WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattle thyroid glands

  1. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  2. Iodine-131 in milk 1961-62 and in thyroid glands of cattle and sheep 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvinden, T.; Lillegraven, A.

    1976-03-01

    Cases of late effects from radioactive iodine uptake in children have renewed interest in this contaminant. I-131 data collected in Norway during periods following the nuclear weapons test series in 1961 and 1962 have been re-examined and collated with more recent data on natural iodine in the milk and thyroid glands from domestic animals. Some of the measured values may be interpreted as indications of an inverse relationship between the level of natural iodine and the uptake of I-131, but the material is too small and inconsistent to draw any conclusions. Obviously the uptake and concentration of I-131 in animal milk and thyroid glands are influenced by many factors besides the fallout amounts; at present it is not possible to determine their relative importance and set up a satisfactory model for the I-131 uptake. (Auth.)

  3. Isotopic ratios of 129I/127I in mammalian thyroid glands in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.; Hatano, T.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic ratios of 129 I/ 127 I in cattle thyroid glands collected from various areas of Japan were measured by neutron activation analysis with combustion pre-treatment. Pig and human thyroid glands were also analyzed by the same method. The iodine isotopic ratio in cattle thyroid glands in Japan is comparable with that observed in Europe. The isotopic ratio in human thyroid glands in Japan is remarkably lower than that in Europe, which has been reported to be comparable to that of cattle. The isotopic ratio in pig thyroid glands is also lower than that in cattle. (author) 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  4. Modification of Ca2+ - exchange in blood cells of cattles with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, A.S.; Kobyalko, V.O.; Shevchenko, T.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Astasheva, N.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing of Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm and of the rate of 45 Ca iflux into cows erythrocytes in 19-24 month efter Chernobyl accident was revealed. Correlation between Ca 2+ concentration in cytoplasm of erythrocytes and thyroxin content in plasma of cows with radioiodine damage of thyroid gland was found. Reduction of the rate of 45 Ga influx into erythrocytes in cows with radiation doses of 20-60 By on thyroid gland was shown in later time after accident (3-5 years). Changes in Ca 2+ permeability through membranes of erythrocytes and neutrophiles after injection of 131 I into calfs in doses of 300 Gy and more on thyroid gland was found

  5. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  6. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - ... Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. Surgery ...

  7. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  8. Radium and thorium with barium in micronodules of cattle thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1980-01-01

    Radium isotopes were found concentrated in thyroid glands of cattle. The incidence of measurable radium varied from 80% to less than 0.1% in thyroids from different abattoirs. The radium was concentrated in microscopic bodies containing predominantly barium and sulfur and lying within the storage of thyroglobulin, adjacent to follicular cells. Some thyroid cells may receive biologically significant doses of alpha radiation from these sources

  9. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  10. [Solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid gland carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivaljevic, V; Zivic, R; Diklic, A; Krgovic, K; Kalezic, N; Vekic, B; Stevanovic, D; Paunovic, I

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid gland carcinomas usually appear as afunctional and hypofunctional lesions on thyroid scintigrams, but some rare cases of thyroid carcinoma with scintigraphic hyperfunctional lesions have also been reported. The aim of our retrospective study was to elucidate the frequency of carcinomas in patients operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules and to represent their demographic and clinical features. During one decade (1997/2006), 308 patients were operated for solitary hyperfunctional thyroid nodules in the Centre for Endocrine Surgery in Belgrade. Malignancy was revealed in 9 cases (about 3 %) by histopathological examination. In 6 cases papillary microcarcinomas were found adjacent to dominant hyperfunctional adenomas, while in 3 cases (about 1 %) real hyperfunctional carcinomas were confirmed. Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 2 cases and papillary carcinoma in one. All 3 patients were preoperatively hyperthyroid. In both patients with follicular carcinoma we performed lobectomies. In the third case we carried out a total thyroidectomy considering the intraoperative frozen section finding of a papillary carcinoma. According to our results the frequency of solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinomas is about 1 %, so that the possibility that a hyperfunctional nodule is malignant should be considered in the treatment of such lesions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.

  11. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  12. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  13. Thyroid Gland in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B T Turumhambetova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the main parameters of thyroid status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, as well as particularities of course of this disease depending on of thyroid gland function disorder. Materials and methods. 52 women with RA were examined. The first group consisted of 11 women with subclinical and manifestive hypothyroidism the second one 41 women without thyroid gland function disorder. The group comparison was conducted on main indexes of thyroid gland condition the hormon level, AT-TPO, ultrasonic data, as well as clinical and laboratory RA data. Results. In women with hypothyroidism the systemic manifestations of RA were more often truely diagnosed; DAS28 indexes, ESR, the number ot swollen joints were higher. The high level ot AT-TPO was diagnosed in 54,55% – I group and in 31,7% – II group TTG level was really less in patients receiving synthetic glycocorticoids. Small thyroid gland volume was diagnosed in 23,07% of examined patients. The thyroid gland status indexes in them did not differ from patients with normal thyroid gland volume. Reliable increasing of the peripheral resistance index was revealed in lower thyroid artery according to the ultrasonic study data under the reduced thyroid gland size. Conclusions. High incidence of hypothyroidism and AT-TPO carriage in RA was revealed. Hypothyroidism development is accompanied by high clinic-laboratory RA activity. The reduction of the thyroid gland volumes in RA is possibly stipulated not only by autoimmunal pathology, but also chronic ischemia of the organ in the conditions of immune-complex vasculitis and early atherosclerosis. The TTG level in patients with RA is defined not only by pathology of the thyroid gland, but glycocorticoid therapy as well.

  14. [Isolated thyroid gland sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsteger, W; Lind, P; Beham, A; Költringer, P; Eber, O

    1989-04-29

    A case of isolated sarcoidosis of the thyroid gland, associated with hyperthyroidism, is reported in a 28-year-old male patient whose thyroid was removed for hyperthyroid multinodular goitre. Histology revealed a regressive adenoma and sarcoidosis in non-adenomatous thyroid residue. Further diagnosis, therapeutic management and a 3-year follow-up did not disclose any specific changes or involvement of other tissues. Isolated thyroidal sarcoidosis with hyperthyroid alterations are extremely rare and mostly chance findings; simultaneous occurrence of thyroid sarcoidosis and hyperthyroidism may be a symptom of gland infiltration for which an adequate explanation is still lacking.

  15. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  16. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  17. Cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Takeichi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to tumors of the head and neck has been studied in detail for the thyroid and salivary gland. It has been deomonstrated by animal experiments and studies conducted on those undergoing radiation therapy of the neck during childhood, and on those exposed to radioactive fallout from hydrogen-bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, that thyroid neoplasms can be induced by radiation. Although it was assumed that radiation would ahve a similar effect on the salivary gland located near the thyroid gland, it was in the 1970s that studies were commenced on the salivary gland. A study of the Adult Health Study population presented data which show that the incidence of salivary gland tumors was 9.3-fold higher in the group exposed to 300+ rad than in the control group and when confined only to malignant tumors the incidence was 21.8-fold higher

  18. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary

  19. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  20. Ultrasound of the Thyroid Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Related Articles and Media Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Thyroid Scan and Uptake Ultrasound-Guided ...

  1. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  2. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  3. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  4. Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Londero, Stefano Christian; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2008-01-01

    at the time of diagnosis. Material and methods. From the 1(st) of January 1996 to 31(st) of December 2002 a total of 169 PMC patients were diagnosed and registered in the national Danish thyroid cancer database DATHYRCA and 131 of these were eligible for the study. Forty-three (33%) had histologically......Introduction. Papillary microcarcinomas (PMC) of the thyroid gland are defined according to The WHO Committee as papillary carcinomas measuring 10 mm or less in diameter. A large proportion of these tumours are found coincidentally in the treatment of symptomatic goitre and most cases follow...

  5. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  6. Radiation damage to the thyroid and metabolic changes in cattle in the initial and remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljazov, R.G.; Yunousova, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The initial period after the Chernobyl accident was the most dangerous for animals kept in the zone of radioactive contamination. Dose burdens from I-isotopes on the thyroid gland of cattle in the initial period after the accident contributed significantly into the alteration of the hormonal status, physiological state and productive, qualities of cattle on farms of the Gomel area of Belarus

  7. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  8. A Histological Autopsy Study of the Thyroid gland in Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the histological appearances of adult thyroid glands in patients who died of HIV related diseases at UTH in the period 2010 to 2012. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive retrospective study of adult thyroid glands collected at autopsy during the period 2010 ...

  9. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  10. [The thyroid gland in emotional and pain stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetov, I Z

    1987-01-01

    The reaction of wild rodent thyroid gland on emotional and painful stress appearing as a result of animal's catching has been studied. The thyroid activity has been shown to raise considerably during the primary stage of stress reaction. Later on the function of the gland normalizes in animals without trauma and in traumatized animals it becomes weaker. The complete normalization of the thyroid function in traumatized animals coincides with osteal regeneration according to time.

  11. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  12. Scintigraphic evaluation of congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A. K.; Hassan, M.A.; Miah, M.S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Total 2287 patients who undergone thyroid scintigraphy in Nuclear Medicine Centre, Khulna from January 1998 to December 2000 were retrospectively studied to evaluate the congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland. Scintigraphy showed thyroid anomalies in 11 patients (0.48%). The presenting features and thyroid function tests were analyzed and a detailed study was performed. Of these 11 cases, 7 patients (63.6%) had ectopic thyroid gland and site of ectopic was found to be lingual in 4 cases, sublingual in 2 cases and pre laryngeal in 1 case, 3 patients (27.3%) with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 1 patient (9.1%) with athyreosis. Biochemically 3 cases were hypothyroid of which 2 had ectopic thyroid and 1 with athyreosis. 1 patient was hyperthyroid with hemi agenesis of thyroid and 7 were euthyroid. Females were more affected than males, the ratio being 4.5:1. (authors) 2 tabs. 12 refs

  13. Development of a new type thyroid glands dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Song Yiyang; Chen Qin; Chen Yannan

    2000-01-01

    A new dosimeter of 125 I in thyroid gland is described. The dosimeter consists of NaI(Tl) detector and intelligent data recorder. Single-chip-microcomputer is used for data handling. The activity of 125 I in thyroid glands of human being is measured directly, rapidly, and accurately. Furthermore, it can calculate and display the intake, committed dose equivalent and committed effective dose equivalent. The measuring range of 125 I in thyroid glands is 10-2 x 10 6 Bq. The dosimeter has been operating continuously for a long time with high stability

  14. Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r{sup 2}=0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

  15. Prenatal sonographic measurement of the fetal thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Young Cheol; Kim, Young Hwa; Cho, Won Soo; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young

    2001-01-01

    To investigate whether the fetal thyroid gland could be examined by prenatal ultrasonography and to established the normal range of fetal thyroid width according to the gestational age. The width of the fetal thyroid was determined by prenatal ultrasonography from 118 pregnant women. Three of the mothers had current or previous thyroid disease and the widths of the fetal thyroid were determined from 115 normal subjects. The width of the fetal thyroid was defined by a maximum transverse distance of the thyroid gland between two carotid arteries on transverse scan of the fetal neck. We analyzed the cause of non-measurable cases. The width of the fetal thyroid and Neo-TSH were compared in 19 subjects, including 3 subjects will current or previous thyroid disease. We could measure the fetal thyroid widths in 95 cases (80%). The fetal thyroid widths of mothers without current or previous thyroid disease was 0.9-2.36 cm,which showed linear correlation with gestational age (Y=0.0506 X + 0.0439, r 2 =0.5661). Causes of non-measurable cases were neck flexion (65%), prone position (22%), and overlapped fetal neck by arm or shoulder (13%). Of the 19 neonates with Neo-TSH level, one case had a mother with a thyroid disease and showed increased width of the fetal and high Neo-TSH. The fetal thyroid was measured in 80% of prenatal ultrasonography and the width of the fetal thyroid showed linear correlated with gestational age. We assumed that the width of the thyroid could be useful for diagnosing fetal thyroid disorder when maternal thyroid disease exists.

  16. Mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, Toshihiro

    1987-01-01

    In this study 91 patients with goiter were scintigraphed for the duration of 84 minutes after intravenous administration of thallium-201 by digital γ camera lined to computer data system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were assigned for thyroid tumor, normal thyroid and back ground, and time-activity curves (TACs) were generated from these ROIs. Na + , K + -ATPase activity of microsome fraction from thyroid tumor and the normal thyroid glands was determined. The first 15 minutes accumulation of each ROI was determined as the early accumulation of thallium-201 for tumor and the normal thyroid glands. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, showing the high accumulation of thallium-201, had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase. Microfollicular adenomas had high activity of Na + , K + -ATPase and demonstrated intense accumulation of thallium-201. However, colloid adenoma had a similar level of Na + , K + -ATPase activity to that of the normal thyroid glands and did not demonstrate radionuclide accumulation. Consequently, radionuclide accumulation in thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy was closely correlated to Na + , K + -ATPase activity of thyroid tumor. Thyroid blood flow was measured by hydrogen gas clearance method. Thyroid blood flow of papillary carcinoma was smaller, as compared with normal thyroid blood flow. TAC of papillary carcinoma showed flattening. Thallium-201 accumulation in early image was also found to correspond to thyroid blood flow. From this study we can conclude that mechanisms of thallium-201 accumulation in a thyroid tumor depends on Na + , K + -ATPase activity and thyroid blood flow. Washout of TAC in thallium-201 scintigraphy appears dependent on blood flow of a thyroid nodule. (author)

  17. Histological and histometrical changes of ostrich thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal changes of ostrich thyroid structure in Tehran, which has a hot summer and a relatively cold winter, were studied. The study was conducted on thyroid glands of 20 ostriches in two groups (summer and winter group). The samples were collected by autopsy with a maximum of 0.5 cm thickness and were fixed in ...

  18. Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-09

    Mar 9, 2016 ... brain, as well as for many other aspects of pregnancy and fetal growth. ... gland and reproductive status (pregnant vs. non- pregnant) in camels. ... The left and right lobe of the thyroid gland from pregnant and non- pregnant ...

  19. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  20. Sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Gwun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Goo, Dong Erk; Choi, Deuk Lin; Yang, Seung Boo

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the sonographic measurement of normal thyroid gland in the neonates. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland was performed in the first week of life in 107 term neonates. The serum level of thyroid stimulating hormone was normal in all neonates. Their gestational age at birth was range from 37 to 41 weeks and birth weight was 3305 ± 457.74 g. Sonography was performed with 7.5 MHz linear array transducer (SA-8800 MT, Medison, Korea) within the first week of postnatal age. Maximal transverse (T), anteroposterior (AP), and longitudinal (L) dimensions of thyroid gland were measured. The volume of each lobe was estimate by using standard geometric formula; volume of a prolate ellipsoid = T X AP X L X π/6. The total volume of the thyroid gland was calculated as the sum of the each lobe. The correlations with total thyroid volume and weight, height, the body surface area, gestational age of the neonate were estimated by Pearson's coefficient and p volume on Bivariate correlation analysis. Total thyroid volume was 0.68 ± 0.23 cm 3 , left and right lobe volumes of thyroid gland were 0.32 ± 0.12 cm 3 and 0.36 ± 0.14 cm 3 , respectively. T, AP, and L dimension of right lobe were 0.69 ± 0.14 cm, 0.71 ± 0.13 cm, 1.37 ± 0.22 cm respectively. And those of left lobe were 0.70 ± 0.11 cm, 0.65 ± 0.13 cm, 1.31 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. The Pearson's coefficients for total thyroid volume with the weight, and body surface area of neonate were 0.385, 0.395 (p 3 and was significantly correlated with the weight and body surface area.

  1. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland: A pathologic curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Ruchika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 45-year-old man who presented with a 4-year history of midline neck swelling associated with recent onset respiratory distress. Local examination showed a lobulated diffuse thyroid enlargement. A subtotal thyroidectomy was performed. The right lobe weighed 225 g and the left lobe weighed 130 g. Multiple sections from both the lobes revealed diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue. There was no evidence of amyloid deposits or papillary carcinoma. A final diagnosis of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland was rendered. Lipomatosis or adenolipomatosis of the thyroid gland is an extremely rare entity. The various differential diagnoses of fat in the thyroid include benign entities like amyloid goiter, adenolipoma, lymphocytic thyroiditis, intrathyroid thymic or parathyroid lipoma and malignant tumors like liposarcoma and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Adequate clinical details and a thorough histopathological examination are mandatory for diagnosis.

  2. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  3. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  5. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  6. Ultrasound assessment of thyroid gland volume in diabetic patients without overt thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, Christopher C; Adeyekun, Ademola A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are known to mutually influence each other. Thyroid disease can worsen glycaemic control in diabetes, and patients with diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of thyroid disorders such as increase in size, compared to the normal population. The aim of the study was to sonographically assess thyroid gland volume in Nigerian adult diabetic patients and compare with apparently healthy adults (controls). The study setting was the Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Nigeria. The thyroid gland in 120 diabetic subjects and equal number of apparently healthy controls was scanned with a 5-12 MHz linear transducer of a SONOACE X4 Machine. Thyroid gland volume was assessed. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Diabetics had significantly increased thyroid volume compared to age matched male and female control subjects (11.5 ± 5.2 cm3 vs 7.4 ± 1.9 cm3; Pthyroid volume among diabetics. Diabetics have higher thyroid gland dimensions, compared to apparently healthy subjects. Gland proliferation from circulating insulin may play a role. This is not influenced by gender.

  7. Bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, Elena A; Koudan, Elizaveta V; Degosserie, Jonathan; Heymans, Charlotte; Pereira, Frederico DAS; Parfenov, Vladislav A; Sun, Yi; Wang, Qi; Akhmedova, Suraya A; Sviridova, Irina K; Sergeeva, Natalia S; Frank, Georgy A; Khesuani, Yusef D; Pierreux, Christophe E; Mironov, Vladimir A

    2017-08-18

    Bioprinting can be defined as additive biofabrication of three-dimensional (3D) tissues and organ constructs using tissue spheroids, capable of self-assembly, as building blocks. The thyroid gland, a relatively simple endocrine organ, is suitable for testing the proposed bioprinting technology. Here we report the bioprinting of a functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct from embryonic tissue spheroids as a proof of concept. Based on the self-assembly principle, we generated thyroid tissue starting from thyroid spheroids (TS) and allantoic spheroids (AS) as a source of thyrocytes and endothelial cells (EC), respectively. Inspired by mathematical modeling of spheroid fusion, we used an original 3D bioprinter to print TS in close association with AS within a collagen hydrogel. During the culture, closely placed embryonic tissue spheroids fused into a single integral construct, EC from AS invaded and vascularized TS, and epithelial cells from the TS progressively formed follicles. In this experimental setting, we observed formation of a capillary network around follicular cells, as observed during in utero thyroid development when thyroid epithelium controls the recruitment, invasion and expansion of EC around follicles. To prove that EC from AS are responsible for vascularization of the thyroid gland construct, we depleted endogenous EC from TS before bioprinting. EC from AS completely revascularized depleted thyroid tissue. The cultured bioprinted construct was functional as it could normalize blood thyroxine levels and body temperature after grafting under the kidney capsule of hypothyroid mice. Bioprinting of functional vascularized mouse thyroid gland construct represents a further advance in bioprinting technology, exploring the self-assembling properties of tissue spheroids.

  8. Site of iodination in hyperplastic thyroid glands deduced from autoradiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollman, S.H.; Ekholm, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have tried to ascertain the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid gland of rats. Rats were fed propylthiouracil in a commercial rat diet for 10 days. Then the diet was changed to a low iodine diet for 5 days. To label the gland, 10 mCi of 125I-iodide was injected into the left heart ventricle. Ten seconds later the animal was perfused through the left ventricle with a fixative solution containing a goitrogen to block further iodination, and stable iodide to help extract uncombined radioiodide. Electron microscopic autoradiographs prepared from the fixed thyroids show strong labeling over the lumen of the follicle and no consistent labeling of any other site or organelle. We conclude that the site of iodination in the chronically stimulated, hyperplastic thyroid is the follicular lumen, i.e. the same as that in the normal gland

  9. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  10. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  11. Histologic and ultrastructural observations on the thyroid gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lysosomal bodies increased with age of development. The parafollicular cells were encountered frequently in the prepubertal age than in the older cattle. They consisted of numerous dense secretory granules which increased in number with age. The present results suggest an optimum thyroid function during the pubertal.

  12. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD.

  13. What Does the Thyroid Gland Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  14. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  15. Paraganglioma of the thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Thyroid paraganglioma is a very rare malignant neuroendocrine tumor. Immunohistochemical features of thyroid paraganglioma are helpful for the diagnosis. Case report. A 69-year-old female came to hospital with the presence of a growing thyroid nodule of the left lobe. Ultrasonic neck examination showed 5 cm hypoechoic nodule in the left thyroid lobe. Thyroid scintigraphy showed a big cold nodule in the left lobe. Computed tomography (CT scan showed left lobe thyroid tumor with tracheal deviation on the right site. Extended total thyroidectomy was done. Intraoperative consultation with the pathologist confirmed thyroid cancer. The pathologist diagnosed thyroid paraganglioma on the base of immuohistochemical investigation. This thyroid paraganglioma was positive for neuron-specific enolase, chomogranin A, synaptophysin, and S-100 protein highlighted the sustentacular cells. Tumor cells were nega-tive for thyroglobulin, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin, calcitonin, and carcinoembryonic. After the surgery the patient was treated with chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, and permanent TSH suppressive therapy. The patient was followed with measurements of thyroid hormone and serum neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A level, every 6 months. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, chest and abdomen CT scan as well as further tests (chest x-ray, ultrasound of the neck, and whole body octreotide scintigraphy were done. No primary neuroendocrine tumor in digestive sistem or in the chest was found. After more than 3 years the patient has no evidence of the recurrent disease. Conclusion. Radical resection of thyroid paraganglioma, followed by chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, should be considered the treatment of choice in patients with thyroid gland paraganglioma.

  16. Thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer: association with clinical and pathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilly, Ohad; Raz, Raanan; Vaisbuch, Yona; Strenov, Yulia; Segal, Karl; Koren, Rumelia; Shvero, Jacob

    2012-11-01

    Indications for thyroidectomy during laryngectomy are controversial. We examined whether clinicopathologic features can predict thyroid gland involvement, and the prognostic effect of thyroid gland involvement in patients undergoing total laryngectomy. The study set out to review preoperative assessment, operation findings, pathologic findings, and follow-up data. Thyroid gland involvement was found in 11 of 53 patients (21%) undergoing total laryngectomy and thyroidectomy. Preoperative work-up failed to predict thyroid gland involvement. Thyroid gland involvement was associated with salvage procedures (p = .025), paratracheal metastases (p = .003), and poor overall survival (hazard ratio = 2.74, p = .008). Thyroid gland involvement in patients undergoing total laryngectomy is frequent and is associated with poor prognosis. Preoperative assessment failed to predict thyroid gland involvement. We believe that thyroidectomy should be considered in cases with paratracheal lymphatic spread irrespective of tumor location within the larynx. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şahin Ertan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. Objective. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Methods. Between June 2011 and June 2012, 461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed. Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. Results. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (p<0.05. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left in all patients of both sexes. In addition, the study establishes a significant correlation between the thyroid volume and height, weight and body surface area of the subjects of both sexes (p<0.05. In the light of our findings we can provide reference values in order to evaluate patients who have thyroid hyperplasia or who are considered as normal. Conclusion. We consider that further studies are necessary to establish national references thyroid volume for each country.

  18. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji

    2006-01-01

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings

  19. Less aggressive disease in patients with primary squamous cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland and coexisting lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asik, Mehmet; Binnetoglu, Emine; Sen, Hacer; Gunes, Fahri; Muratli, Asli; Kankaya, Duygu; Uysal, Fatma; Sahin, Mustafa; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid gland is extremely rare. Infrequently, primary SCC of the thyroid gland is accompanied by other thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Recently, studies have demonstrated that differentiated thyroid cancer with coexisting HT has a better prognosis. However, the prognosis of patients with primary SCC of the thyroid gland and coexistent HT has not been clearly identified. We compared the clinical characteristics and disease stages of patients with primary SCC with and without lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT). We reviewed reports of primary SCC of the thyroid gland published in the English literature. We identified 46 papers that included 17 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland with LT and 77 cases of primary SCC of the thyroid gland without LT. Lymph node metastasis and local invasion rates did not differ between these two groups. Distant metastases were absent in patients with LT, and were observed in 13 (16.9%) patients without LT. A greater proportion of patients without LT had advanced stage disease (stage IV A-B-C) than patients with LT (p thyroid gland and coexisting LT had lower tumour-node-metastasis stage and frequency of distant metastasis than those without LT. Lymphocytic infiltration in patients with SCC appears to limit tumour growth and distant metastases.

  20. [Hyperthyroidism and carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardito, G; Mantovani, M; Vincenzoni, C; Guidi, M L; Corsello, S; Rabitti, C; Fadda, G; Di Giovanni, V

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid carcinoma in hyperthyroidism varies considerably from as low as 0.3% to as high as 16.6% with a higher rate in toxic nodular goiters. Occult thyroid carcinoma (thyroid carcinoma was 5.6% (23 cases). In detail, a neoplasm occurred in 5 cases of Graves' disease (specific incidence: 3.8%), in 13 cases of toxic nodular goiter (12.5%) and in 5 cases of hyperfunctioning adenomas (2.8%). 19 cancers were papillary (12 in toxic nodular goiter, 3 in Graves' disease, 4 in hyperfunctioning adenomas), three were follicular (1 in Graves' disease, 1 in toxic nodular goiter, 1 in hyperfunctioning adenomas) and 1 medullary in Graves' disease. A papillary carcinoma was diagnosed preoperatively on fine needle aspiration with ultrasonography in only two patients with Graves' disease and confirmed by postoperative histological examination on permanent section. We do not believe in the frozen-section examination intraoperatively because it's not diagnostical for follicular lesions and evaluates rarely capsular invasion. Twenty patients received total thyroidectomy and four of them also lymphoadenectomy. Three patients received emithyroidectomy: in two cases for occult papillary carcinoma and in the last case for local cancer invasion (T4N0M0). Twenty patients are alive and with no evidence of cancer recurrence. Mean follow-up is 59.6 months. Our retrospective study shows a progressive increase of the incidence of coexisting thyroid malignancy and hyperthyroidism especially in toxic nodular goiter, probably related to extended surgical indications. Our findings do confirm that, even in the presence of hyperthyroidism, all thyroid nodules require careful diagnostics for exclusion of malignancy.

  1. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  2. Thin needle aspiration biopsy in diagnosis of thyroid gland carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, T. V.; Smolenskaya, N. A.; Rafeenko, S.M.; Rekechinskaya, N.V.; Krupnik, Ye.V.; Aladieva, L.A.; Krupnik, T. A.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of thyroid gland cancer in people of Belarus is one of the most actual medical problems appeared after the Chernobyl disaster. During the period 1986 -1999 in Belarus were revealed 6901 cases of cancer in the adults and 673 -in the children. Compared with the pre-disaster period the increase of the pathology has made 4.7 and 84 times correspondingly. In Magilew region during post-disaster years were revealed 899 cases of thyroid gland cancer in the adults and 34 -in the children. From the year 1998 perceptible rise of disease appeared in people over 19 years old. According to the prognosis of specialists the problem of high thyroid gland carcinoma rate will be actual for years, gradually decreasing in the children and increasing in the adults. Thyroid gland cancer promoted by radiation has very aggressive nature. According to the data of Republican science-practical thyroid gland tumors center even small carcinomas (3-9 mm) can give numerous metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. The possibility of tumor growth to the nearest tissues is very high. That's why the early diagnostic of the pathology is important. Medical help to the patients with thyroid gland cancer and other node formations consist in the complex problem solution: early node formation revealing by ultrasonic method, early diagnosis verification with the help of cytological bio-assays examination, received by the way of the thin needle aspiration biopsy (TNAB) under ultrasonic control, surgical treatment, radio iodine therapy, rehabilitation and prophylactic medical examination. Under the problem of early thyroid carcinoma revealing they understand exact diagnostic and surgical treatment in the stages pT1, pT1a and pT1b, N0, M0. In 1993 -1999 in the diagnostic center 139,2 thousand patients were surveyed. In the pointed cases 10739 thin needle aspiration biopsies under ultrasonic control were made and the bioassays received were studied cytologically. Ultrasonic examinations and TNAB were

  3. Regional reference values of thyroid gland volume in Turkish Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Ertan; Elboğa, Umut; Kalender, Ebuzer

    2015-01-01

    It is important to know the size of the thyroid gland, and its normal value may vary among different geographic regions. In this study, we aimed to establish reference ranges for thyroid volume in euthyroid adults and to compare these results with the literature data. Between June 2011 and June 2012,461 patients with normal laboratory results (serum TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO antibodies and urine iodine level) that underwent thyroid gland ultrasound examination were retrospectively analyzed.Two hundred and 92 patients were females and 169 were males; the age range was 18-61 years with mean age 30.84±9.97 years. Length, breadth and thickness were measured, and the volume of each lobe was estimated using the ellipsoid formula. The overall mean thyroid volume in all patients who were examined was 12.98±2.53 mL. The mean thyroid volume in females and males was 12.09±2.05 mL and 14.53±2.55, respectively (pbody surface area of the subjects of both sexes (pcountry.

  4. Estrogen receptors in human thyroid gland. An immunohistochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, Shaukat A.; Shah, Munawar H.; Jamal, Qamar; Meo, Sultan A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the estrogen receptors (ER) status (present in the nucleous of cell) in the thyroid gland tissues. For this purpose 50 previously diagnosed cases of various thyroid lesions were selected from the Surgical Pathology Records of Pathology Department, Basic Medical Sciences Institute,Jinnah Postgraduate. Medical Center,Karachi,Pakistan between March and August 2000.The staining was performed on formalin fixed paraffin embeded tissues using monoclonal anti-ER anti-body (clone1D5).Out of 50 cases,8 were noduler goiter,9 cases of adenoma 19 papillary carcinoma, 10 follicular and 4 cases were of medullary carcinoma. Surrounding normal tissue was available in 25 (50%) cases, 4 non-neoplastic and 21 neoplastic lesions.Out of 50 cases ,10(20%) and 40(80%) were females, the youngest patient was a 15-year-old female and the eldest patient was a 56-years-old male. Despite the availability of normal thyroid tissue and a wide range of lesions, none of our cases showed the positive staining. In contrary to many earlier reports by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibody (clone1D5) on formalin- fixed praffin-embedded thyroid tissues, the ER is not detectable. The effect of Estrogen on thyroid gland may be indirect one. (author)

  5. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-02-19

    Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3 h back. On admission, her vital signs were stable. There was no swelling or subcutaneous emphysema. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed mild laryngeal edema, although there was no impairment in vocal fold mobility on either side. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed rupture of the right lobe of the thyroid gland accompanied by a large hematoma extending from the neck to the mediastinum. Under general anesthesia, the right lobe was resected and the hematoma was evacuated. Only a few isolated cases of thyroid rupture caused by blunt neck trauma have been reported in patients with normal thyroid glands and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. When suspected, CT should be performed to confirm the diagnosis determine the optimal treatment.

  6. The size of thyroid gland measured by scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, K. O.; Choe, Y. K.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Normal size of thyroid gland in Korean male and female were aimed to study through color scanning using radioactive materials. The measurement of the size of thyroid gland is necessary not only for standardization of Korean subjects but also to the dose determination of radioactive iodine treatment and evaluation of thyroid disease. There had been no available data in regarding Korean euthyroid size in literature. In 119 subjects from the age of 19 years to 60 tears, who have normal thyroid function and no history of any thyroid disorder, the length, the width and the area of thyroid gland were measured in scan images. The weight of thyroid gland was calculated by Allen-Goodwin's formula. The thyroid scan was obtained by Picker Color Magna-Scanner, in 24 hours after ingestion of 50μCi sodium iodide 1-131. Results; In males, 16 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.5 cm, area-9.1 cm 2 , weight-14.7 gr in right lobe, length-4.7 cm, width-2.3 cm, area-7.6 cm 2 , weight-11.1 gr in left lobe, total area-16.7 cm 2 , and total weight-25.8 gr. In females, 103 subjects among 119 cases, the mean values were as following: length-5.1 cm, width-2.4 cm, area-9.4 cm 2 , weight-15.2 gr in the right lobe, length-4.6 cm, width-2.2 cm, area-7.9 cm 2 , weight-11.6 gr in left lobe, total area-17.3 cm 2 , total weight-26.8 gr. The right lobe was larger in the above mean values of size than the left: 11% longer in length, 8% wider in width, 18% broader in area and 30% heavier in weight in mean values. The difference of sizes between two lobes was statistically significant. There was no significant difference comparison with English written literature

  7. Tuberculosis Of The Thyroid Gland In A Nigeria Female: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    reviewed. Conclusion: Tuberculosis of the thyroid gland should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid swelling especially in a patient with Koch's disease. Keywords: Thyroid gland, Tuberculosis,. Radiological imaging, Nigeria. Correspondence to: DR C O MADUFORO increasing swelling on the anterior neck.

  8. A histological autopsy study of the thyroid gland in HIV infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore postulated the thyroid gland would be involved in AIDS patients. This study focused on the histologic appearances of the thyroid gland in HIV and AIDS patients on post mortem. The findings will provide evidence based recommendations on the management of thyroid diseases in the HIV infected in Zambia.

  9. The induction of thyroid-gland tumours by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daal, W.A.J. van.

    1981-01-01

    The study reported in this thesis formed part of an investigation on radiation-induced tumours in a sample of the patients given radiation therapy in the head and neck region for benign diseases at the Leiden University Hospital between 1932 and 1963. To find out whether it would be useful to trace and examine all patients, a random sample comprising 25% of the irradiated cohort was examined for (induced) tumours of the skin, mouth and throat, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The present study was confined to induced tumours of the thyroid gland. The literature is reviewed and analysed and the study described. With respect to the scientific aspects, it may be concluded that if the duration of followup is not taken into account, the prevalence of thyroid gland nodules and non-occult carcinomas in the surviving Leiden patients is roughly the same as that found in comparable studies done elsewhere, but for equivalent follow-up periods the incidence of both nodules and carcinomas is much lower for Leiden. (Auth.)

  10. Changes in the thyroid gland under fluoric poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristiani, H

    1930-01-01

    Thyroid gland changes are studied in animals subjected to chronic poisoning by ingestion of small doses of alkaline fluorides or fluorosilicates. Because goiters are frequent in this area of the country, control animals were included in the experimental groups. Test results on 14 fluorinated animals (guinea-pigs) are tabulated. Death occurred in 19 to 94 days (average 53). All animals showed changes in the gland, the interstitial tissue. The changes here were rapid, but may be slower with smaller doses. All control animals were found to be healthy. Macroscopic changes occurred in the pituitary body in cases of fluorosis. The different endocrine glands react differently to fluoric poisoning. The pituitary gland is difficult to study because this gland varies with age, sex, pregnancy, etc. of the subject. Use was therefore made of adult guinea-pigs 6 to 8 months old, which had died of fluorosis. Their pituitary body was compared to that of control animals of the same age and sex. Results are tabulated, showing a shrinking of the gland in the test animals, to an average of 1.7 mm (after poisoning).

  11. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Re­cently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Fi­nally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, en­gorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.

  12. TTH biological effect and thyrocyte binding in functional states of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    It was established in experiments made in vitro on the thyroid glands of intact animals and also on hyperplastic, functionally atrophied and inflamed thyroid glands that tritiated TTH actively incorporated into thyroid gland cells of the control animals and raised the rate of thyroxin secretion. Under the conditions of experimental hyperplasia, atrophy and thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, the hormonogenic reaction of thyrocytes and the nature of TTH binding by them was greatly disturbed. The thyrocytes of the hyperplastic and inflamed thyroid tissue did not accept the labelled TTH and did not react to its administration by intensification of thyroxin secretion. The thyrocytes of the functionally atrophied thyroid gland tissue actively bound the tritiated TTH and enhanced thyroxin secretion

  13. Natural Radium-226 accumulation in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Steven L.; Ibrahim, Shawki A.; Barden, Adam O.; VanMiddlesworth, Lester

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Small amounts of Ra-226 and other radium isotopes routinely enter the human body through normal dietary intake and, in some cases, through occupational exposure. Currently accepted biokinetic models for radium in the human body assume a uniform distribution among all soft tissues and a short retention time in those tissues. These assumptions persist despite publications in the mid-1980s indicating that radium concentrations in tissue are related to calcium levels in each organ, implying that the thyroid gland could accumulate greater concentrations of radium isotopes than any other tissue. Moreover, the natural intake or production of sulfate or barium compounds in the body could serve to precipitate radium in the thyroid gland, thereby immobilizing it, with the result that the radionuclide stays resident for many years. Evidence of both accumulation and immobilization of Ra-226 in thyroids of grazing animals has been documented since the 1960s by one of us (LVM). Little is known, however, about the concentration and retention of radium in the human thyroid. Reported here, for the first time, are Ra-226 measurement data from about 100 human thyroids collected from over 95 persons with no known occupational exposure to radium with lifetime residences in the US and other countries, one person who routinely ingested a homeopathic preparation containing Ra-226, and three uranium miners. Sensitive measurements were made using the radon emanation technique. Regardless of the origin of the thyroid sample, Ra-226 activity was almost always detected above the detection limit of 0.65 mBq when at least 10 g of thyroid tissue were available. Our analyses to-date suggests a background concentration in human thyroids of about 0.1 ±0.01 Bq/kg, considerably greater than the commonly reported literature value of 0.003 Bq/kg in soft tissues. In addition, our measurements indicate concentrations of Ra-226 in the three uranium miners (whose exact job description was

  14. Effect of action of fractioned ionizing radiation in small dose on thyroid gland of rats

    OpenAIRE

    О. О. Prykhodko; V. V. Lizogubov; V. S. Usenko

    2005-01-01

    The effect of fractionated X-irradiation by 0.25 Gy dose to rat thyroid gland was studied . It was shown the decrease of thyrocyte proliferative activity that can induce the late effect of pathogenesis to thyroid land and biochemical pathways that control by thyroid hormones. Additional effect by any mutagenic factor may induce thyroid tumor development.

  15. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, A.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  16. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine/Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease.

  17. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease

  18. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  19. Quantitative assessment of thyroid gland elasticity with shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Bayramoglu, Zuhal; Caliskan, Emine; Sari, Zeynep Nur Akyol; Adaletli, Ibrahim

    2018-01-18

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. Measurement of thyroid gland size is an essential component in evaluation and follow-up of thyroid pathologies. Along with size, tissue elasticity is becoming a more commonly used parameter in evaluation of parenchyma in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess thyroid parenchyma elasticity by shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; and compare the elasticity values to a normal control group. In this study; thyroid glands of 59 patients with a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis based on ultrasonographic and biochemical features, and 26 healthy volunteers without autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid function disorders, were evaluated with shear-wave elastography. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were further subdivided into three categories based on gray-scale ultrasonography findings as focal thyroiditis (grade 1), diffuse thyroiditis (grade 2), and fibrotic thyroid gland (grade 3). Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 59) had significantly higher elasticity values (14. 9 kPa; IQR 12.9-17.8 kPa) than control subjects (10.6 kPa; IQR 9.0-11.3 kPa) (p thyroiditis, 23 patients had focal thyroiditis involving less than 50% of the gland categorized as grade 1, 24 patients had diffuse involvement of the thyroid gland categorized as grade 2, and 12 patients had marked hyperechoic septations and pseudonodular appearance categorized as grade 3 on gray-scale ultrasound. Based on elastography, grade 3 patients had significantly higher elasticity values (19.7 kPa; IQR 17.8-21.5 kPa) than patients with grade 2 (15.5 kPa; IQR 14.5-17.8 kPa) and grade 1 thyroiditis (12.8 kPa; IQR 11.9-13.1 kPa) (p thyroiditis had significantly higher elasticity values than those with grade 1 thyroiditis (p thyroiditis. Our results indicate that shear-wave elastography could be used to evaluate the degree of

  20. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Iguchi, Atsuko; Matsuo, Chikashi; Otawa, Kouichi; Nakamura, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  1. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  2. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Maria, Lyra [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)]. E-mail: mlyra@pindos.uoa.gr; Aristides, Antoniou [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece); Lambros, Vlahos [A' Department of Radiology, University of Athens, Vas.Sophias Ave, Athens 11528 (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  4. An analysis of preoperative localization of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism associated with thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuaki; Itoh, Atsuko.

    1996-01-01

    Recently hyperparathyroidism associated with some thyroid diseases, especially nonmedually thyroid carcinoma has been payed attention to. In this study we analyzed 12 cases of hyperparathyroidism (6 cases independent of thyroid diseases and 6 cases associated with thyroid diseases) and estimated the affect of association with thyroid diseases on the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands. The results of preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in cases independent of thyroid diseases were relatively satisfactory. On the other hand, the preoperative localization in cases associated with thyroid diseases came to false result in about half of them. It was far from satisfactory. Association of thyroid diseases strongly affected the preoperative localization of the parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism. Conventional imaging such as ultrasonography, CT, MRI and 201 Tl- 99m TC subtraction scintigraphy alone were not satisfactory. Now 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy is expected to be one of reliable imaging methods for progress in the preoperative localization. (author)

  5. First reported case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louis C; Green, Jennifer B

    2011-06-01

    Unilateral Graves' disease is a rare disease variant that can occur in a bilobar thyroid gland. We report the first documented case of unilateral Graves' disease in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland and review the pertinent literature. A 48-year-old man presented in June 2010 with thyrotoxicosis. I-131 radioisotope uptake was elevated at 33.4%, and scintigraphy revealed that uptake of the radioisotope was uniformly increased in the left lobe of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed a non-nodular, enlarged, and heterogeneous left lobe; Doppler investigation of the lobe showed hypervascularity classically seen in Graves' disease. The right lobe of the thyroid, on the other hand, appeared homogeneous and hypovascular on ultrasonography. Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin was significantly elevated at 191% (reference range disease was the most likely diagnosis. As has occasionally been described in the literature, unilateral involvement of the thyroid gland is a rare presentation of Graves' disease. Pre-existing functional or structural differences (either congenital or acquired) between the two lobes may contribute to this rare presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of unilateral Graves' disease presenting in the left lobe of a bilobar thyroid gland. Although the pathophysiology of unilateral Graves's disease has not been clearly elucidated, clinicians should be aware that Graves' disease can present unilaterally in either lobe of the thyroid gland.

  6. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  7. The determination of the volume of the thyroid gland by a new ultrasonic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu; Hazama, Ryuji; Kurata, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Ito, Kunihiko.

    1984-01-01

    A newly developed high-resolution ultrasonic scanner for determining the volume of the thyroid gland was employed in 1983's health screening for A-bomb survivors in Nishiyama district (Nagasaki), and effects of radiation on the thyroid gland were examined. Thirty-one inhabitants who have been living in Nishiyama district since the A-bombing were selected as subjects (Nishiyama group) and their sex- and age-matched persons were selected as controls (control group). Regarding the incidence of chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and hypothyroidism, there was no significant difference between the groups. The volume of the thyroid gland was 14.6+-6.2 ml in the Nishiyama group and 13.1+-4.0 ml in the control group; the average volume of the thyroid gland was a little higher in the Nishiyama group than in the control group, but this was not statistically significant. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Long-term effects of external radiation on the pituitary and thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, Z.; Glatstein, E.; Marsa, G.W.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Chronic damage following external irradiation of the normal pituitary and thyroid glands, delivered incidentally during radiotherapy of neoplasms of the head and neck may be more common than has been appreciated in the past. A case of a child who developed pituitary dwarfism 5 1 / 2 years after radiation therapy had been delivered for an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the nasopharynx is described. A review of similar cases from the literature is presented. Likewise, external irradiation of the normal thyroid gland produces a spectrum of radiation-induced syndromes. Clinical damage to the pituitary and thyroid glands is usually manifested months to years after treatment and is preceded by a long subclinical phase. A careful exclusion of these glands from radiation treatment fields is recommended whenever possible. An early detection of endocrine function abnormalities in patients receiving radiation to these glands is desirable, since appropriate treatment may prevent the late deleterious effects of external irradiation of the pituitary and thyroid glands

  9. Brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodonawa, Masahiko; Tanaka, Sohkichi; Kohno, Kazuyuki; Ishii, Zenichiro; Tamura, Masaru; Ohye, Chihiro.

    1987-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman had been operated on for a tumor of the thyroid gland in December of 1976, and was admitted to Saku Central Hospital in April of 1983 because of pulmonary and ovarian metastases. She underwent surgical removal of the metastatic ovarian tumor and chemotherapy, but developed headaches in June of 1983. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a well-defined, homogeneously enhanced mass in the right occipital region. Angiography showed a homogeneous, well-defined tumor stain supplied by the right posterior cerebral artery, the posterior branch of the middle meningeal artery, and the meningeal branch of the occipital artery. The tumor was removed in July of 1983. It was situated in the right occipital lobe and was supplied by numerous small meningeal vessels. Histologically, it was composed of small, oval-shaped cells, some with mitotic figures, and giant cells, occasionally forming a follicular structure. Three months later, the headaches reappeared, and a recurrence of brain metastasis was demonstrated by CT. In October of 1983, the second metastatic brain tumor and the dural bed were removed and local radiation therapy was administered. In this case, meningioma-like features were demonstrated by CT scan and angiography, and these findings may be characteristic of brain metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. (author)

  10. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Pathologies After Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy to Treat Malignancy During Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollert, André, E-mail: andre.lollert@unimedizin-mainz.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Gies, Christina; Laudemann, Katharina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Faber, Jörg [Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Jacob-Heutmann, Dorothee [Department of Radio-oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); König, Jochem [Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Düber, Christoph; Staatz, Gundula [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. Methods and Materials: Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months). Results: A relevant reduction of thyroid gland volume was significantly correlated with thyroid gland dose in univariate (P<.001) and multivariate analyses for doses above 2 Gy. Odds ratios were 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-9.2; P=.046) for medium doses (2-25 Gy) and 14.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-160; P=.027) for high doses (>25 Gy). Thyroid gland dose was significantly higher in patients with thyroid gland pathologies during follow-up (P=.03). Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between hypothyroidism and thyroid gland dose (P<.001). Conclusions: Ultrasonographically detectable changes, that is, volume reductions, pathologies, and hypothyroidism, after malignancy treatment during childhood are associated with thyroid gland dose. Both ultrasonography and laboratory follow-up examinations should be performed regularly after tumor therapy during childhood, especially if the treatment included radiation therapy.

  11. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer--a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, K V; Knutstad, K; Olsen, D R; Fosså, S D

    2011-06-09

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm3) receiving respectively thyroid gland receivingthyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland.

  13. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in study of thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinadinovic, J.; Ratkovic, S.; Kraincanic, M.

    1982-01-01

    A correlation was found between microstructural and biochemical changes of the thyroid gland and proton magnetic relaxation of tissue water. A significant increase of both relaxation times (T1, T2) was noted in thyroid tissue of rats treated with antithyroid drugs (PTU, C104) or TSH and was inversely correlated with thyroglobulin content in the gland and its morphological structure. When the treatment with PTU or C104 was interrupted, the relaxation times returned to normal values. These changes were in close correlation with the involution of structural changes in the thyroid gland and reaccumulation of follicular colloid (Tg). After T4, T3 or iodine treatment the relaxation times in the stimulated gland decreased following an increase of Tg content in the gland. It was observed that the relaxation times of the thyroid tissue of rats are in strong negative correlation with Tg concentration. Normal values for T1 in rat (530 msec) and guinea-pig (700 msec) thyroid glands are quite different. These species differences are related to the microstructural properties of thyroid glands, i.e. to the composition, structure, and degree of aggregation of follicular colloid (Tg). Finally, the NMR method could be applied in physiological and pathological examinations of the thyroid gland

  14. Endocrine intervention during irradiation does not prevent damage to the thyroid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, H. M.; van Dijk, J. E.; Rodermond, H.; Vansenne, F.; Endert, E.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.; Haveman, J.; Vulsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation to the head-neck region may damage the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma. Outcomes of radiation protection by lowering plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) have thus far been ambiguous. Our aim was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of inhibiting the

  15. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jung Hwan; Jeong, Hyun Jo; Kim, Yoon Suk; Kwak, Min Sook; Chang, Sun Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using ultrasound guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for the benign nodules of the thyroid gland. We studied 148 patients with benign thyroid nodules (200 total nodules) that were confirmed histopathologically, and we performed ultrasound guided radiofrequency ablation. The radiofrequency ablation was done 1 to 5 times per one nodule, and follow-up ultrasonography was performed one to nineteen months after the ablation procedures. The physical changes and the decrease of volume of the nodules were evaluated, and the complications related to radiofrequency ablation were observed. The mean initial nodule volume was 0.01-95.61 ml (mean; 6.83 ± SD of 10.63 ml) and the nodule volume after radiofrequency ablation was decreased to 0.00-46.56 ml (mean; 1.83 ± SD of 4.69 ml). The mean volume reduction rate was 73.2%. Reduction of more than 50% was noted in 90% of all cases. For 180 nodules (90%), the decrease was 50% or more, in 20 nodules (10%), the decrease was 49% or less. On gray-scale ultrasonogram obtained after ablation, the echogenicity of the nodules changed to darker, and on the doppler-sonogram, the vascular flow within the nodules disappeared in all cases. Most patients complained pain during or right after the procedure, but the pain was transient and subsided after medication. Two patients developed hoarseness that was improved in 1 week and 2 months, respectively. Sonoguided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation can be one of the treatments for benign nodules of the thyroid gland

  16. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported

  17. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  18. Technetium-99m high resolution tomographic imaging in the thyroid gland diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitblat, A; Ben-Horin, C [Barzilai Nedical Center, Ashkelon (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In the experiments with the thyroid phantom and first studies of patients with hyperthyroidism it was proved that in combining SPECT imaging technique and high resolution ability of pinhole collimator (commonly used for conventional scintigraphy of the thyroid) it is possible to obtain quantitative information concerning the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid tissue , not available tom the planar imaging. The following applications of the the method are expected: 1) Estimation of the thyroid dimensions and volume for the accurate dosimetry of the following Iodine-131 - therapy. 2) Determination of the location of the thyroid in the neck , occurrences of the retrotracheal, retrolaryngeal and retrostemal extension of the goiter. 3) Estimation of the structure and unhomogenities of the thyroid gland . 4) Locations and dimensions of cold nodules in the thyroid tissue . Some of these applications are illustrated in our studies of the patients with different thyroid gland diseases (authors).

  19. Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Thyroid Gland, Presenting Like Anaplastic Carcinoma of Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Riaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC has unpredictable and diverse behavior. The classic triad of hematuria, loin pain, and abdominal mass is uncommon. At time of diagnosis, 25%–30% of patients are found to have metastases. Bones, lungs, liver, and brain are the frequent sites of metastases. RCC with metastasis to the head and neck region and thyroid gland is the rarest manifestation and anaplastic carcinoma behaving metastatic thyroid mass is an extremely rare presentation of RCC. Case Presentation. A 56-year-old Saudi man with past history of right radical nephrectomy 5 years back presented with 3 months history of rapid increasing neck mass with dysphagia, presenting like anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Tru-cut biopsy turned out to be metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patient was treated with radiation therapy 30 Gy in 10 fractions to mass. Patient died 4 months after the discovery of anaplastic thyroid looking metastasis. Conclusion. Rapidly progressing thyroid metastases secondary to RCC are rare and found often unresectable which are not amenable to surgery. Palliative radiotherapy can be considered for such patients.

  20. Ambulatory major surgery of benign tumors of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo Silveira, Ernesto Manuel; Eirin Aranno, Juana Elisa

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and prospective study on the practice of ambulatory major surgery to eliminate benign tumours of the thyroid gland, was carried out in the General Surgery Service of 'Dr. Joaquin Castillo Duany' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba during the years 1996-2008, both included, through a previous clinical evaluation of 74 patients in the Endocrinology Outpatient Department, where it was decided that they could definitely have a surgical treatment. The female sex, the age groups from 31 to 45 years, the hemithyroidectomy as surgical technique, acupuncture as analgesic procedure and the follicular adenoma as cytohistological result prevailed in the case material. Mild complications occurred in 5 members of the sample, but recovery was absolute in all, so that even 72 of them were discharged before the 24 hours. Due to its good acceptance, this surgical method is beneficial for patient and hospital institutions.(author)

  1. Modular Measuring System for Assesment of the Thyroid Gland Functional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Rosik

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed modular system BioLab for biophysical examinations enabling assessment of the thyroid gland functional state is presented in the paper. The BioLab system is based on a standard notebook or desktop PC connected to an Ethernet-based network of two smart sensors. These sensors are programmed and controlled from PC and enable measurement of selected biosignals of the human cardiovascular and neuromuscular system that are influenced by the production of thyroid gland hormones. Recorded biosignals are processed in a PC and peripheral indicators characterizing thyroid gland functional state are evaluated.

  2. Modern diagnostic procedures in disorders of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Mueller, H.

    1984-01-01

    For functional diagnostics the FT4 index is calculated from the T4 and T3U values. Hyperthyroidism is suggested or borderline values an found, the T3 test is carried out. An index of free iodine hormones (IFIH) can be calculated. (IFIH=T4+30 x T3(μg/100 ml)/ST3U). Hypothyroidism and borderline cases require TSH evaluation or even a TRH test. T4 and T3 autoantibodies can cause high or low values in spite of euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Difference in FT4 values are found if the kits used were not made by the same manufacturer. These values help to determine hyperthyroidism in pregnancy. The FT3 value is better than the TT3 value in determining T3 hyperthyroidism in borderline cases. Autonomy can be guaranteed by the 123 I short test or the 20-min 99 m Tc uptake test before and after administration of T4. Location diagnostics by scintigraphy after administration of 99 m Tc or radioiodine determine localization, size, shape, and distribution of functioning thyroid tissue and metastases by iodine accumulation. This is imaging of biochemical processes. By ultrasonography, a physical method, cysts, disintegration cysts or parenchymal nodes can be recognized. X-ray films of the trachea can determine stenosis caused by a struma. In addition to the exact proof of an intrathoracal struma (front and back mediastine), a retrotracheal or retroesophageal thyroid gland can be seen in CT. RIA determination of the tumor markers calcitonin and TG support the diagnostics of medullar and follicular or papillary thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  3. A Cross-sectional Morphometric Study of Thyroid Glands in Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrish Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid gland is an organ with a highly variable morphology. Despite several studies having been done to assess its measurements, a consensus has not been arrived at as to what constitutes a ‘normal’ thyroid. Aim: To determine the dimensions of the normal thyroid gland obtained from cadavers of South Indian region and to derive the mean and standard deviations of the measurements of the gland in the given population, thus contributing to the existing data. We also aimed to study three common but not constant components of the thyroid gland, namely Pyramidal Lobe (PL, Tubercle of Zukerkandl (TZ and Levator Glandulae Thyroideae (LGT. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on thyroid glands obtained from cadavers of South Indian region. Institutional ethics committee approval was obtained. Sixty thyroid glands were obtained from cadavers received for either routine dissection or autopsies. The thyroid glands were studied after adequate exposure and fixing in formalin. Dimensions were measured using Vernier calipers. Specimens with anomalies like absent isthmus etc were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using the MedCalc Version 17.0 software. Results: The average dimensions of the lobes were: height 3.83 cm, width 2.62 cm, and thickness 2.69 cm. The average dimensions of the isthmus were: height 1.38 cm, width 1.36 cm and thickness 1.29 cm. The average dimensions of the pyramidal lobe were: height 2.03 cm, width at the base 1.91 cm and thickness 1.16 cm. Pyramidal lobe was present in 60% of cases. Levator glandulae thyroideae was observable in three cases (5%. Significant correlation was found between the dimensions of right and left lobes and regression equations were calculated. Conclusion: The dimensions of the thyroid gland are very variable. Knowledge of the wide ranging variations and measurements will be of help to surgeons and radiologists in correct interpretation, diagnosis and treatment of

  4. Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society – update. Ultrasound examination of thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trzebińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is a primary imaging technique in patients with suspected thyroid disease. It allows to assess the location, size and echostructures of the thyroid gland as well as detect focal lesions, along with indication of their size, echogenicity, echostructure and vascularity. Based on these features, ultrasound examination allows to predict abnormal focal lesions for biopsy and monitor the biopsy needle track. This paper presents the standards of thyroid ultrasound examination regarding ultrasound apparatus technical requirements, scanning techniques, readings, measurements, and the description of the examination. It discusses the ultrasound features of increased malignancy risk in focal lesions (nodules found in the thyroid gland. It presents indications for fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland for the visibility of single nodules (focal lesions and numerous lesions as well as discusses contraindications for thyroid biopsy. It describes the biopsy technique, possible complications and rules for post-biopsy monitoring of benign lesions. The paper is an update of the Standards of the Polish Ultrasound Society issued in 2011. It has been prepared on the basis of current literature, taking into account the information contained in the following publications: Thyroid ultrasound examination and Recommendations of the Polish Ultrasound Society for the performance of the FNAB of the thyroid.

  5. Detection of the involvement of salivary glands in autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland by using Ttc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Söylemez ¹

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement in the salivary glands of the patients with Graves’ Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis and controls by detecting the changes of Tc-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. 19 patients with Graves’ disease (6 men, 13 women, 28 Hashimoto Thyroiditis patients (5 men, 23 women and 11 euthyroid controls (4 men, 7 women were evaluated retrospectively. Uptake values of parotid and submandibular glands were calculated by drawing elliptical ROIs (region of interest and using the formula for uptake calculation. Result: In all three groups, in parotis glands, a statistical significant difference between Tc-99m MIBI uptake was not detected. The Tc-99m MIBI upateke values in submandibular glands were statistically different among patients with Graves’Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, as well as in Control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We concluded that the different uptake values of Tc-99m-MIBI in submandibular glands in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis as compared to the control group patient would be results of the histopathological features, such as autoimmunity, high mitochondria number and inflammatory reaction. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 67-73

  6. First description of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland of a red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, János; Csikó, György; Pásztor, István; Bölcskey-Molnár, Antal; Albert, Mihály

    2010-03-01

    Postmortem examination of the carcass of an approximately 10-year-old male Red-eared slider ( Trachemys scripta elegans ) was performed. The thyroid gland was enlarged, showed follicular structure, and shifted the base of the heart caudally. Histology revealed differently shaped and sized follicles in the thyroid gland. Based on the macroscopic appearance and histopathological changes of the thyroid gland, the pathological process was established as a papillary-cystic carcinoma. Neoplasia of the endocrine organs, especially of the thyroid gland, is rare in reptiles. The current case seems to be the first report of thyroid carcinoma in a Red-eared slider.

  7. Problems of primary T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland -A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Junkichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the following report we discuss a very rare case of malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland that developed in a 70-year-old woman with a past history of hypothyroidism due to chronic thyroiditis. The chief complaint was a rapidly growing neck mass. CT and ultrasonographic examination revealed a diffuse large thyroid gland without a nodule extending up to 13 cm. Although presence of abnormal lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood was not found, the sIL-2 Receptor antibody and thyroglobulin measured as high as 970 U/ml and 600 ng/mL respectively. Fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosed chronic thyroiditis. A preoperative diagnosis of suspicious malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland accompanied by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was made, and a right hemithyroidectomy was performed to definite diagnosis. Histological examination revealed diffuse small lymphocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the small lymphocytes were positive for T-cell markers with CD3 and CD45RO. The pathological diagnosis was chronic thyroiditis with atypical lymphocytes infiltration. However, Southern blot analysis of tumor specimens revealed only a monoclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. Finally, peripheral T cell lymphoma was diagnosed. Therefore, the left hemithyroidectomy was also performed one month later. No adjuvant therapy was performed due to the tumor stage and its subtype. The patient is well with no recurrence or metastasis 22 months after the surgical removal of the thyroid. As malignant T-cell lymphoma of the thyroid gland with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was difficult to diagnose, gene rearrangement examination needed to be performed concurrently.

  8. Dose distribution in the thyroid gland following radiation therapy of breast cancer-a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, S; Reinertsen, KV; Knutstad, K; Olsen, DR; Fosså, SD

    2011-01-01

    To relate the development of post-treatment hypothyroidism with the dose distribution within the thyroid gland in breast cancer (BC) patients treated with loco-regional radiotherapy (RT). In two groups of BC patients postoperatively irradiated by computer tomography (CT)-based RT, the individual dose distributions in the thyroid gland were compared with each other; Cases developed post-treatment hypothyroidism after multimodal treatment including 4-field RT technique. Matched patients in Controls remained free for hypothyroidism. Based on each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH) the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy were then estimated (V20, V30, V40 and V50) together with the individual mean thyroid dose over the whole gland (MeanTotGy). The mean and median thyroid dose for the included patients was about 30 Gy, subsequently the total volume of the thyroid gland (VolTotGy) and the absolute volumes (cm 3 ) receiving respectively < 30 Gy and ≥ 30 Gy were calculated (Vol < 30 and Vol ≥ 30) and analyzed. No statistically significant inter-group differences were found between V20, V30, V40 and V50Gy or the median of MeanTotGy. The median VolTotGy in Controls was 2.3 times above VolTotGy in Cases (ρ = 0.003), with large inter-individual variations in both groups. The volume of the thyroid gland receiving < 30 Gy in Controls was almost 2.5 times greater than the comparable figure in Cases. We concluded that in patients with small thyroid glands after loco-radiotherapy of BC, the risk of post-treatment hypothyroidism depends on the volume of the thyroid gland

  9. Iodine I-131 With or Without Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Metastatic Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  10. Late simultaneous metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the submandibular and thyroid glands seven years after radical nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammed S; White, Sharon J; Oommen, George; Birney, Esther; Majumdar, Samit

    2010-01-01

    Background. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the salivary glands is extremely rare. Most cases reported previously have involved the parotid gland and only six cases involving the submandibular gland exist in the current literature. Metastasis of RCC to thyroid gland is also rare but appears to be more common than to salivary glands. Methods and Results. We present the first case of simultaneous metastasis to the submandibular and thyroid glands from clear cell RCC in a 61-year-old woman who presented seven years after the primary treatment. The submandibular and thyroid glands were excised completely with preservation of the marginal mandibular and recurrent laryngeal nerves, respectively. Conclusion. Metastatic disease should always be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with painless salivary or thyroid gland swelling with a previous history of RCC. If metastatic disease is confined only to these glands, prompt surgical excision can be curative.

  11. [Features of the functioning of the thyroid gland in HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, E V; Liashchenko, O Ia

    2013-01-01

    In the article analyzed the current literature, devoted to the peculiarities of functioning of the thyroid gland in patients with HIV infection. Based on the analysis of literature data bases demonstrated the structure of thyroid function disorders in HIV-infected, as well as the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of these disorders. In the structure of thyroid function is dominated by hypothyroidism, euthyroid pathological syndrome, Graves' disease, for which the opportunistic infections are triggers immune activation. It should be noted that the step of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is accompanied by the development of inflammatory and neoplastic processes in the thyroid gland. Convincingly demonstrated the negative impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive for the development of thyroid dysfunction, in connection which the expediency of forming risk groups and the timely correction of the projected thyroid diseases.

  12. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akın

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  13. Hyperthyroidism caused by a toxic intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Lakshmipathi, N.; Jena, A.; Behari, V.; Chopra, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The rare presentation of hyperthyroidism caused by an intrathoracic goiter with a normal-sized cervical thyroid gland is described. The toxic intrathoracic goiter demonstrated avid uptake of [ 131 I] and [99mTc]pertechnetate, with comparatively faint isotopic accumulation seen in the cervical thyroid. A chest roentgenogram and radioisotope scan should be mandatory in cases of hyperthyroidism having no cervical thyroid enlargement to explore the possibility of a toxic intrathoracic goiter

  14. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  15. Incidental Visualization of Thyroid Gland on Bone Scan Caused by Graves' Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lim, Seok Tae

    2009-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with fatigue and weight loss underwent a Tc-99m MDP bone scan because of increased serum alkaline phosphatase. Delayed images at 4 hours demonstrated diffuse increased activity throughout both lobes of the thyroid in the absence of activity of the stomach and salivary glands. Thyroid laboratory indices and a Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scan suggested Graves' hyperthyroidism

  16. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thyroid gland structure in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Stolarska, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is still not fully elucidated and seems to be multifactorial. It has been suggested that genetic, immunological and environmental factors participate in IBD development. IBD extraintestinal manifestations include rheumatic, metabolic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, hepatobiliary, pancreatic, urologic, pulmonary, neurological, hematological and thromboembolic complications. Thyroid gland diseases have not been confirmed as extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. However, it is known that some thyroid diseases share an immunological background with IBD, and that dysfunction of the thyroid gland may induce gastrointestinal symptoms. Ultrasound examination is the gold standard for evaluation of thyroid gland morphology. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of abnormalities in the structure of the thyroid gland in IBD patients and to compare it to the control group. The study group consisted of 199 consecutive IBD patients (80 CD patients and 119 UC patients) hospitalized at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of Wroclaw Medical University (Poland). The control group consisted of 42 healthy volunteers and patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The most common finding in the ultrasound examination in IBD patients were tumors. Tumors, which were smaller than or equal to 10 mm were present in 11.5% of IBD patients; and tumors larger than 10 mm were present in 13.1%. These results show that small tumors (less than 10 mm in diameter) of the thyroid gland are more frequent among patients with CD and UC compared to the control group (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Additionally, enlargement of the thyroid gland occurs more often in UC patients compared to the control group (p = 0.003). There was no difference in the frequency of thyroid abnormalities between UC and CD patients. In patients with inflammatory

  17. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Michael [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: ormying@polyu.edu.hk; Sin Manhong [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Pang, Shuk-fan [Department of Optometry and Radiography, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = {pi}/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects.

  18. Sonographic measurement of thyroid gland volume: A comparison of 2D and 3D ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Michael; Sin Manhong; Pang, Shuk-fan

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This study was undertaken to investigate the inter-observer reproducibility of 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid gland volume. The symmetry of thyroid lobes in healthy subjects was also investigated. Materials and methods: The volume of the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland was measured in 20 healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) using 2D and 3D ultrasound. On 2D ultrasound, the thyroid lobe volume was calculated by ellipsoid equation (volume = π/6 x craniocaudal x mediolateral x anteroposterior dimensions), whereas 3D ultrasound volumetric measurements were performed with a 3D add-on system. In each subject, the thyroid gland was scanned by two operators to investigate inter-observer variability. Results: There was a moderate agreement between 2D and 3D ultrasound in the measurement of thyroid volume (r = 0.77). 3D ultrasound (90%) had a higher inter-observer reproducibility than 2D ultrasound (85%) in the measurements. About 74% of healthy subjects had the right thyroid lobe larger than the left lobe. Conclusion: 3D ultrasound is useful in the measurement of thyroid volume with a higher reproducibility than 2D ultrasound. Asymmetry of thyroid lobes was noted in healthy subjects

  19. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min; Kwak, Seo Hyun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 ρ 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal wall

  20. [Effects of chronic experimental stress and endogenous opioids on histophysiological parameters of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperov, R A; Glumova, V A; Riashchikov, S N; Proshutina, N E

    1992-01-01

    In adult rabbits stress was modelled by electrostimulation of the hypothalamus ventromedial nucleus (15-hour-long session during 30 days) and medulla's raphe big nucleus which is one of the central places of the opioid peptides synthesis was irritated. It is revealed, that under stress thyroid gland responds by serum T3 increase in comparison with control animals with statistically significant variability of the T4 profile. Chronicity of the emotional agitation involves destructive changes in the thyroid parenchyma the hurting effect of the negative emotional factor is expressed less during opioid peptides complex activation. It is suggested that there are its own stress-limiting mechanisms in thyroid gland.

  1. Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of thyroid gland: a preliminary study in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Yoo, Seung Min [College of Medicine, Chungang University, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Seo Hyun [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using radiofrequency ablation as the treatment modality for the benign or malignant thyroid nodules in humans. Therefore, we examined the results of using radiofrequency ablation on the thyroid glands in dogs, in respect of the extent of the ablated tissue and the complications. Five dogs (10 lobes of the thyroid glands) were included in this study. US-guided radiofrequency ablation was undertaken with a 10 mm, uncovered 17 gauge cool-tip needle. The power and duration was 20 wattage and 1 minute in five thyroid lobes (group 1) and 20 wattage and 2 minutes in another 5 thyroid lobes (group 2). The ultrasound scans and the pre-and post-enhancement CT scans were undertaken before and immediately after the procedures, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later. The US and CT findings of the ablated tissue and complications were evaluated. Blood sampling was done at the pre-procedure time and 1 week later for evaluating the functional status of the thyroid gland. Laryngoscopy was done at the pre-procedure and post-procedure times, and at 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week later for the evaluation of any recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. The echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation appeared as poorly marginated and hyperechoic. On the US obtained 24 hours after radiofrequency ablation, the echo pattern of the ablated thyroid gland was hypoechoic. The maximum diameters after RFA were 9.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group I and 11.4 {rho} 0.5 mm in group II. The pre-enhanced CT scan taken at immediately after the radiofrequency ablation showed ill defined hypodense areas in the ablated thyroid gland. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal portions of the thyroid gland was difficult on the contrast enhanced CT scan. Complications induced by radiofrequency ablation were one recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, two perforations of esophagus and five thickenings of the esophageal

  2. Predictors of transient congenital hypothyroidism in children with eutopic thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Soon Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeCongenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation. Recently, the detection of CH cases with eutopic thyroid gland has increased due to neonatal screening programs. In this study, we aimed to identify and evaluate predictive factors that could distinguish between permanent and transient CH in patients with eutopic thyroid gland.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 100 children diagnosed with CH and with eutopic thyroid gland. All subjects were treated with levothyroxine and underwent re-evaluation after 3 years of age.ResultsOf the 100 CH patients, 35 (35.0% were diagnosed with permanent CH (PCH and 65 (65.0% were diagnosed with transient CH (TCH. The initial thyroid stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower in the TCH subjects than in PCH subjects. In addition, the mean doses of levothyroxine (µg/kg/day at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year of treatment were significantly lower in subjects with TCH than in PCH subjects with eutopic thyroid gland. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, the optimal cutoff dose of levothyroxine at 3 years of 2.76 µg/kg/day could predict TCH, and was associated with 87.3% sensitivity and 67.6% specificity, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.769.ConclusionThe levothyroxine dose requirement during treatment period has a predictive role in differentiating TCH from PCH in CH patients with eutopic thyroid gland.

  3. Study on ultrastructural changes in thyroid gland of rats exposed to pulsed electromagnetic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoguang; Zeng Guiying; Ren Dongqing; Fang Henghu; Su Xiaoming; Huang Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The work is to observe effects of PEMW (pulse electromagnetic wave) exposure on function and morphology of thyroid gland of rats. At different time points (24, 48, 96 and 192 h) after exposure to PEMW (E=115 kV m -1 , 12000 pulses), radioimmunoassay was performed to observe the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodo- thyronine (T 3 ) in sera of the male Sparague-Dawley rats. Optic microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe structural changes of the thyroid gland at the time points. The T 3 , T 4 and TSH in sera increased significantly, reaching a peak at 24 h and decreasing gradually then. Although no obvious changes in the thyroid gland were observed under the optic microscope, some ultrastructural changes in the thyroid gland were found under the TEM. The ultrastructures were obviously changed at 12 h and aggravated until 48 h. In the experimented rats, dilatated endoplasmic reticulum gathered with lots of protein excretion, lipid droplet and heterochromatin gathered under the nucleus membranes were observed in follicular epithelial cells. These changes were palliated at 96 h but not recovered. PEMW can affect levels of hormones in sera and the hazard ultrastructural changes of thyroid gland. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main injured organelle. (authors)

  4. Radionuclide method for functional and structural examination of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is development and routine daily practice of the radionuclide method for tracking of the thyroid gland functional status and structure. 168 patients with various thyroid diseases were examined. Nuclear medicine examination is held by gamma camera (Siemens and ADAK). 74 MBq 99m Tc-pertechnetate is injected intravenous. The activity of full and empty syringe is measured. Static scintigrams of full and empty syringes and injection place and duration 10 seconds are carried out. On 20 th minute a static scintigraphy of the thyroid gland with a duration of 300 seconds in front position is held. The individual dose calibration factor is calculated. The functional status of thyroid gland as well as its structural changes is determined. In addition, the relationships between the accumulation of radiopharmaceutical in the salivary glands and thyroid are determined. 168 patients are studied, 97 of them are with euthyroidism, 71 with hyperthyroidism and 19 - with hypothyroidism. The nuclear medicine diagnostic method provides information about functional and structural condition of the thyroid gland. The study is determining for decision to conduct the metabolic brachytherapy of hyperthyroid conditions

  5. Macroscopic Study of the Isthmus of the Thyroid Gland in Bangladeshi People: A Postmortem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrul Amin Mohammad Hasanul Banna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The position and size of isthmus of thyroid gland varies considerably in human with age, sex, physiologic state, race and geographical location and sometimes the isthmus may be absent. So this study was designed to find out the macroscopic differences in isthmus of thyroid gland of different age and sex groups in Bangladeshi people. Objective: To record the macroscopic characteristics of isthmus of thyroid gland with advancing age in both sexes with a view to help establishing normal standard of Bangladeshi people. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 54 autopsied human thyroid glands aged 5 to 65 years. Thyroid glands were collected from unclaimed dead bodies autopsied in the morgue of Sylhet M. A. G. Osmani Medical College, Sylhet. The collected specimens were divided into groups –– A (20 years and below, B (21 to 50 years and C (50 years and above. All specimens were examined morphologically by careful gross dissection method. Results: The isthmus was absent in 5.56% cases. In most of the cases (35.29% it was against the 1st–4th tracheal rings. There was significant difference in length between Group A and Group C (p<0.05 and in breadth between Group A and Group C and between Group B and Group C (p<0.05. No significant difference was found in length, breadth and thickness of isthmus of the thyroid gland between males and females. Conclusion: The presence or absence, positional change and variation in gross dimension of isthmus of thyroid gland were evident in human. The macroscopic difference was found with increasing age but not with sex.

  6. Relative quantification of indium-111 pentetreotide and gallium-68 DOTATOC uptake in the thyroid gland and association with thyroid pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincke, Thomas; Singer, Joerg; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama; Paschke, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    Recent data suggest that increased somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression is detectable in several thyroid diseases. This raises the question as to the specificity and pathophysiologic relevance of these findings. Therefore, we systematically evaluated Indium-111 (In-111) pentetreotide scintigraphies and Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide (DOTATOC) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for thyroid radiotracer uptake. Relative binding of In-111 pentetreotide in the thyroid was measured by region of interest (ROI) technique in 4-hour and 24-hour post-injection (p.i.) planar images of 73 patients undergoing In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET scans of 77 patients were analyzed by ROI technique applied to coronal slices of 1 cm (0.39 inch) thickness with highest uptake in the thyroid region. A basal indium In-111 and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake was found in normal thyroid glands. Hot nodules, disseminated thyroid autonomy, and most cases of active Hashimoto's disease as well as goiters and nodular thyroids showed increased In-111 pentetreotide and/or Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake. Higher relative In-111 pentetreotide uptake in the 24-hour p.i. images as compared to the 4-hour p.i. images except for patients after thyroidectomy indicates specific receptor binding in the thyroid. The increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in active Hashimoto's disease is most likely related to the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. However, the physiologic or pathophysiologic relevance of the increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in normal thyroid glands, hot and cold nodules, and goiters and nodular thyroids remain to be determined.

  7. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-01-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T 3 -RU, T 3 , T 4 , TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06

  8. Uptake of thallium-201 in enlarged thyroid glands. Concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, M.; Kido, A.; Hyodo, K.; Tachibana, K.; Onoue, K.; Morita, T.; Nagai, K.

    1979-08-01

    We have investigated the thyroid uptake of Tl-201 in 37 patients with various types of goiter, and in six with normal thyroids. Significant thallium uptake was found in all cases in which there was thyroid enlargement, including Graves' disease, toxic thyroid nodule, primary hypothyroidism, simple goiter, Hashimoto's disease, thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid adenoma. If goiter was absent, however, there was no demonstrable uptake - e.g., in secondary hypothyroidism, subacute thyroiditis, and the normal controls. Thallium uptake did not correlate with thyroid function tests such as BMR, T/sub 3/-RU, T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, TSH, antithyroid antibodies, or the 24-hr I-131 uptake. In 23 patients with diffuse goiter, on the other hand, maximum Tl-201 uptake correlated well with thyroid weight: r = 0.836 (p < 0.001); y = 0.02 x + 0.06.

  9. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, S.P.; Karamoskos, P.; Schlicht, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  10. The thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesing Adam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological and physiological changes of the thyroid gland during the process of aging are well-known. It is to be stressed that the clinical course of thyroid diseases in the elderly differs essentially from that observed in younger individuals, because symptoms are more subtle and are often attributed to normal aging. Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroidism, as well as thyroid neoplasms, require special attention in elderly subjects. Intriguingly, decreased thyroid function, as well as thyrotropin (TSH levels – progressively shifting to higher values with age – may contribute to the increased lifespan. This short review focuses on recent findings concerning the alterations in thyroid function during aging, including these which may potentially lead to extended longevity, both in humans and animals.

  11. Evaluation of clinical hypothyroidism risk due to irradiation of thyroid and pituitary glands in radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Wenjia; Che, Kaijun; Wu, Vincent W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has been reported. This study investigated the radiation effects of the thyroid and pituitary glands on thyroid function after radiotherapy for NPC. Sixty-five NPC patients treated with radiotherapy were recruited. Baseline thyroid hormone levels comprising free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were taken before treatment and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. A seven-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan was generated for each patient. Thyroid and pituitary gland dose volume histograms were generated, dividing the patients into four groups: high (>50Gy) thyroid and pituitary doses (HTHP group); high thyroid and low pituitary doses (HTLP group); low thyroid and high pituitary doses; and low thyroid and pituitary doses. Incidence of hypothyroidism was analysed. Twenty-two (34%) and 17 patients (26%) received high mean thyroid and pituitary doses, respectively. At 18 months, 23.1% of patients manifested various types of hypothyroidism. The HTHP group showed the highest incidence (83.3%) of hypothyroidism, followed by the HTLP group (50%). NPC patients with high thyroid and pituitary gland doses carried the highest risk of abnormal thyroid physiology. The dose to the thyroid was more influential than the pituitary dose at 18 months after radiotherapy, and therefore more attention should be given to the thyroid gland in radiotherapy planning.

  12. Chronic urticaria in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Significance of severity of thyroid gland inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a clear association between autoimmune thyroiditis (AT and chronic urticaria/angioedema (CUA. However, not all patients with AT demonstrate urticaria. Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate in which patients with AT did CUA become a problem. A sensitive inflammation marker, neopterine (NP was used to confirm whether the severity of inflammation in the thyroid gland was responsible for urticaria or not. Methods: Neopterine levels were assessed in patients with AT with urticaria and without urticaria. Furthermore, levels were compared in relation to pre and post levothyroxine treatment. Twenty-seven patients with urticaria (Group 1 and 28 patients without urticaria (Group 2 were enrolled in the study. A course of levothyroxine treatment was given to all patients, and urine neopterine levels before and after the trial were obtained. Results: All patients completed the trial. Mean age in Group 1 and Group 2 was similar (35.70 ± 10.86 years and 38.36 ± 10.38 years, respectively (P=0.358. Pre-treatment urine neopterine levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P=0.012. Post-treatment levels decreased in each group, as expected. However, the decrease in the neopterine level was insignificant in the patients of Group 2 (P=0.282. In Group 1, a significant decrease in post-treatment neopterine levels (P=0.015 was associated with the remission of urticaria. Conclusion: In patients with CUA and AT, pre-treatment elevated levels of NP, and its decrease with levothyroxine treatment along with symptomatic relief in urticaria, may be evidence of the relationship between the degree of inflammation in thyroid and presence of urticaria.

  13. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  14. Age and its influence on effects of iodine-131 in guinea pig thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, S.A.; McNeill, D.A.; Spangler, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    To identify the differences in age-related radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland to radioiodine exposure, we exposed fetal, neonatal, weanling, and adult guinea pigs to single graded doses of 131 I. Injected quantities ranged from 1 to 100 μCi 131 I, depending on the age group, and resulted in thyroid doses ranging from hundreds to tens of thousands of rad. At approximately 100 days of age (or 100 days after dosing for adults), a single microcurie of 131 I was given and animals were killed 1 day later to provide data on thyroid weight and percentage 131 I uptake. Analysis of these data and information on pathology suggested that the fetal and weanling guinea pig thyroid glands were more radiosensitive than the adult thyroid; the neonatal thyroid appeared less radiosensitive than that of the adult. The increase in radiosensitivity of the young thyroid glands over the adults, however, did not appear to be greater than twofold. Nevertheless, the demonstration of age-related radiosensitivity requires that it be considered by those who assess radiologic risks to human populations

  15. Irradiation doses on thyroid gland during the postoperative irradiation for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Mustafa; Ergen, Arzu; Unal, Aysegul; Bese, Nuran

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid gland is one of the radiosensitive endocrine organs in the body. It has been shown that direct irradiation of thyroid with total doses of 26 to 30 Gy can lead to functional abnormalities. In this study, irradiation doses on thyroid gland of the patients who received postoperative chest-wall/breast and regional nodal irradiation were assessed. Retrospective analyses of treatment plans from 122 breast cancer patients who were treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) planning was performed. All patients received irradiation to supraclavicular/level III lymph nodes in addition to chest-wall/breast. A total dose of 46 Gy was delivered in 25 days to supraclavicular/level III lymph node region while a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered to whole breast/chest-wall. Thyroid gland was contoured on 2-5 mm thickness of computed tomography scans. Absolute thyroid volume, mean thyroid doses were calculated. The mean thyroid volume of all patients was 16.7 cc (min: 1.9 cc, max: 41.6 cc). The mean irradiation dose on was 22.5 Gy (0.32 Gy-46.5 Gy). The level of dose was higher than 26 Gy in 44% of the patients. In majority of the node-positive breast cancer patients treated with 3D CRT, the thyroid gland was exposed to considerable doses. On the other hand, for 44% of the patients are at risk for developing thyroid function abnormalities which should be considered during the routine follow-up.

  16. Hyperfunctioning solid/trabecular follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Fasolini, Fabrizio; Suriano, Sergio; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  17. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giovanella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 99mTc-pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissue. Histopathological examination of the nodule revealed a solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of hyperfunctioning follicular solid/trabecular carcinoma reported in the literature. Even if a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy, careful management is recommended so that a malignancy will not be overlooked in the hot thyroid nodules.

  18. Combination - breast cancer and thyroid gland cancer in the Semipalatinsk region of the Republic Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandybaev, M.N.; Adylkhanov, T.A.; Aliev, B.Kh.; Zejnelova, L.T.; Musinov, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    It was analysed data of medicine analysis on study of combination breast and thyroid gland cancer. The paper presents results obtained by personnel of the Semipalatinsk Cancer Clinic. The obtained data indicate that breast cancer morbidity within Semipalatinsk region significantly surpass that of the whole Republic of Kazakhstan. Within 1991-2004, thyroid gland cancer has increased by factor of three. At the same time, decrease of death rate was indicated for the ills of both locations. Decrease of lifetime in ills with breast and thyroid gland cancer resulted in more frequent registration in them initially-multiple malignant tumors. Syntrochronous initially-multiple malignant tumors of breast occur 6 times rare than meta-chronous cancer and have bad prediction of survivability. (author)

  19. ULTRASOUND SCREENING OF THYROID GLAND AMONG A SECTION OF POPULATION IN CENTRAL KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Chirathalattu Babu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases are commonest endocrine disorders in India. Studies have shown that one in ten adults in India suffer from hypothyroidism. But it is often underdiagnosed and goes undetected for years. The present study was intended to perform thyroid ultrasound screening among a section of Thrissur population for evaluating the prevalence, various patterns of thyroid pathologies, its age and sex relation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ultrasound screening for thyroid gland was done for 100 individuals selected from a skewed population of St. Joseph’s Church, Kuriachira, Thrissur, Kerala between Nov. 16– Nov. 30 of 2016. RESULTS Among 100 individuals, 51 were found to have thyroid diseases. Among these 51, various patterns of thyroid diseases were noted; thyroiditis (17, multinodular goitre (12, benign nodules (17 and atypical nodules (7. 47 out of 73 females and 4 out of 27 males had thyroid abnormalities. The study also demonstrated that prevalence of thyroid disease was more in the age group of 60-70 years (78.5%. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid diseases (5 in 10 in the study population. Association with increasing age and female predisposition for thyroid diseases also noted.

  20. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  1. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  2. The thyroid gland state in the children after the Chernobyl' accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, V.A.; Ehpshtejn, E.V.; Zurnadzhi, Yu.N.; Tron'ko, N.D.; Markov, V.V.; Rybakov, S.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.; Debelenko, L.V.; Imshinetskij, P.D.; Bozhok, Yu.M.

    1992-01-01

    During the postaccident early examination (May-July 1986), the dose-dependence hypertyroxinemia with the reactive reduction of TTg was determined. The dependence of T 4 level in the blood from the age of the children was found out during the three year observation. The thyroid gland of the children having had the contact with the ionizing radiation reacted by increasing the hormone secretion on this situation, it was the most strongly pronounced in the early children. The thyroid-cancer morbidity in the Ukrainian children has been increasing. The determined decrease of the latent period in the thyroid-cancer development of the Ukrainian children is connected with the summation of the effects from the influence of radionuclids, chemical factors (nitrates pesticides, inductry poisons) on the thyroid gland as well as the iodine deficit in the goiter endemic territories. 6 tabs

  3. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up [Dept. of General Surgery, Inha University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  4. Concurrent Papillary Carcinoma Arising in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid Gland: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Yeo Ju; Jeon, Yong Sun; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Sei Joong; Cho, Young Up

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and diagnosis of thyroglossal duct carcinoma is very rare. The synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinomas arising in a thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) and thyroid gland is extremely rare. Sistrunk's surgical technique must always be the initial treatment for a TGDC. However, if there is an intra-thyroidal carcinoma or local invasion, thyroidectomy has to be considered. Accurate pre-operative radiological evaluation should be performed in order to plan a surgical strategy. The aim of this report was to review our experience in the management of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with TGDC. Our patient was a 67-year-old man who had a mural, micro- calcified nodule within a palpable, thick-walled cyst at the level of the hyoid and synchronously, a small macro-calcified mass in the isthmus of the thyroid gland.

  5. Interrelation specific autoimmune pathologies of a thyroid gland with inorganic autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Paramonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a pathology of a thyroid gland at rheumatic diseases, in particular at rheumatoid arthritis, remains actual and to this day. The work purpose was studying antitelogenesis to thyroid hormones at patients with mixt autoimmune pathology. In whey of blood of patients with RA and autothyroid pathology are found out antibodies (AB to Т3 and Т4, their concentration correlates with activity of pathological process. It is shown, that level AB to Т3 and Т4 authentically differs from the maintenance of the given antibodies in whey of blood of healthy faces. Level of antibodies to thyroid hormones can be considered as the criterion predicting development of pathology of a thyroid gland at patients with RA.

  6. [Incidence of anaplastic tumor in structure of other histologic forms of the thyroid gland cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu A; Gorbenko, V N; Vas'ko, A R; Kikhtenko, E V; Gargin, V V

    2014-01-01

    The degrees of invasiveness, proliferative activity, morphofunctional activity of nuclei in the thyroidal gland tumors were studied, while analyzing material, obtained in 1343 patients, suffering thyroidal gland cancer (THGC) and operated on in 2000-2013 yrs. Morphological point quantity of malignancy (as a criterion of the tumor progression grade) and mitotic activity in cellular population were determined in various kinds of THGC. Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma) type of THGC is the most malignant one. There were determined a spindle-like, giant-cell and squamous-cell forms of undifferentiated THGC. The presence of sites of differentiated cancer in 33% of histological preparations witnesses the interrelationship with the earlier existed pathological process.

  7. [The implementation of computer model in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvaliev, A A; Gil'dieva, M S; Khidirov, B N; Saĭdalieva, M; Khasanov, A A; Musaeva, Sh N; Saatov, T S

    2012-04-01

    The article deals with the results of computational experiments in research of dynamics of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle in normal condition and in the case of malignant neoplasm. The model studies demonstrated that the chronic increase of parameter of proliferation of cells of thyroid gland follicle results in abnormal behavior of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle. The stationary state interrupts, the auto-oscillations occur with transition to irregular oscillations with unpredictable cell proliferation and further to the "black hole" effect. It is demonstrated that the present medical biologic experimental data and theory propositions concerning the structural functional organization of thyroid gland on cell level permit to develop mathematical models for quantitative analysis of numbers of cell cenosis of thyroid gland follicle in normal conditions. The technique of modeling of regulative mechanisms of living systems and equations of cell cenosis regulations was used

  8. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    I. N. Vorozhtsova; M. R. Mukhamedov; M. A. Cherkasova; V. N. Latypova

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck ...

  9. Probable reasons of thyroid gland diseases in people suffered from Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poverennyj, A.M.; Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Ideas about the thyroid gland diseases development in people suffered from the Chernobyl accident explaining the absence of straight dose dependence of pathologies raise from the irradiation were elaborated. It is supposed that the probable reason for a number of these pathologies can be the unadecvate and inopportune preventive iodine administration. A simple immunological method of autoimmune thyroiditis diagnostics was developed which informativity is comparable with the method of ultra-sound diagnosis

  10. Hyperfunctioning Solid/Trabecular Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Giovanella; Fabrizio Fasolini; Sergio Suriano; Luca Mazzucchelli

    2010-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with solid/trabecular follicular thyroid carcinoma inside of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule is described in this paper. The patient was referred to our clinic for swelling of the neck and an increased pulse rate. Ultrasonography showed a slightly hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid. Despite suppressed TSH levels, the 9 9 m T c -pertechnetate scan showed a hot area corresponding to the nodule with a suppressed uptake in the remaining thyroid tissu...

  11. The thyroid gland in postmenopausal women: physiology and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    The incidence of most thyroid diseases: hypothyroidism, nodular goitre, and cancer is highest among postmenopausal and elderly women. The diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction in this group of patients is difficult because the symptoms can be nonspecific or common with menopausal and ageing complaints. In the interpretation of thyroid function tests the physiological changes in secretion and metabolism of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid hormones must be considered, as well as the influence of comorbidities. Unrecognised thyroid dysfunction leads to increased: cardiovascular risk, bone fractures, cognitive impairment, depression, and mortality. Therapy of thyroid dysfunction is different in postmenopausal and elderly women than in young people; hypothyroidism should be treated with caution, because high doses of L-thyroxine can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and increased bone turnover, and hyperthyroidism should be preferentially treated with radioiodine. Thyroid status beneficially influencing longevity relates to low thyroid function. Thyroid nodules and cancer often affect women over 50 years old; the diagnostic and therapeutic approach is the same as in the general population, but the surgical risk and cancer prognosis is worse than in young patients.

  12. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p thyroid cell proliferation. The differences between ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivity in benign and malignant thyroid tumors could support the theory of alternative transcription of the preproghrelin gene and independent production of ghrelin and obestatin.

  13. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Postpartum Thyroiditis www.thyroid.org What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that ... as they should. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is a general term that refers ...

  14. Hypothyroidism being caused by chronic autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwajkosz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the endocrine system are extremely important problems in Poland and around the world. According to the data presented by the Central Statistical Office in Poland in 2006, 22 % of the population suffered from thyroid disorders.  Hypothyroidism is usually caused by chronic autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is one of the most common disorders of the thyroid concerning approximately 2% of the adult population. This disorder is related to higher risk of overweight and obesity due to decreased total body metabolism. Furthermore, it predisposes to dyslipidaemia thus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of emotional-algesic stress on the hormonal function of thyroid and parathyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuripka, V I; Belokon', L E; Iakushev, V S

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on 215 Wistar rats have revealed that the state of the endured stress is an essential factor inducing disturbance in functioning of the hypothalamus-adenohypophysis-thyroid gland system accompanied by disturbance in regulation of the thyrotropin and triiodothyronine formation under conditions of myocardium necrosis development.

  17. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the ...

  18. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm 2 , in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  19. Hydatid cyst disease of the thyroid gland: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sami; Demircan, Firat; Sogutcu, Nilgun

    2015-04-01

    Hydatid cyst disease may develop in any organ of the body, most frequently in the liver and lung, but occasionally can affect other organs such as the thyroid gland. Although the prevalence of thyroidal cyst disease varies by region, literature data suggest that it ranges between 0% and 3.4%. The aim of this report was to share 2 cases with thyroid hydatid cyst. Two female patients aged 26 and 57 years were admitted to our outpatient clinic with different complaints. While the first case presented with front of the neck swelling and pain, the second case presented with hoarseness, sore throat, and neck swelling. Both patients were living in a rural area in the southeastern region of Turkey and had had a long history of animal contact. Both patients had undergone previous surgeries for hydatid cyst disease. Both patients presented with a clinical picture consistent with typical multinodular goiter, and both underwent total thyroidectomy after detailed examinations and tests. The exact diagnosis was made after histopathologic examination in both patients. They both had a negative indirect hemagglutination test studied from blood samples. They both have had no recurrences during a 4-year follow-up. In conclusion, although thyroid gland is rarely affected, hydatid cyst disease should not be overlooked in differential diagnosis of cystic lesions of thyroid gland in patients who live in regions where hydatid cyst disease is endemic and who had hydatid cysts in other regions of their body.

  20. Thyroid gland rupture caused by blunt trauma to the neck

    OpenAIRE

    Hara, Hirotaka; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid rupture following blunt trauma is extremely rare, and neck pain without swelling may be the only presenting symptom. However, hemorrhage and hematoma subsequently causes severe tracheal compression and respiratory distress. Case presentation A 71-year-old Japanese woman visited our emergency room with a complaint of increasing right-sided neck pain at the thyroid cartilage level after she tripped and accidentally hit her neck against a pole 3?h back. On admission, her vital...

  1. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Sung Mok

    2015-01-01

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm 3 in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm 3 ) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group

  2. Quantitative analysis of 3 dimensional volumetry and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, In Chul; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Baek, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daum; Kim, Tae Nyun; Kim, Mi Kyung [Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Mok [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To analyze three-dimensional (3D) volume and histogram of thyroid gland on neck computed tomography (CT) for patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 121 subjects who underwent neck CT between March 2013 and February 2014 were included in this study. These subjects were divided into the following two groups: 1) control group (n = 76); 2) Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (n = 45). Non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. On contrast-enhanced images, the 3D volume of thyroid gland was semi-automatically calculated. On CT histogram, attenuation number, mean, median, standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of thyroid gland were calculated. These values were compared between the two groups. Total 3D volume of thyroid gland was 14.9 ± 4.8 cm{sup 3} in the control group, which was significantly (p = 0.002) lower than that (19.2 ± 8 cm{sup 3}) in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group. On CT histogram, the mean, median, SD, and CV of thyroid gland on non-enhanced images were 95.8, 99.3, 21.7, and 0.226, respectively, in the control group and 72.2, 72.6, 19.6, and 0.28 in the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group (p < 0.05). Histogram parameters on contrast-enhanced images were not significantly (p > 0.05) different. Median at cut-off value of 83 revealed the largest Az value (Az: 0.905; 95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.951; sensitivity: 84.4%; specificity: 85.5%). The Hashimoto's thyroiditis group had larger volume but lower CT attenuation number with more prominent parenchymal heterogeneity of thyroid gland than the control group.

  3. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  4. [Morphological changes in the thyroid gland of rats during various phases of the estral cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliner, L I; Ledovskaia, S M

    1975-08-01

    The functional state of the thyroid gland and the concentration of thyroid hormones in the peripheral blood were studied in 20 mature female albino rats during their estral cycle. Evaluation of the thyroid functional state was made according to data of histological, morphological (the diameter of folliculi, the height of the thyroid epithelium) and histochemical analysis (determination of NAD and NADP-dehydrogenase, succinatedehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, peroxydase, acid and alkaline phosphatase) as well as biochemical determination of iodine bound with protein (IBP) in the blood plasma and investigation of the ratio of the parameters in question under conditions of the sex cycle. The cyclic changes of the morphological state of the thyroid gland attended by the phases of the estral cycle were revealed. The activation of the organ was observed in proestrus and estrus which was evidenced by high levels of activity of the enzymes under study, high concentration of IBP in the blood and increased height of thyreocytes. A decreased function of the thyroid parenchyma was observed at the period of metaestrus-diestrus.

  5. [Serum thyroxine-binding protein for determining the functional state of the thyroid gland in pregnant women with endemic goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol'kova, O A; Cheremukhin, V I

    1975-01-01

    A determination was made of the hormone-forming capacity of the thyroid gland in pregnent women under conditions of goiter endemic at various periods of pregnancy by trimesters (123-in healthy pregnant women, 206-with euthyroid goiter of the I degree, 271-or II degree, 90-of the II degree, and 4-of the IV degree). A method of zonal electrophoresis in the medinal-veronal buffer was applied. Thyrofixin with I131 isotope (made in the USSR) was used. With increase of the periods of pregnancy and the degree of euthyroid hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and goiter the thyroid gland function became elevated irrespective of age.

  6. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumadilov, Z.; Land, C.; Hartshorne, M.

    2000-01-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by ultrasound

  7. Thyroid gland status among population living around the semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Land, C.; Hartshorne, M. [and others

    2000-05-01

    From 1949-1962, regions of Kazakstan near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) were contaminated with high levels of radioactive fallout from atomic bomb tests carried out at the SNTS. The effective-dose is a principal criterion for the evaluation of the effect of radioactive fallout upon population. Thyroid disease prevalence may be ascertained, as a biomarker of radiation exposure and because it is of interest in itself. Some features from three studies of thyroid gland status among population living around SNTS will be reported. The first study is a case review of pathological findings of 7,271 patients from three regions adjacent to the SNTS, who were surgically treated during 1966-96; the second is a thyroid screening study of a cohort of 3000 village residents who were <20 years of age at the time of major fallout events in the Semipalatinsk region; the third is a complex molecular, morphological investigation and some approaches to rehabilitation of patients with thyroid abnormalities. Our first study revealed that there is a significant trend for the proportion of thyroid cancer to increase over time in the Semipalatinsk region of Kazakstan 20-29 years after onset of testing in 1949, which might be related to radiation exposure. There are many ethnic groups in this region. Our research among two main ethnic groups (native Kazakh and European extraction) detected that the initial level of thyroid abnormalities and thyroid cancer was higher among residents of European extraction. The total number of surgical cases increased among both ethnic groups over the years, but the numbers of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer increased dramatically among ethnic Kazakhs. Overall, papillary and follicular cancers predominated, but it should be noted the relatively high percentage of follicular cancers after 1982 in the Semipalatinsk region. The primary screening outcome measure was the prevaleance of thyroid nodules as determined by

  8. Management of Graves' disease during pregnancy: the key role of fetal thyroid gland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luton, Dominique; Le Gac, Isabelle; Vuillard, Edith; Castanet, Mireille; Guibourdenche, Jean; Noel, Michèle; Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth; Léger, Juliane; Boissinot, Christine; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Garel, Catherine; Tébeka, Brigitte; Oury, Jean-François; Czernichow, Paul; Polak, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Fetuses from mothers with Graves' disease may experience hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism due to transplacental transfer of antithyroid drugs (ATD) or anti-TSH receptor antibodies, respectively. Little is known about the fetal consequences. Early diagnosis is essential to successful management. We investigated a new approach to the fetal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and validated the usefulness of fetal thyroid ultrasonograms. Seventy-two mothers with past or present Graves' disease and their fetuses were monitored monthly from 22 wk gestation. Fetal thyroid size and Doppler signals, and fetal bone maturation were determined on ultrasonograms, and thyroid function was evaluated at birth. Thyroid function and ATD dosage were monitored in the mothers. The 31 fetuses whose mothers were anti-TSH receptor antibody negative and took no ATDs during late pregnancy had normal test results. Of the 41 other fetuses, 30 had normal test results at 32 wk, 29 were euthyroid at birth, and one had moderate hypothyroidism on cord blood tests. In the remaining 11 fetuses, goiter was visualized by ultrasonography at 32 wk, and fetal thyroid dysfunction was diagnosed and treated; there was one death, in a late referral, and 10 good outcomes with normal or slightly altered thyroid function at birth. The sensitivity and specificity of fetal thyroid ultrasound at 32 wk for the diagnosis of clinically relevant fetal thyroid dysfunction were 92 and 100%, respectively. In pregnant women with past or current Graves' disease, ultrasonography of the fetal thyroid gland by an experienced ultrasonographer is an excellent diagnostic tool. This tool in conjunction with close teamwork among internists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, echographists, and pediatricians can ensure normal fetal thyroid function.

  9. Automated MicroSPECT/MicroCT Image Analysis of the Mouse Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Hollingsworth, Brynn; Scarberry, Daniel; Shen, Daniel H; Powell, Kimerly; Smart, Sean C; Beech, John; Sheng, Xiaochao; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Menq, Chia-Hsiang; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2017-11-01

    The ability of thyroid follicular cells to take up iodine enables the use of radioactive iodine (RAI) for imaging and targeted killing of RAI-avid thyroid cancer following thyroidectomy. To facilitate identifying novel strategies to improve 131 I therapeutic efficacy for patients with RAI refractory disease, it is desired to optimize image acquisition and analysis for preclinical mouse models of thyroid cancer. A customized mouse cradle was designed and used for microSPECT/CT image acquisition at 1 hour (t1) and 24 hours (t24) post injection of 123 I, which mainly reflect RAI influx/efflux equilibrium and RAI retention in the thyroid, respectively. FVB/N mice with normal thyroid glands and TgBRAF V600E mice with thyroid tumors were imaged. In-house CTViewer software was developed to streamline image analysis with new capabilities, along with display of 3D voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity in MATLAB. The customized mouse cradle facilitates consistent tissue configuration among image acquisitions such that rigid body registration can be applied to align serial images of the same mouse via the in-house CTViewer software. CTViewer is designed specifically to streamline SPECT/CT image analysis with functions tailored to quantify thyroid radioiodine uptake. Automatic segmentation of thyroid volumes of interest (VOI) from adjacent salivary glands in t1 images is enabled by superimposing the thyroid VOI from the t24 image onto the corresponding aligned t1 image. The extent of heterogeneity in 123 I accumulation within thyroid VOIs can be visualized by 3D display of voxel-based 123 I gamma photon intensity. MicroSPECT/CT image acquisition and analysis for thyroidal RAI uptake is greatly improved by the cradle and the CTViewer software, respectively. Furthermore, the approach of superimposing thyroid VOIs from t24 images to select thyroid VOIs on corresponding aligned t1 images can be applied to studies in which the target tissue has differential radiotracer retention

  10. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE THYROID GLAND AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF COPPER NANOPARTICLES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V S; Sizova, Ye A; Miroshnikov, S A; Notova, S V; Zavaleyeva, S M

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted on 15 male Wistar rats, which were injected intramuscularly with copper nanoparticle lyosols at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 3 months. Thyroid gland was removed 7 days after the last injection and was studied using histological, morphometric and immunohistochemical methods (demonstration of Ki-67 and caspase-3). Animals of the control group (n = 15) were administered distilled water at the same time intervals. It was found that after 1, 2, 3 and 4 injections of copper nanoparticles, the thyroid gland contained an increased number of large cyst-like follicles, while the average thyrocyte height of and the volume of their nuclei were reduced, which indicate a decline in hormone production. After 12 injections of copper nanoparticles, the hyperplastic thyroid gland demonstrated small follicles lined with columnar epithelium, which contained no or small amount of the colloid. The number of mitotically dividing thyrocytes was increased. Parafollicular cells demonstrated an apoptotic dominant. Morphological data suggest goitrogenic effect of multiple doses of copper nanopartides. The data received indicating the readiness of the thyroid cells to the programmed death and its possible depression (absence of signs of thyrocyte apoptosis) at different stages of the experiment confirm the modulating effect of copper on apoptosis.

  11. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Correa, Samanda C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  12. Assessment of dose in thyroid and salivary glands in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantuano, Natalia de O.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa em Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Canevaro, Luca V.; Mauricio, Claudia Lucia P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ) Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiobiological and epidemiological studies have provided evidence of risk of salivary and thyroid glands tumors incidence associated with oral radiology. Based on these studies, the tissue weighting factors were reviewed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 2007. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the absorbed dose on thyroid and salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual), during a complete periapical examination. The complete periapical examination was simulated using a Spectro 70X Seletronic X-ray dental equipment on an Alderson Rando phantom with Harshaw LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD100). A PTW DIADOS dosimetric system was used for calibration. The TLD100 were inserted into the phantom slices corresponding to the organs of interest. During a complete periapical examination, the highest evaluated mean absorbed dose was 4.9 mGy in the right submandibular gland and the lowest one of 1.5 mGy in the left thyroid lobe. Entrance surface doses ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 mGy, measured, respectively, for the techniques of upper left molar and lower right molar. When compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRL), the entrance surface doses values were lower than the DRLs recommended in Brazilian current legislation. However, the dosimetric results show the need of optimization for complete periapical examination to minimize patient exposure. Measurements were performed without the use of thyroid protectors. The use of this device is certainly an easy and simple method of dose reduction. (author)

  13. Some thoughts on stem cells and carcinogenesis. The thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consider the hypothesis that cancer frequently originates from stem cells. Using the spleen transplantation assay where stem cells were transplanted in the spleen of mice lethally irradiated by ionizing radiation, the author undertook a study aimed at defining the risk of radiogenic cancer per susceptible cells with use of rat radiogenic mammary and thyroid cancers because of the high incidences of these cancers in a-bomb survivors. Measured were the number of cancer-susceptible cells initially present in the tissue, the number of such cells that survived at a given dose and the number of cancers that developed per surviving cell. Thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation in rats transplanted with thyroid cells were enhanced by thyroidectomy and low iodine diet. Further, the relationship between the low LET radiation dose and thyroid clonogen survival was also investigated. Data showed that follicular-unit-forming clonogens fulfilled the criteria of stem cells and thus cancer origin from stem cells is likely a widespread phenomenon. (K.H.)

  14. Selenium, selenoproteins and the thyroid gland: interactions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Lutz

    2011-10-18

    The trace element selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Most of the known selenoproteins are expressed in the thyroid gland, including some with still unknown functions. Among the well-characterized selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases, enzymes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism, regulation of redox state and protection from oxidative damage. Selenium content in selenium-sensitive tissues such as the liver, kidney or muscle and expression of nonessential selenoproteins, such as the glutathione peroxidases GPx1 and GPx3, is controlled by nutritional supply. The thyroid gland is, however, largely independent from dietary selenium intake and thyroid selenoproteins are preferentially expressed. As a consequence, no explicit effects on thyroid hormone profiles are observed in healthy individuals undergoing selenium supplementation. However, low selenium status correlates with risk of goiter and multiple nodules in European women. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that selenium-deficient patients with autoimmune thyroid disease benefit from selenium supplementation, although the data are conflicting and many parameters must still be defined. The baseline selenium status of an individual could constitute the most important parameter modifying the outcome of selenium supplementation, which might primarily disrupt self-amplifying cycles of the endocrine-immune system interface rectifying the interaction of lymphocytes with thyroid autoantigens. Selenium deficiency is likely to constitute a risk factor for a feedforward derangement of the immune system-thyroid interaction, while selenium supplementation appears to dampen the self-amplifying nature of this derailed interaction.

  15. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of thyroid gland arising from coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Jin Soo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Ji [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegue (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We report herein on a case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland in a 57-year-old woman with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and we include its characteristic imaging, histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings.

  16. {sup 131}I-induced changes in rat thyroid gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torlak, V.; Capkun, V.; Stanicic, A. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Zemunik, T. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Medical Biology]. E-mail: tzemunik@bsb.mefst.hr; Modun, D. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pesutic-Pisac, V. [Clinical Hospital Split, Split (Croatia). Dept. of Pathology; Markotic, A. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). School of Medicine. Dept. of Biochemistry; Pavela-Vrancic, M. [University of Split, Split (Croatia). Faculty of Natural Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-08-15

    Therapeutic doses of {sup 131}I administered to thyrotoxic patients may cause thyroid failure. The present study used a rat model to determine thyroid function after the administration of different doses of {sup 131}I (64-277 {mu}Ci). Thirty male Fisher rats in the experimental group and 30 in the control group (untreated) were followed for 6 months. The animals were 4 months old at the beginning of the experiment and were sacrificed at an age of 9 months. Hormone concentration was determined before {sup 131}I administration (4-month-old animals) and three times following {sup 131}I administration, when the animals were 7, 8, and 9 months old. The thyroid glands were removed and weighed, their volume was determined and histopathological examination was performed at the end of the experiment. Significant differences in serum triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration, measured at the age of 7, 8, and 9 months, were found in the experimental group. During aging of the animals, the concentration of thyroxin fell from 64.8 {+-} 8.16 to 55.0 {+-} 6.1 nM in the control group and from 69.4 {+-} 6.9 to 25.4 {+-} 3.2 nM in the experimental group. Thyroid gland volume and weight were significantly lower in the experimental than in the control group. Thyroid glands from the experimental group showed hyaline thickness of the blood vessel wall, necrotic follicles, a strong inflammatory reaction, and peeling of necrotic cells in the follicles. In conclusion, significant differences in hormone levels and histopathological findings indicated prolonged hypothyroidism after {sup 131}I administration to rats, which was not {sup 131}I dose dependent. (author)

  17. Changes in the function of the thyroid gland and the connection of the appearance of thyroid gland carcinoma after irradiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    A programme of examinations has been carried out on adults to discover the connection between irradiation of the neck or head and the development of aberrations of the thyroid gland. Two patient groups were studied, 26 men between 41 and 79 and 8 men between 51 and 75 years of age who received radiation treatment for carcinoma of the larynx during 1967-1971 and 1972-1976 respectively. The examination included an E.C.G., and a technetium scan. In the former group two cases of hypothyroidism and one case of hyperthyroidism were found. In general it was found that the radiation treatment had a high curative effect. (C.F.)

  18. The effect of low-dose ionizing radiation on structural functional state of thyroid gland. Communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashova, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    Twelve rabbits were used to study the ultrastructure of thyroid cells after mercazolilum administration during 2.5 month (1 mg/kg of the body mass) to intact and exposed to total x-ray radiation at the total dose of 0.75 Gy animals. Prolonged administration of mercazolilum to intact rabbits causes the development of considerable morpho functional changes in the thyroid gland suggesting disturbances of thyroid secretion. 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal thyroid 's ultrastructure restores almost completely. Mercazolilum administration to the irradiated rabbits prevents the development of structural disturbances in the thyroid epithelium characteristic for the action of separate factors. Thyroid ultrastructure in rabbits 2-3 month after the preparation withdrawal in similar to that observed at irradiation only. Normalization of thyroid ultrastructure at administration of mercazolilum to the irradiated animals suggest that inhibition of thyroid activity after the exposure to radiation is reversible and can be due to disturbances in thyroid homeostasis regulation

  19. Is thyroid gland an organ at risk in breast cancer patients treated with locoregional radiotherapy? Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunio, Mutahir Ali; Al Asiri, Mushabbab; Bayoumi, Yasser; Stanciu, Laura G; Al Johani, Naji; Al Saeed, Eyad Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Aim was to evaluate the dose distribution within the thyroid gland its association with hypothyroidism in breast cancer (BC) patients receiving supraclavicular (SC) radiation therapy (RT). Consecutive 40 BC patients with baseline normal thyroid function tests (TFTs), were randomized into two groups: (a) Adjuvant chest wall/breast with SC-RT (20 patients) and (b) control group (adjuvant chest wall/breast RT only); 20 patients. The thyroid gland was contoured for each patient. Each patient's dose volume histogram (DVH), mean thyroid volume, the volume percentages of the thyroid absorbing respectively 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50), and Dmean (average dose in whole volume of thyroid) were then estimated. TFTs were performed at the time of the last follow-up and compared. Mean thyroid volume of cohort was 19.6 cm(3) (4.02-93.52) and Dmean of thyroid gland in SC-RT and control group was 25.8 Gy (16.4-52.2) and 5.6 Gy (0.7-12.8), respectively. Median values of V5, V10, V20, V30, V40, and V50 were 54%, 51%, 42.8%, 30.8%, 27.8%, and 7.64%, respectively, in SC-RT as compared to control group (V5;4.9%, V10;2.4%, V20;1.75%, V301%, V40;0%, and V50;0%, respectively) with P thyroid function whereas four patients (10%) had hypothyroidism; 3/20 (15%) patients in SC-RT and 1/20 (5%) in control group with P thyroid volume (P = 0.03). The risk of hypothyroidism in BC patients after SC-RT depends on the thyroid gland volume and V30 >50% and the risk can be minimized by thyroid gland shielding during RT.

  20. Outcome following simultaneous bilateral thyroid lobectomy for treatment of thyroid gland carcinoma in dogs: 15 cases (1994-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Joanne L; Worley, Deanna R; Withrow, Stephen J

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the outcome of resection of simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile thyroid gland carcinomas (TGCs) in dogs. Retrospective case series. 15 dogs with resected simultaneous discrete bilateral mobile TGCs. Medical records (from 1994 to 2010) were searched for dogs with the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information collected included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, tumor mobility (mobile tumor identified by movement ≥ 1 cm in all planes during palpation), complications, adjuvant treatments, and outcome. Mobile, discrete, bilateral TGCs were removed in all dogs. Among the 15 dogs, complete parathyroidectomies were necessary in 9; parathyroid tissue was reimplanted in 4 and preserved in 2. Complications included hemorrhage and laryngeal nerve trauma, but without serious consequences. Thirteen dogs received calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium after surgery. In the immediate postoperative period, hypocalcemia developed and was corrected in 11 dogs. At the end of the study, 7 dogs continued to receive calcitriol with or without supplemental calcium, and 8 dogs required long-term thyroid hormone treatment. Six dogs received adjuvant chemotherapy. Local tumor recurrence or de novo distant metastasis was not detected at each dog's last follow-up examination. Median survival time was 38.3 months. Three dogs were lost to follow-up, 8 survived (4.3 to 77 months after surgery), and 4 died of unrelated causes. In dogs with TGCs undergoing bilateral thyroid lobectomies, a successful outcome can be expected, even when parathyroid gland tissue cannot be preserved. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy in treatment outcome was not clearly defined.

  1. Mechanistic explanations for the elevated susceptibility of the perinatal thyroid gland to radiogenic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Mahlum, D.D.; Dagle, G.E.; Daniel, J.L.; Goldman, M.

    1988-01-01

    Results from laboratory experiments and epidemiologic studies suggest that the thyroid gland is more susceptible to radiogenic cancer during the late prenatal or early postnatal periods than in adulthood. We have evaluated several endpoints in the course of experiments in which rats, at ages ranging from late gestation to adulthood, were exposed to graded doses of 131 I. Morphologic responses at sequential times after exposure were evaluated in one series of experiments. Cell death, degeneration, fibrosis of the gland were the predominant findings after exposure of weanlings or adults, but inhibition of thyroid growth and differentiation was the characteristic change after perinatal exposure. The degree of maturation and dosimetric factors are involved in this differential morphologic response, and also result in age-dependent physiologic differences in the postexposure period

  2. Effect of environmental temperature on radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of rats during ontogenetic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samel, M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid gland of young rats, aged 1 to 30 days, was studied at nest temperature (35degC) and at the temperature of the animal room (24degC). In animals younger than two weeks 131 I uptake was significantly lower at 24degC than at nest temperature. In older animals, these temperature differences did not result in significantly different uptake values. It is suggested that short-term cold does not activate the pituitary-thyroid gland axis in younger animals with unstable body temperature, and that functional changes in the circulatory system might be responsible for the differences observed in 131 I uptake. (author)

  3. Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1976-01-01

    Environmental factors used for the estimation of radiation dose to thyroid gland were discussed in this paper, such as deposition velocity of radioactive iodine onto plant leaves, elimination factor from the leaves, transfer of this nuclide to milk and the consumption of those critical foods especially by inhabitants around nuclear sites in coastal area of Ibaraki Prefecture. Uptake of the stable iodine was estimated. (auth.)

  4. [ANALYSIS OF THE SURGICAL TREATMENT RESULTS IN THE THYROID GLAND DISEASES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Bolgov, M Yu

    2015-08-01

    The results of surgical treatment of the thyroid gland diseases were analyzed, including the specific morbidity rate, cosmetic effect of the operation, stationary treatment of patients duration, the operation radicalism. Improvement of the operation methods and introduction of modern electric surgical instruments have permitted to reduce the operation duration, the surgical access length, the rate of postoperative hypocalcaemia occurrence, duration of the patients stationary treatment.

  5. Electronic and oscillation absorption spectra of blood plamsa at surgical diseases of thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Motrich, A. V.; Poliansky, I. Y.; Hyrla, Ya. V.

    2012-01-01

    The results of investigating the absorption spectra of blood plasma in the visible and infrared parts of spectra obtained using the techniques of spherical photometer and spectrophotometric complex "Specord IR75" are presented. The possibility of using these spectra for diagnoses the cases of diffuse toxic goiter and nodular goiter and control of treatment process in postsurgical period in the cases of thyroid gland surgery is estimated.

  6. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  7. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3±11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1±10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2±12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2±1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  8. Studies on 129I in bovine thyroid glands and investigations on revolatilization of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.; Kiselnic, L.; Handl, J.; Kuehn, W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to study fall out effect, deposition and revolatilization of iodine in the field and 129 I activity in bovine thyroid glands were studied. Deposition velocity of I 2 was 0.15 to 7 cm/sec, which was 100 times higher than that of CH 3 I. Biological half-life of iodine was 7.5 +- 0.5 d. In the contaminated plants, indifferent to the environmental conditions. However, the decrease of iodine concentration was not observed when the plants were cut off immediately after deposition of iodine. A sample of soil with or without plants was contaminated with iodine and re-emitted iodine was trapped by a charcoal filter. Iodine concentration was determined by I-specific electrodes after 1, 2, 4, and 8 hrs. In any case, I 2 was re-emitted immediately after the contamination. Bovine thyroid glands were dried by deep freezing and ground after the addition of KOH. Organic compounds were decomposed by stepwise heating up to 600 0 C. Then iodine was extracted by concentrated H 2 SO 4 and heated at 110 0 C. Evaporating iodine was adsorbed by a pure charcoal filter. By neutron activation analysis of the filter the activity of 129 I was 1.2 pCi/g iodine, which would be about 5 times higher than that measured in animals living far from nuclear installations. The distribution of stable iodine in thyroid gland was inhomogeneous. (Nakanishi, T.)

  9. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (pdisease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (pthyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor.

  10. Ultrasonographic localization of the thyroid gland for its optimal shielding prior to lateral cephalometric radiography: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurmerinta, Kirsti; Rice, David; Suomalainen, Anni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Lateral cephalometric radiography is a common radiographic examination technique in children. The exclusion of the thyroid gland from the primary X-ray beam is important especially with children. However, patient treatment might require displaying the four most cranial cervical vertebrae (C1–C4) for the assessment of cervical vertebral maturation. Our aim was to present a safe way to display C1–C4 and exclude the thyroid gland from the X-ray beam during lateral cephalometric radiography. Methods: The thyroid glands of 25, 7- to 12-year-old patients were localized by ultrasound examination and shielded prior to lateral cephalometric radiography. A roentgen-positive mark was taped on the patient's skin at the level of most cranial level of the thyroid gland in the midsagittal plane. After exposure, each lateral cephalometric radiograph (LCR) was analyzed for the visibility of the cervical vertebrae. The distance between the ear post and the highest edge of the thyroid shield (TS) at the lateral part of the neck was measured and compared with the distance between the centre of the radiological external auditory meatus, and a roentgen-positive mark was made on the LCR. Results: 68% of the LCRs displayed C1–C4, and the rest of them displayed C1–C3. In all of the patients, the highest edge of the TS in the lateral parts of the neck was located in a higher position than the actual most cranial level of the thyroid gland. Conclusions: Despite localizing the thyroid gland prior to lateral cephalometric radiography, simultaneous visualization of C1–C4 and exclusion of the thyroid gland from the primary X-ray beam during lateral cephalometric radiography might not be completely possible in children because of the design and poor fitness of the TS. PMID:26764584

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This work was intended to discover small organic molecules acting as iodide uptake inhibitors in thyroid cells. These compounds can indeed be derivatized into biochemical probes for further characterization of proteins involved in iodide transport mechanisms. On the long term, these inhibitors also appear as attractive drug candidates for treatment of thyroid pathologies or radioprotection against iodine isotopes. A similar strategy was adopted for both of the two inhibitor families. First, we synthesized a chemical library of around 100 analogues; we measured their IC50 against iodide uptake in FRTL-5 cells to get structure-activity relationships. Absolute configuration of stereo-genic centers was also investigated, and a preferential stereochemistry was found to be responsible for activity. From this basis, around twenty 'second-generation' analogues were synthesized by combining fragments contributing to biological activity. Biological evaluation indicated that nine were very potent inhibitors, with IC50 ≤ 6 nM and satisfying physicochemical properties required for drug candidates. Finally, one photoactivatable biotinylated probe was developed in each family and used for photoaffinity labeling. Several specifically labeled proteins are still under identification and constitute new potential therapeutic targets. (author)

  12. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  13. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA P.S. OTERO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20 from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching. Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm, but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm. From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  14. A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF HUMAN THYROID GLAND IN THE POPULATION OF NORTH - EASTERN REGION OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Due to the high incidence of thyroid disorders in the North - Eastern population of India a study was undertaken in Guwahati Medical College to see the age related changes in the morphology of the gland in the ca davers of this region. AIM : The study was done to compare the dimensions of the thyroid gland in this population with different studies around the world to see if it can throw any light why thyroid disorders are more common in this population and help clin icians to deal better. MATERIALS AND METHOD : The specimens were divided into three groups according to their ages. Twenty (21 specimens (both male and female were taken from each age group. Statistical analysis was done by paired t - test and t was taken a s significant if the value of t was greater than 2.18. SUMMARY : A study of all together of 63 specimen were taken up to see if any morphological differences in dimension exists in various age groups viz. pediatrics , adults and elderly and co relate with fi ndings of previous workers and was statistically analyzed. CONCLUSION : The study showed that there was no morphological difference of this population with that of previous studies done in other parts of the world. Perhaps a histological study in molecular level will throw more light why this stratum of population is so vulnerable to thyroid disorders.

  15. Congenital hypothyroidism due to ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in Prader-Willi Syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchini, Sarah; Fintini, Danilo; Grugni, Graziano; Boiani, Arianna; Convertino, Alessio; Crinò, Antonino

    2017-09-22

    Thyroid gland disorders are variably associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Many of the clinical features in newborns with PWS are similar to those found in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). We report a case of a girl with CH and PWS. At the age of 9 months CH caused by an ectopic sublingual thyroid was diagnosed, and hormone replacement therapy was started. In spite of this treatment a decrease in growth velocity, weight excess and delayed development were observed. At the age of 9 years PWS was suspected on the basis of phenotype and genetic tests confirmed a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. This is the second reported case of hypothyroidism due to an ectopic sublingual thyroid gland in PWS suggesting that, although rare, an association between CH and PWS may exist. In our case diagnosis of PWS was delayed because mental retardation, hypotonia, obesity and short stature were initially attributed to hypothyroidism. In this context PWS should be considered in obese children with CH who do not improve adequately with l-thyroxine therapy. Also, thyroid function in all PWS children should be assessed regularly in order to avoid delayed diagnosis of hypothyroidism.

  16. Protein metabolism in hypo- and hyperstimulated rat thyroid glands. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic-Hournac, M.; Delbauffe, D.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of degradation of total thyroidal proteins is modified in differently stimulated glands. It is slowed down in hypostimulated thyroids and accelerated in hyperstimulated ones. Comparative evaluation of the rates degradation (either in absolute terms - DPM/mg of tissue or as specific activity) of different proteins shows that a modified hormonal state affects the degradation of thyroglobulin much more significantly than the degradation of non-thyroglobulin proteins. In the absence of thyrotropic hormone (TSH) the degradation of throglobulin is almost completely inhibited, while with excess of hormone it is dramatically accelerated. Comparing the TSH action on the synthesis with its effect on the degradation of thyroglobulin, it appears that it has a much stronger effect on the process of degradation than on the process of synthesis. This means that TSH significantly modifies the turnover of thyroglobulin. This effect of TSH leads, in chronically hypo- or hyperstimulated glands to the new levels of colloidal thyroglobulin which are highly increased in hypostimulated and significantly decreased in hyperstimulated glands. These results are in perfect agreement with the classical morphological description of hypo- and hyperstimulated glands. (orig.) [de

  17. Change of dynamics of development of a thyroid gland at children of school age of the both Gomel' and Mogilev area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorovich, M.V.; Loban, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The given work estimates dynamics of development of a thyroid gland depending on age and anthopometrical parameters at children of school age. Results of work can be used in the further researches on the given subjects, for diagnostics of pathologies of a thyroid gland and their prevention, forecasting of groups of risk of diseases by a thyroid gland of children of school age and teenagers depending on development of anatomic, anthopometrical and age data. (authors)

  18. Role of thyroid gland on the peroxidase and iodinating enzymes of submaxillary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, T.; Das, R.; Datta, A.G.

    1977-01-01

    The peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) and iodinase (EC 1.11.1.8) activities of rat submaxillary gland were found to be increased after thyroidectomy. The enzyme activities were maximal on the seventh day after operation and then decreased slightly. However, the enzyme activities were still more than 100% even 28 days following operation. Administration of thyroxine (10 μg/100 g body weight) prevented the increase. Puromycin, cycloheximide, and actinomycin D, the inhibitors of protein synthesis, as well as Thiouracil partially abolished the increase of activities. These results suggest that thyroxine acts as a regulator of the iodinase and peroxidase enzyme(s) of submaxillary gland. Iodine 131 was the isotope used in the experiments. (orig./AJ) [de

  19. Changes of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Expressions in Thyroid Glands of Patients with Different Thyroid Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Our aim was to analyze NAMPT expression in thyroid tissue derived from patients with Graves’ disease with (GD and without (GO orbitopathy, patients with toxic nodular goiters (TNG and thyroid cancers (TC, and healthy controls. Methods. 153 thyroid tissue samples of consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomy were collected. Previous therapy with steroids was an exclusion criterion. We collected clinicopathological data of all subjects and we assessed NAMPT expression using qPCR. Results. We found the highest NAMPT expression in the thyroids of patients with GO (n = 20 and cancers (n = 40. Also, there was statistically significant NAMPT overexpression in patients with TNG (n = 30. Relatively low NAMPT expression was found in GD patients (n = 21 and in the control group (n = 39. In one-way ANCOVA, we confirmed that NAMPT expression differs between subgroups and that it is not influenced by age, BMI, or sex of patients. Conclusions. Reported alteration of NAMPT expression might suggest its involvement in thyroid pathologies. Observed NAMPT overexpression in patients with GO and its relatively low levels in thyroids of patients with GD without eye changes do not confirm causal relationship between NAMPT level and orbitopathy, but this needs further investigation.

  20. Radioiodide uptake in brain, CSF, thyroid, and salivary glands of audiogenic seizure mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, F.L.; Chow, S.Y.; Kemp, J.W.; Woodbury, D.M.

    1984-08-01

    DBA/2J (DBA) mice are susceptible to audiogenic seizures (ASs) in an age-dependent manner. Anion transport as measured by radioiodide uptake was determined in thyroid gland, salivary gland, skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and CSF from these mice at various ages. Anion transport was also determined in C57BL/6J(C57) mice, an AS-resistant strain. In thyroid, DBA mice had an enhanced ability to concentrate iodide at 21 days of age when they have maximal AS susceptibility, as compared with the same-aged C57 mice. This difference in thyroid function was less marked at 40 days of age, when DBA mice are less AS susceptible, and was absent at 110 days of age, when DBA mice are AS resistant. In brain, differences in iodide uptake were also noted between these two strains of mice at 21 days of age. DBA mice had an increased concentration of iodide in CSF, an indication that they have a defect in the transport of iodide out of the CSF across the choroid plexus. In addition, DBA mice had a lower ratio of cerebral cortex to CSF iodide, which suggests that DBA mice have a defect in the transport of this anion into cerebral cortical cells from brain interstitial fluid. These differences in iodide transport in brain decreased with age as the AS susceptibility of DBA mice decreased. These results suggest a relation between anion transport in thyroid gland, cerebral cortex, and choroid plexus and AS susceptibility in DBA mice at 21 days of age.

  1. Evaluation of thyroid gland as an organ at risk after breast cancer radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish, L; Ghorbani, M; Teshnizi, S Hosseini; Roozbeh, N; Seif, F; Bayatiani, M Reza; Knaup, C; Amraee, A

    2018-05-14

    Radiotherapy can often lead to thyroid dysfunction. Some studies demonstrated that treatment of breast cancer by RT can expose thyroid gland to high doses of radiation. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate consideration of thyroid gland as an organ at risk. In this systematic review and meta-analysis to select initial studies, a comprehensive search by two independent reviewers was performed. Electronical databases following: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier, Embase, ProQuest and Persian databases such as Iranmedex, Magiran, and SID were searched. All searches were restricted to English language between 1985 and 2017. A random effect meta-analysis is applied to estimate pooled effect size across initial studies. Funnel plot with Egger's test is used to assess potential publication bias. Totally, five studies (478 samples) were included in meta-analysis. The meta-analyses of result showed that thyroid gland is affected by radiotherapy significantly and the TSH increased after radiotherapy (z = 2.68, P = 0.007). The pooled estimate of difference mean for TSH was 0.90 (95% CI 0.24, 1.55). In studies among patients with breast cancer RT, hypothyroidism was reported more than other thyroid disorders. There was not showed possibility publication bias among studies (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated that thyroid gland is affected by radiotherapy significantly and the TSH increased after radiotherapy. Protecting thyroid gland during radiation and follow-up of patients with breast cancer RT are suggested for the assessment of thyroid gland dysfunction.

  2. Primary synovial sarcoma of the thyroid gland: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Laurys; Fakhry, Nicolas; Chetaille, Bruno; Perrot, Delphine; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Daidj, Nassima; Guiramand, Jérôme; Sarran, Anthony; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Bertucci, François

    2014-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SVS) of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement). The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed.

  3. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurys Boudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma (SVS of the thyroid gland is exceedingly rare. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with a rapidly growing 7-cm neck mass. Because of suspicion of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was planned, without preoperative cytology. During surgery, the tumor ruptured, leading to fragmented and incomplete resection. The morphological and immunohistochemical aspects suggested thyroid SVS, which was confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (SYT gene rearrangement. The patient experienced immediate local relapse in close contact with large vessels and the thyroid cartilage and was referred to our institution. Doxorubicin-ifosfamide chemotherapy led to a minor response that authorized secondary conservative surgery. Because of microscopically incomplete resection, adjuvant radiotherapy was chosen and is ongoing 10 months after initial surgery. The prognosis of thyroid SVS is associated with a high risk for local and metastatic relapses. Pretreatment diagnosis is fundamental and may benefit from molecular analysis. Margin-free monobloc surgical excision is the best chance for cure, but adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy deserve to be discussed.

  4. Effect of selenium on the thyroid gland antioxidative metabolisms in rat model by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyung Seok; Choi, Jun Hyeok; JUng, Do Young; Kim, Jang Oh; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Selenium (Se), which is natural materials existing was known as an important component of selenoprotein, one of the important proteins responsible for the redox pump of a living body. Selenium was orally administered to Rat and irradiated with 10 Gy of radiation. Then, the thyroid gland was used as a target organ for 1 day, 7 days and 21 days to investigate the radiation protection effect of selenium (Se) through changes of blood components, thyroid hormones (T3, T4), antioxidant enzyme (GPx) activity and thyroid tissue changes. As a result, there was a significant protective effect of hematopoietic immune system(hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil, platelet)(p<0.05). The activity of Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), the antioxidant enzyme, and the activity of the target organ, thyroid hormone (T3, T4), also showed significant activity changes (p<0.05). In the observation of tissue changes, it was confirmed that there was a protective effect of thyroid cell damage which caused the cell necrosis by radiation treatment. Therefore, it is considered that selenium(Se) can be utilized as a radiation defense agent by inducing immunogenic activity effect of a living body.

  5. Criteria to form a > of thyroid gland diseases appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'jeva, N.Yi.; Tkachenko, G.Yi.; Astap'jeva, O.M.; Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Rozdyil's'kij, S.Yi.; Vasil'jev, L.Ya.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report and discuss the results of clinical study of the thyroid gland and hormonal thyroid state in 100 male patients who had taken part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects. The revealed changes in the thyroid homeostasis state depending the terms of observation and enlargement of the thyroid gland (stage 1 - 2) in 32% of the patients suggest of appearance of predisposing factors to development of the thyroid gland pathologic conditions. Criteria to form a > of thyropathy appearance in those who took part in elimination of the Chernobyl accident aftereffects were determined

  6. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland. Methods—TEC nucleoli were investigated in fine needle biopsy specimens from 10 controls, 39 patients with Grave's disease, 15 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 56 with benign, and 15 with malignant tumours of the thyroid. A one step silver staining method was applied. In most cases serum concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine as well as goitre size were determined. In every case 100 TECs were evaluated for the mean numbers of nucleoli and for the average number of argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions (AgNORs) per nucleus. Results—NORs were activated in all patients, but not in controls. The numbers of AgNORs in patients with Grave's disease were closely correlated with thyroxine or triiodothyronine, or both, concentrations and with the size of the thyroid. In patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis about 30% of TECs nucleoli did not contain AgNORs, whereas others were heavily impregnated with silver. Compared with controls and benign tumours, the nucleoli of carcinomatous TECs were larger and irregular in shape. The mean number of AgNORs per nucleus in malignant cells was higher than that in their benign counterparts. Conclusions—The mechanism by which NORs are activated in TECs varies depending on the type of lesion. The higher AgNOR score in TECs from malignant tumours can be used to distinguish them from their benign counterparts. Images PMID:16696083

  7. Determination of the iodine concentration of the thyroid gland in an endemic goiter area by computed tomography (CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, K.; Berg-Schlosser, F.; Herbert, K.

    1986-04-01

    We determined the CT density of the thyroid gland in 60 patients with normal thyroids and 176 patients with various thyroid disorders. The density was 75+-6.2 H.U. in normal thyroids, which was markedly higher than in goiters (66+-6.0 H.U.), while there was a considerable further decrease in patients with immunogenic hyperthyrodism, the density being 48.5+-7.9 H.U. The thyroids of patients with nonimmunogenic hyperthyroidism differed from these by virtue of a significantly greater density, 79.8+-12.5 H.U. The clinical importance of CT investigation of the thyroid is its ability to distinguish rapidly between immunogenic hyperthyroidism without ocular symptoms and the (mostly iodine induced) nonimmunogenic form. There is a linear correlation between CT density and iodine concentration in the thyroid tissue; this was determined in surgical specimens from 17 patients. Iodine concentration in the thyroid, as well as the iodine content of the whole gland, can thus be calculated from the measured CT density at any time by estimating the volume of the gland with ultrasound and combining this value with the measured iodine concentration. The results correlate well with those found using the X-ray fluorescence method.

  8. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  9. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  10. Migratory Fish Bone in the Thyroid Gland: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EnHao Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Foreign body stuck in the throat is a common emergency case, which can be removed by the endoscopic treatment. Fish bones are one of the common observed foreign bodies in the pharynx or cervical esophagus. Fish bones have a risk of damaging the mucosa when lodged in the upper digestive tract. Foreign bodies of fish bones located outside the laryngopharyngeal tissue are relatively unusual, and it is even more rare that they remain in the thyroid. It may cause local infection, abscess formation, large blood vessels rupture, and other serious life-threatening complications when the position of the fish bone migrates to the neck. We present a unique case of a 31-year-old woman in whom a fish bone was found in the thyroid. The fish bone had been removed successfully two months after the onset of symptoms. The relevant literature is reviewed and summarized. Case Presentation. A foreign body which is located in the neck area by swallowing is usually found in the emergency case. One of the commonest foreign bodies is the fish bone. The common presenting symptoms include foreign body (FB sensation and or a sharp pain during swallowing. But we report a rare case in which a migratory fish bone stuck in the thyroid gland was found after 3 months. We retrieved previous literature and made a summary. Conclusions. Fish bones are not easy to be found as a foreign body. Surgeons should be aware that fish bones can become lodged in the thyroid gland. Combined with the history should be a wary fish bone to migrate to the case of the thyroid, to avoid misdiagnosis. To confirm the diagnosis, we can take ultrasound, computerized tomographic scanning (CT, and other tests.

  11. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ceyda Meco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  12. [Activity of the hypophyseal-thyroid gland system in relation to the funcitonal state of the sex glands. Report I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N; Samsonova, V M

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on intact female rats; it was revealed that the content of protein-bound iodine (PBI) in the blood depended on the stage of the estral cycle. It was decreased at the metestrus and diestrus stages. Castration produced an even greater reduction in the blood PBI content. The blood PBI content proved to elevate in administration of estradiol dipropionate (EDP) to castrated rats. The TSH content in the hypophysis increased at the metestrus and diestrus stages and decreased at the proestrus and estrus stages. The relationship was reverse in the case with the blood TTH content. Castration was followed by a marked increase in the TSH content in the hypophysis accompanied by a reduction in the blood hormone level. The TSH concentration in the hypophysis decreased and in the blood increased under the effect of EDP in castrated animals. The data obtained indicated that the interrelationship between the thyroid gland and the sex glands was realized at the level of the hypophysis, and possibly, of the hypothalamus.

  13. [Surgical assessment of complications after thyroid gland operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, H

    2015-01-01

    The extent, magnitude and technical equipment used for thyroid surgery has changed considerably in Germany during the last decade. The number of thyroidectomies due to benign goiter have decreased while the extent of thyroidectomy, nowadays preferentially total thyroidectomy, has increased. Due to an increased awareness of surgical complications the number of malpractice claims is increasing. In contrast to surgical databases the frequency of complications in malpractice claims reflects the individual impact of complications on the quality of life. In contrast to surgical databases unilateral and bilateral vocal fold palsy are therefore at the forefront of malpractice claims. As guidelines are often not applicable for the individual surgical expert review, the question arises which are the relevant criteria for the professional expert witness assessing the severity of the individual complication. While in surgical databases major complications after thyroidectomy, such as vocal fold palsy, hypoparathyroidism, hemorrhage and infections are equally frequent (1-3 %), in malpractice claims vocal fold palsy is significantly more frequent (50 %) compared to hypoparathyroidism (15 %), hemorrhage and infections (about 5 % each). To avoid bilateral nerve palsy intraoperative nerve monitoring has become of utmost importance for surgical strategy and malpractice suits alike. For surgical expert review documentation of individual risk-oriented indications, the surgical approach and postoperative management are highly important. Guidelines only define the treatment corridors of good clinical practice. Surgical expert reviews in malpractice suits concerning quality of care and causality between surgical management, complications and sequelae of complications are therefore highly dependent on the grounds and documentation of risk-oriented indications for thyroidectomy, intraoperative and postoperative surgical management.

  14. Thyroid hormone regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor levels in mouse mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vonderhaar, B.K.; Tang, E.; Lyster, R.R.; Nascimento, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The specific binding of iodinated epidermal growth factor ([ 125 I]iodo-EGF) to membranes prepared from the mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors of euthyroid and hypothyroid mice was measured in order to determine whether thyroid hormones regulate the EGF receptor levels in vivo. Membranes from hypothyroid mammary glands of mice at various developmental ages bound 50-65% less EGF than those of age-matched euthyroid controls. Treatment of hypothyroid mice with L-T4 before killing restored binding to the euthyroid control level. Spontaneous breast tumors arising in hypothyroid mice also bound 30-40% less EGF than tumors from euthyroid animals even after in vitro desaturation of the membranes of endogenous growth factors with 3 M MgCl2 treatment. The decrease in binding in hypothyroid membranes was due to a decrease in the number of binding sites, not to a change in affinity of the growth factor for its receptor, as determined by Scatchard analysis of the binding data. Both euthyroid and hypothyroid membranes bound EGF primarily to a single class of high affinity sites [dissociation constant (Kd) = 0.7-1.8 nM]. Euthyroid membranes bound 28.4 +/- (SE) 0.6 fmol/mg protein, whereas hypothyroid membranes bound 15.5 +/- 1.0 fmol/mg protein. These data indicate that EGF receptor levels in normal mammary glands and spontaneous breast tumors in mice are subject to regulation by thyroid status

  15. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  16. INSULIN LIKE GROWTH FACTOR 1 POSSIBLE DEPENDENCE IN PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME OF NODULAR PATHOLOGY OF THE THYROID GLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvava, M; Dundua, T; Kobulia, M; Javashvili, L; Giorgadze, E

    2017-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of the thyroid gland is a widespread problem nowadays. Recently there has been a notable coincidence between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland. Hence, it is interesting to reveal the connection between these two diseases. It is possible that insulin-like growth factor system (IGF), namely IGF 1 is connecting link between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland, because IGF1 stimulates growth and proliferation of cells in the body. We have investigated18-82 years of age 71 patients. group 1 n27- subjects with thyroid nodular disease, and metabolic syndrome, group 2 n31- subjects with thyroid nodular disease and without metabolic syndrome. group 3 n13 - subjects with metabolic syndrome and no thyroid pathology. In all groups were assessed thyroid structural data, defined parameters of carbohydrate metabolism, thyroid function and blood concentration of IGF1. In patients with hyperinsulinemia IGF 1 was noted in normal or reduced concentration. In I group IGF1 was normal in 70,4% (n=19), decreased in 29,6% (n=8), In II group was normal in 77,4 % (n=24), decreased in 22,6% (n=7) and in III group was normal in 76,9% (n=10), decreased in 23,1% (n=3). Increase of IGF 1 in patients with thyroid nodular disease patients was not noted. Statistically significant connection between IGF1 and thyroid nodules was not revealed. For the further investigation of this connection we plan to measure IGF1 in the thyroid histological samples in the future studies.

  17. Effect of thyroid gland function following 60Co-γ ray irradiation on rabbit pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Shigenori

    1987-01-01

    Cobalt 60 gamma-ray irradiation using a single exposure at 10 Gy or 20 Gy was applied to the hypophysis in rabbits in order to study the relationship between thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormone (T 4 ) after irradiation, and the histopathologic features were observed together with determination of the blood T 4 levels. The histopathologic features were observed with special reference to changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis involved in TSH secretion using mainly hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood T 4 level was determined by radioimmunoassay, and the histopathologic features and hormone levels were compared between the 10 Gy- and 20 Gy-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: 1) The T 4 level rapidly decreased the day following irradiation in both groups, continuing for 3 days and 7 days, respectively. subsequently, the level rapidly returned to the pre-irradiation level about 14 days after irradiation in the 10 Gy group, while the level in the 20 Gy group continued to decrease at a rate significantly different from that in the 10 Gy group even after 14 days following irradiation. However, the level was restored to the pre-irradiation level in both groups 28 days after irradiation. 2) Histopathologic examination of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis revealed a decrease in the number of β cells until about 14 days after irradiation in both groups, and thereafter there were only a few changes. However, pyknosis and vacuolar degeneration of other cells and dilatation of sinusoidal capillaries were present for a relatively long period, which were not relieved even 28 days after irradiation, particularly in the 20 Gy group. 3) There was a relatively close relationship between changes in the β cells of the anterior lobe of the hypophysis and changes in blood T 4 level, but histopathologic changes in the hypophysis seemed to remain for a relatively long period. (author)

  18. Rapid measurement of 131I in the thyroid gland using a portable Ge system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kimura, S.

    2000-01-01

    Rapid yet accurate measurement of the 131 I activity in the thyroid gland as well as in the air, water and vegetation may have an important role in obtaining quantitative information on internal doses for the people living in the vicinity of nuclear facilities shortly after an accidental release of radionuclides. Whole body counting technique is still the standard method for measuring radionuclides in the body while necessity for in situ measurement techniques has considerably increased especially after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. For measurement of 131 I in the thyroid gland in emergency situations, NaI (Tl) detectors, as in a scintillation survey meter as in the simplest case, are most often used while measurement of urinary excretions for members of the public may also effective. The scintillation survey meter method, being easily implemented, may not have enough selectivity for radioiodine and even be liable to an elevated background radiation spectrum. This would possibly lead to higher detection limits and lower accuracy. A use of a laboratory Ge (Li) detector system in the thyroidal radioiodine measurement was suggested to overcome the problem. A real measurement with a similar instrument was reported for the residents in U.K. after the Chernobyl accident. A use of a scintillation spectro-survey meter with a NaI (Tl) probe with lead collimation to thyroidal radioiodine measurement was also reported to give satisfactorily accurate evaluation of the thyroidal 131 I burden. In this paper, a movable Ge system was developed for the above purpose and preliminarily evaluated particularly for counting efficiency. It is consisted of a portable high-purity Ge detector and a battery-operated MCA. It employs a laboratory made thin Pb shield with a collimation window and an elevator for the detector platform. The elevator was designed to adjust the height of the thyroid radioiodine probe in relation to the height and position of the neck of a subject

  19. The state of «the pituitary gland - thyroid gland system» in the young men with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Yurchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the state of «the pituitary gland-thyroid gland system» in the patients with undifferentiated dysplasia of the connective tissue (UDCT 83 young men of the call up age (18.2±0.4 y.o. were examined. The control group consisted of 26 practically healthy young men of the same age (18.5±0.2 y.o.. Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT was diagnosed in 32.5 % of the men with UDCT. The rate of the internal (visceral phenotypical signs of UDCT in this group was significantly higher than in the men with UDCT but without thyroid problems.

  20. Case of fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland. Many years after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Yasuhiko; Nagasako, Ren [Shimane Central Hospital, Shimane (Japan); Tasaka, Yasuyuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Kayoko

    1983-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrosarcoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. Only 5 cases of this tumor have been reported in Japan. Recently, we diagnosed a thyroid fibro sarcoma in a 46-year-old woman. It started as a papillary cystadenoma 26 years ago, followed by the appearance of papillary adenocarcinoma 6 years later. At that time most of the tumor was removed, except for a small portion which had invaded the trachea, and 5,000 rads of /sup 60/Co was given postoperatively to her neck. The tumor was quiescent for 18 years and then fibrosarcoma appeared in the same region. We think that this tumor may be a radiation-induced sarcoma.

  1. Features of radionuclide research after thyroidectomy at the thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David В Dolidze

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AimTo clarify the possibility of postoperative radioisotope studies in determining the remnants of thyroid tissue in patients with thyroid carcinoma.Materials and methodsThe work is based on the study results of surgical treatment and postoperative examination of 120 patients with thyroid cancer, at the Botkin hospital during the period from 2007 to 2013. All patients were performed extrafascial intervention. 118 (98.3% patients were provided thyroidectomy (including lymph node dissection. For all patients in the postoperative period after 2–4 weeks were performed thyroid and whole-body scan with iodine and technetium, as well as ultrasound and computed tomography of the neck and the chest cavity.ResultsDuring the research, 16 (13.3% patients after scanning with 123I (7 (5.8% patients, 131I (3 (2.5% patients, 99mTs-Pertechnetate (6 (5% patients and applying them consistently (6 (5% patients received the accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the operation area, as in the midline in the area of the isthmus, and the locations of the right, left and pyramidal thyroid share. These facts were interpreted as an accumulation of the isotope in the remnants of thyroid tissue after surgery. With additional research methods were revealed swelling and infiltration of tissues in 10 (8.3% cases in the sterno-hyoid and sterno-thyroid muscles, and in 6 (5% cases – in the paratracheal and paralaryngeal areas. After fine-needle aspiration biopsy from infiltrative zone was received cytology of nonspecific inflammation. All patients received antiinflammatory and antibiotic therapy with a positive effect. Control ultrasound noted a gradual reduction of the inflammatory infiltrate. After 6 months of thyroid scan was recorded decrease area of uptake, and a year later its complete disappearance.ConclusionsThus, postoperative radionuclide scanning in patients with thyroid gland carcinoma in some cases gives false-positive results, regardless of the type

  2. Investigation of the results of therapy of anaplastic thyroid gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooijen, M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 28 patients with an anaplastic thyroid gland carcinoma are investigated, to see whether an optimal therapy is indicated. The execution of an operation before radiotherapy does not appear to improve the prognosis (statistically this conclusion is not wholly justified). The presence of metastases at the beginning of the therapy gave rise to a worse prognosis than the absence of metastases. The combination treatment of chemotherapy and either surgery or radiotherapy was only applied to two patients so no conclusions can be made about its benefit. (C.F.)

  3. Incidence of malignant neoplasm in single nodules of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kligerman, J.; Braz, J.M.; Cabas Neto, J. (Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1982-12-01

    Two hundred and seventy-two cases are presented of single nodular goiter of the thyroid gland, confirmed by histopathology, diagnosed and teated in the Head and Neck Department of Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This experience demonstrated that the carcinoma occurrence, in these nodes, is low; as a routine, they are ressected-and it is shown that there's need for better selection of patients for surgery. It is believed that there's no doubt about the efficiency of the association of clinical data, scintillography, ultrasound results, suppression therapy and citology of aspiration biopsy in the surgical selection of patients.

  4. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS OF THE THYROID GLAND IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF LARYNGEAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Vorozhtsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ, which has a significant influence on human organism from the perinatal period and throughout the whole life, participating in the regulation of metabolism. The most common variant of thyroid dysfunction is hypothyroidism, which causes different disorders in various organs and systems, including psycho-emotional sphere. This can burden comorbidities and particularly malignant processes.Laryngeal cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. Despite the visual availability of this localization for diagnosis, more than 50% of cases stay timely unrecognized. Many cases are found out at stages III and IV, which requires expanded operations and causes traumatization because of disruption or loss of such important functions as breathing, swallowing, speech, causing long-term or permanent disability. This makes laryngeal cancer significant medical and social and economic problem.One of the leading treatments for cancer of the larynx is external beam radiotherapy. Thyroid gland gets into the radiation area and may take more than 50% of the total focal dose. The most common outcome of post-radiation inflammation is fibrosis of thyroid tissue due to lesions of the blood vessels and destruction of thyrocytes. It causes the development of hypothyroidism, which exacerbate stress caused by cancer and by aggressive antitumor therapy. Also, hypothyroidism adversely affects the patients’ condition during the postoperative period.Despite the fact that the diagnosis of hypothyroidism is pretty simple, and replacement therapy with L-thyroxine is cheap and available, many doctors don’t monitorthyroid function in cancer patients at all or don’t make all necessary tests.Thus, timely detection of hypothyroidism is extremely important during and after the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Early prescribing adequate treatment helps to reduce the incidence of complications.

  5. Dose and risk evaluation to the thyroid gland in intra-oral dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Lima, Marco A.F.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Correa, Samanda C.A.; Silva, Ademir X.; Brito, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Intra-oral technique is one of the most frequently used procedures of dental radiology, allowing the detection of a variety of dental anomalies such as caries, dental trauma and periodontal lesions, while exposing patients to relatively low doses of radiation. However, although the adverse effects of doses generated by dental radiology are essentially stochastic, a number of epidemiological studies have provided evidence of an increased risk of thyroid tumors for dental radiography. Many studies have measured doses of radiation for dental radiography, but only a few have estimated thyroid dose. Furthermore, most of the studies on dose evaluation in dental radiology are based on standardized calculation phantoms, which neglect the variance of the patient size or even sex. The purpose of this study is to use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX and the FAX (Female Adult voXel) and MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantoms to investigate how absorbed doses to the thyroid gland in intraoral dental examinations vary in female and male patients. The lifetime cancer incidence attributable to dental examinations were estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR) VII Committee Report. The phantoms study proved a useful trial for detecting the radiation dose to the thyroid gland and conclusively supported that the anatomy may be regarded as an influencing factor in radiation dose received during dental examination. Finally, the results have also confirmed that the association of the MCNPX code and the MAX and FAX phantoms is very useful in dosimetric studies on radiographic examinations of female and male patients. (author)

  6. Postnatal fate of the ultimobranchial remnants in the rat thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Victoria; Utrilla, José C; Fernández-Santos, José M; Conde, Esperanza; Bernabé, Reyes; Sampedro, Consuelo; Martín-Lacave, Inés

    2013-07-01

    The ultimobranchial follicles (UBFs) are considered embryonic remnants from the ultimobranchial body (UBB). They are follicular structures that vary in size and appearance depending on the age of the rat. The main objective of this article was to study the progressive changes in shape, size, and frequency of the UBFs in the postnatal rat, from birth to old-age. To accomplish that objective, a systematic morphometric and incidental study of the UBF has been carried out in 110 Wistar rats of different ages and both sexes, divided into three groups: 1) young rats (5-90-day-old); 2) adult rats (6-15-month-old), and 3) old rats (18-24-month-old). The glands were serially sectioned and immunostained for calcitonin at five equidistant levels. According to our results, UBFs were observed in all thyroid glands but a more exhaustive sampling was occasionally necessary in male rats. In young rats, immature UBFs predominantly appeared whereas in adult rats, mature UBFs with cystic appearance and variable luminal content prevailed. We frequently found spontaneous anomalous UBFs in old rats, which we have termed as "ultimobranchial cystadenomata." Additionally, in young rats, UBF areas significantly increased with age and they were larger when compared to that of normal thyroid follicles. Likewise, in adult rats, UBFs were significantly larger than normal thyroid follicles but only in female rats. In general, UBFs in females were also significantly larger than those found in male rats. Finally, all these differences related to UBFs together with a higher incidence in females of UB cystadenomata suggest a sexual dimorphism in regard to the destiny of these embryonic remnants during postnatal thyroid development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Modifications of transaxillary approach in endoscopic da Vinci-assisted thyroid and parathyroid gland surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be

  8. Stereology of the thyroid gland in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus in comparison with human (Homo sapiens: quantitative and functional implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available The mammalian thyroid gland maintains basal metabolism in tissues for optimal function. Determining thyroid volume is important in assessing growth and involution. Volume estimation is also important in stereological studies. Direct measurements of colloid volume and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of the follicular cells may provide important information about thyroid gland function such as hormone storage and secretion, which helps understand the changes at morphological and functional levels. The present study determined the colloid volume using simple stereological principle and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio of 4 Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins and 2 human thyroid glands. In both dolphin and human thyroid glands, the size of the follicles tended to be quite variable. The distribution of large and small follicles within the thyroid gland was also found to be random in both the dolphin and human thyroid gland; however, the size of follicles appeared to decrease as a function of increasing age in the dolphin thyroid gland. The mean colloid volume of the dolphin thyroid gland and human thyroid gland was 1.22×10(5 µm(3 and 7.02×10(5 µm(3 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean colloid volume. The mean N/C ratio of the dolphin thyroid follicular epithelia and human follicular epithelia was 0.50 and 0.64 respectively. The dolphin and human subjects had a significant difference in the mean N/C ratio. This information contributes to understanding dolphin thyroid physiology and its structural adaptations to meet the physical demands of the aquatic environment, and aids with ultrasonography and corrective therapy in live subjects.

  9. Thyroid gland irradiations and thyroid cancers; Critical bibliographic journal; Irradiations de la thyroide et cancers thyroidiens. Revue bibliographique critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitauxa, F. [CHI Le Raincy-Montfermeil, Faculte X. Bichat, Lab. de Biophysique, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 93 - Le Raincy-Montfermeil (France)

    2007-07-15

    The large increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among children who were mainly less than five years old at the time of the Chernobyl accident is still a major concern for endocrinologists and nuclear medicine physicians. Epidemiological studies have focused solely on iodine-131. However, past knowledge on thyroid irradiation (medical use of iodine-131, radioactive fallout on Marshall islands and the Nevada and Hanford site releases) as well as number of recent works (about low-dose irradiation) raise question on the role of other factors. It is here shown that post-Chernobyl thyroid irradiation is complex and that all factors (iodine-131, but also short lived isotopes of iodine and external irradiation) should be considered. Finally, one needs to think about some of the present medical uses of iodine-131 and especially to the treatment of hyperthyroidism in young subjects. (author)

  10. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro

  11. Association of active human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) infection with autoimmune thyroid gland diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanova, A; Cistjakovs, M; Gravelsina, S; Chapenko, S; Roga, S; Cunskis, E; Nora-Krukle, Z; Groma, V; Ventina, I; Murovska, M

    2017-01-01

    Viral infections frequently have been cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory, and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 female and 4 male; median age 58.50, IQR 51.50-67.00) without thyroid pathologies and 30 healthy blood donors (25 female and 5 male; median age 33.50, IQR 27.75-44.25) as controls. Results were obtained by applying molecular virology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The presence of persistent HHV-6 infection in AIT patients was significantly higher (p 0.0058) than in the control group (44/45 (98%) vs. 23/30 (77%), respectively). Also, a significantly higher frequency of HHV-6 activation marker (U79/80 mRNA) was found in patients' thyroid gland tissue samples with AIT in comparison with the control group (18/44 (41%) vs. 1/17 (6%), respectively; p 0.0118). The median HHV-6 load was found to be higher in patients with active viral infection than in patients without it (2147, IQR 971-4188 vs. 551, IQR 145-1589 copies/1×10 6 cells; p 0.003). The presence of HHV-6 antigen expression was demonstrated in intrafollicular cellular clusters and immunohistochemistry indicated thyrocytes in the follicle wall. These findings provide evidence of strong HHV-6 infection association with AIT development. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The usefulness of Al face block fabrication for reducing exposure dose of thyroid glands in mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Eun Ae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Currently, there are many studies being conducted around the world to reduce exposure dose to radiation for patients to receive medical treatments in a safe environment. We developed and fabricated of this shield that the patients are protected from the radiation and are need of safety control during breast imaging. In this study, for breast imaging, GE Senography 2000D were used and set at SID 65 cm, 28 kVp, and 63 mAs. The measuring instrument was Flukes Victoreen 6000-529. And we performed Face Block on with 30 patients. The chamber on the actual thyroid glands to take CC and MLO and measure the dosage before and after wearing the Face Block. For the results, after wearing the Face Block, exposure was decreased by 53.8%-100% and 65.8% in average in CC View and by 50%-100% and 60.7% in average in MLO View. The development of the Face Block that practically decreased the exposure dose of thyroid glands, crystalline eyes during breast imaging and reduced the patients anxiety during breast imaging. The Face Block is expected to improve patients satisfaction and contribute to reducing patients exposure dose, but more efforts should be made to reduce exposure dose to medical radiation.

  13. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  14. Applied anatomy of a new approach of endoscopic technique in thyroid gland surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Xie, Yong-jun; Xu, Yi-quan; Li, Chao; Liu, Xing-guo

    2012-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and safety of transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy by studying the anatomical approach and adjacent structures. A total of 5 embalmed adult cadavers from Chengdu Medical College were dissected layer by layer in the cervical region, pharyngeal region, and mandible region, according to transtracheal assisted sublingual approach that was verified from the anatomical approach and planes. A total of 15 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected by arterial vascular casting technique, imaging scanning technique, and thin layer cryotomy. Then the vessel and anatomical structures of thyroid surgical region were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-dimensional visualization of larynx artery was reconstructed by Autodesk 3ds Max 2010(32). Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach for totally endoscopic thyroidectomy was simulated on 5 embalmed adult cadavers. The sublingual observed access was located in the middle of sublingual region. The geniohyoid muscle, mylohyoid seam, and submental triangle were divided in turn in the middle to reach the plane under the plastima muscles. Superficial cervical fascia, anterior body of hyoid bone, and infrahyoid muscles were passed in sequence to reach thyroid gland surgical region. The transtracheal operational access was placed from the cavitas oris propria, isthmus faucium, subepiglottic region, laryngeal pharynx, and intermediate laryngeal cavit, and then passed from the top down in order to reach pars cervicalis tracheae where a sagittal incision was made in the anterior wall of cartilagines tracheales to reach a ascertained surgical region. Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy is anatomically feasible and safe and can be useful in thyroid gland surgery.

  15. NFE2-Related Transcription Factor 2 Coordinates Antioxidant Defense with Thyroglobulin Production and Iodination in the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziros, Panos G; Habeos, Ioannis G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Ntalampyra, Eleni; Somm, Emmanuel; Renaud, Cédric O; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Santisteban, Pilar; Carrasco, Nancy; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Amendola, Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Rossich, Luciano; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Refetoff, Samuel; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2018-06-01

    The thyroid gland has a special relationship with oxidative stress. While generation of oxidative substances is part of normal iodide metabolism during thyroid hormone synthesis, the gland must also defend itself against excessive oxidation in order to maintain normal function. Antioxidant and detoxification enzymes aid thyroid cells to maintain homeostasis by ameliorating oxidative insults, including during exposure to excess iodide, but the factors that coordinate their expression with the cellular redox status are not known. The antioxidant response system comprising the ubiquitously expressed NFE2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) and its redox-sensitive cytoplasmic inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) defends tissues against oxidative stress, thereby protecting against pathologies that relate to DNA, protein, and/or lipid oxidative damage. Thus, it was hypothesized that Nrf2 should also have important roles in maintaining thyroid homeostasis. Ubiquitous and thyroid-specific male C57BL6J Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice were studied. Plasma and thyroids were harvested for evaluation of thyroid function tests by radioimmunoassays and of gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Nrf2-KO and Keap1-KO clones of the PCCL3 rat thyroid follicular cell line were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and were used for gene and protein expression studies. Software-predicted Nrf2 binding sites on the thyroglobulin enhancer were validated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The study shows that Nrf2 mediates antioxidant transcriptional responses in thyroid cells and protects the thyroid from oxidation induced by iodide overload. Surprisingly, it was also found that Nrf2 has a dramatic impact on both the basal abundance and the thyrotropin-inducible intrathyroidal abundance of thyroglobulin (Tg), the precursor protein of thyroid hormones. This effect is mediated

  16. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Raldúa, Demetrio, E-mail: drpqam@cid.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Maladies Rares: Génétique et Métabolisme (MRGM), University of Bordeaux, EA 4576, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2013-06-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO{sub 4} (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC{sub 10} that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of

  17. Modeling mixtures of thyroid gland function disruptors in a vertebrate alternative model, the zebrafish eleutheroembryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienpont, Benedicte; Barata, Carlos; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2013-01-01

    Maternal thyroxine (T4) plays an essential role in fetal brain development, and even mild and transitory deficits in free-T4 in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring. Women of childbearing age are daily exposed to mixtures of chemicals disrupting the thyroid gland function (TGFDs) through the diet, drinking water, air and pharmaceuticals, which has raised the highest concern for the potential additive or synergic effects on the development of mild hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy. Recently we demonstrated that zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable alternative model for screening chemicals impairing the thyroid hormone synthesis. The present study used the intrafollicular T4-content (IT4C) of zebrafish eleutheroembryos as integrative endpoint for testing the hypotheses that the effect of mixtures of TGFDs with a similar mode of action [inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO)] was well predicted by a concentration addition concept (CA) model, whereas the response addition concept (RA) model predicted better the effect of dissimilarly acting binary mixtures of TGFDs [TPO-inhibitors and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS)-inhibitors]. However, CA model provided better prediction of joint effects than RA in five out of the six tested mixtures. The exception being the mixture MMI (TPO-inhibitor)-KClO 4 (NIS-inhibitor) dosed at a fixed ratio of EC 10 that provided similar CA and RA predictions and hence it was difficult to get any conclusive result. There results support the phenomenological similarity criterion stating that the concept of concentration addition could be extended to mixture constituents having common apical endpoints or common adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Potential synergic or additive effect of mixtures of chemicals on thyroid function. • Zebrafish as alternative model for testing the effect of mixtures of goitrogens. • Concentration addition seems to predict better the effect of mixtures of

  18. Effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the thyroid gland structure and function of ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgendy Mohamed S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen therapy is widely used nowadays in women to treat many postmenopausal symptoms but it may have some undesirable effects due to multiple organs affection. So, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic estradiol treatment on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in ovarictomized rats as a model simulating menopause. Findings Thirty adult female Wistar rats divided into three groups were used in this study; the first group was sham-operated, while the second and third groups were ovariectomized. The first and second groups were injected with olive oil while the third group was injected with estradiol dipropionate daily for three months, after that; hormonal assay for T3, T4, TSH and specimens of the thyroid were taken and processed to be examined by light and electron microscopy. The results of this study revealed that serum levels of T3 and T4 decreased in ovariectomized animals and significantly increased after estradiol treatment, while TSH increased in ovariectomized animals and decreased with estradiol treatment. Histological and morphometric study in ovariectomized group revealed marked accumulation of colloid in follicular lumens with decreased epithelial height in addition to increased connective tissue amount. After estradiol treatment the follicles became smaller in size, having small amount of colloid with increased epithelial height in addition to decreased connective tissue content. Ultrastructural study supported these results in addition to the presence of large amount of intracytoplasmic colloid vesicles after estradiol treatment. Conclusion Low estrogen level may lead to mild thyroidal hypofunction while estradiol treatment may lead to hyperactivity so it should be used very cautiously in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms to avoid its undesirable stimulatory effect on the thyroid.

  19. Influence of thyroid gland status on the thyroglobulin cutoff level in washout fluid from cervical lymph nodes of patients with recurrent/metastatic papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Yi, Ha Woo; Kim, Bong Kyun; Bae, Soo Youn; Lee, Se Kyung; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroidectomy status on Tg in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) washout fluid is unclear. A total of 282 lymph nodes were prospectively subjected to FNAC, fine-needle aspiration (FNA)-Tg measurement, and frozen and permanent biopsies. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of several predetermined FNA-Tg cutoff values for recurrence/metastasis in lymph nodes according to thyroidectomy status. The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg varied according to thyroidectomy status. The optimized cutoff value of FNA-Tg was 2.2 ng/mL. However, among FNAC-negative lymph nodes, the FNA-Tg cutoff value of 0.9 ng/mL showed better diagnostic performance in patients with a thyroid gland. An FNA-Tg/serum-Tg cutoff ratio of 1 showed the best diagnostic performance in patients without a thyroid gland. Applying the optimal cutoff values of FNA-Tg according to thyroid gland status and serum Tg level facilitates the diagnostic evaluation of neck lymph node recurrences/metastases in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1705-E1712, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland - examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaum, Petra M; Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas; Neulen, Joseph; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. A total of 122 individuals (Mage=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t(1) until t(4)). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small But Mighty Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own cells. For example, an autoimmune disorder called Graves’ disease can cause the thyroid to be over-active, ... diarrhea Weight loss Links Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Thyroid Tests Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Disease Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Cancer ...

  2. Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naço, M; Çeliku, E; Llukaçaj, A; Shehaj, J; Kameniku, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with toxic adenoma scheduled for surgery right lobectomy and isthmectomy of thyroid gland. During the examination before surgery, patient was diagnosed for the first time as having with Wolff – Parkinson – White (WPW) syndrome. In the operating room, after the induction of anesthesia, the electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex tachycardia with a rate of 180 beats/min, which was diagnosed as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient was treated immediately with antiarrhythmic drugs: adenosine iv three times (at doses of 6 mg, 12mg, 12mg bolus) and esmolol iv twice (at doses 28.5 mg). This approach resulted in disappearance of the delta wave and tachycardia for the whole surgery period. In this case report we discuss the role of induction of anesthesia and presence of toxic adenoma in a patient with WPW. PMID:19561784

  3. Multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis for enhanced diagnostic reliability of thyroid gland disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Nain; Kim, Su-Kang; Kang, Seong Ho

    2017-08-04

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion plays a critical role in regulating thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones (i.e., thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)). A novel multi-immunoreaction-based dual-color capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique was investigated in this study to assess its reliability in diagnosing thyroid gland disease via simultaneous detection of TSH, T3, and T4 in a single run of CE. Compared to the conventional immunoreaction technique, multi-immunoreaction of biotinylated streptavidin antibodies increased the selectivity and sensitivity for individual hormones in human blood samples. Dual-color laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection-based CE performed in a running buffer of 25mM Na 2 B 4 O 7 -NaOH (pH 9.3) allowed for fast, simultaneous quantitative analysis of three target thyroid hormones using different excited wavelengths within 3.2min. This process had excellent sensitivity and detection limits of 0.05-5.32 fM. The results showed 1000-100,000 times higher detection sensitivity than previous methods. Method validation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for application with human blood samples showed that the CE method was not significantly different at the 98% confidence level. Therefore, the developed CE-LIF method has the advantages of high detection sensitivity, faster analysis time, and smaller sample amount compared to the conventional methods The combined multi-immunoreaction and dual-color CE-LIF method should have increased diagnostic reliability for thyroid gland disease compared to conventional methods based on its highly sensitive detection of thyroid hormones using a single injection and high-throughput screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Gigantism Diabetes insipidus Cushing Disease Watch this video about: Pituitary gland Testes and ovaries: Lack of sex development (unclear genitalia) Thyroid: Congenital hypothyroidism Myxedema Goiter ...

  5. Effects of radiation on parafollicular C cells of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.H.; Oslapas, R.; Calandra, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    While radiation has well-recognized effects on follicular cells of the thyroid gland, those on parafollicular C cells are not yet established. Low-dose radiation that has been proved to be nonablative and carcinogenic to follicular cells was administered to 8-week-old Long-Evans rats to study the changes in C cell number and function. Circulating calcitonin levels were significantly reduced in animals that had undergone radiation at age 24 months. Mean calcitonin values were 0.66 (+/- 0.20) ng/ml and 1.64 (+/- 0.59) ng/ml for control males and females compared with 0.14 (+/- 0.06) ng/ml and 0.11 (+/- 0.01) ng/ml for males (P less than 0.05) and females (P less than 0.001) that had undergone radiation, respectively. These levels correlated well with C cell population density in thyroid glands in the control group and in the group that had undergone radiation as evidenced by light microscopy. Routine hematoxylin and eosin staining showed C cell hyperplasia in 77% of control animals of both sexes compared with 4% in animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.005). Immunoperoxidase staining with an anticalcitonin antibody showed virtual absence of C cells in most animals that had undergone radiation compared with diffusely scattered cells in animals in the control group. Medullary carcinomas occurred in 14% of animals in the control group compared with 3% of animals that had undergone radiation (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that the radiation dosage that is carcinogenic to the follicular epithelium causes lethal injury to C cells and thus suggest that C cells are more sensitive to radiation than are follicular cells. This increased sensitivity could explain the virtual absence of C cells, decrease in calcitonin levels, and reduced numbers of medullary carcinomas in the animals that had undergone radiation

  6. Assessment of thyroid hormones, insulin and magnesium in dairy cattle with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sadeghi-nasab

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ketosis, with ethologically energy deficiency, is one of the commonest metabolic diseases of dairy cattle. Assessment of some serum hormonal and metabolic status can be beneficent in prediction and diagnosis of subclinical ketosis. This study is performed for evaluation and comparison of thyroid hormones, insulin and magnesium of subclinical ketosis and healthy cows. During 60 days in milk (DIM serum Beta hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and glucose levels of 200 dairy cattle have been measured. Based on 1.4 mmol/l of BHBA as a cut of point experimented animals separated to subclinical and healthy groups. Mean values of serum T3 and T4 of affected cows were significantly higher than non-affected (p

  7. Congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters obtained from mothers subjected to immunization and the action of I/sup 13/+H1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemova, E P [Tashkentskij Gosudarstvennyj Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR). Kafedra Neorganicheskoj Khimii

    1976-03-01

    I/sup 131/ injected to rabbits immunized with homologous thyroid gland on the 19th to 20th day of pregnancy led to congenital disturbances of the thyroid gland in the experimental litters in the first and second generations. The functional activity and the activity of proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland descreased by the 30th day of the postnatal development. A distinct correlation was revealed between the contents in the thyroid gland of the experimental litters of DIT+MIT and of organic forms -T/sub 3/+T/sub 4/. During the first days after birth the DIT+MIT content showed a sharp fall and increased by the 30th day; on the contrary, iodine binding into organic forms decreased with the age. Histological examination of the thyroid glands in the experimental litters demonstrated lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration, along with connective tissue proliferation, which led to a marked sclerosis and fibrosis of tissues, hypofunction. Beginning with the age of one month there was observed an extensive nodular proliferation, which possibly served as the beginning of the parenchymatous goiter formation. The appearance of lymphoid-plasmocytic infiltration in the thyroid gland of the second generation could be considered as the result of a congenital predisposition to the autoimmune thyroiditis inlaid in the memory cells and intensified during birth.

  8. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E.R. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: emmaroserush@hotmail.com; Thompson, N.A. [School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster, Shore Road, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed.

  9. Dental radiography technique and equipment: How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.R.; Thompson, N.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence that collimator and technique choice had on the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, during intra-oral examinations of the upper and lower teeth. Radiation dose reduction from a different perspective, other than the application of lead-rubber shielding, was addressed. Methods: A study was performed at a regional dental school with the use of a phantom head/neck and a radiation dosemeter, to measure the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position. The radiation dose was assessed for two intra-oral techniques (paralleling and bisecting angle), and two collimators (rectangular and circular). The radiation dose was also assessed with and without the application of a thyroid shield. Standard descriptive statistics, followed by inferential statistics were applied to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in the radiation dose detected at the thyroid gland position, when employing the paralleling technique (66.7%) and rectangular collimator (45.5%). Other factors, for example the tooth/teeth under examination, were also found to influence the radiation dose detected. Conclusion: Radiation dose reductions using the paralleling technique and rectangular collimator were outlined. The use of this low dose combination within dental practices remains limited, therefore, continued awareness and acceptance of radiation hazards need to be addressed

  10. The effect of newer water-soluble contrast media on I-131 uptake by the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starinsky, R.; Horne, T.; Barr, J.; Ramot, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two water-soluble contrast media (nonionic and Dimer) on iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Twenty-eight euthyroid patients (16 females and 12 males) were subjected to 24hrs radioiodine uptake (RAIU) studies following brain CT examinations using the above cited two water-soluble contrast media. Radioiodine uptake studies were done at one (Group-1), two (Group-2) and four (Group-3) weeks following performance of contrast enhanced CT scans. The effect of both contrast media on the thyroid uptake was found to be identical. The radio active iodine uptake (RAIU) was observed to be suppressed in 30% of patients in Group-1, 33% of patients in Group-2 and in none of the patients belonging to Group-3. On the basis of this pilot study on a limited number of patients it was concluded that dimer and non-ionic water soluble contrast media cause suppression of radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland in a significant proportion of patients. It has also been observed that both contrast media have similar suppressive effects on radio iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. This effect is transient and does not persist beyond a period of four weeks following the administration of the contrast media. (author)

  11. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic features and the diagnostic role of core needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ok Kyu; Koo, Ja Seung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The aims of this study were to present the ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the thyroid gland and to evaluate the diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Eight patients with nine metastatic RCC nodules in the thyroid glands who were treated from January 2002 to March 2015 in a single tertiary hospital were consecutively selected and retrospectively reviewed. US features and clinical history were obtained from the institution’s medical database. FNA was performed nine times on eight nodules and CNB was performed six times on six nodules. The diagnostic utility of FNA and CNB was evaluated. All nine nodules showed mass formation without diffuse thyroid involvement. On ultrasonography, metastatic RCC nodules were solid (100%), hypoechoic (100%), and ovalshaped nodules with a well-defined smooth margin (88.9%) and increased vascularity (100%, with 55% showing extensive vascularity). No calcifications were noted in any nodules. Lymph node metastasis and direct extension to nearby structures beyond the thyroid gland were not found. One FNA (11%) was able to confirm metastatic RCC, whereas all six CNBs confirmed metastatic RCC. Metastatic RCC appears as oval-shaped hypoechoic solid nodules with well-defined smooth margins, no calcifications, and increased vascularity on ultrasonography. Characteristic US features along with a previous history of RCC should raise clinical suspicion, and CNB should be performed to make an accurate diagnosis.

  12. Characterisation of CART-containing neurons and cells in the porcine pancreas, gastro-intestinal tract, adrenal and thyroid glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsdóttir Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptide CART is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons, as well as in endocrine cells. Known peripheral sites of expression include the gastrointestinal (GI tract, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. In rodent pancreas CART is expressed both in islet endocrine cells and in nerve fibers, some of which innervate the islets. Recent data show that CART is a regulator of islet hormone secretion, and that CART null mutant mice have islet dysfunction. CART also effects GI motility, mainly via central routes. In addition, CART participates in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis. We investigated CART expression in porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal glands, and thyroid gland using immunocytochemistry. Results CART immunoreactive (IR nerve cell bodies and fibers were numerous in pancreatic and enteric ganglia. The majority of these were also VIP IR. The finding of intrinsic CART containing neurons indicates that pancreatic and GI CART IR nerve fibers have an intrinsic origin. No CART IR endocrine cells were detected in the pancreas or in the GI tract. The adrenal medulla harboured numerous CART IR endocrine cells, most of which were adrenaline producing. In addition CART IR fibers were frequently seen in the adrenal cortex and capsule. The capsule also contained CART IR nerve cell bodies. The majority of the adrenal CART IR neuronal elements were also VIP IR. CART IR was also seen in a substantial proportion of the C-cells in the thyroid gland. The majority of these cells were also somatostatin IR, and/or 5-HT IR, and/or VIP IR. Conclusion CART is a major neuropeptide in intrinsic neurons of the porcine GI-tract and pancreas, a major constituent of adrenaline producing adrenomedullary cells, and a novel peptide of the thyroid C-cells. CART is suggested to be a regulatory peptide in the porcine pancreas, GI-tract, adrenal gland and thyroid.

  13. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt Towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and The Histology of Thyroid Gland of Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risman Heli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic substances can inhibit of iodine taking by the thyroid gland. Thus iodine concentration in thyroid gland will be low, and this phenomena is indicated by inflammation in the thyroid gland. Moreover, it can cause releaseing of an excessive amount of free radicals. This radicals, in the body, causes oxidative stress and also increase the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA. This is also as an indicator for lipid peroxidation and the decreasing of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treatment with KIO3 and KI salt was intended to study the level of supplementation of iodine (I2 toward level of MDA in serum and histological description of rat’s thyroid gland. The MDA levels was determined through TBA test (Thio Barbituric Acid, meanwhile the histological pattern of rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results indicated both of KIO3 and KI salt significantly (p<0.01 reduced MDA level in the serum. Treatment with KIO3 salt gave 33.62% while KI salt slightly higher (37,02%. In addition, both of treaments displayed an recovering effect in thyroid gland.

  14. Diffusion-weighed MR of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease: assessment of disease activity and prediction of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Sadek, Ahmed Galal; Gaballa, Gada

    2010-06-01

    To assess the activity and clinical course of Graves' disease with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fifty-one patients with Graves' disease and 25 volunteers underwent diffusion MR imaging of the thyroid gland using a single shot echo-planar imaging with b-factor of 0, 300 and 600 second/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the thyroid gland were calculated. Patients with active Graves' disease included untreated patients at initial diagnosis (n = 12), patients under antithyroid drugs (n = 11), and patients in relapse after withdrawal of therapy (n = 13). Patients with inactive disease had a remission of hyperthyroidism (n = 15). The mean ADC values of thyroid gland with active Graves' disease was 0.65 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients at initial diagnosis, 0.81 +/- 0.02 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients undergoing antithyroid drug and 0.72 +/- 0.07 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean ADC of patients with remission was 0.94 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second and for normal volunteer was 1.06 +/- 0.08 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. There was significant difference in the ADC value of patients with active disease and remission (P = .001). The cutoff ADC value used for differentiating patients with active disease from patients with remission was 0.82 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. The mean ADC value of thyroid gland had positive correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (r = 0.87, P = .001) and negative correlation with serum T4 (r = -0.82, P = .001) and serum T3 (r = -0.71, P = .001). The ADC value of the thyroid gland is a promising non invasive parameter for diagnosis of different clinical stages of Graves' disease. Hence it can be used to assess the activity and predict the outcome of patients during and after medical treatment. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation exposure of lens, thyroid gland and testis in anthropomorphic phantom during CT examination and its protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Suhua; Weng Zhigen; Wu Caifa

    1995-01-01

    The SMN-I anthropomorphic phantom was used to simulate patients and to estimate the radiation exposure of lens, thyroid gland and testes during CT examination according to hospital routine managements. The results show that the X-ray radiation doses received by the organs mentioned above are different in good and no protection shelter. Therefore, during CT examination it's of great significance to take a good protective shelter for organs which are near the CT scanning areas

  16. Primary squamous cell carcinomas in the thyroid gland: an individual participant data meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Keun; Woo, Seung-Hoon; Park, Junoh; Kim, Min-Ji; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas arising from the thyroid gland (SCCTh) is extremely rare diseases, which have never been fully studied. Thus, we performed a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis of published SCCTh cases, to understand the clinical characteristics and to identify the prognostic factors of primary SCCTh. A literature search was conducted within Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library databases and KoreaMed using the following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords: “primary,” “squamous,” “carcinoma,” “cancer,” and “thyroid.” Eighty-four patients' individual data from 39 articles and five patients' data in our institute were selected for analysis (N = 89). The mean age at diagnosis was 63.0 years (range, 24–90) and female preponderance (M:F = 1:2) was noted. The commonest complaint was the anterior neck mass, followed by dyspnea or dysphagia, and extension to the adjacent structure was found in 72%. The median survival was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.0–23.0) and 3-year survival rate (3YSR) was 37.6% by Kaplan–Meier method, but only 20.1% by a shared frailty model for adjusting heterogeneity. Complete resection (R0) of tumors was the only significant prognostic factor in multivariable analysis, and the benefit of adjuvant treatment was not proved. The prognosis of patients with SCCTh is very poor (20% in 3YSR), but complete resection of disease is correlated with improved survival. To achieve complete surgical eradication of tumors, early detection and accurate diagnosis should be emphasized

  17. Seasonal influence on the thyroid gland in healthy dogs of various breeds in different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Fialkovičová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of seasonal ambient temperature on the thyroid gland function in terms of serum total thyroxine (TT4, free thyroxine (fT4, total triiodothyronine (TT3, and canine thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH concentrations in healthy dogs of various breeds living outdoors and to compare them with those living indoors in flats and houses. The monitoring was conducted for 5 years and our study included 162 indoor dogs and 148 outdoor dogs of both sexes from 2 to 12 years of age, categorised into 3 groups according to their body weight: large (n = 17, medium (n = 16 and small (n = 17 breeds. Comparison of the seasonal serum TT4 and fT4 concentrations in both the indoor and outdoor dogs confirmed their fluctuation in relation to the ambient temperature in all weight groups with the lowest average of TT4 and fT4 concentrations recorded in summer and the highest ones in winter. In dogs kept outdoors, the fluctuation of hormone values was significant (P P < 0.05 only in the medium breeds living outdoors, but their concentrations did not exceed the reference ranges. The 5-year monitoring of serum TT3 in indoor and outdoor dogs of large, medium, and small breeds clearly showed that its concentrations were not influenced by varying ambient temperature. The study provides for the first time evidence that serum TT4 and fT4 concentrations in dogs kept outdoors directly depend on ambient temperature. This correlation was also expressed by mathematical equations.

  18. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; da Silva, R.S.; Turyn, D.; Dellacha, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125 I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125 I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125 I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na 125 I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na 125 I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125 I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125 I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125 I-hGH or 125 I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  19. TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS IN FAT BODY AND SALIVARY GLAND TISSUES IN THE CATTLE TICK Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rita da Fonseca Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Rezende S.deF., Fontenele M.R., Masuda C.A., de Oliveira P.L., Araujo H.M.M., Bittencourt V.R.E.P. & Leite M.de S. Toll-like receptors in fat body and salivary gland tissues in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. [Receptores Toll-like em corpo gorduroso e glândula salivar do carrapato bovino Rhipicephalus microplus]. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:47-53, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, KM 47, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: milaneleite@ufrrj.br Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in the recognition of pathogen components and subsequent activation of the innate immune response, which then leads to development of immune responses. In arthropods the fat body and salivary glands are important organs in the defense system against invading pathogens. In this study, we identified for the first time the presence of TLRs in fat body and salivary gland tissues of cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. Our results show that the expression of TLRs in fat body tissue are not found in all cells, but is specific to some cell types, in salivary glands TLRs protein expression occur in acini structure. We suggest that immune pathways are active in both fat body and salivary glands in the tick. The potential use of TLRs as a target for vaccine formulations against is discussed.

  20. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  1. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the thyroid gland – examining and discussing possible longitudinal health effects in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaum, Petra M., E-mail: pgaum@ukaachen.de [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Lang, Jessica; Esser, André; Schettgen, Thomas [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Neulen, Joseph [Clinic for Gynaecological Endocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika [Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Background: Many previous studies have dealt with the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the thyroid gland, but their findings are inconsistent. One problem of these studies has been their use of cross-sectional designs. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate longitudinal effects of PCBs on the thyroid gland, focusing on: morphological changes in thyroid tissue (i.e. thyroid volume), changes in thyroid hormones and in thyroid antibodies. Methods: A total of 122 individuals (M{sub age}=44.7) were examined over a period of four years (t{sup 1} until t{sup 4}). Medical history was collected via interviews, an ultrasound examination was performed and blood samples were taken to determine plasma PCB levels, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodthyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab), thyreoglobulin antibodies (TGab) and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TSHRab). Rank correlation coefficients and mixed effect models were performed controlling for age and total lipids. Results: There were negative correlations between higher chlorinated biphenyls and fT3, cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally. We also found an interaction effect of higher-chlorinated PCBs over time for fT4 as well as TSHRab. In case of high exposure, a decrease in fT4 and an increase in TSHRab level were found over time. In regards to the other variables, our findings yielded no clear results in the examined time period. Conclusion: This is the first study to shows a PCB-related effect on fT3, fT4 and TSHRab over a four year period. The data also suggest that morphological and antibody findings remain inconsistent and do not allow for unambiguous interpretation. - Highlights: • This is a longitudinal study which includes data from four cross sections. • Higher-chlorinated biphenyls are negatively correlated with fT3. • There are interactions of time and higher-chlorinated biphenyls to TSHRab and fT4.

  2. Quantitative comparison of technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, A.; Meduri, G.; Calcagni, M.L.; Marozzi, P.; Ficola, U.; Vaccaro, A.; Rubini, G.; Attard, M.; Li Puma, M.; Ricci, R.; Corsello, S.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantitatively compare the scintigraphic images of the thyroid and abnormal parathyroid glands obtained with technetium-99m tetrofosmin and thallium-201 in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Forty-six patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent 201 Tl (74 MBq), 99m Tc-pertechnetate (74 MBq) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (555-740 MBq) scintigraphy in a single session. Image analysis included the computation of the thyroid/background ratio in the whole study population and the parathyroid/background ratio, parathyroid/thyroid ratio and diagnostic sensitivity in 17 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery. The pertechnetate subtraction technique was used. 201 Tl and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin showed a similar thyroid/background ratio (1.79±0.41 and 1.81±0.47, respectively, P=NS); however, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin showed a higher parathyroid/background ratio than 201 Tl (2.06±0.54 vs 1.79± 0.50, P=0.007). Despite the superior quality of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin images, both tracers showed identical sensitivity in detecting enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (89%) and in those with secondary hyperparathyroidism (50%). (orig.)

  3. Radioiodine therapy effect on lacrimal gland function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Fallahi, B.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Beiki, D.; Ansari-Gilani, K.; Saghari, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Objectives: There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radioiodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected postradioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study. Methods: We studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of I-131 (exposed group) for treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months ago. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5 min) of this exposed group were compared with those of an unexposed group (100 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with any other known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: The study demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to unexposed one. In the group of patients who have undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77% respectively. In evaluating the symptoms, 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the mentioned dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of the two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and erythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. Conclusion: Long-term reduction in the tear secretion from major and/or minor lacrimal glands is seen after high

  4. Radioiodine treatment effects of lacrimal glands function in patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard Esfahani, A.; Akhzari, F.; Mirshekarpour, H.; Saghari, M.; Izadyar, S.; Esmaili, J.; Fallahi, B.; Beiki, D.; Takavar, A.

    2005-01-01

    There is a limited number of case reports published in the past decade confirming the radio-iodine presence in the tear. These observations as well as reported cases of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy stimulated investigators to clarify whether lacrimal gland function can be affected post-radioiodine therapy. Hence we planned a historical cohort study to evaluate this effect. Methods: we studied 100 eyes of 50 patients who were referred to the nuclear medicine department of Dr. Shariati hospital from 01.1383 to 02.1384 and had received high doses (accumulative dose: 100-450mCi) of 1-131 treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma with their latest admission at least 3 months previously. Dry eye symptoms (obtained via a standard questionnaire) and Schirmer I test results (mm/5min) of this group were compared with those of an unexposed group (1 00 eyes of 50 individuals) matched by sex and age. Cases with another known cause(s) of dry eye were not included in either group. Results: 51% of the exposed eyes and 50% of the unexposed ones revealed at least one of the dry eye symptoms in the questionnaire. Data analysis showed no significant difference between the number of symptoms of two groups, but 2 symptoms (burning, unrelated to light and rythema) were significantly higher in the exposed eyes. From 9 exposed eyes complaining of erythema, Schirmer test result was abnormal only in 2 (one patient). Also among the 10 eyes with burning symptom (unrelated to light) one patient (2 eyes) revealed abnormal Schirmer test result. The study also demonstrated a significantly lower wetting amount of the Schirmer paper in exposed group compared to others. In the patients undergone radio-iodine therapy, results were 0-4 mm in 21%, 5-9 mm in 20% and 10 mm or more in 59%. These results were seen in the unexposed group in 6%, 17% and 77%, respectively. File review of the 21 exposed eyes with 0-4 mm Schirmer test results revealed presence of the

  5. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129I in thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanca, Yoan Yera; Bejerano, Gladys M. Lopez

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides 125 I and 129 I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for 125 , all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide 129 I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated

  6. Histological changes in the thyroid gland after treatment of hyperthyroidism with 131I, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Inoue, Shozo; Hirose, Fumio; Nagata, Nobuo; Niimoto, Minoru

    1976-01-01

    At first, degeneration and destruction of follicular epithelium appears and its regeneration occurred after the first time administration of 131 I to hyperthyroidism. This regenerated follicule was tidy and could be called regeneration with low grade atypism. The second time administration of 131 I was made in the most active regeneration period, that is, 3.5 - 5 months after the first administration of 131 I. Degeneration and destruction of follicular epithelium were occurred strongly again, and after that, regeneration was occurred again. Regenerated folliculer epitherium in this case shaped comparatively distortion, and it could be called 'regereration with high grade atypism'. In the groups administered 131 I two or three time, the regenerated figure which is highly atypical remained for a long time, and at the same time, many adenoma-like proliferation figures were found in cases taking long clinical course of this group. It was thought that this process would give a lead to clarify the cause of occurrence of thyroid gland tumors following treatment with 131 I. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Hormones of thyroid gland in sera of rats treated with different dose of concentrated potassium iodine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potassium iodine (KI is used as a drug therapy for treating numerous diseases such as small-vessel vasculitis, erythema nodosum, vasculitis nodularis, Sweet's syndrome, tuberculosis and granulomatosis, and for iodized salt. At the same time, KI can be harmful. Iodine intake may increase the frequency of thyroiditis in humans, and may induce the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (ET in animals. Investigations on an experimental model for the examination of thyroiditis in Wistar rats have clearly showed morphological changes in the rat thyroid evoked by KI administration. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of low and high doses of KI on the thyroid gland of Wistar rats and determine the effect on hormone status (T4, T3 and TSH in this rat strain. Methods Two groups of rats from the Wistar strain were treated with a low iodine dose (225 μg/g BW and with a high iodine dose (675 μg/g BW of KI solutions. Untreated nonimmunized animals served as controls. The solution was administrated daily intraperitoneally during the period of 26 consecutive days. Results Monitoring hormone status (TSH, T3 and T4 and morphological changes it was found that therapeutic doses of KI applied in treatment induced the occurrence of experimental thyroiditis (chronic destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis in humans and cell necrosis in animals not carrying a genetic susceptibility. Significant inflammatory changes were observed in rats treated with a high iodine dose. Conclusion The early iodine induced cell necrosis and inflammation in the nonimmunized animals without genetic susceptibility is a new experimental model of thyroiditis. .

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging tests to: determine if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the ...

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of tumoral thyroid tissues of thyroid glands of people from Gomel region as against Brest one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonetskaya, S.N.; Demidchik, Yu.E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis in vivo of histologically normal and tumoral thyroid tissues has shown that in organism of examined patients with thyroid cancer mutation process taken place not only in tumor but in histologically normal tissue. As a result of investigations pursued a significant increase in the level of aberrant cells in thyroid cell populations was revealed in people from Gomel regions as against Brest one

  10. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  11. The Effect of KIO3 and KI Salt towards Iodium Levels (I2 in Urine, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Histological Thyroid Gland of The Goitrogenic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanif Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic a substance that can inhibit the taking of iodine by the thyroid gland, so that the concentration of iodine in the thyroid to be low., is characterized by the inflammation in the gland thyroid area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, That increasing the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of urinary iodine excretion levels (EIU. The treated to give KIO3 and KI salt was intended to determine the level of supplementation of iodine (I2, the level of MDA in serum and histological rat thyroid gland. MDA levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat thyroid gland was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the KIO3 and KI salt was significantly (p<0.05 reduce levels of MDA in the serum of treatment with KIO3 salt (33.62% and KI salt (37,02% and improving histological of the thyroid gland rats.

  12. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  13. Metastases of Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Thyroid Gland with Synchronous Benign and Malignant Follicular Cell-Derived Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Zamarrón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC is the most common origin for metastasis in the thyroid. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for a subcarinal lesion. Ten years before, the patient had undergone a nephrectomy for CCRCC. Whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed elevated values in the thyroid gland, while the mediastinum was normal. An endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal mass was consistent with CCRCC, and this was confirmed after resection. The thyroidectomy specimen also revealed lymphocytic thyroiditis, nodular hyperplasia, one follicular adenoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and six foci of metastatic CCRCC involving both thyroid lobes. Curiously two of the six metastatic foci were located inside two adenomatoid nodules (tumor-in-tumor. The metastatic cells were positive for cytokeratins, CD10, epidermal growth factor receptor, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. No BRAF gene mutations were found in any of the primary and metastatic lesions. The patient was treated with sunitinib and finally died due to CCRCC distant metastases 6 years after the thyroidectomy. In CCRCC patients, a particularly prolonged survival rate may be achieved with the appropriate therapy, in contrast to the ominous prognosis typically found in patients with thyroid metastases from other origins.

  14. The Sonographic Features of the Thyroid Gland After Treatment with Radioiodine Therapy in Patients with Graves' Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Collette; Casey, Ruth; Bell, Marcia; Bergin, Diane; Murphy, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the typical sonographic features of the thyroid gland in patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism after radioiodine therapy (RIT). Thirty patients (21 female and 9 male) with a mean age of 53 y (standard deviation [SD] ± 11.3) and with previous Graves' disease who had been successfully treated with RIT were enrolled in the study. All were hypothyroid or euthyroid after treatment. The thyroid ultrasound was carried out by a single experienced operator with an 8-MHz linear transducer. Volume, vascularity, echogenicity and echotexture of the glands were noted. The presence of nodules and lymph nodes was also documented. The mean volumes of the right lobe were 2.4 mL ± 2.9 SD (0.6-14) and the left lobe were 1.8 mL ± 1.9 SD (0.4-9.1), with a mean total volume of 4.2 mL ± 4.7 SD (1.3-19.1). Of those who had a pre-treatment ultrasound (23%), the percentage reduction in volume was 87% (p < 0.05); 93% of the glands were hypovascular, with the remaining 7% showing normal vascularity. The glands were hyperechoic and of coarse echotexture. Overall, the sonographic features of the post-RIT gland included a significantly reduced mean total volume of 4.2 mL, hypovascularity, coarse echotexture and hyperechogenicity. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation damage to thyroid gland may be the reason of increase in frequency of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and other hematological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradova, Yu.E.; Shinkarkina, A.P.; Poverennyj, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Distribution of autoimmune thyroidities in the patients with diseases of blood system was investigated. Attribute of autoimmune thyroidities was revealed by the detection of antimicrosomal antibodies. It was established that the autoimmune thyroidities are more often in patients with various hematological diseases than in control group. It is supposed that the increase in frequency of some hematological diseases in residents suffered from the Chernobyl accident can be defined not only by the influence of the radiation on blood system, but also can be connected with damage to thyroid glands [ru

  16. The function and morphology of Meibomian glands in patients with thyroid eye disease: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Ren-Wen; Fang, Po-Chiung; Yu, Hun-Ju; Chien, Chun-Chih; Hsiao, Chang-Chun; Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2018-04-12

    To investigate function and morphology of the meibomian gland (MG) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED). In this prospective case series study, patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of TED was based on the typical orbital findings and/or radiographic evidence. The disease activity of TED was classified according to the clinical activity score (CAS). Degrees of lagophthalmos and exophthalmos, blinking rates, and results of the Schirmer test 1 were also recorded. All patients completed the SPEED questionnaire and underwent MG assessment, including lipid layer thickness (LLT), MG dropout (MGd), and MG expression. In total 31 eyes from 17 patients with unilateral or bilateral TED were included. Patients were divided into inactive TED (CAS 0-1; 20 eyes from 11 patients) and active TED (CAS 2-3, 11 eyes from 6 patients) groups. MGd was significantly more severe in the active TED than the inactive TED group [Median (Inter-quartile region): 3.0 (2.0-3.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-2.0) degree, P = 0.04]. However, patients with active TED had thicker LLT than those with inactive TED (90.0 [80.0-100.0] vs. 65.0 [47.8-82.5] nm, P = 0.02), and LLT was positively correlated with lagophthalmos (r = 0.37, P = 0.04). Patients with active TED had more severe MGd, but thicker LLT. Active TED may cause periglandular inflammation of MGs, leading to MGd, but compensatory secretion from residual MGs and lagophthalmos-induced forceful blinking might temporarily release more lipids over the tear film.

  17. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125 I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  18. Rare metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changjing; Shen, Hong; Liu, Wenqiang; Ma, Junli; Zhang, Yan; Yin, Ling; Li, Jindong; Shen, Liangfang; Zeng, Shan

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma is rare. Metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes hasn't been reported before. We want to share our experience about the treatment choice. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with nasopharyngeal nonkeratinizing carcinoma in August 2004. In March 2013 he underwent a thyroid carcinoma radical operation, and histological examination revealed metastasis to the thyroid gland from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. An 18F-FDG-PET/CT scan and biopsy showed metastatic abdominal lymph nodes of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in April 2015. A 27-year-old man was diagnosed with metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to the thyroid gland with subsequent metastatic abdominal lymph nodes. The patient was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma and metastasis to the thyroid gland. The metastases to the abdominal lymph nodes received chemotherapy. After 6 cycles of chemotherapy with gemcitabine, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil for metastasis to the abdominal lymph nodes, the patient is currently asymptomatic with stable disease and improved quality of life. The treatment choice for metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma depends on the clinical disease extent, and surgery and/or chemo-radiation therapy must be drafted to the individual patient in order to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

  19. Alteraciones estructurales de la glándula tiroidea tras la radioterapia Structural alterations of thyroid gland after radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Verdecia Cañizares

    2009-03-01

    present paper was to report cased detected in our study of structural anomalies of thyroid gland in patients underwent radiotherapy for treatment of malignant head and neck tumors. METHODS: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was carried out to determine prevalence of structural alterations of thyroid gland in 43 patients survival of head-neck tumors underwent radiotherapy admitted in "William Soler" and "Juan Manual Márquez" Teaching Hospitals during 10 years (1990 to 2000. RESULTS: More frequent structural alteration of thyroid gland includes glandular fibrosis (18,5% followed by thyroid carcinoma, and of simple cysts of that gland (11,1% respectively. There were 2 cases of differential carcinoma of thyroid gland (7, 4%, and one of adeno-follicular mixed injury (3, 7%. Fine-needle aspirate cytology allows detection of most of these injuries and also the intra-parenchymatous guided-echography of this gland. Treatment of injuries founded was surgical and we performed a total thyroidectomy in two patients presenting with differential carcinoma of thyroid gland, subtotal thyroidectomy in t here patients with cysts of that gland, and thyroid adenomas. In cases of glandular fibrosis there was a concomitant thyroid hypofunction, thus, we administered substitute treatment using Levothyroxine. CONCLUSIONS: Fine-needle aspiration cytology by means of echography of thyroid gland allows diagnosing of structural alterations no detected in physical examination. More irradiated malignant pathology was non-Hodgkin lymphomas. More doses of irradiation, more is thyroid pathology.

  20. Incidence of primary hypothyroidism in patients exposed to therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B A Laway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypothyroidism is a known consequence of external-beam radiotherapy to the neck encompassing a part or whole of the thyroid gland. In this non-randomized prospective study, we have tried to evaluate the response of the thyroid gland to radiation by assessing thyroid function before irradiation and at regular intervals after irradiation. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study were to assess in the cancer patients, who were exposed to the therapeutic external beam radiation, where radiation portals include a part or whole of the thyroid gland: the incidence of primary hypothyroidism, the time required to become hypothyroid, any relation between the total dose for the development of hypothyroidism, and whether there are any patient or treatment-related factors that are predictive for the development of hypothyroidism, including the use of concurrent chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This non-randomized, prospective study was conducted for a period of 2 years in which thyroid function was assessed in 59 patients (cases of head and neck cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma patients and other malignancies, who had received radiotherapy to the neck region. 59 euthyroid healthy patients (controls were also taken, who had not received the neck irradiation. These patients/controls were assessed periodically for 2 years. Results: The incidence of hypothyroidism after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT to neck where radiation portals include part or whole of the thyroid gland was 16.94%, seven cases had subclinical hypothyroidism (11.86% and three cases had clinical hypothyroidism (5.08%. Mean time for development of hypothyroidism was 4.5 months. There was no effect of age, gender, primary tumor site, radiation dose and chemotherapy, whether neoadjuvant or concurrent with the development of hypothyroidism. Conclusion: In summary, we found that thyroid dysfunction is a prevalent, yet easily treatable source of morbidity in patients

  1. On-line transmission electron microscopic image analysis of chromatin texture for differentiation of thyroid gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriete, A; Schäffer, R; Harms, H; Aus, H M

    1987-06-01

    Nuclei of the cells from the thyroid gland were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope by direct TV scanning and on-line image processing. The method uses the advantages of a visual-perception model to detect structures in noisy and low-contrast images. The features analyzed include area, a form factor and texture parameters from the second derivative stage. Three tumor-free thyroid tissues, three follicular adenomas, three follicular carcinomas and three papillary carcinomas were studied. The computer-aided cytophotometric method showed that the most significant differences were the statistics of the chromatin texture features of homogeneity and regularity. These findings document the possibility of an automated differentiation of tumors at the ultrastructural level.

  2. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  3. Activity of the thyroid and the pituitary gland in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri Heckel and Xiphophorus maculatus Günther during the development of the gonopodium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, A.

    1959-01-01

    A description is given of the activity of the thyroid and of the pituitary gland during the development of the gonopodium in the viviparous Cyprinodonts Lebistes reticulatus (Peters), Xiphophorus helleri (Heckel) and Xiphophorus maculatus (Günther). During this process the thyroid gland and the

  4. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results

  5. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid gland: A case report with ultrasonography and CT features, cytological findings and histopathological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE) of the thyroid gland is a very rare tumor. It is believed to originate from ectopic thymus tissue within the thyroid gland or from branchial pouch remnants that differentiate along the thymic line. A few reports of SETTLE have been presented, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no case report in which detailed preoperative imaging features of SETTLE have been described. In addition, there are no case reports of SETTLE in Korean patients. Thus, we report a case of SETTLE with detailed preoperative ultrasonography and computed tomography features, cytological findings and histopathological results.

  6. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of thyroid hormone feedback in the human hypothalamus and pituitary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, Eric; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Alkemade, Anneke

    2006-01-01

    A major change in thyroid setpoint regulation occurs in various clinical conditions such as critical illness and psychiatric disorders. As a first step towards identifying determinants of these setpoint changes, we have studied the distribution and expression of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)

  8. Analysis of thyroid hormones in gland and serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (THs), which are critical for growth and development in all vertebrates, can be impacted through chemical perturbation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Amphibian and mammalian models are being used to address this research priority within US EPA...

  9. Incidental caseating granuloma of thyroid gland presenting with concomitant Graves′ disease and multifocal papillary microcarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera A Al Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old Saudi woman presented with symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism and was diagnosed to have Graves′ disease. She was initially treated with antithyroid medications with no response. Subsequently, she underwent a total thyroidectomy. The histopathology of the specimen revealed caseating granulomatous thyroid suggestive of tuberculosis and multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

  10. Weight, iodine content and iodine uptake of the thyroid gland of normal Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Various questions arise in the application of ICRP ''Standard Man'' values to Japanese. One of the questions is that ''Standard Man'' values of the thyroid are different from normal Japanese values. A systematic survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal Japanese values of the thyroid. The subjects of search were weight, iodine content and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) of the thyroid. These are important factors in the estimation of the radiation dose of the thyroid caused by internal contamination of radioiodine, and are foreseen to have the difference between Japanese and ''Standard Man''. The result of study suggested that the weight of the thyroid of normal Japanese is about 19 g for adult male and about 17 g for adult female, and that the iodine content is 12-22 mg and iodine uptake rate (f sub(w)) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  11. Fibrosis of the thyroid gland caused by an IgG4-related sclerosing disease: three years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriot, P; Amraoui, A; Rousseau, E; Malvaux, P; Dechambre, S; Delcourt, A

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-RSD) represents a recently identified inflammatory disorder in which infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells causes fibrosis in organs. While IgG4-RSD is well documented in the pancreas and other organs, it is poorly characterized in the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 48-year-old female with a fibrotic thyroid mass associated with a retroperitoneal fibrosis. Diagnosed early as Riedel disease, the high serum IgG4, immunohistopathology and decreased fibrosis with corticosteroid therapy, finally confirm for the first time, the origin of IgG4-RSD fibrosis of the thyroid.

  12. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  13. The function of the thyroid gland in patients with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Matveyeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB remains a health problem for many countries in the world. The share of MDRTB is 10–30% among newly diagnosed cases and 20–70% among relapses and treatment failure. The aim of the study is to define the side effects of second line drugs used in the treatment of MDRTB on thyroid function. Methods In 30 patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis, echostructure of thyroid was studied by ultrasound imaging method. Indices of thyroid function: plasma levels of free thyroxin, thyroid stimulating hormone were studied before chemotherapy initiated, at the end of intensive phase and after the treatment finished. Results Decreasing of thyroid function under antituberculosis chemotherapy was approved. Monitoring and correction of thyroid function during antituberculosis chemotherapy was suggested. Conclusion Patients with MDRTB taking ethionamide and PAS are at increased risk for hypothyroidism and goiter, and therefore require monitoring of thyroid function at all stages of antituberculosis chemotherapy for its timely correction.

  14. Benign and Malignant Thyroid Gland Diseases in the Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet; Guldiken, Sibel; Ayturk, Semra; Bulbul, Buket Yilmaz; Tastekin, Ebru; Can, Nuray; Sezer, Atakan; Ustun, Funda; Kucukarda, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate concurrently detected thyroid pathologies in the patients who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the files of the patients who underwent surgery for PHPT between 2012 and 2015. Pre- and post-operative laboratory examination results and preoperative radiological and nuclear medicine findings of the patients were retrospectively recorded. A total number of 41 patients with PHPT were divided into two groups as the Group 1 with PHPT and benign thyroid pathology (21 patients) and the Group 2 with PHPT and malignant thyroid pathology (20 patients). In Group 1, 18 and 3 of 21 patients were females and males, respectively. Group 2 included 15 male and 5 female patients. The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.6 and 53.9 years in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Both groups were matched for age and gender. In terms of thyroid pathology, 20 of 41 patients (48.7%) who underwent total thyroidectomy for PHPT were found to have thyroid papillary carcinoma while benign pathologic conditions were detected in 21 (51.3%) individuals. Cooccurrence of thyroid diseases and PHPT is common. Therefore, all the patients should preoperatively be evaluated for the presence of thyroid pathology to determine the technique of parathyroid surgery.

  15. Ultrasound Measurements of Thyroid Gland Volume at 36 Weeks' Corrected Gestational Age in Extremely Preterm Infants Born before 28 Weeks' Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sze May; Turner, Mark A; Avula, Shivaram

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasound is a non-invasive imaging tool and provides good evaluation of thyroid anatomy, location, vascularisation, and echogenicity. The aim of this study was to assess thyroid function and thyroid volume in extremely preterm infants born before 28 weeks' gestation evaluated at 36 weeks' corrected gestational age (CGA) compared to term infants' normative data in the literature. In this largest prospective UK study of extremely premature infants born at less than 28 weeks' gestation, thyroid volume measurement was assessed at 36 weeks' CGA. Fifty-five extremely preterm infants (28 males) who were born before 28 weeks' gestation were recruited to the study. All infants had ultrasound assessment of the thyroid gland at 36 weeks' CGA. We also prospectively measured thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT 4 ) in all infants at the time of recruitment (within 5 days of birth), at days 14, 21, and 28, and at 36 weeks' CGA. The mean thyroid volume was measured at 0.57 mL (SD ±0.18). There was no association between mean thyroid volume and thyroid function (TSH or FT 4 ). No associations were found between mean thyroid volume and gestation or birth weight in these infants. Our findings provide a reference range with a mean thyroid volume of 0.57 mL (SD ±0.18) in this extremely preterm age group if less than 28 weeks' gestation. Thyroid volume at birth can vary from country to country due to variations in iodine intake as well as gestational age.

  16. Hes1 is required for appropriate morphogenesis and differentiation during mouse thyroid gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Carre

    Full Text Available Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis. To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1(-/- mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05 at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1(-/- mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (-40 to -60% compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5-E16.5. In both Hes1(-/- and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1(-/- mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice. After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1(-/- thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (-78% and calcitonin (-65% normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (-69%. These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells.

  17. Sonographic features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration of metastases to the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Ga Ram [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the characteristic ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid, and how accurate US features and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-FNA) are for the diagnosis of thyroid metastases. Twenty-three thyroid lesions in 23 patients (mean age, 66.7 years; range, 46 to 85 years) that had been diagnosed as thyroid metastases were included. The composition, echogenicity, margin, shape, presence of calcifications, underlying parenchymal echotexture, and vascularity were analyzed in US images of the thyroid metastases. Final US assessments were categorized into probably benign and suspicious malignancy. The presence of suspicious metastatic cervical lymph nodes was noted. The medical records, US-FNA cytology, and pathology reports of these patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 23 thyroid lesions, the general US appearance was mass-forming in 21 (91.3%) and non-mass-forming in 2 (8.7%). All 23 lesions showed a solid tumor composition. Common US features among the 21 mass-forming thyroid metastases were hypoechogenicity (81.0%), non-circumscribed margins (90.5%), no calcifications (76.2%), and parallel shape (81.0%). Suspicious cervical lymph nodes were present in 18 patients (78.3%). Of the 23 lesions, 21 (91.3%) were classified as suspicious malignancy, and 2 (8.7%) as probably benign. US-FNA showed diagnostic results specific for metastases in 21 of the 22 patients (95.5%) who had undergone US-FNA. Common US features in thyroid metastasis were hypoechogenicity, non-circumscribed margins, no calcifications, parallel shape, and the presence of suspicious cervical lymph nodes. US-FNA can be effectively used in the diagnosis of thyroid metastasis, preventing unnecessary surgery.

  18. Metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland: report of 3 cases and brief review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Bayol, Umit; Yılmaz, Cengiz; Dogan, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Metastases to the thyroid are encountered rarely in clinical practice, but the number of cases seems to have increased in recent years. The reason of this increase may be a more frequent use of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and the use of more sophisticated, complicated imaging techniques in patients with thyroid masses. Also, in addition to these reasons, the use of more organo-specific immunohistochemical antibodies in the examination of surgical specimens may affect the differential diagnosis of malignant tumours. Three metastatic tumours to thyroid were found in the retrospective review of malignant thyroid tumours diagnosed between January 1993 and December 2007. The primary tumours were clear cell carcinoma of the kidney, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and breast carcinoma-ductal type. A detailed clinical history, careful histological examination and essential immunohistochemistry helped in attaining the correct diagnosis

  19. ENDOCRINE PATHOLOGY. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOCRINOPATHY: DYSFUNCTION OF THYROID AND PARATHYROIND GLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Litvitskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture deals with etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of thyroid and parathyroid hyper — and hypofunction, adrenal pathology. This lecture is also supplemented with multiple choice tests and a clinical case with keys for self testing.

  20. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noteboom, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author's thesis 'Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees' is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs

  1. Modification of the activity of lymphocytes by xenotransplantation of thyroid gland tissue and by the transfer factor of immune reactivity in the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goleva, O.G.; Paster, Yi.P.; Lyubchenko, T.A.; Kholodna, L.S.; Paster, Je.U.; Donyich, S.F.; Grodzins'kij, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Transplantation of a thyroid tissue is one of the possible methods for the curing of functional disorders of thyroid gland that appear due to the influence of insufficient environmental conditions on organism. By the micro method of lymphocyte blast transformation reaction, the functional activity of Wistar rat's splenocytes is studied. In the case of radiation-induced hypothyrosis before and after xenotransplantation of the organic cell culture of thyroid gland of newborn pigs, the opportunities for correction of immunological disorders with the help of transfer factor preparations are investigated. The transfer factor is a low-molecular weight leukocyte extract (≤ 10kD) with immuno modulating activities. The reducing of self and PHA-stimulated proliferation of rat's splenocytes with [J131]-induced hypothyrosis is found. Bovine and human transfer factor preparations activate the proliferation of splenocytes from animals with hypothyrosis and animals with xenotransplantation

  2. Graves' disease in an adolescent with dual congenital ectopia and no orthotopic thyroid gland identified by Tc-99m-pertechnetate SPET/CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Xue, Yan-Li; Shen, Chen-Tian; Zhu, Rui-Sen; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2013-01-01

    This is the first case of Graves' disease in an adolescent with lingual and prelaryngeal dual congenital ectopia and no orthotopic thyroid gland identified by technetium-99m-pertechnetate (99mTcO-4) SPET/CT imaging in a 15 years old boy. After 8 weeks treatment with methimazole, Graves' disease subsided. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass revealed the normal colloid and normal follicular cells without an atypia or lymphoid elements, suggesting a benign ectopic thyroid gland. In conclusion, there is no report in the literature with DETT lingual and prelaryngeal absence of orthotopic thyroid tissue and Graves' disease as in our case. This case also highlights the potential ascendancy of 99mTcO-4 SPET/CT in diagnosing the DETT.

  3. Structural organization of the thyroid gland and interrenal tissue with reference to endocrine parenchyma in short mackerel, Rastrelliger brachysoma (Bleeker, 1851

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinlapachai Senarat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first investigations of the thyroid gland and interrenal tissue with reference to the endocrine parenchyma of short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma were subjected to histological analysis. Specimens were collected during the fishing season (October to November 2013 from the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Under a light microscope, the thyroid gland of R. brachysoma was distinctly found located within the branchial region. Within this gland, it consists of several follicles among afferent brachial arteries. Each follicle exclusively contained a colloid that was surrounded by a simple, cuboidal, follicle epithelium. Histological study showed that the localization of interrenal tissue was in the anterior kidney. This tissue was composed of two parts based on the structural compositions and cell types; (i the stromal compartment was constituted of various interrenal cells and (ii the interstitial compartment contained the connective tissue, leucocytes and blood sinuses, with reference to the lymphatic tissue.

  4. Metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland: a case diagnosed on fine-needle aspirate by a combined cytological, immunocytochemical, and molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Malapelle, Umberto; Carlomagno, Chiara; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with cytological evaluation reliably diagnoses primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. However, identifying the primary origin of a metastatic process involving the thyroid gland is challenging. In particular, metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland is very rare. In this case report, a right lobe solid thyroid nodule in a 66-year-old male was aspirated. FNA cytology showed necrosis and atypical tall columnar cells; since, the patient at age 60 had undergone surgery for a sigmoid-rectal cancer metastasizing to the liver and subsequently to the lung, a suspicion of metastasis from colon cancer was raised. This was corroborated by cell-block immunocytochemistry showing a cytokeratin (CK) 7 negative/CK20-positive staining pattern; thyreoglobulin and TTF-1 were both negative. Since KRAS codon 12/13 mutations frequently occur in colon cancer, whereas they are extremely uncommon in primary thyroid tumors, DNA was extracted from the aspirated cells, and KRAS mutational analysis was carried out. The codon 12 G12D mutation was found; the same mutation was evident in the primary cancer of the colon and in its liver and lung metastasis. Thus, a combined cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach unquestionably correlated metastatic adenocarcinoma cells aspirated from the thyroid to a colo-rectal origin. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Hes1 Is Required for Appropriate Morphogenesis and Differentiation during Mouse Thyroid Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Aurore; Rachdi, Latif; Tron, Elodie; Richard, Bénédicte; Castanet, Mireille; Schlumberger, Martin; Bidart, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis). To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1 −/− mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05) at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1 −/− mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (−40 to −60%) compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5−E16.5). In both Hes1 −/− and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1 −/− mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice). After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1 −/− thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (−78%) and calcitonin (−65%) normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (−69%). These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells. PMID:21364918

  6. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-18

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; RAS Family Gene Mutation; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma AJCC v7

  7. Peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamming, J.F.; van de Velde, C.J.; Goslings, B.M.; Fleuren, G.J.; Hermans, J.; Delemarre, J.F.; van Slooten, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The management of two groups of patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (n = 165) was evaluated retrospectively. Total thyroidectomy was the standard procedure in both groups, but the peroperative diagnosis and treatment of metastases to the regional lymph nodes differed. In group 1 (n = 84), only clinically positive lymph nodes were resected, and if residual postoperative 131I uptake was found, an ablation dose of 131 I was given. In group 2 (n = 81), all of the tissue in the tracheoesophageal groove was removed routinely at total thyroidectomy and frozen section was done of the lymph nodes lying along the internal jugular vein. If metastases were found, a modified radical dissection of the neck was performed on the affected side. The two patient groups were comparable with regard to risk factors--local tumor stage, age and sex. Almost twice as many patients were found to have metastases to the lymph nodes in group 2. There was no significant difference in the ten year over-all or recurrence free survival time between the two groups. In group 1, there were more recurrences on the explored side of the neck but fewer distant metastases; however, both findings were not significant. In group 2, significantly more instances of hypoparathyroidism and palsy of the accessory nerve were found (p less than 0.05). Thus, when a more extensive search was carried out, more metastases to the lymph node were discovered and treated, but this did not prevent recurrences in the neck nor did it improve survival time. This approach resulted in more postoperative morbidity. There seems to be no justification for prophylactic removal of regional lymph nodes in instances of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland, but modified radical neck dissection may be beneficial if clinically suspect regional lymph nodes are present in the lateral part of the neck. 52 references

  8. Effectiveness of Toyota process redesign in reducing thyroid gland fine-needle aspiration error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S; Grzybicki, Dana Marie; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Balassanian, Ronald; Janosky, Janine E; Vrbin, Colleen M

    2006-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether the Toyota Production System process redesign resulted in diagnostic error reduction for patients who underwent cytologic evaluation of thyroid nodules. In this longitudinal, nonconcurrent cohort study, we compared the diagnostic error frequency of a thyroid aspiration service before and after implementation of error reduction initiatives consisting of adoption of a standardized diagnostic terminology scheme and an immediate interpretation service. A total of 2,424 patients underwent aspiration. Following terminology standardization, the false-negative rate decreased from 41.8% to 19.1% (P = .006), the specimen nondiagnostic rate increased from 5.8% to 19.8% (P Toyota process change led to significantly fewer diagnostic errors for patients who underwent thyroid fine-needle aspiration.

  9. No evidence of radiation risk for thyroid gland among schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Aiko; Takamura, Noboru; Meirmanov, Serik; Alipov, Gabit; Mine, Mariko; Ensebaev, Ruslan; Sagandikova, Sagadat; Ohashi, Toshinori; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2003-02-01

    To assess thyroid status among the schoolchildren around Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site (SNTS), Kazakhstan, and to evaluate the current status of iodine deficiency in this area, we performed medical screening of schoolchildren in two villages, Kaynar and Karaul villages, East Kazakhstan Region, Republic of Kazakhstan, located within 100 km of SNTS. A total of 196 schoolchildren were chosen at random. Control groups comprised 250 schoolchildren from Nagasaki, an iodine-rich area, and 100 schoolchildren from Gomel, an iodine-deficient area contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. Ultrasound screening of thyroid revealed three cases of benign thyroid disease (two cases of goiter and one single cyst), but no cases suspicious of malignancy. The urinary iodine (UI) concentrations of subjects in Kaynar and Karaul ranged from 21.8 to 735.8 microg/L, 4.3% of whom showed low UI concentrations (tests carried out in SNTS.

  10. The influence of elevated iodine supply on the autonomously functioning thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, W.; Kutzim, H.; Wellner, U.

    1984-01-01

    A pharmacokinetic two-compartment model of iodine metabolism has been established on the basis of data from the literature and our own experimental investigations. By this model it is possible to estimate the effect either of prolonged elevation of iodide supply or of a single administration of a high dose of inorganic iodide in the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue. Prolonged elevation of iodide supply in regions of iodine deficiency will cause manifest hyperthyroidism in many cases of thyroidal autonomy (cases with facultative hyperthyroidism). The administration of a single high dose of iodide, as it is proposed for the situation of an accident in a nuclear power station (100 mg NaI) in order to reduce the radiation burden to the surrounding population, carries almost no risk in cases of thyroid autonomy. (orig.) [de

  11. The role of melatonin in radiation induced biochemical disturbances in brain and thyroid gland in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; EI-Sherbiny, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induced changes in adult male albino male rats before and after melatonin administration were monitored to detect some biochemical changes in brain and thyroid gland. The parameters monitored were dopamine (DA), norepinephdne (NE) and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) thyroxine (T 4 ) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum of irradiated adult male albino rats before and after intraperitoneal injection of melatonin. Results indicated that 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiated rats showed gradual and significant decrease in DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas under investigation (cerebellum, pons+medulla oblongata, corpus striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus). The maximum effect of whole body γ-irradiation was observed after 21 days. Moreover, gradual and significant decrease in serum T 3 and T 4 levels were recorded after γ-irradiation. However, TSH level showed significant elevation throughout the experimental period. Melatonin at a dose level of 15 mg/kg b.wt. was intraperitoneally injected daily 30 minutes after 6.0 Gy whole body γ-irradiation, ameliorated DA, NE and GABA contents in different brain areas compared to those measured in irradiated rats. Moreover, melatonin gradually attenuated the effect of γ-irradiation on serum T 3 and T 4 levels to reach nearly the control level at day 21 after melatonin injection. However, melatonin ameliorated the elevated TSH level induced by γ-irradiation to reach its corresponding control value at day 21

  12. Primary mucinous carcinoma of thyroid gland with prominent signet-ring-cell differentiation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jian Wang,1,2 Qie-Re Guli,3 Xiao-Cui Ming,3 Hai-Tao Zhou,3 Yong-Jie Cui,3 Yue-Feng Jiang,1,2 Di Zhang,1,2 Yang Liu1,2 1Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital and College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 2Institute of Pathology and Pathophysiology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China; 3Department of Pathology, The People’s Hospital of Tacheng Region, Tacheng, China Purpose: This study reports a case of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with signet-ring-cell differentiation, and reviews the literature to evaluate its real incidence and the prognosis of these patients.Patients and methods: A 74-year-old Chinese woman, presenting with a mass in the right lobe of thyroid gland, came to the hospital. Computed tomography revealed a mass in the right lobe of the thyroid gland, accompanied with right neck lymphadenectasis and airway deviation caused by tumor compression. Thyroid imaging suggested a thyroid malignant tumor and suspicious lymph node metastasis. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by the tumor cells arranged in small nests or trabeculae with an abundant extracellular mucoid matrix. The tumor cells formed diffuse invasion among thyroid follicles. In the peripheral regions, prominent signet-ring-cells formed a sheet-like structure and extended into the extrathyroidal fat tissue. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1 and PAX8, while they were focally positive for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and weakly expressed thyroglobulin. Results: Based on the histological features and immunohistochemical profile, a diagnosis of primary mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland with signet-ring-cell differentiation was rendered.Conclusion: Using a panel of immunohistochemical markers may be helpful for differential diagnosis and for determining whether the tumor is primary or not. Keywords: mucinous carcinoma, primary thyroid cancer

  13. The male genital accessory gland complex of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    GARCIA-FERNANDEZ, CASIMIRO; GARCIA, SONIA M. LAUER DE; GARCIA, ROSANE NUNES

    1998-01-01

    A topographical and histological study of the male genital accessory gland complex of Boophilus microplus was undertaken. Ten lobes were found, the most prominent of which is the single dorso-median lobe, subdivided into antero-dorsal and postero-dorsal lobes. The other lobes are: a pair of postero-ventral lobes, a pair of lateral lobes (subdivided into dorso-lateral and postero-lateral lobes), a pair of antero-ventral lobes, a single medio-ventral lobe and a pair of latero-ventral lobes. The...

  14. Effects of alcohol on the morphology of the thyroid gland in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy results to, among other effects, retardation of growth in the offspring. However, information is limited on the effects on the organs of dams exposed to alcohol during pregnancy including the thyroids which is the focus of this study. The experimental animal model, involving Wistar rats, ...

  15. Pathology of common diseases of the thyroid gland in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Thyroid diseases are rare in this environment but are more frequent in Western and Northern parts of Nigeria. These diseases present with neck swellings, pains and resulting in high morbidity and mortality rate as well as posing cosmetic problems. Aim: To study the frequency, age distribution and histological ...

  16. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, Janos; Banos, Csaba; Csillag, Jozsef; Lakatos, Peter; Tarjan, Gabor; 2546970HU)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99m Tc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  18. Effects of metamorphosis and captivity on the in vitro sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, M.F.; Norris, D.O.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity of thyroid glands from the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum, to bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was tested in vitro. Thyroids were taken from subjects representing metamorphic stages I (premetamorphic larvae), II (onset of climax), and VII (completion of gill resorption), as well as from captivity control larvae. Exogenous TSH reduced the cumulative uptake of 125 I in vitro by thyroids from stage I larvae after 24 and 48 hr. The capacity of thyroids to release thyroxine (T4) in vitro was used subsequently as a measure of their responsiveness to TSH. Baseline levels of T4 release in vitro were variable but did not differ significantly among developmental stages. A low dose of bTSH (5 X 10(-6) IU/ml) did not increase in vitro T4 release compared with that of controls. A larger dose (5 X 10(-4) IU/ml) caused greater increases in T4 release from thyroids of stage II and VII subjects than from those of controls. This dose produced only a small response by thyroids from captivity-control subjects. The results suggest that the thyroids of Ambystoma increase in their capacity to respond to TSH during the process of metamorphosis

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Nakayama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC. Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n=35 and a control group (group B, n=36. We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A (P<0.05. In comparison with group B, a significant increase in rate of secretion change before and after treatment was noted in the bilateral parotid glands in group A (P<0.05. Conclusion. Because an amelioration of salivary gland function was observed in the present study, our results suggest the efficacy of aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  20. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  1. Neuro chemical characteristic of structures of nociceptive system athyperthyroid function of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Demchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The papercomprises the study of the conditionofpro-antioxidantprocesses in the formationso fnociceptivesystem (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, stem and thalamus in the presence of the experiment al induced hyperthyroidism. It was found that nociceptive irritation (laparotomy on the background of hyper thyroidism had not pronounced effect on the content of diene conjugates (DC and malondialdehyde. The level of enzymes of antioxidant system of superoxidedismutase (SOD and glutathioneperoxidase (GPO decreased.

  2. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland.

    OpenAIRE

    Shilo, S.; Hirsch, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism can develop even in the presence of an otherwise normal gland. One of the less common sources of iodine is tablets of seaweed, sold over the counter without prescription. We report the case of a 72 year old female who developed clinical and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism while ingesting sea-kelp (Vitalia) tablets. Six months after stopping the tablets, the symptoms and laboratory evidence of hyperthyroidism had disappeared. No evidence of pre-existing th...

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Children: Normal Variation or Sign of a Failing Thyroid Gland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplowitz PaulB

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH, defined by a normal total or free T4 level and a mildly elevated TSH (typically 5–10 mU/L, is common in children, but there is currently no consensus on management. Several recent pediatric studies indicate that progression of SCH to overt hypothyroidism (OH is uncommon and that over a period of several years, elevated TSH usually either normalizes or persists but does not increase. The etiology appears to be multifactorial, with some cases representing minor developmental abnormalities, some related to obesity, some to mild autoimmune thyroiditis, and some associated with mutations in the gene for the TSH-receptor. There are no pediatric studies showing clinical benefit of treating these children with thyroid hormone, but additional studies in this area are needed. Since few cases of pediatric SCH progress to OH, treatment can be deferred, and periodic follow-up testing may be the preferred strategy, with elevated thyroid antibodies or a goiter being considered risk factors for eventual OH.

  4. [Some neurologic and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2007-02-18

    Thyroid hormones are of primary importance for the perinatal development of the central nervous system, and for normal function of the adult brain. These hormones primarily regulate the transcription of specific target genes. They increase the cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, and play an important role in regulating central noradrenergic and GABA function. Thyroid deficiency during the perinatal period results in mental retardation. Hypothyroidism of the adults causes most frequently dementia and depression. Other less common clinical pictures include myxoedema coma, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves. Hypothyroidism also increases predisposition of stroke. Peripheral diseases frequently include polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myalgic state, and rarely myokymia. Nearly all the hyperthyroid patients show minor psychiatric signs, and infrequently psychosis, dementia, confusion state, depression, apathetic thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, seizures, pyramidal signs, or chorea occur. The peripheral complications may be indicated by chronic thyrotoxic myopathy, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, myasthenia gravis, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and polyneuropathy. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone was confirmed in a number of patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Significantly elevated antithyroid antibody titers characterize Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This condition is a rare, acute - subacute, serious, life threatening, but steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, autoimmune disease.

  5. Structural Changes of Thyroid Gland in Victims of Chernobyl Disaster with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Muravyova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the objective of the study, we have carried out a research of clinical relationships between diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 and nonmalignant thyroid disease in victims of Chernobyl disaster in remote post-accident period (148 persons and in control group (38 persons. We have obtained data on the nature and incidence of thyroid organic pathology. The incidence of thyroid organic pathology in patients with DM type 2, who are victims of Chernobyl disaster (58.3 ± 6.3 %, is statistically significant (p < 0.05 higher than in control group (43.1 ± 3.9 %. Dominating pathology in patients with type 2 DM, who are victims of Chernobyl disaster, is nodular euthyroid goiter, the incidence of which (26.7 ± 5.7 % in 3.3 time higher (p < 0.01 than in control group (8.1 ± 2.2 %, and depends on sex, age and duration of underlying disease.

  6. Thyroid hormone affects secretory activity and uncoupling protein-3 expression in rat harderian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi Baccari, Gabriella; Monteforte, Rossella; de Lange, Pieter; Raucci, Franca; Farina, Paola; Lanni, Antonia

    2004-07-01

    The effects of T(3) administration on the rat Harderian gland were examined at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. T(3) induced hypertrophy of the two cell types (A and B) present in the glandular epithelium. In type A cells, the hypertrophy was mainly due to an increase in the size of the lipid compartment. The acinar lumina were filled with lipoproteic substances, and the cells often showed an olocrine secretory pattern. In type B cells, the hypertrophy largely consisted of a marked proliferation of mitochondria endowed with tightly packed cristae, the mitochondrial number being nearly doubled (from 62 to 101/100 microm(2)). Although the average area of individual mitochondria decreased by about 50%, the total area of the mitochondrial compartment increased by about 80% (from 11 to 19/100 microm(2)). This could be ascribed to T(3)-induced mitochondrial proliferation. The morphological and morphometric data correlated well with our biochemical results, which indicated that mitochondrial respiratory activity is increased in hyperthyroid rats. T(3), by influencing the metabolic function of the mitochondrial compartment, induces lipogenesis and the release of secretory product by type A cells. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 were expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in the euthyroid rat Harderian gland. T(3) treatment increased the mRNA levels of both uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and UCP3, but the protein level only of UCP3. A possible role for these proteins in the Harderian gland is discussed.

  7. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN HUMAN THYROID GLAND UNDER IODINE DEFICIENCY NODULAR GOITER: FROM HARMLESSNESS TO HAZARD DEPENDING ON COPPER AND IODINE SUBCELLULAR DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Falfushynska

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions. Excess of copper unbound to metallothionein in goitrous-changed tissue and high level of inorganic iodine could be the reason for elevated DNA fragmentation and increased lysosomal membrane permeability and activation of antioxidant defense. The main criterions of goiter formation were represented by low level of organificated iodine and high level of DNA damage in thyroid gland. KEY WORDS: iodine deficiency nodular colloidal goiter, iodine, copper, metallothioneins, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity

  8. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Ceccanti; Sara De Nicolò; Rosanna Mancinelli; George Chaldakov; Valentina Carito; Marco Ceccanti; Giovanni Laviola; Paola Tirassa; Marco Fiore

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA an...

  9. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  10. INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM CONTENT AND OIL SOURCES IN FEED ON CONCENTRATION OF THYROID GLAND HORMONES AND ELECTROLYTE IN BROILER BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kralik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to elaborate the influence of designed mixtures used in broilers fattening on the concentration of electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in the blood.. The research was carried out on 120 male Ross 308 hybrid broilers. The fattening lasted for 42 days. During the first three weeks of fattening broilers were fed standard starter diet containing 22% crude protein and 13.90 MJ/kg ME. During the last three weeks of fattening, broilers were divided into 6 experimental groups, each fed specially prepared finisher diets (P1=6% sunflower oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P2=6% linseed oil+0.0 mg Se/kg of feed, P3=6% sunflower oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P4=6% linseed oil+0.3 mg Se/kg of feed, P5=6% sunflower oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed, P6=6% linseed oil+0.5 mg Se/kg of feed. Finisher diet was balanced at 18.02% crude protein and 14.40 MJ/kg ME. It was found out that the type of oil in chicken feed influenced to blood pH (P <0.001, whereas selenium level (P=0.014 in the feed, as well as the oil type and selenium level interaction (P<0.001 influenced the concentration of potassium in the blood. Oil type (P=0.037 influenced the concentration of fT3, which was lower in chickens fed mixtures with addition of linseed oil than in the chickens fed sunflower oil added mixtures. Interaction of selenium content and oil type had influence on differences in concentration of fT4 as well as on the ratio of fT3/fT4, (P<0.001, i.e. P=0.021. The research results indicated that oils supplemented to broiler diets and combined with different organic selenium concentrations affected pH, concentration of some electrolytes and thyroid gland hormones in broiler blood, however, all obtained values were within reference range for poultry.

  11. Detection of high levels of European bat lyssavirus type-1 viral RNA in the thyroid gland of experimentally-infected Eptesicus fuscus bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Vos, A; Mansfield, K; Hicks, D; Nunez, A; Freuling, C; Neubert, L; Kaipf, I; Denzinger, A; Franka, R; Rupprecht, C E

    2009-08-01

    Two common bat lyssavirus species have been identified in many European countries: European bat lyssavirus type-1 and -2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2). Only limited knowledge on the susceptibility of the natural EBLV-hosts, insectivorous bats, to lyssavirus infection is available. Our study was undertaken to evaluate the susceptibility and pathology associated with an EBLV-1 infection in Eptesicus fuscus following different routes of virus inoculation including intracranial (n = 6), intramuscular (n = 14), oral (n = 7) and intranasal (n = 7). Blood and saliva samples were collected from all bats on a monthly basis. Four bats inoculated intracranially developed rabies with a mean of 11 days to death, whilst seven bats inoculated intramuscularly developed rabies, with an extended incubation period prior to death. We did not observe any mortality in the oral (p.o.) or intranasal (i.n.) groups and both groups had detectable levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (data not shown). Virus shedding was demonstrated in the saliva by virus isolation and the detection of viral RNA in ill bats, particularly immediately prior to the development of disease. In addition, the presence of virus and viral RNA was detected in the thyroid gland in bats challenged experimentally with EBLV-1, which exceeded that detected in all other extra-neural tissue. The significance of detecting EBLV-1 in the thyroid gland of rabid bats is not well understood. We speculate that the infection of the thyroid gland may cause subacute thyroiditis, a transient form of thyroiditis causing hyperthyroidism, resulting in changes in adrenocortical activity that could lead to hormonal dysfunction, thereby distinguishing the clinical presentation of rabies in the rabid host.

  12. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ceccanti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. METHODS: We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol. RESULTS We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. CONCLUSIONS Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  13. NGF and BDNF long-term variations in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; De Nicolò, Sara; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Chaldakov, George; Carito, Valentina; Ceccanti, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Tirassa, Paola; Fiore, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) due to prenatal ethanol consumption may induce long-lasting changes to the newborns affecting also the endocrine system and the nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate in the thyroid, testis and adrenal glands of a FASD mouse model the long-lasting effects of ethanol exposure during pregnancy and lactation on NGF and BDNF and their main receptors, TrkA and TrkB, including their phosphorylated patterns. We used aged male CD-1 mice early exposed to ethanol solution or red wine at same ethanol concentration (11% vol). We found elevations in NGF and BDNF in the thyroid of aged mice exposed to ethanol solution only but not in the red wine group. In the testis NGF resulted to be increased only in the ethanol solution group. In the adrenal glands data showed an elevation in NGF in both the ethanol solution group and red wine. No changes in TrkA, TrkB, phospho-TrkA and phospho-TrkB were revealed in all tissues examined. Early administration of ethanol may induce long-lasting changes in the mouse thyroid, testis and adrenal glands at NGF and BDNF levels.

  14. [Metabolism of thyroid gland cells as affected by prolactin and emotional-physical stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhkov, V V

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the role of prolactin (PRL) in the regulation of thyroid function in intact animals and in those exposed to stress (swimming was used as physical exercise). A single daily dose of 125 micrograms of PRL per 100 g of body mass was injected subcutaneously in 0.5 ml of saline solution during a week to male rats (control: intact rats; injection of 0.5 ml of saline solution subcutaneously). Redox enzymes; succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD.H2 and NADP.H2, ATPase and monoamine oxidase, total protein, RNA and glycogen in glandular cells were investigated histochemically 24 h after the last injection of PRL or saline, 30 min., 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 hours after swimming or right after complete fatigue (in the presence of experimental hyperprolactinemia). A conclusion has been made that one of the most important mechanisms of the adaptive effect of PRL is its ability to suppress thyroid function, thus decreasing the metabolism level, which results in reduction of oxygen consumption and improves body tolerance to stress.

  15. Effect of radioiodine irradiation of thyroid gland in vitro with a dose of 4-5 Gy on iodide transport in thyrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, Yi.P.

    2000-01-01

    We study the influence of ouabain on the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptake in thyroid gland preliminarily irradiated by radioiodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy) in vitro. Newborn pig thyroid tissue was incubated in a medium, containing 37 kBq/ml of 131-iodine (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), washed and achieved by collagenase dissociation. Thyrocytes were incubated with thyrotropin (100.0 mE/ml), ouabain (0.1 mol/l), and 125-iodide (0.4 kBq/ml). Then cells were washed, stored at 4 degree C for 60 days, and the 125-iodide uptake was assessed. Ouabain depressed both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes in vitro. After preliminary radioiodine irradiation of the thyroid tissue (absorbed dose: 4-5 Gy), ouabain stimulated both the basal and thyrotropin-stimulated iodide uptakes by thyrocytes

  16. Combined effect of the environmental factors as ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency on the thyroid gland and the immune condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyarova, L. [Department of Endocrynology, Research Institute of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2012-07-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site was the primary testing venue for the Soviet Union's nuclear weapons. It is located on the steppe in northeast Kazakhstan. The tragic situation of the Semipalatinsk region is an acute and chronic radiation, repeated in big and small doses and a total absence of territorial decontamination, created unique conditions for study of the long term influence of the radiation doses on the health of the population. The Semipalatinsk region of the Republic of Kazakhstan belongs also to an area of moderate and pronounced iodine deficiency. The purpose of the research is to study the prevalence of a thyroid gland pathology and the condition of a cytokine immune link that is likely to be influenced by a combine effect of ionizing radiation and a chronic iodine deficiency. 1100 people passed through the investigation and it appears that 56, 75% of them had a thyroid pathology. Thyroid gland functional condition analysis (TSH, FT3, FT4 a-TG, a-TPO) has shown the prevalence of a subclinical hypothyroidism (33%). 28, 8% resulted in the presence of antibodies to thyroglobulin and the thyroid peroxides, whereas in the areas located further to the nuclear range, the percentage was only 13, 0%

  17. A Study on the Effects of the X-Ray Irradiation and Thyroid Gland on the Erythropoietic System in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kong Keun

    1967-01-01

    The effects of X-ray irradiation and the thyroid gland on the erythropoietic system were studied in the white male rabbits. The total body irradiation was done in doses of 250r and 500r to each of 5 rabbits for 10 days. The factors were 220 KV, 10 mA, FLI/4 Cu+1 mmAl (HVL:2.0 mmCu) 50 cm F.S.D. The thyroid dysfunction was experimentally induced by giving 2 mg of thyroid tablets per kg body weight for 15 days in 5 rabbits for hyperthyroidism and by giving 1.5 mC of 131 I per kg body weight in another 5 rabbits for hypothyroidism. Fourteen healthy rabbits were used as control. The hematologic changes and ferrokinetic data obtained from 59 Fe and apparent half survival of the red blood cells obtained from 51 Cr were compared. Following were the results: A. X-ray irradiated group; 1) There were no significant changes in hematologic findings except for leucopenia. A slight decrease of red blood cells was observed in 500r irradiated animals. 2) The decrease in the iron turnover rates of the plasma and red blood cells as well as in the red cell renewal rate were found in both groups. A significant decrease of the red cell iron utilization rate was observed in the 500r irradiated animals. 3) The apparent half survival times of the red blood cells were slightly, in the 250r (12.1±0.80 days), and markedly shortened in the 500r irradiated animals (9.8±1.38 days), the normal being 14.0±1.6 days. 4) It appears, therefore, that the anemia caused by X-ray irradiation is due to the inhibition of hemopoietic function and the excess destruction of the red blood cells. B. 1) The slight increase of the red blood cell count and circulating blood volume with the normal serum iron level were observed in the hyperthyoid group, while the decrease of the red and white blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values with a marked decrease of the serum iron level in the hypothyroid group. 2) A marked decrease of the plasma iron disappearance rate with increase of plasma iron turnover

  18. Radioimmunoassay of human calcitonin in serum and tissue from healthy individuals and patients with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautvik, K.M.; Normann, T.; Teig, V.; Wille, S.Oe.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Christensen, I.

    1976-01-01

    A specific radioimmunological method for measurement of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) in human serum and tissue is described. Of healthy individuals of both sexes, 85 % had measurable iCT in serum (mean, 0.23 ng/ml). Of 29 patients who had received treatment for medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT), 19 had increased serum iCT (0-60 ng/ml to205 ng/ml). Elevated serum iCT was also found preoperatively in 2 MCT patients. Eleven of the patients with abnormal elevations of serum iCT were alive 4 to 13 years after the operation. Concentration of iCT in extracts from MCT varied from 0.5 to 540 ng/ml wet weight. The diagnostic value of this method and its importance for pre- and post-operative evaluation of these patients are improved by the use of selective venous catheterization in basal state and during stimulation of CT secretion. (Auth.)

  19. Monitoring intervals for the measurement of the radionuclides 125I and 129I in the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yera Simanca, Yoan; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Ramos Machado, Dayana; Acosta Rodriguez; Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the monitoring intervals that can be implemented in the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene for direct measurement of the radionuclides 125 I and 129 I in the Thyroid gland. Two measuring systems were used, one of them uses a scintillation detector and the other one uses a Phoswich detector. Both detectors were situated inside of one shielding chamber of 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 m of dimension, cover with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm of lead, 1.8 mm of tin, and 1.5 mm of copper. For each system was calculated the minimum detectable activity and in function of it were determined the monitoring intervals. The results obtained showed that for the radionuclide 125 I all the evaluated intervals (120, 90, 60, 30, 14 and 7 days).can be implemented with both systems. For the case of the radionuclide 129 I it can only be implemented the intervals (120, 90, and 60 days) using the scintillation detector and all of them with the Phoswich detector. (author)

  20. Diagnosing diseases of the thyroid gland by means of scintiscanning and puncture cytology taking into consideration the nodular goitre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper contains the results of scintigraphical and puncture-cytological examinations carried out during an observation period of appr. 3 years on 548 patients with goiters from the Upper-Bavarien endemis region. In total, we had 484 thyroid gland scintigrams which showed 335 uninodular, 71 multinodular, and 78 diffuse goiters. The 335 solitary nodular goiters were allocated 278 cold, 36 warm, and 18 hot nodes; in three cases, the scintigram could not be assessed due to exogenous iodine contamination. In the 71 multinodular goiters, we found 118 cold, 28 warm, and 9 hot nodes. Cytological findings were established in 548 patients. In 484 cases, the findings were negative, in 19 cases suspicious, and in 17 cases positive. The efficiency of cytological diagnosis of malignant tumours can be stated to be 87.5%. The rate of falsely negative smears was 12.5%; cytologically, in 10.9% of the preparations falsely suspicious diagnoses were established, and in 1.6% the diagnoses were falsely positive. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M.; Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  2. Breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland - an uncommon sentinel for diffuse metastatic disease: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonczak, Agata M; DiMarco, Aimee N; Dina, Roberto; Gujral, Dorothy M; Palazzo, Fausto F

    2017-09-22

    Metastases to the thyroid are rare. The most common primary cancer to metastasize to the thyroid is renal cell carcinoma, followed by malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin, with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid being rare. Overall, the outcomes in malignancies that have metastasized to the thyroid are poor. There are no prospective studies addressing the role of surgery in metastatic disease of the thyroid. Isolated thyroidectomy has been proposed as a local disease control option to palliate and prevent the potential morbidity of tumor extension related to the airway. Here, we present a case of a patient with breast cancer metastases to the thyroid gland and discuss the role of thyroidectomy in the context of the current literature. A 62-year-old Afro-Caribbean woman was diagnosed as having bilateral breast carcinoma in 2004, for which she underwent bilateral mastectomy. The pathology revealed multifocal disease on the right, T2N0(0/20)M0 grade 1 and 2 invasive ductal carcinoma, and on the left side, T3N1(2/18)M0 grade 1 invasive ductal carcinoma. Surgery was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and regional radiotherapy. The disease was under control on hormonal therapy until 2016, when she developed cervical lymphadenopathy. The fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid was reported as papillary thyroid cancer; and the fine-needle biopsy of the left lateral nodal disease was more suggestive of breast malignancy. She underwent a total thyroidectomy and a clearance of the central compartment lymph nodes and a biopsy of the lateral nodal disease. The histopathological analysis was consistent with metastatic breast cancer in the thyroid and lymph nodes with no evidence of a primary thyroid malignancy. A past history of a malignancy elsewhere should raise the index of suspicion of metastatic disease in patients presenting with thyroid lumps with or without cervical lymphadenopathy. Detection of metastases to the thyroid generally

  3. Development of an iodine captor for the study of the performance of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso A, D.; Arista R, E.; Arteche D, R.

    2006-01-01

    A detection-measurement system (DETEC - PC) to be used in those studies of iodine reception in thyroid. It consists of three elements: the detector with its collimator, a blind module of measurement and the application software. The measurement module, communicates through an interface RS-232 series with the Personal Computer where the application software resides (DETEC). The software was designed chord with the principles from the Guided Programming to Objects and it was programmed in C++. The software besides the measurement of the patients, carries out the statistical processing of the lot of samples to use, fixed automatically the spectrometric parameters for the measurement, it possesses a database where it is stored the information of the studied patients and a help with the options of the system. (Author)

  4. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using 124I PET(/CT) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander; Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after 131 I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) 124 I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and ≥96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq 124 I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered 131 I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The 124 I PET(/CT) salivary gland

  5. [Effect of thyroid hormones on the histotopography of lectin receptors in the rat salivary gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsik, A D; Iashchenko, A M; Detiuk, E S

    1987-04-01

    Using lectin-peroxidase technique, the influence of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on histotopography of glycoconjugates has been investigated in rat submandibular gland. The following lectins were used: peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Laburnum anagyroides lectin (LAL) and concanavalin A (con A). It has been demonstrated that hyperthyroidism is accompanied by the loss of con A, WGA and LAL receptor sites. Hypothyrodism enhanced con A binding to granular duct cells with a parallel reduction in WGA and LAL binding to these or other duct cells. Hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism markedly enhanced PNA binding to duct epitheliocytes with redistribution of these lectin binding sites from the luminal surface of salivary ducts into the cytoplasm of duct cells. Possible interpretations of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  6. SLC26A4 Variations Among Graves’ Hyper-Functioning Thyroid Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Hadj-Kacem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious mutations of SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (PS, an autosomal recessive disorder comprising goitre and deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVA, and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL. However, the SLC26A4 hyperactivity was recently associated with the emergence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD and asthma among human and mouse model. Here, by direct sequencing, we investigate the sequences of the 20 coding exons (2 to 21 of SLC26A4 and their flanking intron-exon junctions among patients affected with Graves' disease (GD hyperthyroidism. Ten mono-allelic variants were identified, seven of which are intronic and previously unreported. Two, c.898A>C (p.I300L and c.1061T>C (p.F354S, of the three exonic variants are non synonymous. The p.F354S variant is already described to be involved in PS or NSHL inheritances. The exploration by PCR-RFLP of p.I300L and p.F354S variants among 132 GD patients, 105 Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT, 206 Healthy subjects and 102 families with NSHL have shown the presence of both variants. The p.F354S variation was identified both among patients (1~HT and 3 GD and healthy subjects (n=5. Whereas, the p.I300L variant was identified only in GD patients (n=3. Our studies provide evidence of the importance of systematic analysis of SLC26A4 gene sequences on models other than deafness. This approach allows the identification of new variants and the review of the pathogenic effects of certain mono-allelic variants reported responsible for PS and NSHL development.

  7. Medullary and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland occurring as a collision tumor with lymph node metastasis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadat Alavi Mehr

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma are two different thyroid neoplasia. The simultaneous occurrence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma as a collison tumor with metastases from both lesions in the regional lymph nodes is a rare phenomenon. Case presentation A 32-year-old Iranian man presented with a fixed anterior neck mass. Ultrasonography revealed two separate thyroid nodules as well as a suspicious neck mass that appeared to be a metastatic lesion. The results of thyroid function tests were normal, but the preoperative calcitonin serum value was elevated. Our patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with neck exploration. Two separate and ill-defined solid lesions grossly in the right lobe were noticed. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of these lesions suggested the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. The lymph nodes isolated from a neck dissection specimen showed metastases from both lesions. Conclusions The concomitant occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma and the exact diagnosis of this uncommon event are important. The treatment strategy should be reconsidered in such cases, and genetic screening to exclude multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes should be performed. For papillary thyroid carcinoma, radioiodine therapy and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppressive therapy are performed. However, the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is mostly radical surgery with no effective adjuvant therapy.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial for the Effectiveness of Aromatherapy in Decreasing Salivary Gland Damage following Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Michihiro; Okizaki, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of aromatherapy in decreasing salivary gland damage for patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods. The subjects were 71 patients with DTC. They were divided into aromatherapy group (group A, n = 35) and a control group (group B, n = 36). We blended 1.0 mL of lemon and 0.5 mL of ginger essential oils. The patients in the inhalation aromatherapy group inhaled this blend oil and those in the control group inhaled distilled water as placebo for 10 min during admission. We statistically compared salivary gland function before and after treatment between groups A and B. Results. In comparison with group B, the rate of change of the accumulation rate was significantly higher in the parotid glands and submandibular glands of group A ( P aromatherapy in the prevention of treatment-related salivary gland disorder. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trial Registry: UMIN000013968.

  9. Thyroid gland and cerebella lesions: New risk factors for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Cavalheiro, Esper A; de Albuquerque, Marly; de Albuquerque, Juliana; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Terra, Vera C; Arida, Ricardo M

    2011-02-01

    People with schizophrenia show a two to threefold increased risk to die prematurely than those without schizophrenia. Patients' life style, suicide, premature development of cardiovascular disease, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and sudden cardiac death are well-known causes of the excess mortality. The exact pathophysiological cause of sudden death in schizophrenia is unknown, but it is likely that cardiac arrhythmia and respiratory abnormalities play potential role. Some antipsychotics may be associated with cardiovascular adverse events (e.g., QT interval prolongation) and lesions in specific brain regions, such as cerebella may be associated with respiratory abnormalities, suggesting that metabolic and brain dysfunction could lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with schizophrenia. However, exact knowledge regarding the association of these findings and schizophrenia is lacking. As subclinical hyperthyroidism has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cerebella progressive atrophy has been observed in patients with schizophrenia, we propose in this paper that subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cerebella volume loss could be considered as new risk factor for sudden cardiac death in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Image fusion analysis of 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide scintigraphy and CT/MRI in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy: the importance of the lacrimal gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Hartmann; Donnemiller, Eveline; Gabriel, Michael; Decristoforo, Clemens; Moncayo, Roy; Bale, Reto; Kovacs, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the anatomical structures that show uptake of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). The study population comprised a series of 20 TAO patients attending the out-patient thyroid clinic and 12 patients presenting head or neck tumours. Scintigraphy was carried out with our newly developed tracer, technetium-99m labelled EDDA-HYNIC-TOC ( 99m Tc-TOC). Morphological imaging was done with either magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray computed tomography without contrast medium. Both imaging procedures were done within an interval of 3-4 weeks. For the image fusion procedure, specific external reference markers were used for each imaging modality. The markers were screwed onto a reference frame, which was held in place via a vacuum-fixed mouthpiece. The anatomical structure showing tracer uptake that was most frequently recognised was the lacrimal gland, followed by the retronasal area, cervical lymph structures, salivary glands, the anterior insertion points of the extra-ocular muscles and discrete areas of the neck extensor muscles. The lacrimal gland and the retronasal area showed the highest and most frequent uptake of 99m Tc-TOC in TAO patients, whereas such uptake did not occur in the retrobulbar space. In spite of knowledge of these results of image fusion, no changes in the involved structures could be detected on morphological imaging. It is concluded that binding of 99m Tc-TOC is more frequently localised to the anterior compartment of the eye and to the neck. The previously used term ''orbital'' uptake should be abandoned and replaced by a descriptive term relating to the anatomically recognised structure showing tracer accumulation, i.e. the lacrimal gland. The uptake of octreotide by lymphoid and salivary glands opens a new field of investigation related to the physiology of somatostatin. (orig.)

  11. Hyperplastic Processes of the Thyroid Gland in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Who Suffered from the Chornobyl Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Muraviova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the clinical correlations between diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 and hyperplastic processes of the thyroid gland (TG, we conducted a survey of the participants of Chernobyl accident consequences elimination — 125 men aged 61.95 ± 0.66 years and 24 women aged 62.13 ± 1.34 years (group I, evacuees — 6 men aged 56.00 ± 6.45 years and 18 women aged 58.56 ± 2.07 years (group II, residents of contaminated territories — 32 men aged 59.69 ± 2.13 years and 67 women aged 58.39 ± 1.23 years (group III. The control group consisted of Kyiv residents — 18 men aged 59.00 ± 2.45 years and 34 women aged 57.88 ± 2.61 years diagnosed with DM type 2 and pathology of the TG. Results. The incidence of hyperplastic processes of the TG in patients with DM type 2, who suffered from the disaster, was higher among women (79.2 % than among men — 45.6 % (χ2 = 9.078; p = 0.003, similarly to the group control — 55.9 and 16.7 %, respectively (χ2 = 7.415; p = 0.007, it was significantly higher among male victims of the accident than in the control group (χ2 = 5.41; p = 0.02. We had established a strong direct correlation between the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and body mass index (BMI (r = 0.799; p = 0.031, glycated hemoglobin (r = 0.999; p = 0.027 among men in the control group. During multivariate analysis, we have found the probable model of the duration of DM type 2 and development of hyperplastic processes in the TG (F = 6.6947; p = 0.00022 and its absence for other indicators, namely: BMI (F = 1.7351; p = 0.15969, TSH (F = 0.29968; p = 0.82559, the C-peptide (F = 0.09665; p = 0.96160 and glycated hemoglobin (F = 0.17955; p = 0.90996. Conclusions. In patients with DM type 2, who suffered from the Chornobyl disaster, the incidence of hyperplastic processes in the TG statistically significantly exceeds the rate in unirradiated individuals and depends on the gender, duration of the underlying disease and its decompensation.

  12. Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Massive Amyloid Deposition in a Parathyroid Gland Associated with Amyloid Goiter: A Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Mimic on Intra-operative Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kirk; Diaz, Jason; Hagemann, Ian S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2018-06-01

    Clinical examples of amyloid deposition in parathyroid glands are exceedingly rare and usually present as an incidental finding in a patient with amyloid goiter. Here, we present the first histologically documented case of parathyroid amyloid deposition that presented as a mass. The patient did not have hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid gland was submitted for intra-operative frozen section and concern for medullary thyroid carcinoma was raised. An important histologic clue arguing against medullary thyroid carcinoma was the evenly dispersed nature of the amyloid. Histologic perinuclear clearing and parathyroid hormone immunohistochemistry confirmed parathyroid origin on permanent sections. The patient was also found to have associated amyloid goiter. Mass spectrometry of the amyloid showed it to be composed of kappa light chains. On further work-up, the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Awareness of parathyroid amyloid deposition is important as it is a histologic mimic of medullary thyroid carcinoma, especially on frozen section. Amyloid typing with evaluation for multiple myeloma in any patient with kappa or lambda light chain restriction is also important.

  13. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body breaks down food and either uses that energy immediately or stores it for the future. In other words, our thyroid hormones regulate our body's metabolism. Another gland, called the pituitary gland, actually controls how well the thyroid works. The pituitary gland ...

  14. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  15. Thyroid Nodules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your thyroid gland. The extra thyroxine can cause symptoms of hyperthyroidism such as: Unexplained weight loss Increased perspiration Tremor ... seek medical care if you develop signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as: Sudden weight loss even though your ...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement of thyroid autoantibodies may aid in the diagnosis of certain thyroid disorders, such as Hashimoto's disease (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease...

  17. Uptake of 131-I in maxillary bones mimicking salivary glands. False- positive images in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrossi, Osvaldo J.; Degrossi, E.B.; Levi de Cabrejas, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    In the whole body scans (WBS) with 131-I in the follow-up or treatment of patients bearing DTC it is observed frequently fixation areas of the tracer apparently in relation with salivary glands. These areas generally belong to the salivary glands and are present during the first 48/72 hours, but others are kept during more than 3 weeks. These latter ones were considered as possible uptake in ectopic thyroid cells in the mouth floor, iodized proteins, retention of salivary glands and other assertions. Valdivieso et al. (Cong. Arg. Biol. Med. Nuclear, 1996) and Gutierrez et al. (SLAT,Chile, 1997) considered that the fixation took place also in maxillary bones probably in areas in relation with dental illness (inflammation, pulpitis, dental caries, perionditis, periapical granuloma, periapical cyst and resorption of surrounding bone seen radiologically as periapical radiolucency). This presumption was sustained for two publications (Clin. Nucl. Med. 1998;23. 747-749, and Clin. Nucl. Med. 2000; 23; 314-315). This end the review of 638 131-I WBS carried out between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st of 2007 in 502 patients that were studied for ablation, treatment of metastasis or relapses or follow up. In 31,5% of the patients were observed areas of activity in maxilla. The intensity of concentration of the tracer was 0.3 to 1.2 % of the activity administered. In 10 patients was determinate the effective T 1/2 and in 5 a panoramic Rx of the maxilla and a bone scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MDP; there were correlation between both images, the 131-I one an the 99m-Tc-MDP with radiology. The effective T 1/2 mean value was 6,87 days ± 0,94 (S.D.) very close to the physical T 1/2 of the radioiodine tracer indicating a strongly labeled molecule. In 6 patients treated with high activities of radioiodine (5,55 to 11,1 MBq - 150 to 300 mCi) actinic lesions were observed in mouth and lingual mucous membrane, including ulcers. The intensity of the images and of the lesions correlate

  18. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland during amiodarone therapy: a study of 297 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnywojtek A

    2016-04-01

    hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 42 (53.8% cases. In Group B, hyperthyroidism occurring during treatment with AM was found in 40 (33.9% patients, and permanent hypothyroidism was observed in eleven (12.5% cases. After annual follow-up in Group C, nine (11.4% patients were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, while 27 (34.1% patients were diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. In Group D, all patients had permanent hypothyroidism and when the concentration of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was >10 µIU/mL, l-thyroxine was applied.Conclusion: Our study showed that radioiodine administration is advisable in certain circumstances, even in euthyroid patients. It allows for continuation of further long-term AM treatment. Additionally, RIT allows for the reintroduction of AM therapy that was previously terminated. Hence, it can help control life-threatening tachyarrhythmias and decrease episodes of thyrotoxicosis. Keywords: amiodarone, amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism, radioactive iodine, radioiodine treatment, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia

  19. A Rare Case of Metastasis to the Thyroid Gland from Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma 11 Years after Nephrectomy and Concurrent Primary Esophageal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saud Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is known to cause metastasis to unusual sites, which can be both synchronous or metachronous. Thyroid gland is a rare site for metastasis, but when it occurs, renal cell carcinoma is the most common primary neoplasm. We report the case of a 81-year-old female patient who had a significant medical history of right clear cell renal carcinoma with adrenal metastasis. She underwent right radical nephrectomy and adrenalectomy followed by radiofrequency ablation of left adrenal metastasis and systemic chemotherapy with sunitinib. Eleven years later, she presented with dysphagia and was found to have distal esophageal adenocarcinoma. On imaging, there was incidental detection of a left renal mass lesion and a right thyroid nodule, which on histopathology and immunohistochemistry were confirmed to be clear cell carcinoma of renal origin.

  20. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strukov, E.L.; Dryguina, L.B.; Nikiforova, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  1. Evaluation of surface radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the gonads during routine full-mouth intraoral periapical and maxillary occlusal radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyl Sheikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The quantitative aspects of radiation doses to critical organs can help the dental professionals to take the necessary radiation protective measures as deemed necessary and can help the general public to allay radiation exposure fear in dental radiography, if any. Our study determines the surface radiation dose to thyroid and gonads in full-mouth intraoral periapical (IOPA and maxillary occlusal radiography.Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 subjects participated in the study. The surface radiation dose was estimated to the thyroid gland and the gonads in full-mouth IOPA radiography using 10 IOPA (E speed films and in maxillary occlusal radiography. The measurements were calculated using a digital pocket dosimeter (PD-4507.Results: The average dose at the thyroid gland level during full-mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 10.93 mRads (1.093 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.4 mRads (4.0 Χ 10 -2 mGy, respectively. The average surface radiation dose at the gonadal region during a full mouth intraoral and maxillary occlusal radiography was estimated to be 1.5 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -2 mGy and 0.15 mRads (1.5 Χ 10 -3 mGy, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that although the radiation exposure doses to critical organs namely thyroid and gonads is within the safe limits still precautionary measures for these organs are advocated.

  2. Initial experience with software system JODNEW for evaluation biophysical characteristics related to treatment of carcinoma of thyroid gland by 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanska, J.; Zimak, J.; Vosminkova, K.; Nemec, J.; Blazek, T.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our research tries to exploit sophisticated methods for a balancing of positive and negative consequences of radionuclide applications. We have tailored Bayesian data processing in order to support decision making during treatment of thyroid diseases with help of 131 I. After successful experimental phase we have implemented them. This novel in-house developed software system JODNEW i now tested. It aim at: (1) increasing quality of raw biophysical data exploited in diagnostics and therapy of thyroid diseases; (2) estimating cumulated activity so that MIRD methodology can be well used; (3) decreasing working load on staff. JODNEW is an extensive data-base system co-operating with advanced estimation algorithms coded in C++. The Bayesian methodology adopted allows us to exploit expert knowledge, models of observed processes as well as measured data in a consistent way. This is important in the considered case when the number of measurements is quite limited and influence of biological and physical variations is high. Moreover, all estimates are qualified by the remaining uncertainty. During diagnostics> The (functioning) volume of thyroid gland and body mass are measured. A diagnostic amount of 131 I is administered. Three whole body measurements of elimination rate by urine (excretions) are made within 2 days after administration. The accumulated activities above thyroid gland and other lesions are registered within several days. Evaluation and measurements during therapy are: The accumulation ability is evaluated using diagnostic data. Consequences of 131 I administration are judged, then, the therapeutic activity is selected and administered. The accumulation dynamics is supervised and reaching radio-hygienic limits influencing patient regime is predicted. The common features of these steps are: (1) Individual measurements are corrupted by a high and varying uncertainty; (2) The number of measurements is limited; (3) A significant expert experience is available

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates ... examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a ...

  4. Thirty six treatments with radiodine after the administration of TSH recombinant in 26 patients with carcinoma differentiated from thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitoia, F.; Passerieu, M.; Bruno, O.D.; Niepomniszcze, H.

    2004-01-01

    The released studies that confirm the safety and efficacy the TSH recombinant (rhTSH) led to an increase in the interest for the use in the patients' preparation with thyroid remanents normal or differenced thyroid carcinoma persistent/recurrent, before the administration of therapeutic radioiodine doses in some situations, when it is impossible the suspension of the hormonal therapy thyroid. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of the administration of therapeutic doses of radioiodine after the administration of rhTSH

  5. [Autonomy and malignancy of thyroid glad tumors. A critical analysis of the literature on the existence of hyperfunctioning follicular and papillary thyroid gland carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Marthaler, B

    1996-09-01

    Data in the literature communicated in 63 publications were evaluated in which scintigraphically warm or hot nodules were described as identical to a follicular or papillary carcinoma diagnosed based on histology of the resection specimen, thus suggesting autonomous hyperfunction of a malignant thyroid neoplasia. In the majority of cases, this assumption could not be accepted, or only within strict limits. In these patients, it appeared more likely that the carcinoma was located adjacent to or within a benign hyperfunctioning thyroid area or that large masses of a thyroid carcinoma had only simulated the picture of a hyperfunctioning nodule by suppression of endogenous TSH and thus of the residual parenchyma's function. In other cases, the diagnosis of a hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma had to be doubted or rejected owing to the lack of plausibility of the documented morphological findings. At the end of the literature survey, only 10 case descriptions unequivocally verified that, though very rarely, a papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma may manifest itself as a solitary warm or hot thyroid nodule. Such a scintigraphical finding thus cannot be regarded as proof of benignancy of a given thyroid tumour.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging ... to: determine if the gland is working properly help diagnose problems with the thyroid gland, such as ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  9. The peculiarities of formation of circulatory system pathology of evacuated adult population exposed to ionizing radiation on thyroid gland after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustinskaia O.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research - analysis of the structure and dynamics of the morbidity among eva¬cuated population, the peculiarities of pathogenesis of the most widespread forms of circulatory system (CS pathology in the remote period after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Materials and methods. Three groups of persons evacuated from Chernobyl zone of alienation were researched: persons aged 10-17 (6517 persons, 18-39 (496 persons, 40-60 (458 persons. The data on the individual radiation doses which affected thyroid gland were selected at the State Register of Ukraine on persons affected by the Chernobyl disaster. Morbidity rate was estimated per 103 man-year for 5-years periods of monitoring. The main results: Time from the moment of Chernobyl accident affected the formation of morbidity structure of evacuated population. It was fixed two peaks of morbidity incidence - initial and in 12 years. The most essential changes in CS morbidity of evacuated population were fixed 26 years later mainly in cere¬brovascular diseases. The coronary artery disease takes the first place in the morbidity structure. Significant dif¬ferences were detected at age-specific aspect. The evacuated adult population aged 18-39 years was the most vulnerable for the development of CS diseases. Adverse health effects confirmed the necessity of further research of CS morbidity with the differentiation of doses affected thyroid gland.

  10. Thyroid Ultrasonography Consistently Identifies Goiter in Adults Over the Age of 30 Years Despite a Diminished Response with Aging of the Thyroid Gland to the Effects of Goitrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela R. Brahmbhatt

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency is a national health problem in India and we have recently reported on the severity of IDD in adults and children in Gujarat province. The aim of this study was to determine the utility of thyroid ultrasonography to detect goiter in adults from an iodine-deficient population of Gujarat. We studied 472 adults selected by random household surveys. Data were collected on height, body weight, mid-upper arm circumference, thigh circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, thyroid size (palpation and ultrasonography, and diet. Casual urine samples for iodine (UI and blood spots for TSH estimation were obtained. Endemic goiter is a major public health problem in Gujarat State, India and is probably caused by multiple factors including iodine deficiency, malnutrition, and other dietary goitrogens. These results indicate that thyroid US consistently detects goiter in adults despite a diminished thyroidal response to variable goitrogenic stimuli.

  11. Dose in the uterus of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the 131 I accumulated in her thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Arcos P, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the absorbed dose by the uterus of a woman with three months of pregnancy to who was applied a dose of 131 I that was accumulated in the thyroid gland is determined. The absorbed dose was obtained by means of Monte Carlo calculations developing a detailed three-dimensional model of the pregnant one, where they have been included most of the organs. The absorbed dose also was calculated by means of a simple procedure. To verify the calculated results it was carried out an experiment where was constructed a phantom of the neck, in this was included the thyroid with 131 I and the exposure was measured at different distances of the neck; this was related with the dose. Of the Monte Carlo calculation is obtained that for each mCi of 131 I that is retained in the mother's thyroid, the uterus absorbs a dose of 6.80 E(-11) Gy. When comparing the results, it was found that the simple calculation throws a result 29 times superior to that of the dose obtained by means of Monte Carlo. When applying a correction for the effect of the absorption of the gamma photons by the mother's body an absorbed dose in the uterus was obtained that is 0.16 times superior to the Monte Carlo calculation. Of the experimental phase it is verified that the values calculated by means of the simple method are equal to those experimentally measured. (Author)

  12. Thyroid and parathyroid gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970272 Changes of calcitonin reserve function in pa-tients with primary osteoporosis. ZHAN Zhiwer(詹志伟), et a1. PUMC Hosp, Beijing, 100730. Chin JIntern Med 1997; 36(1): 11-14. Objective: In order to study the role of calcitonin(CT)in osteoporosis. Methods: The calcium loading

  13. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... soft foods such as pudding, Jello, mashed potatoes, apple sauce, or yogurt. Pain medicines can cause constipation . ... Diseases Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  14. [Riedel thyroiditis: two cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongjin; Wang, Junguo

    2014-10-01

    Riedel thyroiditis is a benign disease, which is often self-limited. Examinations, such as CT and histologic diagnosis can distinguish it from malignant neoplasms and hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel thyroiditis is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis in which the thyroid gland is replaced by fibrous tissue. It can be cured by surgery and medicine.

  15. Mechanisms in endocrinology: the crosstalk between thyroid gland and adipose tissue: signal integration in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Ferruccio; Marzullo, Paolo; Rotondi, Mario; Ceccarini, Giovanni; Pagano, Loredana; Ippolito, Serena; Chiovato, Luca; Biondi, Bernadette

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and thyroid diseases are common disorders in the general population and they frequently occur in single individuals. Alongside a chance association, a direct relationship between 'thyroid and obesity' has been hypothesized. Thyroid hormone is an important determinant of energy expenditure and contributes to appetite regulation, while hormones and cytokines from the adipose tissue act on the CNS to inform on the quantity of energy stores. A continuous interaction between the thyroid hormone and regulatory mechanisms localized in adipose tissue and brain is important for human body weight control and maintenance of optimal energy balance. Whether obesity has a pathogenic role in thyroid disease remains largely a matter of investigation. This review highlights the complexity in the identification of thyroid hormone deficiency in obese patients. Regardless of the importance of treating subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, at present there is no evidence to recommend pharmacological correction of the isolated hyperthyrotropinemia often encountered in obese patients. While thyroid hormones are not indicated as anti-obesity drugs, preclinical studies suggest that thyromimetic drugs, by targeting selected receptors, might be useful in the treatment of obesity and dyslipidemia. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Sarcoid granulomas in the parathyroid gland - a case of dual pathology: hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid adenoma and coexistent sarcoidosis with granulomas located within the parathyroid adenoma and thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasanthiran, Anjali; Sandler, Belinda; Amonoo-Kuofi, Kwamena; Swamy, Rajiv; Kaniyur, Sunil; Kaplan, Felicity

    2010-01-01

    We present a highly unusual and interesting case of coexistent hyperparathyroidism and sarcoidosis leading to hypercalcaemia. A 70 year old female presented with weight loss, constipation and dehydration. Investigations revealed marked hypercalcaemia with a non-suppressed PTH. In view of the degree of hypercalcaemia as well as the unintentional weight loss, investigations for malignancy were conducted -these were negative. Parathyroid imaging was then requested and an adenoma was identified. Surprisingly, surgery revealed the coexistence of a parathyroid adenoma with the unexpected finding of sarcoid granulomas within the parathyroid and thyroid glands. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported. Further imaging confirmed pulmonary sarcoidosis and a serum ACE was elevated. Serum calcium levels did not respond to parathyroidectomy but eventually fell with steroid therapy.

  17. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) liver and thyroid gland histopathology as a result of in ovo exposure to the flame retardants tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and Dechlorane Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mona L.; Jaspers, Veerle L. B.; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    that exposure to TDCIPP or the mixture induced hepatic sinusoidal dilatation. No marked effects were seen for DP alone. In addition, the mixture produced divergence of thyroid gland follicles and proliferation of follicular cells. Our study is the first demonstrating histopathological alterations as a result...

  18. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  19. Evaluation of low intensity laser effects in the thyroid glands region of male mice; Avaliacao dos efeitos do laser em baixa intensidade na regiao da glandula tireoide de camundongos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the infra-red laser can cause alterations in thyroid glands. Their normal activity must be preserved, as they produce the thyroidal hormones triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}), that stimulate the oxidative metabolism, essential to maintain a healthy organism. The increase or diminution of these hormones results in alteration of the mitochondria's activity, that determines the secondary effects in the metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if there was any alteration of the thyroidal hormones plasma levels under irradiation from infra-red laser, with energy density of 4J/cm{sup 2}, in the region of thyroid glands of male mice. It was concluded that there was an hormonal level alteration statistically significant between the first day of irradiation and seven days after the last application. Histological studies showed that there was no morphological changes in histological sections of thyroid glands. The optical absorption spectroscopy of mice's serum presented a peak at approximately 280 nm, attributed to tyrosine (this is the amino acid compounding these hormones). (author)

  20. Surgical treatment for unexplained severe pain of the thyroid gland: report of three cases and concise review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Jan; Dekkers, Olaf M.; van der Kleij-Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Morreau, Hans; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Painful thyroid has a limited differential diagnosis. In rare cases, no clear cause can be found after careful clinical, biochemical, and radiological analysis. This may lead to extensive patient morbidity and frustration when symptomatic treatment proves insufficient. Hemithyroidectomy or total

  1. Hematologic long-term modifications after radio-iodine therapy in carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pt. 2. Modifications of the bone marrow including leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenter, H H; Schober, O; Schwarzrock, R; Hundeshagen, H

    1987-07-01

    59 posttherapeutic examinations of the bone marrow have been performed in 35 patients out of a group of 296 patients treated from 1969 through 1976 by postoperative iodine-131 irradiations for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Seven patients had normal findings, twelve patients showed panmyelopathy as principal finding, and fourteen patients presented modifications of the three marrow systems in differents degrees and combinations. Acute myeloid leukemia was demonstrated in two patients by examination of the bone marrow, in another case the same disease was diagnosed by an analysis of the peripheral blood count. Taking into account the dosimetric considerations of the authors and the three cases of leukemia observed within the total group of patients, a risk factor for leukemia of 7.0x10/sup -5/xrd/sup -1/ is calculated which is slightly higher than he leukemia induction rate communicated in literature (22/2646 patients; 1-2/100 000/rd/year).

  2. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron'ko, M.D.; Paster, Yi.P.; Vojtenko, L.M.; Donyich, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  3. Radio-iodine in thyroid glands of swans, farm animals and humans, also in algae and river water from the Thames Valley, England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, J.R.; Lloyd, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive counting system has been used to measure radio-iodine in environmental samples from the Thames Valley. Iodine-125 and occasionally iodine-131 have been found in the thyroid glands of most of the swans that have died on the River Thames, the River Wey and the Grand Union Canal, and in algae and water samples from the Thames and many of its tributaries. The presence of this activity is ascribed to the waste discarded into the drainage system by hospitals and research laboratories, reaching the rivers via the effluent from sewage treatment works. The Thames is used as a source of drinking water, particularly in London and its western approaches. Weed and water samples collected from river water abstraction points, reservoirs, tap water supplies, and animal water troughs fed from this supply all contained low levels of iodine-125. The drinking water route can account for the iodine-125 found in the thyroids of farm animals from west Surrey and in a few people living in London. The amounts found constitute a trivial radiation dose to man and animals as they are far below the acceptable limit of exposure for man.

  4. [Painless thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  5. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  6. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  7. Correlation of the Structural Changes in the Thyroid Gland with Clinical and Laboratory Parameters in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Yu. Uzvenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on the influence of clinical and laboratory parameters on the presence of structural changes in the thyroid gland (TG of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2. Objective — to evaluate the frequency and nature of the structural changes in the TG in DM type 2. Materials and methods. We have examined 122 patients, including 92 — with type 2 DM, and 30 — with obesity without DM type 2 (47 men and 75 women. Control group consisted of individuals without DM symptoms and obesity (n = 35. Examined groups did not differ by the age and sex. Results. In patients with type 2 DM, thyroid pathology was detected in 93.5 % of cases, in obesity without diabetes — in 86.7 %. These figures are significantly higher than population level (65.7 %. Structural changes in the form of nodules are detected significantly more often in DM type 2 (55.4 %. In general, nodules occurred 3.2 times more frequently in type 2 DM type than in obesity, and 4.9 times more often than in the control group. When comparing the nature of changes in the TG with clinical and laboratory parameters of DM type 2, it was found that with increasing duration of DM type 2, the number of nodules significantly increases. During insulin therapy in patients with DM, the percentage of thyroid nodules was significantly lower. Thyroid nodules are diagnosed significantly more frequently in the presence of microvascular complications and arterial hypertension. Nodules in type 2 DM were detected significantly more often in patients with obesity I degree than in patients with normal body mass (64.2 and 21.8 %, respectively (p < 0.01. Nodules of the TG are found significantly more often in patients with DM, in whom hepatic steatosis criteria were detected by echography of the liver (p < 0.05. Conclusions. Dynamic ultrasound examination of the TG in the duration of DM type 2 over five years, the presence of microangiopathy, obesity

  8. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound....... Longitudinal growth data from birth were available. RESULTS: TV increased significantly with age (r = 0.487; P TV +/- sd for different age groups were as follows: 4 yr, 2.2 +/- 1.4 ml; 5 yr, 2.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 6 yr, 2.8 +/- 1.3 ml; 7 yr, 3.2 +/- 1.3 ml; 8 yr, 3.5 +/- 1.3 ml; 9 yr, 3.7 +/- 1.3 ml....... We found a significant positive association between IGF-I and TV (P

  9. Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation of thyroid gland: Report of two cases with follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Azizun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spindle epithelial tumor with thymus-like differentiation (SETTLE is a rare malignant thyroid tumor showing thymic or related branchial pouch differentiation. The tumors are composed predominantly of spindle cells along with focal epithelial component and ductular formations. SETTLE occurs in young patients, with indolent growth and a tendency to develop delayed blood-borne metastases. We herein report two cases of SETTLE with a follow-up period of 64 months and 30 months, respectively.

  10. An Autoradiographic Study of the Process of Hormone Formation in the Thyroid Gland Under Various Experimental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-26

    to be a generally recognized mechanism of antithyroid action of thiourea derivatives (Astwood, Frank- lin, Chaikoff, and Lerner, Ya. M. Kabak, I. E...expresses an original point of view concerning the mechanisms of the antithyroid action of thiourea: he considers, that an impoverishment of the thyroid...Vol. 30, No. 5, 31. Boyd, Dzh. A., Avtoradiografiya v biologii i meditsine (Auto- radiography in Biology and Medicine ), Moscow, 1957. Fittszheral’d

  11. Tracheal and Crico-Tracheal Resection and Anastomosis for Malignancies Involving the Thyroid Gland and the Airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cesare; Del Bon, Francesca; Barbieri, Diego; Grazioli, Paola; Paderno, Alberto; Perotti, Pietro; Lombardi, Davide; Peretti, Giorgio; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate outcomes in different malignancies involving the thyroid and infiltrating the airway submitted to tracheal (TRA) or crico-tracheal resection and anastomosis (CTRA). Retrospective charts review of 27 patients affected by thyroid malignancies involving the airway treated by TRA/CTRA in a single academic institution. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the overall (OS) and disease-specific (DSS) survivals and local (LC) and loco-regional control (LRC). Impact on survival of age, comorbidities, previous radiotherapy, types of TRA/CTRA, Shin's stage (II, III, IV), grading (well vs poorly differentiated), and length of airway resected was calculated by the log-rank test. Overall survival and DSS at 3 and 5 years were 82.3% and 71.6%, respectively. Local control and LRC in the entire group were 82.3% at 3 and 5 years. Crico-tracheal resection and anastomosis involving the cricoid arch and plate (type C) and tumor differentiation significantly affected OS and DSS (both P < .001). Type C CTRA and tumor differentiation significantly impacted on LC (P = .002 and P = .009, respectively). Grading and extension of CTRA to the cricoid plate are the most important factors for oncologic outcomes in thyroid malignancies infiltrating the airway. Except for poorly differentiated tumors, TRA/CTRA allows adequate LC even in advanced stage lesions involving the crico-tracheal junction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Functional exploration of the thyroid gland on the rat at the third day after a spinal section at high level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnius-Delord, C.; Caine, S.; Tanche, M.; Rinaldi, R.

    1969-01-01

    We have studied on animals having two different diets, the one with iodine, the other without iodine, the influence of a spinal section at high level on the thyroid fixation, this latter being measured after an injection of iodine 131 carried out 72 h after the section. In this case, and for all animals, our results show an increase of the thyroid fixation with regard to the control animals. However this increase is not significant; only is significant the difference between the rates of fixation for the injections carried out 15 mn and 24 h after section and these measured 48 h and 72 h after section. Concerning the hormonal discharge, it is always significantly decreased with regard to the controls, as we had found it for the animals treated 15 mn, 24 h and 48 h after section. We have also entered upon a study of the thyroid fixation and of the hormonal discharge on rats subjected to a simple laminectomy at level where are effected the spinal sections. Yet the results obtained have not permitted us to display significant differences between the control animals and the animals subjected to such an operation. (authors) [fr

  13. IMMUNOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL PREDICTORS OF CLINICAL HETEROGENEITY OF PATIENTS WITH GRAVES' DISEASE (BASED ON RESEARCH OF THE THYROID GLAND OPERATIONAL MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Saprina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little research is devoted to the study of communication systemic immunological changes and local immunological changes in the tissue of the thyroid in autoimmune thyrophaties. The goal of the research was to establish immunologic and morphologic predictors of clinical course and functional outcomes of Graves’s disease (GD.Material and methods. We examined 45 patients with GD (14 men and 31 women aged 18–55 years (47.0 (35.0–53.0 years, matching the following criteria: a verified diagnosis GD, accommodation in Tomsk oblast and the Tomsk not less than 10 years, the patient's consent for the study. The control group included 30 people, with an average age of (45.3 ± 5.6 years and was comparable by age and sex with GD patients. The study included: definition of the standard for GD hormonal and serological profile (free T4, free T3, and TSH, antibodies to TPO, antibodies to the TSH receptor, the cultivation of mononuclear leukocytes in complete culture medium within 24 hours with subsequent determination of interleukins concentrations (IL-2, IL-4, TNF-alpha in culture medium using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, determination of the number of blood cells carrying membrane-bound receptors to IL-2, IL-4, TNF-R1 by flow laser cytometry on cytometer BD FACS Canto tmΙΙ (USA using labeled monoclonal antibody, the standard postoperative histological examination of thyroid gland tissue samples and immunohistochemical detection in samples of thyroid tissue receptors to IL-2, IL-4, TNF-alpha.Results. On the basis of the received results it is possible to allocate 2 clinical-immunologic and morphologic cluster of autoimmune hyperthyroidism syndrome in patients with clinical diagnosis of GD. The first includes the formation of 1 and 2 histological options GD (minimally expressed monocytes infiltration, lack of oncocytic transformation of thyroid epithelium, with some clinical characteristics (persistent and pronounced hyperthyroidism, the large

  14. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Karadağ, Demet; Doner, Egemen; Adapınar, Baki

    2014-01-01

    Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After pene...

  15. Primary plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland: a case report of a rare neoplasia Plasmocitoma da glândula tireoide: relato de caso de uma rara neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary plasmacytoma comprises 3%-5% of all plasma cell neoplasms, and approximately 80% of the cases occur in the upper respiratory tract. Primary thyroid plasmacytomas (PTP are rare tumors. The authors report a case of PTP in a male patient with dyspnea and dysphagia. Physical examination and computerized tomography (CT scan revealed a solid tumor affecting the thyroid gland, measuring 12 cm in its greatest dimension. Surgical biopsy was performed. Microscopy revealed a hypercellular malignant neoplasm composed of round plasmacytoid cells arranged in solid nests, which showed a positive immunoexpression for CD138, epithelial membrane antigen (AME, kappa light chains and multiple myeloma oncogene 1 (MUM1. The diagnosis of PTP was accordingly established.O plasmocitoma extramedular constitui 3%-5% de todas as neoplasias de plasmócitos e aproximadamente 80% dos casos ocorrem no trato respiratório superior. Plasmocitomas primários da tireoide (TPP são tumores raros. Os autores relatam um caso de TPP em um paciente masculino referindo dispneia e disfagia. O exame físico e a tomografia computadorizada revelaram tumor sólido comprometendo a glândula tireoide, medindo 12 cm na maior dimensão, o qual foi submetido à biópsia cirúrgica. À microscopia, foi identificada neoplasia maligna hipercelular constituída por células redondas/plasmocitoides dispostas em ninhos sólidos, as quais exibiam imunoexpressão positiva para CD138, antígeno da membrana epitelial (AME, cadeias leves kappa e oncogene mieloma múltiplo 1 (MUM1. O diagnóstico de TPP foi, então, estabelecido.

  16. [Thyroid and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

    2018-05-17

    During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy. With reference to the period prior to pregnancy, the article discusses iodide supplementation, preconceptional examination of thyroid gland metabolism and the importance of thyroid gland functional disorders for fertility and fulfilling the desire to have children. With a view to the period during pregnancy, the effect of hypothyroxinemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism as well as the effects of their treatment on the development of the child are explained. Finally, a description is given of what must be paid attention to in the breast-feeding period and in postpartum thyroiditis.

  17. Silent Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Silent or painless thyroiditis is a frequent cause of transient hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by recent onset of symptoms in a patient with a normal to modestly enlarged and firm thyroid gland. The hallmarks of the disease are the absence of thyroidal pain or tenderness and a markedly reduced radioiodine uptake. Histologically, the gland is characterized by an important lymphocytic infiltration, occasionally to the point of lymphoid follicle formation. However, other indices of an autoimmune cause are usually absent. The disease appears to have a predilection for the postpartum period. Relapses may occur with subsequent pregnancies. Otherwise, the course is usually benign and transient, requiring moderate doses of β-adrenergic blocking agents for symptomatic relief. No pathogenetic factors are known, but the disease may conceivably have an autoimmune basis, particularly in the postpartum patient. PMID:21278944

  18. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  19. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal Ali R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years. The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05. No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply

  20. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  1. Localization of the aromatase enzyme expression in the human pituitary gland and its effect on growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid stimulating hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Asli Sezgin; Kapucu, Aysegul; Dar, Kadriye Akgun; Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Caglar, Erkan; Ince, Haluk; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate aromatase expression in prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and growth hormone (GH) secreting cells. Nontumoral human pituitary specimens were obtained from autopsy samples. Aromatase co-expression was determined by double immunohistochemical staining and assessed using H scores. H scores for GH-aromatase co-expression (GH-aromatase), TSH-aromatase co-expression (TSH-aromatase), and PRL-aromatase co-expression (PRL-aromatase) were 83.1 ± 13.1, 95.6 ± 16.1, and 83.7 ± 14.5, respectively. TSH producing cells exhibited the highest H score for co-expression of aromatase (p 0.05 for all). There was a negative correlation between the H scores for aromatase and PRL-aromatase, GH-aromatase and TSH-aromatase, respectively (r = -0.592, p 0.05 for all). Age was negatively correlated with PRL-aromatase H score (r = -0.373, p = 0.008). Our study demonstrated significant aromatase co-expression in PRL, GH, and TSH secreting cells of the human anterior pituitary gland. The mutual paracrinal regulation between aromatase and three adenohypophyseal hormones indicates that aromatase may have a regulatory role on the synthesis and secretion of these hormones.

  2. The influence of saliva flow stimulation on the absorbed radiation dose to the salivary glands during radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I PET(/CT) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jentzen, Walter; Schmitz, Jochen; Freudenberg, Lutz; Eising, Ernst; Bockisch, Andreas; Stahl, Alexander [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Balschuweit, Dorothee; Hilbel, Thomas [Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, Fachbereich Physikalische Technik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A serious side effect of high-activity radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary gland damage. This damage may be diminished by lemon-juice-induced saliva flow immediately after {sup 131}I administration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chewing lemon slices on the absorbed (radiation) doses to the salivary glands. Ten patients received (pretherapy) {sup 124}I PET(/CT) dosimetry before their first radioiodine therapy. The patients underwent a series of six PET scans at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 48 and {>=}96 h and one PET/CT scan at 24 h after administration of 27 MBq {sup 124}I. Blood samples were also collected at about 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 h. Contrary to the standard radioiodine therapy protocol, the patients were not stimulated with lemon juice. Specifically, the patients chewed no lemon slices during the pretherapy procedure and neither ate food nor drank fluids until after completion of the last PET scan on the first day. Organ absorbed doses per administered {sup 131}I activity (ODpAs) as well as gland and blood uptake curves were determined and compared with published data from a control patient group, i.e. stimulated per the standard radioiodine therapy protocol. The calculations for both groups used the same methodology. A within-group comparison showed that the mean ODpA for the submandibular glands was not significantly different from that for the parotid glands. An intergroup comparison showed that the mean ODpA in the nonstimulation group averaged over both gland types was reduced by 28% compared to the mean ODpA in the stimulation group (p=0.01). Within each gland type, the mean ODpA reductions in the nonstimulation group were statistically significant for the parotid glands (p=0.03) but not for the submandibular glands (p=0.23). The observed ODpAs were higher in the stimulation group because of increased initial gland uptake rather than group differences in blood kinetics. The {sup 124}I PET

  3. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

    1982-07-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

  4. correlation between cytology and thyroid function test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-10-01

    Oct 1, 2006 ... the hormones tri-iodothyronine T3 and thyroxine T4, which are in turn regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Diseases of the thyroid gland usually result in thyroid enlargement (goiter) which can be due to infections, cystic changes, autoimmune diseases, ...

  5. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... camera heads are oriented at a 90 degree angle and placed over the patient's body. SPECT involves ... images of the thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... thyroid gland from three different angles. You will need to remain still for brief periods of time ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is working properly ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... arm, but there are generally no other side effects. When swallowed, the radiotracer has little or no ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  16. Influence of dose, age at the onset of disease and ultrasonographic findings of the thyroid gland on the early outcome of the radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Muratovska, L.; Crcareva, B.; Stojanovski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim of the study: Estimation of the early effects of the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine in correlation with the radioiodine dose, the age at the onset of disease and ultrasonographic (US) findings of the thyroid. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of the files of 80 patients that underwent a radioactive iodine treatment from the period of 1987 till 2006 because of a diffuse hyperthyroid goiter was performed. The patients were divided in two groups. Group C consisted of patients who were treated with calculated doses from 60-100μC/ml gland volume and group NC who received higher, non-calculated doses. According to age at the onset of disease patients were divided in two groups- group A younger than 40 years and group B older than 40 years. According to the US findings of the thyroid prior to radioiodine therapy patients were divided in two groups group N with predominantly normal US findings and group H with predominantly hypoechoic structure. Results: One year after the application of radioactive iodine 58% of the patients from the group C still remained hyperthyroid, 29% became euthyroid and only 13% developed early hypothyroidism. In the NC group only 7% remained hyperthyroid, 40% were euthyroid, while 54% of the patients developed early hypothyroidism. The occurrence of early hypothyroidism was significantly more frequent in NC than in C group (58% vs. 32%, p<0.05). The age was predictor for the probability of development of early hypothyroidism in C group: only 13% younger in group A, but 46% older patients from group B developed an early hypothyroidism. In the NC group the age was not a predictive factor. In 44 patients there were available records on the US findings prior to radioiodine therapy. In the N group patients that received calculated dose of radioiodine therapy remained euthyroid in 86%, while the patients that received non-calculated dose achieved euthyroidism only in 30%.In the H group there was no

  17. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  18. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  19. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  20. Indices of physical and sexual development among boys adolescents depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim is examine and compare the relationship of high and normal levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH with indicators of physical and sexual development of puberty boys. Materials and methods. The study included adolescents 2 age groups: in the 1st group consisted of boys 11–13 years (n = 76; the 2nd group consisted of adolescents 14–17 years (n = 221. Conducted anthropometric survey of young men and adolescents: height, weight, Quetelet index. Sexual development included an assessment of pubertal development of scale Tanner: In the testes, pubic body hair H, the length of the penis, as well as the index of masculinization (IM. The concentration of TSH was measured using standard test kits “Immunotech” company (Czech Republic. According to the results of TSH determination of the boys were divided into 3 groups: 1st subgroup – TTG 0.5–2.6 μIU/l; 2nd subgroup – 4.2–10.0 μIU/l, 3rd subgroup – 10.0 μIU/l. For statistical processing of the material used Excel spreadsheets TC 2000. For quantitative characteristics the average value (M and standard deviations of the mean (m, and these are not the characteristics of parametric (Me – the median. Credibility in groups determined by the criteria of article.Results. Boys 11–13 years parameters of physical development in the 1st and 2nd subgroups in TSH were not statistically different. Indicators of sexual development have tended to be the best in one subgroup compared to 2 (especially in the testicles and MI. The young men years 14–17 physical development statistically significantly different in subgroups 1 and 3 levels of TSH. It was the best in class. Sexual development is also statistically significantly different especially between 1st and 3rd subgroups of V and testicular infarction, as well as in terms of G. In a certain part of 14–17 year old boys in the background marked clinical and laboratory manifestations of hypothyroidism (primary tended to the phenomenon of

  1. Thyroid hemiagenesis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrocinio, Heliane Modesto do; Kikkawa, Mitiko; Cuzziol, Egidio; Oliveira, Luiz Antonio Nunes de

    1995-01-01

    The absence of one lobe of the thyroid gland is named thyroid hemiagenesis; the left is affected more frequently and in 50% is associated with isthmus agenesis. Predominant in women, in the 38-47% have alteration in the function, of which hyperthyroidism is more frequently. In this case, it is observed that the ultrasound is very important to define the hemiagenesis of thyroid gland. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment.

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  4. Thyroid Cancer Statistics | Did You Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer represents the 8th most common cancer in the United States. Did you know that this cancer, located at the base of the throat in the thyroid gland, is highly treatable and usually curable?

  5. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  6. Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Han, Moon Hee E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Keon Ha; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) findings of primary thyroid lymphoma. Methods and material: The clinicopathological data and CT images of nine patients with primary thyroid lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The CT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, a solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, a homogeneously enlarged both thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: All patients had a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One patient showed type 1 pattern, three type 2, and five type 3. Six patients had homogeneous tumor isoattenuating to surrounding muscles. The tumors had a strong tendency to compress normal remnant thyroid and the surrounding structure without invasion. Conclusion: Primary thyroid lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when old female had a homogeneous thyroidal mass isoattenuating to muscles, which does not invade surrounding structures.

  7. Seasonal variability of iodine and selenium in surface and groundwater as a factor that may contribute to iodine isotope balance in the thyroid gland and its irradiation in case of radioiodine contamination during accidents at the NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Ryzhenko, Boris; Berezkin, Viktor; Saraeva, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    Radioiodine release to the environment during the accident at the Chernobyl NPP led to the increased risk of the thyroid cancer cases within the contaminated areas, the effect being aggravated in conditions of stable iodine and selenium deficiency in local food chains. Although the drinking water iodine is usually believed to contribute not more than 10% to local diet, our estimations accounting of water content in other products and several regional studies (e.g. India and Australia) proved its portion to be at least twice as much. As radioiodine isotopes are short-lived, their absorption depends greatly on stable iodine and selenium sufficiency in thyroid gland in the first few days of contamination and seasonal variation of stable iodine and selenium in local sources of drinking water may be significant as modifying the resulting thyroid irradiation in different seasons of the year. The main goal of the study was to evaluate seasonal variation of levels of iodine and selenium in natural waters of the Bryansk region as a possible factor affecting the radioiodine intake by thyroid gland of animals and humans in case of radioiodine contamination during the accident. Seasonal I and Se concentration was measured in the years of 2014 and 2015 at 14 test points characterizing surface (river and lake) and drinking groundwater. Obtained data proved considerable seasonal variation of I and Se concentration in natural waters (3,7-8,1 μg/l and 0,04-0,4 μg/l respectively) related to physico-chemical water parameters, such as pH, Eh and fluctuations in concentration of dissolved organic matter. The widest I and Se seasonal variability was observed in surface and well waters, maximum I level being found in autumn at the end of vegetation period characterized by active I leaching from the decomposed organic residues by long lasting precipitations. The content of selenium in the surface waters during summer-autumn (0,06-0,3 μg/l) was higher than in spring (0,04-0,05

  8. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  9. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  10. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Effect of a mandatory iodization program on thyroid gland volume based on individuals' age, gender, and preceding severity of dietary iodine deficiency: A prospective, population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2007-01-01

    = 3570) the iodization in year 2000 in two areas with mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Women aged 18-22, 25-30, 40-45, and 60-65 yr and men aged 60-65 yr were examined. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Results: A lower median thyroid volume was seen in all age groups after iodization...

  12. Clinical and dosimetric analysis of peculiarities of intellectual development, mental and behavioural disorders in children with oncological pathology of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovich, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 116 children with thyroid cancer was conducted in 1995-1997. On the basis of the data obtained the three-level system of prophylaxis and correction of mental and behavioural disorders in the children suffering from thyroid cancer has been developed

  13. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  14. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  15. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Presented with Pain and Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenç, Hasan; Yaylacı, Selçuk; Arpacı, Dilek; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an atypical form of the Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis whichis characterized with pain and fever in the thyroid gland. In this letter presentation, our aimis to present a case who is 49 years old female patient whose clinical presentation was inaccordance with sub-acute thyroiditis; however, who was detected having thyroid autoantibodypositivity and whom we diagnosed with the Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.Keywords: Hashimoto Thyroiditis, painful, treatme...

  16. Dual ectopic thyroid: A case report with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, A.; Seam, R. K.; Gupta, M.; Raj Sharma, D.; Bhardwaj, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity which is mostly found along the line of descent of the thyroid gland. Most of the patients present with midline swelling and usually seek medical attention. Dual ectopic thyroid gland is even rarer. The clinical examination and different imaging modalities establish its diagnosis. Radionuclide studies are highly sensitive and specific in demonstrating the functional tissues in patients with ectopic thyroid, thereby guiding further management. The authors reported a case of ectopic thyroid gland in a girl with midline neck swelling initially, subsequently lost to follow-up. She again presented with enlarged swelling after a period of three years with dual ectopic thyroid in the neck region on thyroid scan. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated that progression in the size of ectopic glands was due to neglect in treatment.

  17. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  18. Copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium content in endocrine organs of horses, cattle and pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckl, W; Weiser, M

    1968-07-01

    In horses, cattle and pigs the content of copper, manganese, zinc and magnesium was determined in the pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, pancreas, ovary and thymus, and the mean values and standard deviations were determined. Within the same animal there were considerable variations of each element as between the different endocrine glands and similar significant differences from one animal to another. These results are not extensive enough to permit any conclusion on the relationship of the examined elements to the endocrine function or their influence on the enzyme activity. 1 table.

  19. Thyroid gland protection against radioactive iodine. Fetus and preschool children are more sensitive; Bescherming van de schildklier tegen radioactief jodium. Foetus en kleuter zijn gevoeliger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noteboom, J.L. [Integraal Kankercentrum, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-09-01

    The intake of iodine tablets can prevent the irradiation and accumulation of iodine in the thyroid of humans. The summary of the author`s thesis `Protection of the thyroid against radioactive iodine during fetal life and infancy. An experimental approach in chimpanzees` is presented in an edited form. The research was carried out on pregnant and very young chimpanzees. Based on the experimental results recommendations are made for radiation protection for pre-school children and pregnant women. 3 figs., 1 refs.

  20. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, Diane S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  1. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (Pthyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  3. Thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambertini, Roberto; Dalurzo, Liliana; Jaen, Ana del V.

    2008-01-01

    In this document the case of a 66-year old woman is presented, with record of multi nodular goiter of 5 year of evolution, which is derived to scan ultrasound office to make a puncture-aspiration with thin needle because of the growth of nodular thyroid injuries. The ultrasound scan examination made before the puncture determine multiple dominant nodules of hyperplasia aspect between 15 and 25 mm of diameter and a small nodule of 6 mm suspected proliferate process. Despite its size, it was decided to include small nodule in injuries to a biopsy. The cytological study reveals nodular hyperplasia with carcinoma in the small nodule of 6 mm. A thyroidectomy is practiced on the patient. The deferred histological study of the thyroid gland confirms the finding of multi-nodular goiter with a small focus of papillar carcinoma. The ganglions examined were negative in the deferred examination [es

  4. Thyroid and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-11-01

    The topic 'Thyroid and Radiation' is both an old and new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymph nodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed. (author) 50 refs.

  5. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  6. Thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Polacco, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess is a rare condition, and consequently diagnosis is often delayed. Causes include 3rd and 4th branchial cleft anomalies, hematogenous spread of infection, trauma from esophageal foreign body, and fine needle aspiration. Thyroid abscesses carry potential morbidity with thyroid and parathyroid gland destruction, tracheal compression, tracheal or esophageal fistula, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and sepsis. The authors report a case of a 33-year old woman with a thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation. Thyroid abscess should be considered in patients presenting with anterior neck pain and swelling with a recent history of traumatic intubation, ultrasound or CT with contrast being the ideal diagnostic modalities.

  7. Diagnosis of bone metastasis from thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Jensen, Karl E

    2015-01-01

    (MRI), but histology revealed a metastasis from thyroid carcinoma, although the patient had no previous history of thyroid malignancy and resection of the thyroid gland was without malignancy. Ultrasound-guided biopsy was possible due to cortical destruction and the multidisciplinary approach with re...

  8. Efficacy and prospects for cryopreserved thyroid gland transplantation as a method for treatment of different forms of primary hypothyroidism including postradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Lyakh, I.A.; Khasiev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was established that auto-and allo transplantation of cryopreserved thyroid is a physiologically well grounded technique of treatment and can be an alternative to substitution hormonotherapy of hypothyroidism and can be a main method of treatment in cases when hormone treatment is not effective or is contraindicated.Talking into account the efficiency of cryopreserved thyroid transplantation in patients with primary hypothyroidism,it is possible to predict its positive effect for c postradiation hypothyroidism treatment,if substitution hormonotherapy is not effective

  9. Determining pathogenetic connection between disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and non-malignant pathology of thyroid gland in children , born from parents, Chernobyl accident survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, O.V.; Stepanenko, O.A.; Belyingyio, T.O.

    2014-01-01

    The 92 children aged 12-17 years were examined with the purpose to study the links between carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities and non-malignant thyroid disorders in descendants of the Chernobyl accident survivors. Clinical, anthropometrical studies and hormonal assays were applied. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolic abnormalities were revealed in every third case of thyroid disease. It confirms our supposition of such a possibility being due to the fact that radiation impact even in low doses can result in pronounced metabolic disorders lading to entire endocrine disregulation. It is relevant in children of the puberty age

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  11. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  12. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  13. Calcitonin-negative primary neuroendocrine tumor of the thyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonmedullary" in humans is a rare tumor that arises primarily in the thyroid gland and may be mistaken for medullary thyroid carcinoma; it is characterized by the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of neuroendocrine markers and the absence of ...

  14. Hypothyroidism: The Thyroid and You | NIH Medlineplus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Hypothyroidism The Thyroid and You: Coping with a Common ... is made by the pituitary gland. What is hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid ...

  15. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  16. Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes of rats with mammary gland cancer induced by N-methyl nitrosourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, M P; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; Valenzuela, M T; García, M J; Mayas, M D; Arias de Saavedra, J M; Sánchez, R; Pérez, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2005-02-01

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase is an omega-peptidase that hydrolyses N-terminal pyroglutamyl residues from biologically active peptides such as gonadotropin-releasing and thyrotrophin-releasing hormones. We previously described a decrease in both rat and human pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity with breast cancer, suggesting that gonadotropin-releasing hormone may be an important local intracrine, autocrine and/or paracrine hormonal factor in the pathogenesis of breast cancer while playing a role in the tumoral process. However, the other susceptible substrate of pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, may also be modified with breast cancer, supporting an association between breast cancer and thyroid disorders. The present work analyses soluble and membrane-bound pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axes in N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer in rats. Our aim was to determine the possible relationship between gonadotropin-releasing hormone and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone regulation through pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity. We propose that pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity dysregulation at various local and systemic levels may participate in the initiation, promotion and progression of breast cancer induced in rat by N-methyl nitrosourea through the increase in gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Since pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity also acts on thyrotrophin-releasing hormone, the dysregulation of this enzyme's activity could indirectly affect hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis function, and thus potentially represent a link between the diseases of thyroid and breast cancer.

  17. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum

  18. Computed tomography in the evaluation of thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.M.; Newman, G.E.; Korobkin, M.; Workman, J.B.; Moore, A.V.; Coleman, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Traditionally, thyroid imaging has been performed primarily using radionuclide scanning. High-resolution computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18 patients to evaluate the CT appearance of various thyroid abnormalities including diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, Hashimoto thyroiditis, thyroid adenoma, and malignant thyroid tumors. CT images of the thyroid were correlated with radionuclide scanning, surgical findings, and clinical and laboratory results. CT provided a complementary method for evaluation of the thyroid by defining the morphology of the thyroid gland and more precisely defining the anatomic extent of thyroid abnormalities in relation to the normal structures of the neck and mediastinum.

  19. Thyroid cancer treatment : Long-term effects and new developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is increasingly common. This is especially the case for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which has a favorable prognosis. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radioiodine treatment, and life-long administration of relatively high doses of thyroid hormone.

  20. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  1. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  2. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellabarba, Diego

    1983-01-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  3. [Identification and preservation of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina; Bernardes, António; Carvalho, Lina

    2013-01-01

    It is essential to know the thyroid gland morphology and its anatomical relations in the anterior compartment of the neck in order to minimize the rate of thyroid surgery morbidity, especially the lesion of parathyroid glands and laryngeal nerves. The aim of this study was the identification of parathyroid glands in cadaver parts and their histological confirmation. Twenty cadaver parts were used to simulate thyroidectomies. During dissection, the thyroid glands and eventual parathyroid glands were isolated and then submitted to histological study. Twenty cadaver parts (anterior cervical organs) were used for macroscopic dissection during which 48 fragments that corresponded to eventual parathyroid glands were isolated, 35 of which were effectively confirmed through histological observation to be parathyroid glands. The 20 cadaver parts were then divided into three groups according to the number of histologically confirmed parathyroid glands. In the first group, composed of 11 cases, all eventual parathyroid glands were confirmed. In the second group, composed of six cases, only some glands were confirmed. In the third group, composed of three cases, none of the possible glands were confirmed. In seven of the 20 isolated thyroid glands, eight parathyroid glands were identified during histological study: four subcapsular, three extra-capsular, one intra-thyroidal. There was no statistical relation in the dimensions of the parathyroid glands. The knowledge of the anatomy of the central visceral compartment of the neck and its most frequent variations reduces but doesn't eliminate thyroid surgery morbidity, especially parathyroid iatrogenic excision, difficulty which has been demonstrated during the dissection of cadaver parts.

  4. Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Taek; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, So Hun; Hong, Seong Bin; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Chu, Young Chae

    2013-03-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis can be difficult prior to surgical removal of the thyroid, and histopathologic examination of the thyroid is necessary for a definite diagnosis. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported. However, to our knowledge, the association of RT with acute suppurative thyroiditis and micropapillary carcinoma has not been reported. We report a rare case of concurrent RT, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma in a 48-year-old patient.

  5. Impact of alcohol use on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is one of the commonest illicit psychoactive substances consumed globally and is the world′s third largest risk factor for disease and disability. It has been reported to have multiple effects on the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis and the functioning of the thyroid gland. It has been reported to cause direct suppression of thyroid function by cellular toxicity, and indirect suppression by blunting thyrotropin-releasing hormone response. It causes a decrease of peripheral thyroid hormones during chronic use and in withdrawal. Alcohol use may also confer some protective effect against thyroid nodularity, goiter, and thyroid cancer. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant effects of alcohol on the functioning of the thyroid gland and also discusses the effect of medication used in treatment of alcohol dependence on thyroid function.

  6. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  7. Thyrotoxic thyroiditis after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitzer, J.B.; Paolozzi, F.P.; Gottlieb, A.J.; Zamkoff, K.W.; Chung, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation has been associated with a variety of abnormalities. Among these are tardive hypothyroidism and an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer. Although acute thyroiditis has been known to complicate radioactive iodine 131 therapy, it has rarely been associated with external beam irradiation. Thyrotoxic painless thyroiditis developed in two patients after mantle-field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

  8. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes prior to the test. When it is time for the imaging to begin, you will lie down on a moveable examination table with your head tipped backward and neck extended. The gamma camera will then take a series of images, capturing images of the thyroid gland ...

  10. The thyroid and autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexhage, H.A.; Wiersinga, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings give an almost complete picture of what is presently known on the autoimmune aspects of both functional and growth disturbances of the thyroid gland. It comprises 12 reviews on main areas of present research, each followed by shorter communications of work in progress relevant to the topic. (Auth.)

  11. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  12. Gallium-67 uptake by the thyroid associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoberg, R.J.; Blue, P.W.; Kidd, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Although thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 has been described in several thyroid disorders, gallium-67 scanning is not commonly used in the evaluation of thyroid disease. Thyroidal gallium-67 uptake has been reported to occur frequently with subacute thyroiditis, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma, and occasionally with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular thyroid carcinoma. A patient is described with progressive systemic sclerosis who, while being scanned for possible active pulmonary involvement, was found incidentally to have abnormal gallium-67 uptake only in the thyroid gland. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid revealed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs with increased frequency in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, thyroidal uptake of gallium-67 associated with progressive systemic sclerosis has not, to our knowledge, been previously described. Since aggressive thyroid malignancies frequently are imaged by gallium-67 scintigraphy, fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid often is essential in the evaluation of thyroidal gallium-67 uptake

  13. Histological changes of the thyroid gland after /sup 131/I treatment for hyperthyroidism. I. Analysis by the frequency of administration and dosage of /sup 131/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeichi, N; Inoue, S; Niimoto, M; Nagata, N [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology; Yasuda, K

    1976-01-01

    The histological changes of the thyroid tissues due to /sup 131/I treatment were classified by the frequency of administration and dosage of /sup 131/I, and the chronological changes were examined. The histopathological findings including nuclear alteration, tissue infiltration, vascular alteration and regeneration of the follicular epithelium were examined. In the cases which received 2-3 doses, there were many atypical regeneration of the follicular epithelium, and in the cases with long observation duration, Askanazy cells and fibrotic proliferation were observed. These histological changes indicated the possibility of the occurrence of tumor due to the administration of /sup 131/I.

  14. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  15. Scintigraphy and ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yoshio; Nagakura, Hozumi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Fukunari, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Kunihiko; Higashi, Tomomitsu.

    1987-01-01

    We reported the usefulness of scintigraphy and ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases. The scintigraphy were useful information in the determination of functioning adenoma, location of ectopic thyroid glands and appearance of lang and bone metastasis of thyroid carcinoma. As ultrasonography were able to be observation of internal structure of thyroid gland, that maight be used to determined associated nodular lesions in diffuse goiter and differentiation between benign and malignant tumor in nodular goiter. In observation of calcifications of goiter, soft X rays apparatus were usefull tool. US, as initial diagnostic test before scintiscanning, provided useful information and minimized radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Atrophic thyroiditis in long-term Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, L.C.; Norrdin, R.W.; Benjamin, S.A.; Brewster, R.D.; Brooks, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with progressive thyroid atrophy is described in CRHL beagles. Depressed thyroid function was present in many of these dogs, as evidenced by clinical signs of hypothyroidism, elevation of serum cholesterol levels, depressed serum triiodothyronine levels, and alteration of basophils of the antero-medial region and/or unilateral or bilateral obliteration of the thyroid glands by neoplasia. Microscopic changes in the thyroid glands included lymphocytic thyroiditis, thyroid follicular atrophy, adenomatous hyperplasia of follicula cells and C-cells, and follicular cells neoplasia. This disease occurred with no sex predisposition in dogs 2 through 11 years of age. The disease does not appear to be influenced by previous radiation exposure but may be familial. In contrast to thyroid disease in some other beagle colonies, the disease in CRHL beagles more closely resembles atrophic thyroiditis of man rather than human Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  17. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  18. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail.

  19. Congenital thyroid hemiagenesis with multinodular goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhartiya, SK; Verma, A; Basu, S; Shukla, VK

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare form of thyroid dysgenesis characterized by an absence of half of the thyroid gland. Developmental hemi-thyroid anomalies can result from either an abnormal descent or an agenesis of one lobe of the thyroid gland. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman with history of a longstanding gradually progressive thyroid swelling without any complication. An ultrasonographic examination diagnosed the absence of the left thyroid lobe and enlargement of the right lobe, which was confirmed on a computed tomography (CT) angiogram and a radionuclide scan of the neck. A cytological examination showed nodular goiter with cystic degeneration. Right subtotal thyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination confirmed adenomatous goiter with degenerative changes. We report the rarity of the condition and emphasize the role of a comprehensive radiological, cytological, and radionuclide algorithm for an accurate preoperative diagnosis and subsequent management

  20. Water restriction and heat effects on thyroid activity in ad libitium and force-fed cattle exposed to 180C and 320C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Johnson, H.D.

    1976-01-01

    Seven non-lactating Holstein cows were maintained in a climatic laboratory for two weeks at 18 0 C and 50% relative humidity, followed by two weeks at 32 0 C and 50% relative humidity. Water was provided ad libitum in the first week and restricted 50% of the ad libitum level in the second week. Thyroid activity, determined by the 125 I-triiodothyronine uptake with coated charcoal, decreased 10.9% (P 0 C. Water restriction at 32 0 C did not depress thyroid activity because environmental heat had already decreased thyroid activity to a low level. High ambient temperature depressed thyroid activity 14.7% in ad libitum cows (P<0.01) and a further 1.8% in water-restricted cows. Similar effects of water restriction and heat were obtained when the same experiment was repeated on four non-lactating rumen-fistulated cows, in which the refused feed during the water restriction periods was put into the rumen to maintain the feed levels for each temperature exposure. This indicated that forced feeding did not prevent the adverse effect of water restriction or heat on thyroid activity. (author)

  1. ULTRASOUND EVALUATION OF THYROID DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battula

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: 1. To differentiate cystic lesions from solid lesions. 2. The possibility to differentiate the intrinsic thyroid lesions from those arising from adjoining structures. 3. To evaluate the neoplasms and to differentiate benign from malignant lesions by USG characteristics and to correlate with FNAC reports. 4. Role of USG in rapidly growing thyroid lesions: To differentiate haemorrhage into the cystic lesions and rapidly growing malignant tumours. 5. Compare the results of our study with similar studies available in the present literature. MATERIALS & METHODS This study included 75 patients who attended outpatient departments of the Endocrinology, Medical and Surgical Units and also those who were inpatients. RESULTS Broadly pathological conditions of thyroid glands can be divided into nodular and diffuse thyroid diseases. Among Nodular Diseases Majority are benign, only few are malignant. Characteristics of benign lesions are: 1. Well-differentiated margins. 2. Thin complete peripheral sonolucent halo. 3. Coarse peripheral calcifications. Characteristics of malignant nodules are: 1. Ill-defined margins. 2. Thick incomplete peripheral halo. 3. Fine punctuate calcifications. Diffuse Thyroid Diseases 1. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: Painless diffuse enlargement of thyroid gland usually in women with coarse echotexture and no normal gland tissue. There may be discrete hypoechoic nodules within it with cervical lymphadenopathy. 2. Goitres: a Simple diffuse goitre: Symmetrical enlargement of gland without tenderness or bruit or lymphadenopathy, T3, T4 and TSH are within normal limits and no thyroid autoantibodies in the serum. a Diffuse Toxic goitre: Diffuse enlargement of gland with increased vascularity on colour Doppler study. b Multinodular goitre: Multiple hypoechoic nodule within normal thyroid parenchyma. c Colloid goitre: Present as single or multiple swellings in the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION USG is the fast and cost effective

  2. Monitoring intervals for measurement of the radionuclides {sup 125} I and {sup 129I} in thyroid glands; Intervalos de monitoreo, para la medicion en la glandula tiroides de los radionucleidos {sup 125}I y {sup 1} {sup 29}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simanca, Yoan Yera; Bejerano, Gladys M. Lopez, E-mail: yoan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuidad de la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work shows the monitoring interval, which can be implemented in the Laboratorio de Contaminacion Interna del Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, for direct measurement in the thyroid gland of radionuclides {sup 125}I and {sup 129}I . Were used two measuring systems, one employing a scintillating detector and the other detector Phoswich. Both detectors were placed inside a depth camera, 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5m of dimension covered with 15 cm of steel, 3 mm lead, 1.8 mm tin and 1.5 mm of copper. Was calculated for each system, the minimum detectable activity, and based on this, the monitoring interval is determined. Was obtained, for {sup 125}, all tested intervals, 120, 90,60,30 , 14, and 7 days may be implemented with both systems. In the case of the radionuclide {sup 129} I, with the installation of scintillating detector can only be implemented the intervals 120, 90, and 60 days , and for installation with Phoswich, all evaluated.

  3. Determination of absorbed dose in crystalline and thyroid gland with irradiation protocols applied in orthopantomography equipment for dental examination; Determinacion de dosis absorbida en cristalino y glandula tiroides con protocolos de irradiacion aplicados en equipos de ortopantomografia para panoramica dental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz A, A. A.; Ramirez A, L. M. [Instituto Tecnologico Metropolitano, Grupo de Investigacion e Innovacion Biomedica, Medellin, Antioquia (Colombia); Sosa A, M. A.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo H, M. A. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Fisica, Loma del Bosque 103, Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Ionizing radiations are very useful in the medical field for the diagnostic use of different pathologies. Currently there are different technologies for diagnostic imaging using conventional X-ray, computed tomography, mammography, angiography, dental panoramic X-ray, among others. However, it should be noted that exposure to radiation in this type of diagnostic tests has increased considerably in recent years, because radiological examinations are not always carried out according to the actual clinical needs of each patient, increasing the risk to develop cancer. In this paper, the absorbed dose in the lens and thyroid gland was measured with the help of TLD-100 dosimeters located in a PMMA phantom adapted for orthopantomography (dental panoramic X-ray) equipment in 5 hospitals; using the parameters pre-configured for normal adult for irradiation. A Harshaw 3500 equipment was used to read the dosimeters, obtaining a value of 1.324 ± Sd 0.01 mGy for crystalline and 1.044 ± Sd 0.03 mGy values which are intended to be validated under other conditions and protocols. (Author)

  4. Variation of normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) estimates of radiation-induced hypothyroidism in relation to changes in delineation of the thyroid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønjom, Marianne Feen; Brink, Carsten; Laugaard Lorenzen, Ebbe

    2015-01-01

    volume, Dmean and estimated risk of HT. Bland-Altman plots were used for assessment of the systematic (mean) and random [standard deviation (SD)] variability of the three parameters, and a method for displaying the spatial variation in delineation differences was developed. Results. Intra......-observer variability resulted in a mean difference in thyroid volume and Dmean of 0.4 cm(3) (SD ± 1.6) and -0.5 Gy (SD ± 1.0), respectively, and 0.3 cm(3) (SD ± 1.8) and 0.0 Gy (SD ± 1.3) for inter-observer variability. The corresponding mean differences of NTCP values for radiation-induced HT due to intra- and inter...

  5. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  6. Thyroid autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a multifactorial disease in which autoimmunity against thyroid antigens develops against a particular genetic background facilitated by exposure to environmental factors. Immunogenicity of the major thyroid antigens thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin (TG) and

  7. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  8. A rare mutation in the RET-protooncogen associated with mixed medullary-follicular micro-carcinoma of the thyroid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, K.; Huwe, A.; Boldt, H.; Dresel, S. [Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany); Geipel, D. [St.-Hedwig-Krankenhaus, Bereich Endokrine Chirurgie (Germany); Mairinger, T. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, HELIOS-Klinikum Emil von Behring (Germany); Schwabe, M. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Charite Berlin Campus Mitte (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) arises from parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid and accounts for 1% to 10% of all thyroid cancers (1). MTC can be sporadic or hereditary. Hereditary MTC represents 20% to 30% of all MTC with an autosomal dominant pattern of transmission and a high degree of penetrance (>90%). It can be transmitted as a single entity (sporadic), familial MTC (FMTC), or it can arise as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome type 2A or 2B. Both genders are equally affected. (1, 9) The identification of hereditary MTC has been facilitated in recent years by the direct analysis of germline point mutations of the RET(rearranged during transfection)-protooncogene, a 21 exon gene that encodes a plasma membrane-bound tyrosine kinase receptor, localised on chromosome 10q11.2, which is expressed in tissues derived from the neural crest. To date codon mutations in nine different exons were identified (7, 8, 16, 22, 29) causing MEN 2A (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, including rare variants with Hirschsprung's disease and cutaneous lichen amyloidosis), FMTC (MTC as a sole disease phenotype) and MEN 2B (MTC in combination with pheochromocytoma, multiple mucosa neuromas, and marfanoid habitus). The most common mutation, accounting for over 80% of all mutations associated with MEN 2A (or Sipple's) syndrome affects codon 634 in exon 11 of the RET-protooncogene. Other mutations affect codon 630 in exon 11, and codons 609, 611, 618, 620 in exon 10 - they also cause FMTC, although some have a classic MEN 2A syndrome. 5% to 10% of families with FMTC have mutations that affect codons 768, 790, 791 in exon 13: codons 804, 844 in exon 14, and codon 891 in exon 15 (3, 4, 10). The much more aggressive MEN 2B is caused by a single mutation converting a methionine into a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16, and has been identified in approximately 95% of patients with MEN 2B. Other rare mutations associated with MEN 2

  9. Lingual thyroid causing dysphonia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio José Tincani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lingual thyroid gland is a rare clinical entity that is caused by the failure of the thyroid gland to descend to a normal cervical location during embryogenesis. The occurrence of an ectopic thyroid gland located at the base of the tongue may cause problems for the patient, with symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, upper airway obstruction or even hemorrhage at any time from infancy through adulthood. CASE REPORT: We report on a case of lingual thyroid gland in a 41-year-old female patient. The embryology and diagnosis of ectopic thyroid are discussed and its management is outlined. Features of the diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation are described with attention to the clinical findings, laboratory tests, thyroid scan and computed tomography imaging studies employed in the confirmation of diagnosis and planning of appropriate treatment. The history of the condition is reviewed and a treatment strategy is outlined. Surgical excision of the gland is reserved for cases of gland enlargement that result in compromised airways (dysphagia or dysphonia or recurrent hemorrhage.

  10. Salivary gland dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, D.; Webster, G.; Cameron, F.; Ferguson, M.M.; MacFadyen, E.E.; MacFarlane, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is used extensively for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid carcinoma. Iodine is actively taken up by the salivary glands and, following its use, salivary dysfunction may result as a consequence of radiation damage. The literature is reviewed and a case is reported in which a patient presented with a significant increase in caries rate attributed to salivary dysfunction following radioactive iodine therapy for a thyroid carcinoma

  11. Hashimoto's thyroiditis - an independent risk factor for papillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhliarova, Barbora; Hajtman, Andrej

    2017-09-14

    The link between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma has long been a topic of controversy. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis coexistence in histopathologic material of thyroidectomized patients. In a retrospective study, the clinicohistopathologic data of 2117 patients (1738 females/379 males), who underwent total or partial thyroidectomy for thyroid gland disorder at a single institution from the 1st of January 2005 to the 31st of December 2014 were analyzed. Thyroid carcinoma was detected in 318 cases (15%) and microcarcinoma (thyroid cancer ≤10mm in diameter) was found in permanent sections in 169 cases (8%). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 318 (15%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly more often associated with thyroid carcinoma and microcarcinoma compare to benign condition (p=0.048, p=0.00014, respectively). Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma/thyroid microcarcinoma did not affect tumor size (p=0.251, p=0.098, respectively), or tumor multifocality (p=0.831, p=0.957, respectively). Bilateral thyroid microcarcinoma was significantly more often detected when Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also diagnosed (p=0.041), but presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis did not affect bilateral occurrence of thyroid carcinoma (p=0.731). Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with significantly increased risk of developing thyroid carcinoma, especially thyroid microcarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  13. A Case of Severe and Recurrent Painless Thyroiditis Requiring Thyroidectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Takei, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshihiko; Ito, Tokiko; Ito, Ken-ichi; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Yumita, Wataru; Suzuki, Satoru; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To report a case of severe and recurrent painless thyroiditis requiring thyroidectomy. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 47-year-old man who presented with severe thyrotoxicosis was found to have extremely low radioactive iodine uptake, negative TSH receptor antibodies, and normal C-reactive protein; these findings suggested a diagnosis of painless thyroiditis. Due to the severity and recurrence of thyrotoxicosis, surgical resection of the thyroid gland was performed to prevent a thyrotoxic storm. Histological examination revealed typical lymphoid infiltration of the thyroid gland. Conclusion This case illustrates that a patient with painless thyroiditis was successfully treated with surgery. PMID:23182952

  14. The chronic autoimmune thyroiditis quality of life selenium trial (CATALYST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kristian Hillert; Watt, Torquil; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis have impaired health-related quality of life. The thyroid gland has a high selenium concentration, and specific selenoprotein enzyme families are crucial to immune function, and catalyze thyroid hormone metabolism and redox processes in thyroid cells......-enriched yeast or matching placebo tablets daily for 12 months. The experimental supplement will be SelenoPrecise(R). The primary outcome is thyroid-related quality of life assessed by the Thyroid Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include serum thyroid peroxidase antibody...

  15. Investigative procedures in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the procedures is to establish the likelihood of malignancy in the thyroid gland prior to surgery and detect metastases after surgery. Thyroid imaging is discussed in the context of (a) its role in the diagnosis of the primary disease (b) in the investigation of post-operative residual disease and (c) its role in the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy

  16. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy of autonomous (toxic) thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieter Erich Apitzsch, M. D.; Staedtische Paracelsusklinik

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, 9-10% of hyperfunctioning thyroid glands have toxic, autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN). Since 1994, in the Municipal hospital of Marl, Germany, 186 patients have performed percutaneous ethanol ablation of toxic thyroid nodules with very good or at least sufficient results. In this article, the ablation technique is described in detail and the costs of therapy of ATN are given.(authors)

  17. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes

    2000-01-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  18. Aspects of peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Otten (Marten Henk)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe research into thyroid function has a long history. The recognition of goiter as pathology of the thyroid gland dates back to the ancient world of Rome and Greece and possibly even to the early history of chinese medicine. In an excellent review of the historical aspects of the

  19. Nuclear medicine and thyroid disease - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Part 1 of this article discussed the anatomy, physiology and basic pathology of the thyroid gland. Techniques of thyroid scanning and a few clinical examples are shown part II Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society Of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Incidence rate of symptomatic painless thyroiditis presenting with thyrotoxicosis in Denmark as evaluated by consecutive thyroid scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Frederik; Bergmann, Natasha; Zerahn, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Painless thyroiditis (PT) is a transient kind of thyrotoxicosis, with lack of uptake on a thyroid scintigraphy in a non-tender thyroid gland, elevated anti-TPO antibodies, no fever, no history of increased iodine intake, and a normal sedimentation rate. The prevalence of PT varies hugely...