally infested. Was applied by aspersion an aqueous formulation of M. anisopliae sensu lato (Ma134), at a concentration of 1×10(8)conidia/ml, four times with seven day intervals, on a group of eight Holstein cows; a control group of eight Holstein cows, received a water solution with Tween 80 (0.1%). The average number of flies per animal was estimated one day before each application, and then daily counts were done in both groups. The effectiveness of the formulation was calculated using the Abbott's formula. At the same time, defensive behaviors of stamp/kicks and tail movements were evaluated daily, estimating relative frequency per hour. The Ma134 formulation had an infestation control efficacy of 73%, taking into consideration the four study weeks. The population reduction effect was observed since the first week post-application (p<0.05), and the effect increased with the subsequent applications. Defensive behaviors were reduced beginning from the first application, reaching a reduction of 66% and 70%, respectively, during the four weeks of study. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the formulation to control infestation by S. calcitrans, as well as reduce defensive behaviors which involves the infestation. PMID:26209932
Abordagem sobre o controle do carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Studies of the management of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Tânia Regina B. Santos
Full Text Available Na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul a infestação dos bovinos por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ocorre, principalmente, entre os meses de outubro e abril, devido às condições climáticas. Além do conhecimento do ciclo biológico desse parasito, também é fundamental conhecer a epidemiologia, para estabelecer estratégias de controle. No Rio Grande do Sul, e também no Brasil, existem poucos estudos epidemiológicos a respeito da resistência aos acaricidas. Além disso, a grande área geográfica e a deficiência estrutural quanto ao uso e acesso a bancos de dados dificultam a obtenção de dados confiáveis. O presente estudo teve como objetivo realizar um inquérito abordando a percepção dos produtores da região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, quanto à identificação de populações de R. (B. microplus difíceis de controlar com acaricidas e os fatores de risco para a seleção de populações de carrapatos resistentes. Para execução do trabalho foram coletados dados sobre o controle do carrapato de bovinos de corte, em 85 propriedades de sete municípios, localizados na região sul do Estado. Os resultados revelaram a existência de associação positiva entre a dificuldade de controlar o carrapato com os acaricidas e o grau de instrução do proprietário (até o ensino fundamental com OR=3,67 e p=0,01 e o número de aplicação de carrapaticida por ano (superior a 4 com OR=4,05 e p=0,006. Esses resultados indicam também que propriedades com mais de 100 bovinos de corte em criação extensiva, na região sul do rio Grande do Sul apresentam características que podem contribuir para uma maior vida útil dos carrapaticidas do que as verificadas em outras regiões do País.In the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, cattle become infested with Rhipicephalus (B. microplus mainly between October and April due to the climatic conditions. In addition to knowing its life cycle, knowledge of parasite's epidemiology is essential to
Yano, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takayuki; Shiraishi, Satoshi; Uchida, Teruaki
The oocyte development during the period from the unfed stage to the day of oviposition, morphological changes of funicle cells at ovulation, and situation of spermatozoa in the ovarian lumen were examined in bisexual Haewxzphyalis longicomis. The oocyte began to develop with feeding, protruded into the haemocoel from the surface of the ovary, and then became sustained by the funicle cells derived from ovarian epithelial cells. Yolk deposition and egg-shell synthesis commenced on the day of d...
Valle, Manuel Rodriguez; Mèndez, Luis; Valdez, Mario; Redondo, Miguel; Espinosa, Carlos Montero; Vargas, Milagro; Cruz, Ricardo Lleonart; Barrios, Humberto Perez; Seoane, Guillermo; Ramirez, Emerio Serrano; Boue, Oscar; Vigil, Jorge Lodos; Machado, Héctor; Nordelo, Carlos Borroto; Piñeiro, Marisdania Joglar
Boophilus microplus has developed resistance against a range of chemical acaricides which has stimulated the development of alternative methods such as vaccination against ticks. In Cuba, the Bm86-based recombinant vaccine Gavac has been successfully used in a number of controlled laboratory and field trials in cattle against B. microplus. In this paper, we have evaluated Gavac in a large scale field trial wherein 588,573 dairy cattle were vaccinated with the aim to reduce the number of acaricidal treatments. It was found that the number of acaricidal treatments could be reduced by 87% over a period of 8 years (1995--2003). Prior to the introduction of the vaccine, 54 clinical cases of babesiosis and six fatal cases were reported per 1000 animals. Six years later, the incidence of babesiosis was reduced to 1.9 cases per 1000 cattle and mortality reduced to 0.18 per 1000. The national consumption of acaricides in Cuba could be reduced by 82% after the implementation of the integrated anti-B. microplus control program. PMID:15651533
Luis E. Fazzio
Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate for 75 days the impact on production of the remaining burden of ivermectin (IVM-resistant parasites in naturally infected feedlot calves. The herds came from tick-infested areas of cattle breeding where the systematic use of IVM to control tick increases the gastrointestinal parasites resistant to this drug. This investigation was carried out in two commercial feedlots in Buenos Aires province. In feedlot A, two groups of 35 animal each received IVM 1% and the other received ricobendazole (RBZ 10% respectively. The same was done in feedlot B. On day 0, two groups of 35 animals were made in feedlots A and B. Fecal samples were taken on days 0, 22, 54 and 75 pos-treatment (PT, and body weight was registered, from each animal. Fecal samples were processed for individual count of eggs per gram (EPG and pooled fecal culture was carried out for identification of the parasite genus in each sampling. Fecal egg count reduction test (FECR was calculated on day 22 PT. The study design used was a totally randomized block, with commercial feedlot and sex as block variables. For data analysis, a mixed model of the SAS statistical program was used. The FECR average on day 22 was 28.4% in the IVM group, and 94,2 % in the RBZ group . From this date on, significant differences in EPG were kept until day 54. EPG counts were only equal near the end of the trial, on day 75 (p=0.16. In both commercial feedlots, especially in the IVM group, Cooperia spp. was the most prevalent parasite in the fecal cultures. Significant differences in weight (P<0.01 on post-treatment day 75 was found between the average weight in the RBZ and the IVM group (246 vs. 238 kg respectively, what means a difference of 8.3% in gains. The importance for production in the antiparasite failure treatment in commercial feedlots was demonstrated, and the need of pos-treatment controls to evaluate the efficacy of the antiparasitic administered is emphasized.
Full Text Available Ticks are vectors for various, including pathogenic, microbes. Tick saliva contains multiple anti-host defense factors that enable ticks their bloodmeals yet also facilitate microbe transmission. Lyme disease-causing borreliae profit specifically from the broadly conserved tick histamine release factor (tHRF, and from cysteine-rich glycoproteins represented by Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis and Iric-1 from Ixodes ricinus ticks which they recruit to their outer surface protein C (OspC. Hence these tick proteins are attractive targets for anti-tick vaccines that simultaneously impair borrelia transmission. Main obstacles are the tick proteins´ immunosuppressive activities, and for Salp15 orthologs, the lack of efficient recombinant expression systems. Here, we exploited the immune-enhancing properties of hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc derived capsid-like particles (CLPs to generate, in E. coli, nanoparticulate vaccines presenting tHRF and, as surrogates for the barely soluble wild-type proteins, cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 variants. The latter CLPs were exclusively accessible in the less sterically constrained SplitCore system. Mice immunized with tHRF CLPs mounted a strong anti-tHRF antibody response. CLPs presenting cysteine-free Salp15 and Iric-1 induced antibodies to wild-type, including glycosylated, Salp15 and Iric-1. The broadly distributed epitopes included the OspC interaction sites. In vitro, the anti-Salp15 antibodies interfered with OspC binding and enhanced human complement-mediated killing of Salp15 decorated borreliae. A mixture of all three CLPs induced high titered antibodies against all three targets, suggesting the feasibility of combination vaccines. These data warrant in vivo validation of the new candidate vaccines´ protective potential against tick infestation and Borrelia transmission.
EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW
Full Text Available The report provides an update on the role of the tick vectors in the epidemiology of African swine fever (ASF and Crimean and Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Eurasia, specifically to review of the geographical distribution of the relevant ticks with presentation of maps of their occurrence in Europe and Mediterranean basin; a description of the factors that define the relevant tick population dynamics and identify possible high risk areas in the EU; an update on the role of tick vectors associated with CCHF and ASF in Eurasia; and reviews available methods for the control of the relevant tick vectors. Data were collected through systematic literature review in a database from which maps of geographic distribution of ticks, CCHF virus and ASF virus were issued. The main vectors for CCHF are Hyalomma spp, Increase in the number of fragmented areas and the degradation of agricultural lands to bush lands are the two main factors in the creation of new foci of CCHF in endemic areas. Movement of livestock and wildlife species, which may carry infected ticks, contributes to the spread of the infection. The Middle East and Balkan countries are the most likely sources of introduction of CCHFV into other European countries. All the Ornithodoros species investigated so far can become infective with ASF virus and are perhaps biological vectors. These ticks are important in maintaining the local foci of the ASFV, but do not play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boars have never been found infested by Ornithodoros spp. because wild boars normally do not rest inside protected burrows, but above the ground. There is no single ideal solution to the control of ticks relevant for CCHF or ASF. The integrated control approach is probably the most effective.
Nijhof, Ard M; Balk, Jesper A; Postigo, Milagros; Rhebergen, Anne Marie; Taoufik, Amar; Jongejan, Frans
Tick control on livestock relies principally on the use of acaricides but the development of acaricide resistance and concerns for environmental pollution underscore the need for alternative control methods, for instance through the use of anti-tick vaccines. Two commercial vaccines based on the recombinant Bm86 protein from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were developed. Partial protection of the Bm86 vaccine against other Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) and Hyalomma tick species suggests that the efficacy of a Bm86-based vaccine may be enhanced when based on the orthologous recombinant Bm86 antigen. We therefore identified and analysed the Bm86 homologues from species representing the main argasid and ixodid tick genera, including two from the prostriate Ixodes ricinus tick species. A novel protein from metastriate ticks with multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains which is structurally related to Bm86 was identified by using a 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3'-RACE) method with a degenerate primer based on a highly conserved region of Bm86 and its orthologues. This second protein was named ATAQ after a part of its signature peptide. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that ATAQ proteins are expressed in both midguts and Malpighian tubules, in contrast to Bm86 orthologues which are expressed exclusively in tick midguts. Furthermore, expression of this protein over the life stages of R. microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was more continuous compared with Bm86. Although a highly effective vaccine antigen, gene silencing of Bm86 by RNA interference (RNAi) produced only a weak phenotype. Similarly the RNAi phenotype of Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi females in which the expression of Ree86, ReeATAQ or a combination of both genes was silenced by RNAi did not differ from a mock-injected control group. The vaccine potential of ATAQ proteins against tick infestations is yet to be evaluated. PMID:20647015
扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。
Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo
Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.
Scott, John D; Anderson, John F; Durden, Lance A; Smith, Morgan L; Manord, Jodi M; Clark, Kerry L
Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771
Scott, John D.; Anderson, John F.; Durden, Lance A.; Smith, Morgan L.; Manord, Jodi M.; Clark, Kerry L.
Lyme disease has emerged as a major health concern in Canada, where the etiological agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), a spirochetal bacterium, is typically spread by the bite of certain ticks. This study explores the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, collected at Dundas, Ontario (a locality within the region of Hamilton-Wentworth). Using passive surveillance, veterinarians and pet groomers were asked to collect blacklegged ticks from dogs and cats with no history of travel. Additionally, I. scapularis specimens were submitted from local residents and collected by flagging. Overall, 12 (41%) of 29 blacklegged ticks were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, two borrelial amplicons were characterized as B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), a genospecies pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Notably, three different vertebrate hosts each had two engorged I. scapularis females removed on the same day and, likewise, one cat had three repeat occurrences of this tick species. These multiple infestations suggest that a population of I. scapularis may be established in this area. The local public health unit has been underreporting the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected I. scapularis in the area encompassing Dundas. Our findings raise concerns about the need to erect tick warning signs in parkland areas. Veterinarians, medical professionals, public health officials, and the general public must be vigilant that Lyme disease-carrying blacklegged ticks pose a public health risk in the Dundas area and the surrounding Hamilton-Wentworth region. PMID:27226771
Swart, Arno; Ibañez-Justicia, Adolfo; Buijs, Jan; van Wieren, Sip E.; Hofmeester, Tim R.; Sprong, Hein; Takumi, Katsuhisa
Public health statistics recorded an increasing trend in the incidence of tick bites and erythema migrans (EM) in the Netherlands. We investigated whether the disease incidence could be predicted by a spatially explicit categorization model, based on environmental factors and a training set of tick absence–presence data. Presence and absence of Ixodes ricinus were determined by the blanket-dragging method at numerous sites spread over the Netherlands. The probability of tick presence on a 1 km by 1 km square grid was estimated from the field data using a satellite-based methodology. Expert elicitation was conducted to provide a Bayesian prior per landscape type. We applied a linear model to test for a linear relationship between incidence of EM consultations by general practitioners in the Netherlands and the estimated probability of tick presence. Ticks were present at 252 distinct sampling coordinates and absent at 425. Tick presence was estimated for 54% of the total land cover. Our model has predictive power for tick presence in the Netherlands, tick-bite incidence per municipality correlated significantly with the average probability of tick presence per grid. The estimated intercept of the linear model was positive and significant. This indicates that a significant fraction of the tick-bite consultations could be attributed to the I. ricinus population outside the resident municipality. PMID:25505781
Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Giglioti, R; Beraldo, M C D; Aníbal, F F; Correia, R O; Boschini, L; Chagas, A C S; Bilhassi, T B; Oliveira, H N
The resistance to infestations by ectoparasites and infections by gastrointestinal nematodes was studied in 45 animals (males and females) of two genetic groups: purebred Nelore (NI, n=28) and Three-Cross (1/2 Angus+1/4 Canchim+1/4 Nelore - TC, n=17). The animals were monitored for 24 months, during which they were left to graze in tropical pastures without receiving treatment for parasites. Each month the animals were examined for infestations by external parasites, to count the numbers of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus with diameter greater than 4.5mm present on the left side, horn flies (Haematobia irritans) present in the lumbar region and botfly larvae (Dermatobia hominis) present on the entire body. The H. irritans counts were performed with the aid of digital photographs. At the time of examination, fecal samples were collected to count the eggs per gram (EPG) and to perform coprocultures, and peripheral blood samples were drawn to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) and to count the eosinophils. For statistical analysis, the count data were transformed into log₁₀ (n+1), where n is the number of parasites. For PCV, significant effects (Pparasites compared to the TC animals (P<0.01). For ticks, the transformed means followed by standard errors for the NI and TC animals were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.02, while for horn flies these were 0.92 ± 0.05 and 1.36 ± 0.06 and for botfly larvae they were 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively. The average EPG values were only influenced by CO (P<0.01). The coprocultures revealed the presence of the following endoparasites: Haemonchus spp., Cooperia spp., Oesophagostomum spp. and Trichostrongylus spp., the last in smaller proportion. There were no significant differences between the genetic groups for the endoparasite loads, except for Cooperia spp., which were present in greater number (P<0.05) in the NI group. The results obtained in this experiment confirm previous findings of greater
Rokeya Ahmed; Paritosh Kumar Biswas; Mukti Barua; Md. Abdul Alim; Kamrul Islam; Md. Zohorul Islam
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism (GP), and to determine the effects of age, sex, breed, body score and body weight in the occurrences of GP of cattle in Banskhali Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 50 fecal samples were randomly collected directly from rectum of cattle. The samples were examined by routine coproscopical methods for the presence of different parasites and oocysts. Overall prevalence of GP infestation was 7...
Vander Velde, N.; Vander Velde, B.
Ticks have long been known to be the vectors of diseases, to both humans and animals. Yet very little work has been done regarding tick species found in Micronesia, and much of that is now decades old. Many parts of Micronesia have long undergone considerable change by outside influences and hence the natural and social environments have undergone major upheavals. Ticks as vectors of veterinary disease have long been documented in Micronesia, but ticks connected with human disease are often p...
Nijhof, A. M.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases seriously affect animal and human health worldwide with the highest economic losses occurring in livestock production in the developing world. The control of ticks and the diseases they transmit depends mainly on chemical tick control using acaricides. The development of acaricide resistance, concerns about environmental pollution and pesticide residues in food products result in the need for alternative tick control methods such as anti-tick vaccines. Commercial...
Galindo, Ruth C.; Kocan, Katherine M.; Blouin, Edmour F.; Mitra, Ruchira; Alberdi, Pilar; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José
Background Tick Subolesin and its ortholog in insects and vertebrates, Akirin, have been suggested to play a role in the immune response through regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB)-dependent and independent gene expression via interaction with intermediate proteins that interact with NF-kB and other regulatory proteins, bind DNA or remodel chromatin to regulate gene expression. The objective of this study was to characterize the structure and regulation of subolesin in Ixodes scapularis. I. scapularis is a vector of emerging pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti that cause in humans Lyme disease, anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. The genome of I. scapularis was recently sequenced, and this tick serves as a model organism for the study of vector-host-pathogen interactions. However, basic biological questions such as gene organization and regulation are largely unknown in ticks and other arthropod vectors. Principal Findings The results presented here provide evidence that subolesin/akirin are evolutionarily conserved at several levels (primary sequence, gene organization and function), thus supporting their crucial biological function in metazoans. These results showed that NF-kB (Relish) is involved in the regulation of subolesin expression in ticks, suggesting that as in other organisms, different NF-kB integral subunits and/or unknown interacting proteins regulate the specificity of the NF-kB-mediated gene expression. These results suggested a regulatory network involving cross-regulation between NF-kB (Relish) and Subolesin and Subolesin auto-regulation with possible implications in tick immune response to bacterial infection. Significance These results advance our understanding of gene organization and regulation in I. scapularis and have important implications for arthropod vectors genetics and immunology highlighting the possible role of NF-kB and Subolesin/Akirin in vector
Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; Robbins, R G; McMurry, S T
Parasitism of crocodilians by ticks has rarely been reported, and to our knowledge only seven published accounts exist. On 3 July 1999, we collected four ticks from a subadult Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) captured in northern Belize. These were identified as Amblyomma dissimile (one female), and Amblyomma sp. (two nymphs, one larva). The crocodile was captured on land approximately 100 m from water, and all four ticks were attached to loose skin on the lateral surface of the tail. Crocodilians are most susceptible to terrestrial ectoparasites, including ticks, during overland movements. However, most such movements occur in response to drought, when tick questing activity is suppressed, which likely accounts for the small numbers of tick specimens recorded from crocodilians and the absence of any noticeable impact of parasitism on host fitness. PMID:11763751
Jongejan Frans; Hope Michelle; Nijhof Ard M; Naranjo Victoria; de la Lastra José; Canales Mario; de la Fuente José
Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in Africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. The R. microplus Bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant DNA technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. Results In this study, the genes for Bm86 (R. microplus), Ba86 (R. annulatus) and Bd86 (...
Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K.; Lindgren, Per-Eric
We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395
Henningsson, Anna J; Lindqvist, Richard; Norberg, Peter; Lindblom, Pontus; Roth, Anette; Forsberg, Pia; Bergström, Tomas; Överby, Anna K; Lindgren, Per-Eric
We report a case of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in which the TBE virus was isolated from the biting tick. Viral growth and sequence were characterized and compared with those of a reference strain. Virus isolation from ticks from patients with TBE may offer a new approach for studies of epidemiology and pathogenicity. PMID:27434395
Burke, Georgine; Wikel, Stephen K; Spielman, Andrew; Telford, Sam R.; McKay, Kathleen; Krause, Peter J.; ,
Although residents of Lyme disease–endemic regions describe frequent exposure to ticks, Lyme disease develops in relatively few. To determine whether people who experience cutaneous hypersensitivity against tick bite have fewer episodes of Lyme disease than those who do not, we examined several factors that might restrict the incidence of Lyme disease among residents of Block Island, Rhode Island. Of 1,498 study participants, 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23%–31%) reported >1 tick bites, ...
Stupica, Daša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Pečavar, Blaž; Bajrović, Fajko F.
Background Tick borne encephalitis is the most frequent vector-transmitted infectious disease of the central nervous system in Europe and Asia. The disease caused by European subtype of tick borne encephalitis virus has typically a biphasic clinical course with the second phase presenting as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is considered a condition sine qua non for the diagnosis of neurologic involvement in tick borne encephalitis,...
Sadek Garboui, Samira
Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of Lyme borreliosis and Tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore reduce transmission of tick-borne diseases. In laboratory tests, pieces of cloth treated with MyggA Natural® (a commercial insect repellent) or with the essential oils of Corymbia citriodora (30%), Lavandula angustifolia (1 and 30%), Pelargonium graveolens (1 and 30%), Hyptis suaveolens (10%), Salvadora persica, Pi...
Wyk, Roelof Dj van; Baron, Samantha; Maritz-Olivier, Christine
Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus species occur in regions with savannah and temperate climates, typically in grassland and wooded areas used as cattle pasture. Both species are associated with the transmission of Anaplasma and Babesia spp., impacting livestock health and quality of livestock-associated products. In Africa, tick control is predominantly mediated with the use of acaricides, such as synthetic pyrethroids. After several years on the market, reports of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids escalated but limited field data and validation studies have been conducted to determine the extent of acaricide resistance in Africa. Without this data, knowledge-based tick control will remain problematic and selection pressure will remain high increasing the rate of resistance acquisition. To date, several pyrethroid resistance associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported for arthropods within the voltage-gated sodium channel. Three SNPs have been identified within this channel in pyrethroid resistant R. microplus ticks, but none has been reported for R. decoloratus. This study is the first to report the presence of a shared SNP within the voltage-gated sodium channel in both R. microplus and R. decoloratus, which is directly linked to pyrethroid resistance in R. microplus. As the mode of action by which these SNPs mediate pyrethroid resistance remains unknown, this study aims to set hypotheses by means of predictive structural modelling. This not only paves the way forward to elucidating the underlying biological mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance, but also improvement of existing acaricides and ultimately sustainable tick control management. PMID:26851840
Full Text Available A infestação por carrapatos em bovinos é responsável por perdas econômicas significativas à indústria animal em várias regiões brasileiras, incluindo o Rio Grande do Sul. As perdas se devem ao stress, a perdas de peso e a injúrias na pele, bem como aos custos com tratamentos. O uso indiscriminado de carrapaticidas tem contribuído para o aparecimento da resistência genética dos ixodídeos a várias drogas, representando um sério problema no controle de carrapatos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a susceptibilidade das diferentes espécies de campo de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus aos acaricidas usados nos controles dos parasitas. Para tanto, amostras de carrapato foram coletadas em 42 propriedades localizadas em diferentes municípios do Estado para a realização do teste de imersão de teleóginas (biocarrapaticidograma. A associação do amitraz e do clorpirifós resultou na droga que apresentou maior eficácia em 100% das propriedades testadas (11/11. Associações com cipermethrina-clorpirifós-citronelol foram eficientes nos carrapatos em 61% das propriedades (25/41 e cipermetrina-ethion, em 37% (10/27. A cipermetrina foi eficiente em 20,7% (6/29 e o amitraz, um dos produtos mais utilizados nas propriedades, foi eficiente em 14,2% (6/42 das propriedades. Os resultados demonstraram que muitas drogas utilizadas no controle do R. (B. microplus no Estado apresentaram baixa eficácia, conforme os resultados dos testes in vitro. A baixa eficácia das drogas provavelmente se deve à resistência genética desenvolvida pelos parasitas devido ao uso indiscriminado dos carrapaticidas a campo.Infestation by ticks is responsible for significant economic losses to the cattle industry in several regions, including Rio Grande do Sul (RS state. Losses may be derived from animal stress, weight loss and skin damage, as well as from costs with treatment. The indiscriminated use of pesticides against these parasites has resulted in
Machado Héctor; Montero Carlos; Rodríguez Valle Manuel; Joglar Marisdania
Abstract Background The Gavac™ vaccine against the cattle tick Boophilus microplus has proven its efficacy in a large number of controlled and field experiments. However, this vaccine could be further improved by searching for new alternative adjuvants that would induce a stronger long-lasting immune response. We conducted several experiments to assay the adjuvant effect of fractions of the recombinant yeast Pichia pastoris in mouse and cattle models. In previous experiments, the combination ...
Kalsbeek, Vibeke; Frandsen, F.; Steenberg, Tove
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged...... infected with fungi. Thirty-three out of 149 engorged females were infected, whereas males and engorged larvae were not infected. Throughout the season, a significantly higher proportion of ticks collected in autumn were infected. Entomopathogenic fungi may have a significant impact on the size of the I...
Populations of phytopathogenic bacteria representing five host-pathogen combinations were assessed to determine if there was a mathematical relationship common across seedborne bacterial diseases. Bacterial populations were estimated from naturally-infested seeds of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peppe...
Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epis...
Khan, Muhammad Waqas; Ghauri, Sanniya Khan
Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. PMID:27175091
S. Y. Shirale; M. D. Meshram and K. P. Khillare
Total 350 fecal samples of cattle from representative area of Western vidarbha region around Akola was collected and examined for incidence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Out of total 232, positive sample 62.29% had single and 6.00% had mixed infection of Haemonchus and Trichris spp. Seasonal prevalence revealed higher in rainy season and lower in winter. Stogylus sp. was the predominant helminth infection in all the season. The nematodes infection were higher followed by cestodes ...
Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ri...
Jeyabal, L; Azhahianambi, P; Susitha, K; Ray, D D; Chaudhuri, P; Vanlahmuaka; Ghosh, S
In an attempt to develop vaccine against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, the protective efficacy of rHaa86 was evaluated against experimental challenge infestations of homologous tick species and lethal dose of Theileria annulata. Following challenge, a significant difference of 20.9% (P < 0.01) in the dropping per cent of ticks fed on immunized and control animals was recorded. A statistically significant reduction of 49.6 mg (P < 0.01) in the weight of ticks fed on immunized animals in comparison with control was noted. The ticks dropped from immunized animals laid fewer eggs and a reduction of 68.1 mg (P < 0.05) in comparison with the ticks fed on control animals was noted. The DT%, DO%, DR% and E% were calculated as 73.8, 31.3, 15.8 and 82.3% respectively. In all the calves fever (rectal temperature =39.5 degrees C) was detected after a mean period of 7.2 days in immunized calves and on 5.8 days in control calves following lethal challenge with T. annulata. The mean Maximum Macroschizonts Index was 7.8% and 10.6% in the immunized and control calves respectively. Two calves (identification no. 351 and 354) died in the immunized group while all five calves died in the control group. The data demonstrated that rHaa86 antigen-based vaccine could serve as one of the effective components of the integrated control of H. a. anatolicum and T. annulata. PMID:20537118
Carolina Guadalupe Sosa-Gutierrez
Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME. The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico.
Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; Terassini, Flavio A; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Camargo, Luis Marcelo A; Labruna, Marcelo B
By the end of the 1960s, the argasid tick Ornithodoros peropteryx was described from larval specimens collected from the bat Peropteryx macrotis in Colombia. Since its original description, no additional record of O. peropteryx has been reported, and its post-larval stages have remained unknown. During July 2010, 18 larvae were collected from 9 bats (Centronycteris maximiliani), resulting in a mean infestation of 2.0 ± 2.2 ticks per bat (range 1-8). These bats were captured in a farm in northeastern Bolivia close to Guaporé River in the border with Brazil. Morphological examinations of the larvae revealed them to represent the species O. peropteryx. One engorged larva that was kept alive in the laboratory moulted to a nymph after 9 days. Fourteen days after the larval moulting, the nymph moulted to an adult female without taking any blood meal during the nymphal period. This adult female was used for a morphological description of the female stage of O. peropteryx. In addition, the larvae were used for a morphological redescription of this stage. One larva and two legs extirpated from the adult female were submitted to DNA extraction and PCR targeting a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene, which yielded DNA sequences at least 11 % divergent from any available argasid sequence in Genbank. We show that O. peropteryx ontogeny is characterized by a single, non-feeding, nymphal stage. This condition has never been reported for ticks. PMID:23543273
Thayan, Ravindran; Khairullah, Nor Shahidah; Tze Ming, Ho
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral infection of the central nervous system and is caused by tick bites, usually after travel to rural or forested areas. The disease is prevalent in Scandinavia, Western Europe, Central Europe and the former Soviet Union and East Asia including Japan. In Malaysia, so far there are no reported cases of TBE. In the present time, many illnesses have been attributed to traveling to other parts of the world. Thus it is important to carry out TBE prevalence study to determine whether the virus is present among Malaysian population. Samples (sera and CSF) from patients admitted to major MOH hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah with a clinical diagnosis of encephalitis but is IgM negative for JE, were tested for TBEV IgM ELISA and TBEV IgG ELISA (DRG, Germany). Out of the 600 samples screened for TBEV IgG, all were non-reactive. In addition, out of the 100 samples screened for TBEV IgM, all the samples were also non-reactive. Our results indicate that currently TBE is not present in the Malaysian population. Among the reasons for this could be lack of the infection agent, absence of the suitable vector or subjects selected for the study did not fit the criteria of possible exposure to TBE infections. Hence we recommend that for any future study, the selection of subjects should include those who returned from tick-infested forested areas. PMID:16493408
Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I
Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus. PMID:23086445
Dobec, Marinko; Golubic, Dragutin; Punda-Polic, Volga; Kaeppeli, Franz; Sievers, Martin
We report on the molecular evidence that Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Croatia are infected with Rickettsia helvetica (10%) or Rickettsia slovaca (2%) or co-infected with both species (1%). These findings expand the knowledge of the geographic distribution of R. helvetica and D. reticulatus ticks.
Trout, Rebecca; Steelman, C Dayton; Szalanski, Allen L.; Williamson, Phillip C
To determine the cause of spotted fever cases in the southern United States, we screened Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) collected in Arkansas for rickettsiae. Of the screened ticks, 30% had PCR amplicons consistent with Rickettsia parkeri or Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.
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This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips. Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 2/14/2012.
Ticks and tick-borne diseases seriously affect animal and human health worldwide with the highest economic losses occurring in livestock production in the developing world. The control of ticks and the diseases they transmit depends mainly on chemical tick control using acaricides. The development o
de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Caulfield, John C; Powers, Stephen J; Pickett, John A; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Birkett, Michael A; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira
We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed, the beagle, is mediated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in beagle odour. Ectoparasite location of animal hosts is affected by variation in these odour components and their ratios. The aim of this study was to quantify the release rate, and the ratio, of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde from beagles. The odour of three beagles was collected, for four days, over one week (day 0, day 1, day 4 and day 7). The compounds were identified using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and authentic standards of compounds were used to generate external calibration curves for quantification. Both compounds were found in all dogs on all days. The amount of benzaldehyde was always higher than that of 2-hexanone and so their ratio varied from unity, on average (over time) being 3.128±0.365, 1.902±0.390, 1.670±0.671ngmL(-1) for beagle 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was no significant (p<0.05, F-test) effect of time. The overall mean was 2.233±0.387ngmL(-1). These results further previous findings by documenting the presence of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde in beagle odour samples covering a 7-day period. This knowledge enables development of repellents to protect dogs from R. sanguineus s. l. infestation. PMID:27085013
Full Text Available Diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by Iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. In this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of Iran.Ticks were collected from livestock (sheep, goats and cattle during favorable seasons (April to September 2007 and 2008. Slide preparations were stained by Giemsa and Feulgen and were studied searching for any trace of infection. Positive DNA from infected blood or tissue samples was provided and was used as positive control. First, PCR optimization for positive DNA was done, and then tick samples were subjected to specific PCR.Eleven pairs of primers were designed for detection of Theileria, Babesia and Anaplasma spp. Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Rhipicephalus turanicus from Fars Province were infected with T. lestoquardi at two different places. Hyalomma detritum was infected with T. lestoquardi in Lorestan Province and Rh. turanicus was infected to Ba. ovis from Fars Province.Totally 21 tick samples were detected to be infected with protozoa. Every sample is regarded with host-environment related factors. Since there are complex relations of vectors and their relevant protozoa, different procedures are presented for future studies.
Full Text Available Background: Due to importance of arthropods as urban pest, such Health and Nutritional, Textile, Structural, Storage pest and role of them in human being, this study was done to show determine of houses infestation status to urban pest (Arthropods city of Kashan in 2010. Materials and Methods: A Descriptive-analytical study has been done on houses The houses were selected by cluster random and Urban pests of them, by use of hand lens were identified. The results were analyzed using abundance tables and SPSS-11.5 software and statistic tests χP2P and fisher exact3T. Results: The results of study have shown that prevalence of urban pest, Health pest 99.6%, Nutritional pest 32.6%, textile and structural pest 37.4% were seen3T.3T Out of total houses, 98% mosquitoes, 96.4% ant, 92.6% fly, 78% cockroaches species, 56.8% spider, 37.6% termite, 34.6% storage pests, 12% clothes moth, 8.2% scorpion species, 3.6% bug, 3.2% tick and 2.6% millipede were identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of infestation urban pest is high. Mosquitoes, ant, fly and cockroach were seen more the other. So methods control training, houses protection and solid and water waste management is being suggested.
The environmental fate and dissipation of the acaricide chlorfenvinphos was studied in water and sediment in model cattle dips with monthly recharge and without monthly recharge. Chlorfenvinphos concentration decreased with time in both model dips and the monthly recharge at 10% of the initial concentration was inefficient to maintain the right concentration which would be effective for tick control. Volatilization was the principal factor that influenced the dissipation of the pesticide. The sediment bound residues increased with time. Mineralization of 14C- chlorfenvinphos due to microbial activity showed that the 14CO2 production increased with time in biometers flasks with different amounts of sediment. 2,4 - dichloroacetophenone, and 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were identified as degradation products. Isomerization of chlorfenvinphos from isomer Z to E was influenced by sunlight and it affected the efficiency of the pesticide as Z isomer is more active on tick control than E isomer. (author)
Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Cozma, Vasile
The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans). Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals. PMID:21554736
Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.
Karen Denise Mccoy
Full Text Available Determining patterns of host use, and the frequency at which these patterns change, are of key importance if we are to understand tick population dynamics, the evolution of tick biodiversity, and the circulation and evolution of associated pathogens. The question of whether ticks are typically host specialists or host generalists has been subject to much debate over the last half-century. Indeed, early research proposed that morphological diversity in ticks was linked to host specific adaptations and that most ticks were specialists. Later work disputed this idea and suggested that ticks are largely limited by biogeographic conditions and tend to use all locally available host species. The work presented in this review suggests that the actual answer likely lies somewhere between these two extremes. Although recent observational studies support the view that phylogenetically diverse host species share ticks when found on similar ecological ranges, theory on host range evolution predicts that host specialisation should evolve in ticks given their life history characteristics. Contemporary work employing population genetic tools to examine host-associated population structure in several tick systems support this prediction and show that simple species records are not enough to determine whether a parasite is a true host generalist; host specialisation does evolve in ticks at local scales, but may not always lead to speciation. Ticks therefore seem to follow a pattern of being global generalists, local specialists. Given this, the notion of host range needs to be modified from an evolutionary perspective, where one simply counts the number of hosts used across the geographic distribution, to a more ecological view, where one considers host use at a local scale, if we are to better understand the circulation of tick-borne pathogens and exposure risks for humans and livestock.
Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.
The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. ...
Lindgren, E.; Kahl, O.; A. Estrada-Peña; Dautel, H.; Gray, J. S.
Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity o...
Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV, Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.
Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav
Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme. PMID:25540956
Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D
A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to
Samish, M., H.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Glazer, I.
Widespread and increasing resistance to most available acaracides threatens both global livestock industries and public health. This necessitates better understanding of ticks and the diseases they transmit in the development of new control strategies. Ticks: Biology, Disease and Control is written by an international collection of experts and covers in-depth information on aspects of the biology of the ticks themselves, various veterinary and medical tick-borne pathogens, and aspects of traditional and potential new control methods. A valuable resource for graduate students, academic researchers and professionals, the book covers the whole gamut of ticks and tick-borne diseases from microsatellites to satellite imagery and from exploiting tick saliva for therapeutic drugs to developing drugs to control tick populations. It encompasses the variety of interconnected fields impinging on the economically important and biologically fascinating phenomenon of ticks, the diseases they transmit and methods of their control.
Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.
Krawczak, Felipe S; Agostinho, Washington C; Polo, Gina; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Labruna, Marcelo B
In 2010, a novel spotted fever group rickettsiosis was reported in the Atlantic rainforest coast of Brazil. The etiological agent was identified as Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and the tick Amblyomma ovale was incriminated as the presumed vector. The present study evaluated under laboratory conditions four colonies of A. ovale: two started from engorged females that were naturally infected by Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest (designated as infected groups); the two others started from noninfected females (designated as control groups). All colonies were reared in parallel from F0 engorged female to F2 unfed nymphs. Tick-naïve vesper mice (Calomys callosus) or domestic rabbits were used for feeding of each tick stage. Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was preserved by transstadial maintenance and transovarial transmission in A. ovale ticks for at least 2 generations (from F0 females to F2 nymphs), because nearly 100% of the tested larvae, nymphs, and adults from the infected groups were shown by PCR to contain rickettsial DNA. All vesper mice and rabbits infested by larvae and nymphs, and 50% of the rabbits infested by adults from the infected groups seroconverted, indicating that these tick stages were vector competent for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Expressive differences in mortality rates and reproductive performance were observed between engorged females from the infected and control groups, as indicated by 75.0% and 97.1% oviposition success, respectively, and significantly lower egg mass weight, conversion efficiency index, and percentage of egg hatching for the infected groups. Our results indicate that A. ovale can act as a natural reservoir for Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. However, due to deleterious effect caused by this rickettsial agent on engorged females, amplifier vertebrate hosts might be necessary for persistent perpetuation of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest in A. ovale under
Ginsberg, Howard S.
Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.
... ten by them. &LymeDisease This is important because Lyme disease, an infection caused by the bacterium Borrelia ... is transmitted via the bite of infected ticks. Lyme disease is named after a town in Connecticut ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was
Full Text Available A 12-month study was conducted in 4 communal grazing areas in the Bushbuckridge region, Limpopo Province, South Africa. The main objective was to investigate the impact of reduced acaricide application on endemic stability to bovine babesiosis (Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale in the local cattle population. To this end 60 cattle in each communal grazing area were bled at the beginning and the conclusion of the experimental period and their sera were assayed for B. bovis, B. bigemina and Anaplasma antibodies. Cattle in the intensively dipped group were dipped 26 times and maintained on a 14-day dipping interval throughout the study, whereas cattle in the strategically dipped group were dipped only 13 times. Three cattle, from which adult ticks were collected, were selected from each village, while immature ticks were collected by drag-sampling the surrounding vegetation. During the dipping process, a questionnaire aimed at assessing the prevalence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease, abscesses and mortalities was completed by an Animal Health Technician at each diptank. An increase in seroprevalence to B. bovis and B. bigemina and a decrease in seroprevalence to Anaplasma was detected in the strategically dipped group while in the intensively dipped group the converse was true. Amblyomma hebraeum was the most numerous tick species on the cattle, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus was more plentiful than Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. Drag samples yielded more immature stages of A. hebraeum than of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus spp. The incidence of clinical cases of tick-borne disease and of abscesses increased in the strategically dipped group at the start of the survey.
Mihalca, Andrei Daniel
It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred
Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.
Full text: Ticks and tick-borne disease are a major constraint to livestock production in developing countries. The control of ticks is of particular importance given that a major component of the control of tick-borne disease is, in fact, via the control of the vector. Problems with the control of ticks through pesticide application continue to increase, explaining the continued interest in vaccine and biological control strategies as alternatives. The feasibility of vaccination was demonstrated conclusively with the release, in 1994, of a recombinant commercial vaccine against Boophilus microplus. Nevertheless, since then the field has languished commercially, despite ongoing scientific progress. This paper will address the hurdles to further development and some ways in which they might be overcome. Efficacy and the development of prototype vaccines Recombinant vaccines have a number of potential advantages over chemical control. These include safety, specificity and freedom from environmental contamination. They are potentially low cost and stable, either minimising or eliminating the need for a cold chain for distribution. Another advantage is less well recognised. Many of the problems with pesticides derive from inaccurate or inappropriate application. In this regard, vaccines are more robust technology, being less dependent on volume or timing of application. The problem with vaccines is their perceived and real lack of efficacy. The current commercial vaccine against B. microplus is a single antigen vaccine that, at best, gives 90% protection. Used in a sustained way, this is adequate in many production situations. In other situations, efficacy may be less and hence inadequate. Efficacy can be increased through the addition of other antigens to a vaccine. Over the last decade a number of possibilities have been identified, though none have been thoroughly evaluated. A reliable evaluation of the existing portfolio of antigens in a field situation would be
Wang, Jin-Mei; Hudson, Bernard J.; Watts, Matthew R.; Karagiannis, Tom; Fisher, Noel J.; Anderson, Catherine; Roffey, Paul
We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.
Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585. ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010
A model for the phenomenological description of tick-by-tick share prices in a stock exchange is introduced. It is based on mixtures of compound Poisson processes. Preliminary results based on Monte Carlo simulation show that this model can reproduce various stylized facts.
Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of Ã¢Â€Â‰I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.
McKenna, R V; Riding, G A; Jarmey, J M; Pearson, R D; Willadsen, P
An antigen, BMA7, which induced partial immunity against tick infestation has been isolated from Boophilus microplus using two different protein fractionation protocols, accompanied by vaccination and parasite challenge trails. The antigen is a 63 kDa glycoprotein isolated from semi-engorged adult female ticks. Though significant, the induced immunity is less striking than that previously reported for antigen Bm86 from the same parasite. However, co-vaccination with Bm86 and BMA7 can enhance immunity over that seen with a commercial vaccine based on Bm86 alone. Limited peptide sequence information shows significant variation in the BMA7 protein occurs. The antigen has approximately 36 kDa of glycosylation, in both N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides. There is evidence that both polypeptide and oligosaccharide are antigenic, but the chemical nature of the protective antigenic sites is not clear. There is little or no immunological response to the antigen during natural infestation with parasites, suggesting the antigen is 'concealed' and protective immunity dependent on artificial vaccination. The antigen has some similarities with the vertebrate mucins. It is widely distributed in tick tissues and membrane bound but its function is currently unknown. PMID:9717194
Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen
The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p Sarcoptes studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p Sarcoptes studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were observed throughout the studies. These studies demonstrated the high efficacy of IVOMEC® GOLD against sarcoptic and psoroptic mange in cattle. PMID:25399813
Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. PMID:26336223
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitism (GP, and to determine the effects of age, sex, breed, body score and body weight in the occurrences of GP of cattle in Banskhali Upazilla, Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 50 fecal samples were randomly collected directly from rectum of cattle. The samples were examined by routine coproscopical methods for the presence of different parasites and oocysts. Overall prevalence of GP infestation was 72% (n=36/50. Prevalence of Paramphistomum spp. infestation was found to be the highest (30%; n=15/50 followed by Toxocara spp. (12%; n=6/50, Fasciola spp. (10%; n=5/50, Oesophagostomum spp. (8%; n=4/50, Moniezia spp. (6%; n=3/50 and Trichostrongylus spp. (2%; n=1/50. Young cattle were mostly infested as compared to adult and calf. The results of this study provides an epidemiological forecast showing the prevalence of GP in cattle, which can be helpful for the clinician in diagnosis of such infections.
INFLUENCE OF MIXED INVASIONS OF HELMINTHS ON THE EFFICIENCY AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SLAUGHTER PRODUCTS OF CATTLE Влияние смешанных инвазий гельминтов на продуктивность и биологические свойства убойной продукции крупного рогатого скота
Tohaeva A. I.
Full Text Available Mixed infestations have been reported in cattle with EI - 73.5%. The mixed infestations of cattle productive performance of animals decreased proportional to the intensity of infestation E.granulosus and D. lanceatum. In the carcasses of calves, depending on the AI of worms, we have marked the reduction in the yield of muscle tissue from 72.8 to 63.2%, fat - from 9.2 to 3.0% (3 times. Heavily infested bodies have shown a shortfall of 60.1 kg of meat in slaughter weight
Full Text Available Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who presented as a diagnostic dilemma, with signs of acute intestinal obstruction without any supporting radiological evidence. A barium study revealed the presence of low-burden Ascaris infestation that was managed medically. Keywords: partial intestinal obstruction, gastro-intestinal helminthic infection, pediatric
Khan MW; Ghauri SK
Muhammad Waqas Khan, Sanniya Khan Ghauri Section of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Emergency Medicine and Trauma Care, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan Abstract: Ascariasis is a common infestation in developing countries where there is poor hygiene. A majority of the cases are asymptomatic, with a few cases presenting with mild abdominal pain and nutritional deficiencies in the long term. Here we present a case of a young boy who prese...
Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures
Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females