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Sample records for cattle raised outdoors

  1. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  2. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  3. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

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    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  4. Response of Archaeal and Bacterial Soil Communities to Changes Associated with Outdoor Cattle Overwintering.

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    Alica Chroňáková

    Full Text Available Archaea and bacteria are important drivers for nutrient transformations in soils and catalyse the production and consumption of important greenhouse gases. In this study, we investigate changes in archaeal and bacterial communities of four Czech grassland soils affected by outdoor cattle husbandry. Two show short-term (3 years; STI and long-term impact (17 years; LTI, one is regenerating from cattle impact (REG and a control is unaffected by cattle (CON. Cattle manure (CMN, the source of allochthonous microbes, was collected from the same area. We used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes to assess the composition of archaeal and bacterial communities in each soil type and CMN. Both short- and long- term cattle impact negatively altered archaeal and bacterial diversity, leading to increase of homogenization of microbial communities in overwintering soils over time. Moreover, strong shifts in the prokaryotic communities were observed in response to cattle overwintering, with the greatest impact on archaea. Oligotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms (e.g. Thaumarchaeota, Acidobacteria, and α-Proteobacteria dominated in CON and expressed strong negative response to increased pH, total C and N. Whereas copiotrophic and alkalophilic microbes (e.g. methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were common in LTI showing opposite trends. Crenarchaeota were also found in LTI, though their trophic interactions remain cryptic. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanomicrobiaceae indicated the introduction and establishment of faecal microbes into the impacted soils, while Chloroflexi and Methanosarcinaceae suggested increased abundance of soil-borne microbes under altered environmental conditions. The observed changes in prokaryotic community composition may have driven corresponding changes in soil functioning.

  5. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, S Andrea; Concepción, Juan Luis; Nava, Mayerly; Molinari, Jesús

    2013-11-01

    In Venezuela, horses are indispensable for extensive cattle raising, and extensive cattle raising prevails in all regions. This determines the numerical relationship between horses and cattle (r = 0.93) to be relatively constant nationwide. At regional level, the average extension of cattle ranches varies greatly. However, in relation to the area covered by pastures, the numbers of horses (r = 0.95) and cattle (r = 0.93) are relatively uniform nationwide. Water buffalo occupy small fractions of the territory; therefore, their numbers are related to the area of pastures less strongly (r = 0.56). There is no information on the numerical relationship between the numbers of horses and water buffalo. In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches. So far, such losses have not been assessed. For this region, in 2008, it can be calculated that: (1) with no treatment, losses owing to horse mortality caused by this hemoparasitosis would have amounted to US$7,486,000; (2) the diagnosis and treatment of affected horses would have required an investment of US$805,000; and (3) in terms of horses saved, this investment would have resulted in benefit of US$6,232,000. Therefore, for every monetary unit invested, there would be a benefit 7.75 times greater, this ratio being applicable to any year and all regions of the country. It follows that the profitability of investing in the diagnosis and treatment of equine trypanosomiasis is guaranteed.

  6. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  7. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO2eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO2eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO2eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO2eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle raising

  8. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

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    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  9. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

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    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  10. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Leonardo D; Mariante Arthur S; Albuquerque Maria do Socorro M; Paiva Samuel R.; Egito Andréa A; Castro Silvia R; Grattapaglia Dario

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists...

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTRIBUTES OF BEEF CATTLE RAISED USING ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY AND PRICES RECEIVED AT THE PACKERS: A HEDONIC PRICE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Perkins, Tommy; Paschal, Joe C.

    2003-01-01

    Sluggish growth in per capita consumption and a downward pressure on beef price at the farm level has required producers to raise cattle that precisely target the meat attributes desired by consumers. Ultrasound technology can help farmers to produce a carcass with an optimal mix of marbling and muscling, and external fat. The results of this study show a high level of accuracy of ultrasound technology in predicting carcass attributes. An estimated hedonic regression model shows that the carc...

  12. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

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    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  13. Preliminary study on MC1R polymorphism in some cattle breeds raised in Italy

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    C. Renieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........

  14. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: → A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. → Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. → In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. → In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  15. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  16. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

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    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  17. Bracken fern poisoning to cattle raised in Parana State, Brazil/ A intoxicação por samambaia em bovinos criados no Estado do Paraná

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    Wilmar Sachetin Marçal

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The author presents a revision about bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn, in cattle, raised in the state of the Paraná. This toxic plant represents huge damages to the creators in the state and is being disseminated quickly, becoming the toxic plant of negative consequences to the health of the cattle. The author also describe climatic and environmental conditions about proliferation of Bracken fern in the Parana state, Brazil.O autor apresenta uma revisão sobre a intoxicação por samambaia (Pteridium aquilinum, L. Kuhn, em bovinos, criados no estado do Paraná. Esta planta representa enormes prejuízos aos criadores no estado e está se disseminando rapidamente, tornando-se a planta tóxica de maiores conseqüências negativas à saúde dos bovinos, havendo condições ambientais e climáticas favorecedoras de sua proliferação nas pastagens paranaenses.

  18. A conceptual lignocellulosic 'feed+fuel' biorefinery and its application to the linked biofuel and cattle raising industries in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A., E-mail: jmathews@luiss.it [Competitive Dynamics and Global Strategy, LUISS Guido Carli University, Viale Romania 32, 00197 Roma (Italy); Tan Hao, E-mail: H.Tan@uws.edu.au [School of Management and CInIS Research Group, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta, Sydney, NSW 2150 (Australia); Moore, Michael J.B., E-mail: MichaelMoore@ShelstonIP.com [Level 21, 60 Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW 2000 (Australia); Bell, Geoff, E-mail: Geoff.Bell@microbiogen.com [Microbiogen Pty Ltd. Unit E2, Lane Cove Business Park, 16 Mars Road, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    It has been argued by some that the substitution of biofuels for gasoline could increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, rather than reduce them. The increase is attributed to the indirect land use change effects of planting new grain and corn crops around the world to replace those progressively being devoted to ethanol production. In this paper, indirect effects are minimised by allowing land to be used for both food and fuel, rather than for one or the other. We present a sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery, which produces bioethanol and yeast biomass, a source of single-cell protein (SCP), that can be used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. The yeast SCP can partially substitute for grass in the feed of cattle grazing on pasture and thereby potentially release land for increased sugarcane production, with minimal land use change effects. Applying the concept conservatively to the Brazilian ethanol and livestock industry our model demonstrates that it would be technically feasible to raise ethanol production threefold from the current level of 27 GL to over 92 GL. The extra ethanol would meet biofuel market mandates in the US without bringing any extra land into agricultural or pastoral use. The analysis demonstrates a viable way to increase biofuel and food production by linking two value chains as called for by industrial ecology studies. - Highlights: > A proposed sugarcane 'feed+fuel' biorefinery producing bioethanol and yeast. > Yeast used as a high-protein animal feed supplement. > In cattle grazing, yeast substitutes for grass to release land for biomass production. > In Brazil our model demonstrates ethanol production raised threefold.

  19. Preliminary Discussion about Environmental Pollution and Treatment in Large Scale Cattle Raising%规模养牛环境污染与治理初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    豆晓峰; 马建荣; 马桂平; 王耀平; 张晓琴; 马宝华; 黎文斌; 樊天喜; 马智录

    2014-01-01

    采取现场调查和排污系数推算相结合的方法。研究区域内规模养牛粪便和污物的区域分布、污染类型、产生量、排放量及其综合利用情况。表明:区域内牛粪尿年排放总量100.85×104 t,其中:规模养牛粪尿年排放总量29.47×104 t,养牛小区、场和大户各占21.41%、24.49%和54.10%。COD 年排放668.07×104 kg,BOD 年排放432.72×104 kg, NH 3-N 年排放总量为67.79×104 kg,N 年排放量在为65.01×104 kg,P 年排放量为27.50×104 kg。粪便负荷量7.83 t/hm2,占总负荷量21.53 t/hm2的36.37%。年流失量2.38×104 t,占8.08%。进行臭源监测和臭气评价,牛舍内 H 2 S 0.15 mg/m3,NH 32.77 mg/m3。综合利用率91.92%。%To study a certain area raising cattle in a large scale from some aspects,such as faeces,re-gional distribution of dirt,the pollution type,output,emissions and comprehensive utilization.the adopt the method of field investigations combining with calculation of pollution discharging coefficient was car-ried out.The results showed that the total annual emissions of excreta was 100.85×10 4 t in intra-area, and the total annual emissions of excreta was 29.47 ×10 4 t in the area which raise cattle in a large scale. The cattle raised village,field and large field each accounted for 21.41%,24.49% and 24.49%,respec-tively.Moreover,the annual emissions of COD was 668.07×104kg,and the annual emissions of BOD was 432.72×10 4 kg.The annual emissions of NH3 was 67.79×10 4 kg,and the annual emissions of N was 65. 01×10 4 kg.The annual emissions of P was 27.50×10 4 kg.The payload of faeces was 7.83 t/hm2 ,and it took 36.37% of the total load which was 21.53 t/hm2 .The loss amount of every year was 2.38×10 4 ,tak-ing 8.08% of the total amount.There was H 2 S (0.15 mg/m3 )and NH 3 (2.77 mg/m3 )in cattle stall;the rate of multipurpose utilization was 91.92%.

  20. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  1. 新疆地区奶牛养殖现状调查报告%Investigation Report on Dairy Cattle Raising Status in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭同军; 王加启; 桑断疾; 张养东; 院东; 赵洁

    2012-01-01

    本研究对新疆地区奶牛养殖现状进行了调研。通过对新疆三大奶业产业带上的奶牛养殖情况和部分生鲜奶收购站的抽样调查,探讨该地区奶牛饲养中存在的问题,提出了新疆奶牛养殖发展的建议,为指导生产实践提供了一定的理论依据。%In order to fully understand the situation of dairy cattle raising in Xinjiang,we organized this sampling survey for dairy farm and some raw milk collection stations in three traditional dairy industry belts.We discussed the issues on dairy farming in Xinjiang,and came to advance of dairy farming proposal.It is believed that this study will provide a theoretical basis on guiding the practical millk production in Xinjiang.

  2. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (P<0.05). No significant variation was detected in cholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (P<0.05), however, interspecific similarities were found in fatty acid ratios. For health-related indices, only atherogenic index (AI) showed lower values in favor of Buffalo meat (P<0.05) at both harvesting ages. Although, meat derived from both bovid groups was leaner and showed lower cholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. PMID:25879797

  3. Alguns indicadores/índices para a sustentabilidade da exploração bovina Some indicators for the sustainability of cattle raising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alexandra Vilela Marta Rio Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A actividade de exploração de gado bovino de raça autóctone tem sido encarada por muitos como o futuro sustentável da pecuária. Este trabalho pretende avaliar alguns aspectos que influenciam a sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção adoptados pelas explorações agro-pecuárias, tomando como referência as que adoptam gado bovino de raça autóctone Maronesa, no triplo ponto de vista económico, social e ambiental. A recolha de informação foi realizada através de entrevistas aos proprietários/gestores das explorações agrárias, complementada com a observação directa das explorações e recolha de elementos fornecidos pelos proprietários. Através dos indicadores e índices seleccionados verificou-se que, no aspecto económico, são alcançados, para o Grupo das explorações de Raça Maronesa, alguns rendimentos importantes, mas abaixo das explorações das Outras Raças. Nos aspectos ambientais, o grupo da raça Maronesa assume particular destaque, demonstrando um papel importante na protecção do ambiente e preservação dos recursos naturais. Relativamente à sustentabilidade social não se salientam diferenças significativas entre os grupos de explorações em análise.The production activity of bovine cattle of local breed is being faced for many as the sustainable future of cattle breeding. This work intends to evaluate some aspects that can influence the sustainability of the production systems adopted by the farms, taking the local breed of cattle “Maronês” as reference, under three points of view economic, social and environmental. The collection of information was carried through interviews with the farms proprietors/ managers, complemented with direct observation of the farms and collection of other elements supplied by the farmers. Through the selectioned group of indicators and indices it was verified that, in the economic aspect, for the Group of “Maronês” breed farms, are reached some important

  4. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  5. Gerenciamento zootécnico na bovinocultura leiteira em regime de economia familiar. = Animal husbandry management of dairy cattle raised on a family-based economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Bett

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o gerenciamento da bovinocultura leiteira nas propriedades de economia familiar e traçar estratégias gerenciais para a produção. Neste trabalho foram estudadas três propriedades na região noroeste do Estado do Paraná, classifi cadas em alta, média e baixa tecnifi cação. Foram colhidos dados de manejo geral, nutricional e índices reprodutivos. Na de alta tecnifi cação o rebanho recebia ração total misturada, com silagem de milho e ração concentrada produzida na fazenda. Após a ordenha eram liberadas para os piquetes formados com grama estrela (Cynodon nlenfuensis. O intervalo entre partos médio do rebanho era de 14,65 meses. Recomendou-se a seleção de animais mais prolíferos. Na propriedade de média tecnifi cação, a ração foi formulada por um representante comercial, era misturada no chão com auxílio de uma enxada e continha falhas na formulação, pois não fechava em 100%. A exigência de energia líquida para lactação não era suprida, além deoutros défi cits, refletindo nos índices reprodutivos dos animais. Recomendou-se o fornecimento de dieta cujas exigências eram atendidas. Na propriedade com baixa tecnificação, a ordenha era realiza manualmente uma vez ao dia. A dieta fornecida possuía déficit de Ellac, NDT, PB, frações da proteína e de extrato etéreo. Nesta propriedade recomendou-se a mudança da dieta, plantio de novas forrageiras e a efetiva manutenção das anotações zootécnicas.Concluímos neste estudo que o défi cit energético leva ao retardamento da volta ao ciclo no pós-parto das vacas e, conseqüentemente, piora dos índices reprodutivos do rebanho. = The objective of this study was to evaluate the management of dairy cattle on family based economy and to defi ne strategies for production. Three proprieties from the Northeast of the region of the State of Paraná, Brazil, which were classifi ed as elevated, average, and low technology, were

  6. Outdoors classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Markowska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Why should students be trapped within the four walls of the classroom when there are a lot of ideas to have lessons led in the different way? I am not a fan of having lessons at school. For many students it is also boring to stay only at school, too. So I decided to organize workshops and trips to Universities or outdoors. I created KMO ( Discoverer's Club for Teenagers) at my school where students gave me some ideas and we started to make them real. I teach at school where students don't like science. I try hard to change their point of view about it. That's why I started to take parts in different competitions with my students. Last year we measured noise everywhere by the use of applications on a tablet to convince them that noise is very harmful for our body and us. We examined that the most harmful noises were at school's breaks, near the motorways and in the households. We also proved that acoustic screens, which were near the motorways, didn't protect us from noise. We measured that 30 meters from the screens the noise is the same as the motorway. We won the main prize for these measurements. We also got awards for calculating the costs of a car supplied by powered by a solar panel. We measured everything by computer. This year we decided to write an essay about trees and weather. We went to the forest and found the cut trees because we wanted to read the age of tree from the stump. I hadn't known earlier that we could read the weather from the tree's grain. We examined a lot of trees and we can tell that trees are good carriers of information about weather and natural disasters. I started studies safety education and I have a lot of ideas how to get my students interested in this subject that is similar to P.E., physics and chemistry, too. I hope that I will use my abilities from European Space Education Resource Office and GIFT workshop. I plan to use satellite and space to teach my students how they can check information about terrorism, floods or other

  7. Atributos físicos do solo em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob plantio direto Soil physical attributes in integrated cattle raising-crop production system under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastrângello Enívar Lanzanova

    2007-10-01

    üência de pastejo (P28 ou à ausência de pastejo (SP, observaram-se as maiores taxas de infiltração de água no solo.Soil compaction is one of the most important reasons for decrease in crop yield. The impact of animal trampling on integrated beef cattle raising-crop production systems were studied to evaluate the changes in soil physical properties (bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration and soil water infiltration. The field experiment was carried out in Jari, in the mid- plateau region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three management systems of winter pastures (black oat; Avena strigosa Schreber + ryegrass; Lolium multiflorum Lam. were studied under different grazing frequencies: (1 No grazing (NG, (2 grazing every 28 days (G28 and (3 grazing every fourteen days (G14. The summer crops soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. or corn (Zea mays L., as antecedent crop in rotation to the winter pastures, were also studied to measure the increasing or decreasing effects on compaction by animal trampling. The greatest effects of animal trampling were concentrated in the top soil layer (0 to 0.05 m, but under the highest grazing frequency (G14 macroporosity was reduced down to the 0.10-0.15 m layer. The soil resistance to penetration had peaks of 2.61 and 2.49 MPa in the G28 and G14 treatments, respectively, in the 0.05-0.08 layer. In the ungrazed areas the values remained lower, around 1.66 MPa. Soil water infiltration was significantly affected by animal trampling and by the previous summer crop. In the case of corn area, the soil was less sensitive to cattle trampling, unlike in the areas following soybean, where the highest grazing frequency (G14 reduced the water infiltration rates. Soybean induced higher values of macroporosity in the evaluated soil layers; when related with lower beef cattle density or ungrazed pastures, the rates of water infiltration and accumulated infiltration were higher.

  8. PREVALÊNCIA DE DOENÇAS INFECCIOSAS EM REBANHO DE SUÍNOS CRIADOS AO AR LIVRE NA REGIÃO SUDOESTE DO PARANÁ, BRASIL PREVALENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN A PIG BREEDING HERD RAISED OUTDOORS IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN REGION OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência de doenças infecciosas em rebanho de suínos criados ao ar livre na região sudoeste do Paraná, no período de outubro de 1996 a junho de 1999. Foram examinados um total de 969 animais. Todas as ocorrências de enfermidades observadas nos animais foram registradas. Os animais mortos no período, além de um leitão por lote, sacrificado aos 28 dias pós-desmame, foram necropsiados. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas para realização de exames sorológicos para Aujeszky, parvovirose, leptospirose e brucelose. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes dos leitões com diarréia para realização de exames bacteriológicos. A principal causa de mortalidade em leitões lactentes criados ao ar livre foi o esmagamento. A prevalência de doenças infecciosas não foi elevada. A ocorrência mais freqüente foi diarréia em leitões lactentes. O índice de pneumonia no rebanho de suínos criados ao ar livre foi baixo. Não houve ocorrência de doenças infecciosas da reprodução.The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of infectious diseases in an outdoor pig herd in the South-western region of Paraná, Brazil, from October 1996 to June 1999. A total of 969 animals were examined. All infections observed were registered. All animals found dead within the period of study and one piglet of each litter sacrified on the 28th post weaning day were autopsied. Blood samples were collected for Aujeszky, parvovirus, leptospirosis and brucellosis serological tests. Faecal samples from piglets with diarrhoea were taken for bacteriological tests. Crushing was the main cause of outdoor suckling piglets mortality. The prevalence of infectious diseases was not high. The most frequent occurrence in suckling piglets was diarrhoea. The pneumonia index in the herd raised outdoors was low. There was no occurrence of reproductive infectious diseases.

  9. Outdoor Education Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince George's County Board of Education, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    Developed primarily as a source of information for teachers planning outdoor education experiences, the material in this resource book can be used by any teacher in environmental studies. Subjects and activities most often taught as part of the outdoor education program are outlined both as resource (basic information) and teaching units. The…

  10. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    knowledge about the similarities and differences in outdoor recreation pattern of ethnic Danish and ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation pattern which can be used in policy making, as well as planning and management of green spaces and other natural areas, to provide the best possibilities for outdoor...... in Denmark. The third aim is to investigate whether there is a match or a mismatch between the official statistic definitions of ethnic minority background (based on citizenship and place of birth), and the subjective perception of adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds own ascription...

  11. Outdoor fitness routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  12. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background...... in Denmark. The third aim is to investigate whether there is a match or a mismatch between the official statistic definitions of ethnic minority background (based on citizenship and place of birth), and the subjective perception of adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds own ascription...... of their ethnicity. The implications from the review as well as the empirical study have been used to propose a theoretical framework for future research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation. The thesis consists of four papers: The first paper reviews the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation...

  13. Outdoor adventure education in schools: curriculum or pedagogy? Considerations for teacher preparation and program implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bowdridge, Michael Roy

    2010-01-01

    Although outdoor education has a rich history of providing key transformative moments and personal growth for students, its incorporation into public school education has been weak at best. With such an established role of providing effective learning environments, this naturally raises the question: What has prevented the greater inclusion of outdoor education in our public school system? This research addresses this question by demonstrating that the role of outdoor education in public scho...

  14. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  15. Outdoor Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Ray H.

    In Dallas in 1970, high school outdoor education began as a cocurricular woods and waters boys' club sponsored by a community sportsman. Within one year, it grew into a fully accredited, coeducational, academic course with a curriculum devoted to the study of wildlife in Texas, ecology, conservation, hunting, firearm safety, fishing, boating and…

  16. EXPANSION OF THE AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER: AN INTENSIFICATION OF CATTLE RAISING IN THE GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL EXPANSÃO DA FRONTEIRA AGRÍCOLA: A INTENSIFICAÇÃO DA PECUÁRIA BOVINA NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Mysmar Tavares Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that may explain the development of cattle raising in Central Brazil, starting from middles of the decade of 1970, concomitant with the expansion of agricultural frontiers. Through an innovative theoretical model, it is possible to identify the fundamental variables of that process: location, topography and fertility. Data analyses allowed verifying that the ";location"; variable best explains the development of cattle raising in Goiás State.

    KEY-WORDS: Agricultural frontier; agricultural modernization; technological change.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar fatores que possam explicar a espacialização da atividade pecuária na região central do Brasil, a partir de meados da década de 1970, com a expansão da fronteira agrícola. Para tanto, é estudado o caso do Estado de Goiás. Por meio de um inovador modelo baseado na teoria da renda fundiária, é possível identificar as variáveis fundamentais desse processo: localização, topografia e fertilidade. A análise dos dados permitiu constatar que a variável "localização" é a que melhor explica a espacialização da agropecuária nesse Estado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Fronteira agrícola; modernização da agropecuária; mudança tecnológica.

  17. Raising and Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    An account of the phenomena that transformational syntax handled by means of "raising" is formulated in the context of cognitive grammar. Raising is analyzed as a special case of the metonymy that relational expressions exhibit in regard to their choice of overtly coded arguments. The transparency of these constructions is explained. (83…

  18. Demanda de potência de uma semeadora com dois tipos de sulcadores em áreas compactadas pelo pisoteio de animais no sistema integração lavoura-pecuária Soil compaction and power of one planter with two types of sowers in the system integration cattle-raising agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruschka R. M. Andreolla

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a potência requerida na barra de tração do trator por uma semeadora com dois tipos de elementos sulcadores, na semeadura da soja, em áreas compactadas pelo pisoteio de animais em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária. Foi utilizado o delineamento em parcela subdividida inteiramente casualizado, sendo os tratamentos principais compostos de solo úmido com pastejo, solo seco com pastejo e solo sem pastejo, e nos secundários foram utilizados sulcadores de haste ou discos duplos. Foram avaliadas a densidade e a resistência do solo à penetração, a força de tração exercida pela semeadora, a velocidade e a potência requerida na barra de tração do trator. As alterações no solo causadas pelo pisoteio do gado não foram suficientes para interferir na demanda de potência. Entre os elementos, as semeadoras com sulcadores de disco exerceram menor força de tração, e a velocidade de deslocamento do conjunto foi maior.The aim of this work was to evaluate the power required in the drawbar of a seeder with two types of soil opening seed placement in soybean sowing, in areas compacted by the trample of animals in the system of integration cattle-raising agriculture. The experiments was performed in a complete randomized split-plot design, being the mean treatments moisture soil with pasture; dry soil with pasture and soil without pasture, and the secondary treatments hoe opener and staggered doubles-discs opener. The bulk density, cone index, drawbar, speed and power in the drawbar and engine were evaluated. The alterations in the physical properties of the soil, caused by the trampling of the cattle they were not enough to interfere in the power demand. Among the mechanisms, the planters with staggered doubles-discs opener exercised smaller traction force and larger speed.

  19. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  20. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    This is part two of an article on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreation-related outdoor education research published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This part covers resources for outdoor recreation-related outdoor education, and impacts of and participation in outdoor recreation-related outdoor education. It concludes ...

  1. Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Contact Us Glossary Lightning Safety and Outdoor Sports Activities I t’s a common situation — a thunderstorm ... associated with outdoor recreational activities. Officials responsible for sports outdoor activities need to understand thunderstorms and lightning ...

  2. Technology Works in the Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zita, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Technology is all around us and no matter how hard educators promote the value of outdoor and experiential education (OEE) to adults and children alike, they are pulled away by a different reality--one might say, a virtual reality. Even when one is engaged in the outdoors either through a night hike or a stream study, technology is lingering…

  3. Outdoor schools: Limits and dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Smetáčková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor school is a stable element of Czech educational system. However,many changes have occurred during the last twenty years in the purposes of outdoorschools and in their organization. The article presents various school statistics andresults of research which included questionnaire survey in elementary schools in Pragueand a case study of two classes. The study found that the outdoor school programmesare getting shorter, budgets for outdoor schools are reduced, and prices of outdoorschool programmes for parents are increasing. Because of high prices, almost 20 % ofpupils cannot attend outdoor schools. Nevertheless, according to teachers, pupils andparents, the main purpose of outdoor school programmes is to create a better socialclimate in peer groups. Because of high rates of absence, this goal is partly invalid.Another purpose should be that teachers and children get to know each other better.This goal is invalid as well because many schools hire commercial agencies which limitsthe time that pupils and teachers spend together.

  4. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  5. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the th

  6. Raising Children Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teen pregnancy Parent(s) living with HIV/AIDS Domestic violence in the home Military deployment of parent(s) Grandmothers caring for or raising grandchildren suffer more stress and depression than grandmothers who aren't caregivers. These are older women who may have health needs of their own. ...

  7. Dairy Cattle Development: Environmental Consequences and Pollution Control Options in Hanoi Province, North Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Quoc Chinh

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses several pollution control options available to cattle farmers in North Vietnam. Cattle numbers in Vietnam -and with it cattle manure - are increasing as demand for milk rises. This is causing problems for the environment and for people's health. The study focused on the Gia Lam district in suburban Hanoi, where cattle raising is becoming a key economic activity. Three communes were studied: Phu Dong, Trung Mau, and Duong Ha. Three types of pollution control technologies we...

  8. Controlling egg dioxin levels from laying hens with outdoor run

    OpenAIRE

    Kijlstra, Prof. Dr. Aize; Hoogenboom, Dr. Ron; Traag, Dr. Wim

    2008-01-01

    After the first news items concerning raised dioxin levels in eggs from hens with outdoor access were published in the summer of 2001, Wageningen UR carried out intensive research activities to understand the problem and to find a way to manage the problem. In 2004 the first Wageningen UR report on this issue was published. It described the possible factors that were associated with high egg dioxin levels in organic poultry farms. The most striking feature was the number of laying hens on ...

  9. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  10. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  11. Outdoor surviving experiment with three green house enchytraeid species (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boros, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Some enchytraeid species of tropical, subtropical or Mediterranean origin can appear in artificial environments,e.g. green houses due to the worldwide commercial network. Since the used soil from green houses is often disposed outdoors, aquestion raised that these exotic enchytraeid species could survive under continental climate conditions. In this experiment two ofthe resettled green house species survived outdoors the winter frost and the arid summer season in Hungary.

  12. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  13. CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of whether you’re a fan of the "beautiful game", you’ve probably heard that the CFC Outdoor Tournament 2011 is the sporting event of the year for the CERN Football Club. This unmissable social, cultural and sporting event will be a chance for CERNois to mingle with external visitors. In the 2011 edition of this legendary tournament, which is over 45 years old, the principle of “fair play” is once again on display. Ten teams – 8 from CERN – are competing for the CFC title. The tournament concludes with a final on 7 July final. Along with a thrilling match, there will also be a host of festivities for the final, including an exhibition game, the final awards ceremony, surprise gifts, a barbeque, musical performances, and more! Make sure to highlight 7 July (after 18.00) on your agenda, and take advantage of what will surely be an unforgettable day! The final tournament matches have been in progress since April and are ...

  14. Visual Rhetoric in Outdoor Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Seliger, Marja

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a research, the aim of which is to find out how graphic expressions and visual language can be used for persuasion. The research material consists of outdoor advertisements photographed in their actual exhibition places in a city environment. Outdoor advertising media, which are used to communicate visual messages from a sender to several addressees, participate in building the visual city culture and open manifold solutions in design. The visual language used in the resear...

  15. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  16. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  17. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  18. Universal Design and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Helene Arbouet

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in the natural environment provides authentic and concrete opportunities for children to enhance development in all domains (Bailie, 2010). As children play and explore in nature they build gross motor development moving through the outdoors. Learning outside and in nature not only allows for learning across subject areas and…

  19. Outdoor Learning and Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Margaret; Dawson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A shared conference presentation describes two ways of bringing education for sustainable development into education. The first part concentrated on putting science into outdoor learning backed up by a series of mind-mapping activities. The second was about linking schools with their surrounding communities to develop ways of working together. An…

  20. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  1. Multilayer Controller for Outdoor Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reske-Nielsen, Anders; Mejnertsen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Nils Axel;

    2006-01-01

    A full software and hardware solution has been designed, implemented and tested for control of a small agricultural automatic tractor. The objective was to realise a user-friendly, multi-layer controller architecture for an outdoor platform. The collaborative research work was done as a part of a...

  2. Outdoor Leadership Skills: A Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shooter, Wynn; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Successful hiring, training, and pairing or grouping of staff requires administrators to consider the relationship between their programs' goals and the specific outdoor leadership skills of individual leaders. Authors have divided outdoor leadership skills into a three-category structure, and models of outdoor leadership have focused on skills…

  3. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  4. ECONOMICS OF HEIFER RAISING OPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Christopher A.; Harsh, Stephen B.

    2001-01-01

    As dairy farms grow and specialize in milking cows, one enterprise that may be removed from the dairy farm to allow for milk cow herd expansion is heifer raising. Custom heifer raising is increasingly common across the country and purchasing heifers may be preferred to raising heifers. However, these alternatives are not suitable for all dairy farmers. In this article, we examine heifer enterprise costs relative to using a custom raiser or purchasing heifers. We identify factors that should b...

  5. Cattle Accumulation and Land Use Intensification by Households in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Caviglia-Harris, Jill L

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries across the globe the impact of livestock on deforestation levels has been profound. This paper explores the role of the cattle industry in household decision making for small landholders in the Brazilian Amazon. Important inquiries raised in the literature are addressed, including the determinants of the co-evolution of deforestation and cattle herds, the possibility of production specialization, and the role of cattle in household livelihoods. Panel data suggest that ...

  6. Whole-genome resequencing of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and insight into regions of homozygosity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Sung-Yeoun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jiwoong; Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Seunghwan; Jang, Gul-Won; Kim, Bumsoo; Choy, Yun Ho; Liao, Xiaoping; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ahn, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Hanwoo (Korean cattle), which originated from natural crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle, migrated to the Korean peninsula through North China. Hanwoo were raised as draft animals until the 1970s without the introduction of foreign germplasm. Since 1979, Hanwoo has been bred as beef cattle. Genetic variation was analyzed by whole-genome deep resequencing of a Hanwoo bull. The Hanwoo genome was compared to that of two other breeds, Black Angus and Holstein, and genes with...

  7. Reducing indoor residential exposures to outdoor pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2003-07-01

    The basic strategy for providing indoor air quality in residences is to dilute indoor sources with outdoor air. This strategy assumes that the outdoor air does not have pollutants at harmful levels or that the outdoor air is, at least, less polluted than the indoor air. When this is not the case, different strategies need to be employed to ensure adequate air quality in the indoor environment. These strategies include ventilation systems, filtration and other measures. These strategies can be used for several types of outdoor pollution, including smog, particulates and toxic air pollutants. This report reviews the impacts that typical outdoor air pollutants can have on the indoor environment and provides design and operational guidance for mitigating them. Poor quality air cannot be used for diluting indoor contaminants, but more generally it can become an indoor contaminant itself. This paper discusses strategies that use the building as protection against potentially hazardous outdoor pollutants, including widespread pollutants, accidental events, and potential attacks.

  8. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  9. Outdoor recreation-related outdoor education: scope of the research (1995-2010) I

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Philippa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the scope of the New Zealand outdoor recreationrelated outdoor education research literature published from January 1995 to June 2010. It draws on the literature covered by the 2010 Sport and Recreation New Zealand-funded Outdoor Recreation Research Stocktake, which included outdoor education material. This article is divided into two parts, both published in this issue of the journal. Part one describes how the stocktake was conducted and reports on the research liter...

  10. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  11. Does Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith C.

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor behavioral healthcare (OBH), using wilderness therapy and related outdoor programming, is an emerging treatment for adolescents with behavioral, psychological, and substance abuse disorders. A literature review examining OBH outcomes related to self-concept, interpersonal skills, substance abuse, criminal recidivism, and behavioral and…

  12. Integrating Whole Language and Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinsey, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Compares the philosophies of whole-language instruction and outdoor education. Both incorporate other subjects in a theme approach, use meaningful materials, are student-centered, and are process-oriented. An outline of a teaching unit based on the story "Sarah Plain and Tall" integrates whole language and outdoor education. (KS)

  13. Lyme Disease: A Challenge for Outdoor Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcombe, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Describes signs and symptoms of Lyme disease; life cycle and feeding habits of the deer tick (Ixodes dammini), which transmits the spirochete bacterium; tick control measures; outdoor precautions; and veterinary considerations. Discusses the disease's potential impact on outdoor education, and suggests a reasoned, nonhysterical approach. Contains…

  14. Outdoor Acoustics as a General Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    due to natural and man-made obstacles. Various areas of application of outdoor sound are described, such as aircraft noise, road traffic noise and industrial noise. More unconventional applications such as outdoor sound reinforcement are also described. The choice of theoretical model must be adapted...

  15. Developing an Environmental Ethic in Outdoor Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Keith

    1986-01-01

    Argues that both short- and long-term outdoor education and wilderness programs should promote environmental awareness and the development of an environmental ethic. Outlines examples of approaches to integrating environmental goals and concepts into outdoor experiential education programs offered by Australian elementary and secondary schools and…

  16. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  17. Basic illustrated knots for the outdoors

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Cliff Jacobson is one of North America's most respected outdoors writers and wilderness canoe guides. His experiences as a professional outfitter and canoeing consultant have resulted in more than a dozen top-selling books on camping, canoeing, navigation, and outdoor skills.

  18. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  19. UNBC: Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Pat

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the University of Northern British Columbia's (UNBC's) Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management (ORTM) Program, which focuses squarely on the management of outdoor recreation as it relates to conservation (i.e., in and around parks and protected areas), tourism that is both based in and concerned with the natural/cultural…

  20. NATOMICAL ASPECTS OF THE PLACENTA FROM ZEBU CATTLE RAISED IN THE ORIENTAL AMAZONIAN, BRAZIL ASPECTOS ANATÓMICOS DE LA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CREADO EN EL AMAZÔNIA DEL ESTE ASPECTOS ANATÔMICOS DA PLACENTA DE ZEBUÍNOS CRIADOS NA AMAZÔNIA ORIENTAL, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Vasconcelos Cavalcante

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to analyze the macroscopic anatomical characteristics of the bovine placenta, Bos taurus indicus, raised in the Oriental Amazonian area accomplishing a profile of these to the regional herd maintained in the Amazonian climatic and environmental conditions. Pregnant uteri of zebu cows were collected in different gestation ages (4 to 8 months. Each uterus was washed in running water and the intercornual ligament was cut, separating the uterine horns. A section along the cervix to the body of the uterus was accomplished. So, the fetal membranes were exposed and they were perforated removing the fetal liquids and the fetus. The piece was inverted to collect the referring morphologic characteristics data. Soon after, it was set in a 10% formalian solution, for subsequent dissection. To the total counting of the placentomes, a pin was placed individually in each structure, repeating the same procedure in both horns. The results for the variables: amount of the placentome and the time of gestation were submitted to statistical analysis. The overall placentomes found in 30 placentas was 2650, varying from an uterine horn to another, with average of 88.33. In the pregnant horn there were 1602 placentomes, with average of 53.40 for placenta (60.45% and in the no pregnant horn there were 1048, with average of 34.93 for placenta (39.55%. Analyzing the placentomes in different pregnant ages it was observed  a gradual increasing in the amount of these, however this increasing variation was not statistically significant (r = 0.2. The placentomes classified as small were predominant mainly in the beginning of pregnancy but the amount decreases in the following months of the pregnancy giving place to the medium and big placentomes. However, that reduction is only statistically significant in the pregnant horn. Most of the observed placentomes were in the oval shaped, independent of the gestation period. Thus, placental

  1. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: NIDA for Teens Past Issues Most Viewed February 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, ...

  2. Fund Raising for University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Andrew J.

    1971-01-01

    Library fund raising must be a cooperative effort involving library staff, development office personnel, faculty, president, trustees, and off-campus volunteers, and friends of the university. There are various sources of funds and kinds of approaches to donors which may be tried. Success is not assured, but the potential is great. (6 references)…

  3. Spontaneous and experimental poisoning of cattle by Palicourea aeneofusca in the region of Pernambuco and introduction of conditioned food aversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological aspects of Palicourea aeneofusca poisoning in cattle in the region of Pernambuco, Brazil and to determine if it is possible to induce food aversion by P. aeneofusca poisoning in cattle raised under extensive ...

  4. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A;

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...

  5. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  6. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  7. Predation by Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at an Outdoor Piggery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Patricia A.; Dundas, Shannon J.; Lau, Yvonne Y. W.; Pluske, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Predation of piglets by red foxes is a significant risk for outdoor/free-range pork producers, but is often difficult to quantify. Using remote sensing cameras, we recorded substantial evidence of red foxes taking piglets from around farrowing huts, and found that piglets were most likely to be recorded as “missing” over their first week. These data suggest that fox predation contributed to the marked production differences between this outdoor farm and a similar-sized intensive farm under the same management, and warrant greater control of this introduced, invasive predator. Abstract Outdoor pig operations are an alternative to intensive systems of raising pigs; however for the majority of outdoor pork producers, issues of biosecurity and predation control require significant management and (or) capital investment. Identifying and quantifying predation risk in outdoor pork operations has rarely been done, but such data would be informative for these producers as part of their financial and logistical planning. We quantified potential impact of fox predation on piglets bred on an outdoor pork operation in south-western Australia. We used remote sensor cameras at select sites across the farm as well as above farrowing huts to record interactions between predators and pigs (sows and piglets). We also identified animal losses from breeding records, calculating weaning rate as a proportion of piglets born. Although only few piglets were recorded lost to fox predation (recorded by piggery staff as carcasses that are “chewed”), it is likely that foxes were contributing substantially to the 20% of piglets that were reported “missing”. Both sets of cameras recorded a high incidence of fox activity; foxes appeared on camera soon after staff left for the day, were observed tracking and taking live piglets (despite the presence of sows), and removed dead carcasses from in front of the cameras. Newly born and younger piglets appeared to be the most

  8. Price Slides Within Cattle Markets Over Time and Space

    OpenAIRE

    Dickamore, Justin Edward

    2015-01-01

    The production of cattle in the United State is a very large business. Production begins at the cow-calf level, where a calf is born and raised to a specific weight. This weight is the weaning weight and averages between 300-600 pounds. The calf is then typically shipped to a feedlot, where it is fed a high corn ration which increases the weight of animal quickly and cost effectively to reach a sufficient slaughter weight. Cattle production takes place primarily in 5 different geographical lo...

  9. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  10. Effective, Exemplary, Extraordinary? Towards an Understanding of "Extraordinary" Outdoor Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi; Penney, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The outdoor education literature commonly discusses what it means to be an effective outdoor leader and judgements about the effectiveness or quality of outdoor leadership and leaders are an everyday occurrence in outdoor leaders' professional lives. The basis upon which qualitative judgements are made about leaders and/or leadership and the…

  11. Outdoor Sports——The New Engine Driving Market Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Hot summer not only hampers the pace of people's participation in outdoor sports,but also ignites the insiders' and more and more outdoor-sport lovers' enthusiasm.Asia Outdoor Trade Show,the world famous sister European Outdoor Show,celebrated its fifth birthday in Nanjing International Exhibition Center on July 28th.

  12. Outdoor Propagation Models-Comparison Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Umesh Yadav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of comparing different outdoor propagation models is to study the earlier introduced models in the present environment of RF technology and requirement. In the present era of telecom services coverage is not enough but we need to introduce cellular network with high quality parameters. In this comparison review we will focus on the type of terrain/ environment which will best suit the different outdoor propagations models

  13. Outdoor motor play: analysis, speculations, research paths

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Ceciliani; Alessandro Bortolotti

    2013-01-01

    In our rapidly changing contemporary society, it has become apparent that children spend significantly less time playing outdoors than their parents did. Therefore, considerable attention must be paid by professionals to engage this challenge, especially within early educational contexts. The goal of this study was to first explore the continual drive of play in educational growth and, second, the ways in which children play outdoors at school, in order to reap the developmental benefits of o...

  14. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Wang

    2014-01-01

    More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996). and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites). This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a reti...

  15. Robust CCD photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Gao; Zuoren Dong; Zhenglan Bian; Qing Ye; Zujie Fang; Ronghui Qu

    2011-01-01

    A robust charge-coupled device (CCD) photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated. The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed. The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation. A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises. Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability, dynamic range, and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.%@@ A robust charge-coupled device(CCD)photoelectric autocollimator for outdoor use is designed and demonstrated.The influence of outdoor conditions on the signal-to-noise ratio(SNR)and imaging quality of the measuring system is experimentally analyzed.The pulse width modulation technology is applied to the automatic feedback control of the actively regulated illuminating light source of the measuring system to maximize SNR while avoiding image saturation.A Fourier phase shift method for subpixel estimation is adopted to achieve high-accuracy measurement in the presence of noises.Experimental results indicate that the technologies proposed here largely improve the measuring stability,dynamic range,and accuracy of the CCD photoelectric autocollimator used outdoors.

  16. How (not) to raise money

    OpenAIRE

    Goeree, Jacob K.; Emiel Maasland; Sander Onderstal; John L. Turner

    2005-01-01

    We show that standard winner-pay auctions are inept fund-raising mechanisms because of the positive externality bidders forgo if they top another's high bid. Revenues are suppressed as a result and remain finite even when bidders value a dollar donated the same as a dollar kept. This problem does not occur in lotteries and all-pay auctions, where bidders pay irrespective of whether they win. We introduce a general class of all-pay auctions, rank their revenues, and illustrate how they dominat...

  17. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  18. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  19. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2014-07-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The

  20. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte

    2013-01-01

    The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...

  1. The Outdoor World: An Outdoor Science and Culture Program for Seneca Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobey, Daniel C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an outdoor summer science program for Seneca Indian children in grades 5-7 that featured weekly outdoor topics integrating science, traditional Native American/Seneca culture, and skills in reading and language arts. Daily activities included field trips, community guests, storytelling, and individual and group projects. (LP)

  2. Effects of cattle manure on erosion rates and runoff water pollution by faecal coliforms.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, M C; Quinton, John N.; Tyrrel, S. F.

    2006-01-01

    The large quantities of slurry and manure that are produced annually in many areas in which cattle are raised could be an important source of organic matter and nutrients for agriculture. However, the benefits of waste recycling may be partially offset by the risk of water pollution associated with runoff from the fields to which slurry or manure has been applied. In this paper, the effects of cattle manure application on soil erosion rates and runoff and on surface water pollution by faecal ...

  3. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Tremblay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9 and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17, and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908. More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  4. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  5. Outdoor ultraviolet exposure of children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weekday and weekend outdoor ultraviolet exposure of young people from primary and secondary schools in three geographically distinct regions of England was determined over a 3-month period in summer. Ultraviolet exposure was measured using personal film badges worn by each young person and time spent outdoors, in hourly intervals, assessed using exposure records. In each area a class of 9-10 year-old children from a primary school and a class of 14-15-year-old adolescents from a secondary school took part, giving a total of 180 subjects. We found that primary school children received higher outdoor ultraviolet exposure than young people in secondary schools, and geographical differences in exposure could not be accounted for solely by differences in ambient ultraviolet. There was little difference between the exposure of males and females. Children and adolescents did not behave as homogeneous groups with regard to exposure. (Author)

  6. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  7. Relationships in indoor/outdoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 and sulphurhexaflourid has been used as tracers in measurements designed to enable an estimate of the ratio of the outdoor to indoor time-integrated concentration for aerosols and non-reactive gasses of outdoor origin with a special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during a pollution episode, especially a reactor accident. The effect of operating a vacuum cleaner during the pollution episode and airing shortly after is also investigated. Earlier relevant literature is reviewed and shows goos agreement with the results in this study. Protection factor from 1-12 has been found. (author)

  8. Turismo Activo y Outdoor Training: Metodología. (Adventure Sport Tourism and Outdoor Training: Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Gómez Encinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.

  9. Business development. Outdoor leisure facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This case study describes three UK examples where renewable energy sources have been used to produce small amounts of power at leisure facilities (eg warden's offices, toilet blocks, visitor centres, mountain huts, youth hostels, etc) in areas away from the electricity network. The first application describes the use of two wind generators and a refurbished waterwheel to provide power for a new water sports centre on the shores of Lough Neagh in County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The wind generators provide power for the lighting and computers within the centre, while the waterwheel reduces the risk of power failure by the batteries. The second application features the use of a wind generator and four solar photovoltaic (PV) modules to provide electricity to the warden's office and workshop at the Farlington Marshes Nature Reserve in Hampshire. The third application involves the use of 2.5 kW wind generators to provide power supplies for the Loch Osslan and Glen Affric youth hostels in Inverness-shire, Scotland, and thus raise the standard of accommodation. The technology used, operating experience, costs and benefits are outlined for each application.

  10. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  11. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Méhu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 "Hygiene, Health and Environment" of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, "runoff" and "stagnation", and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials. PMID:19118868

  12. Confirmation of the Conditional Outdoor Leadership Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Tim; Priest, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Responses of 75 expert outdoor leaders from Canada and the United States concerning leadership in 12 hypothetical backpacking scenarios provided partial support for a theory that predicted probability of leadership style (democratic, autocratic, or abdicratic) based on favorability of conditions, task orientation, and relationship orientation.…

  13. Building Social Capital through Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beames, Simon; Atencio, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, the body of literature surrounding the subject of social capital has witnessed steady growth. While sociologists have extensively discussed how social capital can be created and sustained within local communities and national contexts, there is little evidence of the social capital discourse within the outdoor education…

  14. Indoorising the outdoors: Lifestyle sports revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salome, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Since the early nineties, lifestyle sports such as surfing, snowboarding and skydiving are on a large scale offered in artificial sport environments. In snow domes, on artificial white water courses, in climbing halls and in wind tunnels, these alternative outdoor sports are accessible for a broad a

  15. Outdoor Lighting Networks: Market, Technologies and Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Wang, J.; Chen, R.; Jiang , D.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Providing the right amount of light where and when it is needed is an opportunity to transform today’s cities into smart and livable urban spaces. New technologies are being introduced, such are adaptivecontrols and outdoor lighting networks, which can deliver energy andcost savings through adaptive

  16. Outdoor Education Expands Small School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, James; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes how the Violet Hill, Arkansas K-12 school district developed a new curriculum through outdoor education. Describes how the district's alternative energy agricultural complex (including a windmill, solar greenhouse, and farm plots, and gardens) will be incorporated into the curriculum via math, business, science, agriculture, economics,…

  17. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  18. Parents' Perceptions of Preschool Activities: Exploring Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Avanthi; Williams, Marcia; Edwards, Todd; Tandon, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Outdoor play is important for children's health and development, yet many preschool-age children in child care settings do not receive the recommended 60 min/day of outdoor play. Child care providers have previously described parent-related barriers to increasing outdoor playtime, including parents not providing appropriate…

  19. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Meurs; M. Aristoff

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was develop

  20. Provoking Dialogue: A Short History of Outdoor Education in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borland, James

    2011-01-01

    History helps educators more clearly describe the role of outdoor education in improving society by fostering awareness of human-nature interconnections. Five branches have shaped outdoor education in Ontario: (1) agricultural education; (2) environmental education; (3) outdoor adventure education; (4) ecological education; and (5) climate change…

  1. Creating and Enriching Quality and Safe Outdoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Can teachers of young children create stimulating and enriching outdoor environments that are also safe? This article highlights early childhood outdoor safety standards and presents a framework for creating quality and SAFE™ outdoor environments in early childhood programs that support children's interest and best practice. The outdoor…

  2. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  3. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...

  4. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  5. The relationship of student achievement to learning elementary science outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Steve Anthony

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teaching elementary science outdoors and student achievement on science standards. The study also considered student attitudes toward learning outdoors in the schoolyard and their achievement on a science standard appropriate for teaching outdoors. The seminal work in the field (Louv, 2005) created the phrase "nature deficit disorder" to describe the condition of children that spend little time outdoors learning from and playing in nature. Five fourth grade classes took part in outdoor instruction on particular standards after taking an attitudinal survey on learning outdoors and a pretest on the science content. Both measures were repeated after outdoor instruction. The hypotheses of the study were that students receiving outdoor instruction demonstrate improved science achievement and that student attitudes towards learning science outdoors has a significant impact on student achievement related to a science standard. The results of the study indicate a gain in student achievement followed the outdoor science lessons, allowing the research to accept the hypothesis as valid. However, the study found that student attitude toward learning science outdoors was not a significant factor in predicting gains in student achievement.

  6. The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...... the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature...

  7. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  8. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  9. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, M.

    2011-04-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This presentation documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  10. Outdoor autonomous navigation using monocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Royer, Eric; Bom, Jonathan; Dhome, Michel; Thuilot, Benoît; Lhuillier, Maxime; Marmoiton, Francois

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, a complete system for outdoor robot navigation is presented. It uses only monocular vision. The robot is first guided on a path by a human. During this learning step, the robot records a video sequence. From this sequence, a three dimensional map of the trajectory and the environment is built. When this map has been computed, the robot is able to follow the same trajectory by itself. Experimental results carried out with an urban electric vehicle are sho...

  11. Container and Raised-Bed Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Niemiera, Alexander Xavier, 1951-

    2009-01-01

    Raised beds, while requiring a high initial labor input, offer improved growing conditions and advantages compared to the existing soil. Improved plant growth, increased yields, and better accessibility are reasons to construct raised beds. This publication reviews the proper containers and plants, planting instructions, watering and potting soils, overwintering plants and more.

  12. Evaluation of Cooling Solutions for Outdoor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wankhede, Mahendra; Goswami, A; Mahajan, S D

    2008-01-01

    The thermal management of an outdoor electronic enclosure can be quite challenging due to the additional thermal load from the sun and the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure. It is essential to consider the effect of solar heating loads in the design process; otherwise, it can shorten the life expectancy of the electronic product or lead to catastrophic failure. In this paper we analyze and compare the effectiveness of different cooling techniques used for outdoor electronics. Various cooling techniques were compared like special coatings and paints on the outer surface, radiation shields, double-walled vented enclosures, fans for internal air circulation and air-to-air heat exchangers. A highly simplified, typical outdoor system was selected for this study measuring approximately 300x300x400 mm (WxLxH). Solar radiation was incident on 3 sides of the enclosure. There were 8 equally spaced PCBs inside the enclosure dissipating 12.5W each uniformly (100 watts total). A computational fluid dynamics (C...

  13. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  14. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  15. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  16. Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, G. C.; Rintamäki, H.; Näyhä, S.

    It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided by sex and age group (50-59 and 65-74 years). Across Europe, the total clothing worn (as assessed by dry thermal insulation and numbers of items or layers) increased significantly with cold, wind, less physical activity and longer periods outdoors. Men wore 0.14 clo (1 clo=0.115 m2 K W-1) more than women and the older people wore 0.05 clo more than the younger group (both Pinsulation and item number were correlated (r=-0.74, P=0.037; r=-0.74, P=0.036 respectively), but not those in clothing layers (r=-0.21 P=0.61), with indices of cold-related mortality. Cold weather most increased the wearing of gloves, scarves and hats. The geographical variation in the wearing of these three together items more closely matched that in cold-related mortality (r=-0.89, P=0.003). A possible explanation for this may be that they protect the head and hands, where stimulation by cold greatly increases peripheral vasoconstriction causing a rise in blood pressure that procedure haemoconcentration and raised cardiovascular risk.

  17. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  18. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  19. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE....

  20. Assessing SNPs in coat colour genes for cattle breed traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to identify a panel of SNPs in coat colour genes useful for breed traceability in Rendena, an autochthonous cattle breed raised in the province of Trento, and other 4 Italian cattle breeds. First, we sequenced some regions of several coat colour genes in 10 animals belonging to 5 breeds characterised by different coat colour phenotypes (Rendena, Italian Brown, Grey Alpine, Italian Friesian, and Italian Red Pied, and we detected 21 SNPs in 13 genes. These markers and 6 additional SNPs were used to genotype 180 animals of the same 5 breeds obtaining useful genotyping data for a total of 22 SNPs in 13 genes. Five out of the 22 SNP markers in the MC1R, KIT, MLPH, and SILV genes had the highest discriminating power. The panel of 22 SNPs is useful to trace Rendena particularly from Red Italian Pied and Italian Friesian.

  1. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  2. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  3. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third of ... at the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR). "Obesity is now linked to 11 types of cancer ...

  4. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  5. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  6. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  7. THE EFFECTS OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONSUMERS: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gulmez; Sukran Karaca; Olgun Kitapci

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence ratio of outdoor advertisements on survey participants (consumers) who are living in Sivas city and to measure the effects on participants' purchasing behavior. The research also attempted to specify the different characteristics of outdoor advertisements in comparison to other advertising instruments. The other research aims are to designate the status of outdoor advertisements among the advertisement instruments which are thought to h...

  8. Promoting Social Skills through Outdoor Education and Assessing Its’ Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Taib Harun; Norlena Salamuddin

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor education is a holistic form of education which aids in overall wellbeing of adolescence, including academic, physical, emotional, social and psychology well being. The aim of this study was to see whether outdoor education promotes social skills and assess its effects on participants. Research sample comprised of 671 adolescence attending a five-day residential outdoor education program. Kolb’s Cycle of Learning through Experience is used as the theoretical framework while the resear...

  9. How to raise/educate for responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Lah, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    In the diploma degree I focused on how to raise awareness of responsibility. At the beginning I researched into what responsibility is and what is it connected to. In the second part I focused on education in terms of its purpose, past and present education systems, moral development of children and youth and the importance of responsibility. In addition, I have gathered some specific proposals on how to raise responsibility. In the third part of my degree I presented the Slovenian catholic G...

  10. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  11. Space and place in Outdoor Education in New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2010-01-01

    on a qualitative approach using case study design with interviews and observations. For the analysis, ethnological cultural analysis was employed combined with configuration analysis to conceptualise the data. Theories and concepts of space and place in outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed. Results from...... the empirical studies on outdoor education in New Zealand are discussed and compared to the cultural perspective of friluftsliv in Denmark.......The article draws on a doctoral study of young peoples’ participation in organised friluftsliv and outdoor education in Denmark and New Zealand. The research questions concentrate on views of nature, values and general characteristics in friluftsliv and outdoor education. The results are based...

  12. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  13. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra;

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  14. Detection of indoor and outdoor stairs

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrabadi, S.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2013-01-01

    There are a few applications in which stairs must be detected, for example for aiding blind persons during navigation and for autonomous robots which must rely on vision. . In this paper we present a very simple algorithm for detecting stairs, both in indoor and outdoor environments, when the camera is at a distance of approximately five meters from the stairs. The problem is hard to solve due to different factors like lighting, different constructions, materials and view angles. How...

  15. Ferritin in cattle serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)

  16. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  17. Cape Fear: an outdoor hillslope laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Fiori, Aldo; Romano, Nunzio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Porfiri, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes occurring at the hillslope scale highly influence the response of natural catchments. However, modelling hillslope dynamics is often extremely challenging, and conceptualizations may be inadequate to simulate such complex processes. Towards this aim, field experiments on natural and artificial catchments have proved highly beneficial. In this work, we present Cape Fear, an ad hoc designed experimental plot whereby traditional and new measurement systems are integrated for improved comprehension of hillslope processes. This outdoor hillslope laboratory hosts diverse sensing apparatuses, spanning from a system of rainfall simulators, a v-notch weir for input and output fluxes analysis, sophisticated instrumentation for continuous measurements of surface and subsurface water and soil transport, to innovative image-based setups to remotely sense surface waters. We demonstrate the potential of such a versatile and thoroughly instrumented outdoor laboratory through a proof-of-concept experiment conducted during a natural rainfall event. The response of the plot to the storm is reconstructed based on continuous monitoring of input and output fluxes. Further, an innovative tracer-based approach involving the use of fluorescent particles is utilized to remotely investigate the onset of overland flow from captured images. Insight from experimental observations is utilized to identify the physical phenomena governing the response of the hillslope to the precipitation event. Cape Fear is a powerful resource for the hydrological community and this small scale experimental observatory is expected to provide diverse and innovative observations to advance current knowledge on hydrological processes at the hillslope scale.

  18. Education in and for the Outdoors. Report of the National Conference on Outdoor Education (Kellogg Gull Lake Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Michigan, May 2-4, 1962).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The two board aspects of outdoor education considered in this document are education in the outdoors, using the natural environment as a laboratory for learning, and education for the outdoors, with a focus on teaching skills and appreciations for outdoor recreation. Conference procedures, keynote addresses, current practices, contributions to…

  19. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  20. Fancy a Career Doing Therapy in the Outdoors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, no outdoor practitioner is working as a professional therapist and little formal training in outdoor therapy exists. Practice of this type requires supervision and professional accreditation. Interested undergraduates should check social work, probation, mental health, educational psychology, or occupational therapy…

  1. Integration of Risk Management Techniques into Outdoor Adventure Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Eric V.

    This paper is designed to acquaint the outdoor professional with the risk management decision making process required for the operation and management of outdoor adventure activities. The document examines the programming implications of fear in adventure activities; the risk management process in adventure programming; a definition of an…

  2. An Educational Tool for Outdoor Education and Environmental Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Klas; Ohman, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest an outdoor education model that respects the need to critically discuss the general belief in a causal relationship between experiences of nature, environmentally-friendly attitudes and behavioural change, but that at the same time respects the legitimate claims on the part of outdoor education practice for…

  3. The Implementation of Mobile Learning in Outdoor Education: Application of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  4. Managing Fear in the Outdoor Experiential Education Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Outlines components of fear in outdoor adventure activities. Reports ratings by 311 Outward Bound students of 23 common fears in the outdoors. Discusses techniques of fear reduction therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling of coping methods by instructors, and rehearsal of adaptive behaviors. Contains 16 references. (SV)

  5. Outdoor Education Is More than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortill, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Any activity that involves learning, whether it is for therapeutic purposes, traditional education, or outdoor education, is experiential education. In particular, outdoor educators allow participants to experiment with their behaviour in the form of play, for the most part out-of-doors. Many in the industry refer to play as adventure. Those who…

  6. Appropriate Benefits for Outdoor Programs Targeting Juvenile Male Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyere, Brett L.

    2002-01-01

    A benefits-based management approach will enable outdoor adventure therapy programs for male adolescent offenders to be built around desired outcomes such as building connections to community, enhancing self-esteem, and establishing intergenerational relationships. Outdoor programs must maintain informal environments, involve participants in…

  7. Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education. COEO Research Document: Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea; Linney, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Outdoor and Experiential Education (OEE) is a vital learning methodology for today's children and young people. Its provision of safe, educator-framed and hands-on experiences in outdoor settings provides unique, vital and lasting benefits in terms of education for curriculum and community, education for character, education for wellbeing and…

  8. Bringing Outdoor Challenge Education Inside the Business Communication Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFrene, Debbie D.; Sharbrough, William; Clipson, Tim; McCall, Miles

    1999-01-01

    Describes present-day outdoor challenge education and briefly notes its history. Argues that it provides a framework for organizations to improve teamwork, problem solving, risk-taking, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication. Describes how advantages of outdoor education can be maintained when a program goes indoors. Notes advantages of…

  9. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bratyhina; Irina Toimenceva

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  10. Rain and Romanticism: The Environment in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor education provides an opportunity to engage with natural environments in ways that are distinct from other physical education teacher education (PETE) courses. This research examines how pre-service teachers (PSTs) within a PETE degree experienced "environment" on an outdoor education camp. Using self-study methodology and…

  11. The Future of Outdoor Recreation. What the Trends Tell Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Gina

    1986-01-01

    The author looked at trend data presented at the 1985 National Outdoor Recreation Trends Symposium and synthesized the results to offer insights into the future of outdoor recreation. Discussed are social, activity, private sector recreational, economic, tourism, and policy trends. (MT)

  12. Outdoor Adventure & Eating Disorders: A Personal Perspective to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye

    1999-01-01

    A female outdoor educator who had recovered from anorexia nervosa reflects on the boundaries between her personal and professional identity as she anticipates taking on a research role in adventure-therapy programs. Gender issues in outdoor education are discussed in relation to women's body image and eating disorders. (SV)

  13. Market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bratyhina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to questions to market segmentation of goods for sports and outdoor activities. Authors allocate the main segments of consumers of goods for sports and outdoor activities, carry out market segmentation on types of goods and services, and as segmentation on the competing organizations.

  14. Tenuous Affair: Environmental and Outdoor Education in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David; Straker, Jo

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between outdoor education and environmental education in Aotearoa New Zealand has undergone many changes since formal education began in early colonial times. Discussion draws from qualitative doctoral research undertaken by the authors that investigated education for sustainability in outdoor education and how meaning is ascribed…

  15. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  16. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  17. Planning and Performing Outdoor Living Space Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fošnarič Samo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature is man’s first teacher. Slovenian people are generally proud of their country being a green oasis in the middle of Europe, characterized by many natural and geographical features. As we were interested to see whether younger primary school students had experience with learning about such features in outdoor classes, we completed an empirical research on a sample of 84 primary school class teachers in the Prekmurje region. We investigated if teachers included field trips (and how many in their lesson plans and how many of those they actually took their students to. We established that teachers (too rarely allowed their students to gain knowledge and information directly from nature.

  18. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains. PMID:22402683

  19. Tail-biting in outdoor pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P K; Bilkei, G

    2006-03-01

    A study was performed in five identical outdoor production units in the same geographic area using growing-finishing pigs of similar genetic makeup, age, diet and feed management. The severity of tail-biting (TS) was scored 1-4. The average group prevalence of bitten tails at slaughter on different farms was between 14.1+/-2.1% and 20.1+/-3.0% (Ptails was TS3, indicating moderate wounds with low grade infection. The prevalence of bitten barrows was positively correlated with the percentage of gilts in a group (r = 0.54, PPigs with zero TS score had no significantly higher weights at slaughter compared to pigs with a score of TS1. As the TS increased from 1 to 4, weights decreased (TS 1 to TS 2 to 4, Ptail-biting. PMID:15951210

  20. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  1. Fund Raising in ARL Libraries. Kit 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    In January 1983 the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) surveyed its members regarding their fund raising programs. A response rate of 85% (95 out of 113 libraries surveyed) was obtained. It was found that 85% of ARL member libraries had been involved in university-wide fund campaigns; that over 75% of the respondents had also conducted…

  2. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  3. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  4. Determination of the Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Raw Milk Somatic Cell Count of Brown Swiss Cows Raised in Farmer Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Şahin; Muzaffer Kaşıkcı

    2015-01-01

    In the current research, it was aimed to determine Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and the factors effecting on SCC in milk samples of Brown Swiss cattle raised at different farm conditions in Yıldızeli district of Sivas province in Turkey. Raw milk samples were collected at morning milking in months of May and November in year 2012. In total, 244 milk samples from 122 Brown Swiss cattle were analyzed. The effects of calving age, farm and test month on SCC were statistically significant. In the pres...

  5. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia) in local Iraqi cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal M. Alsaad,; H. I. Al-Sadi,; Osama A.Abdulla

    2011-01-01

    Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%), abnormal skin...

  6. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 91.5 Section 91.5 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.5 Cattle. In order to be eligible for export, cattle shall...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  8. REVIEW: The Characteristics of Genetic Resource of Bali Cattle (Bos-bibos banteng and the Alternative of It's Conservation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACHMAD NUR CHAMDI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is an Indonesian native beef cattle, the result of domestication of Banteng (Bos-bibos banteng. The main problem faced in the development of Bali cattle is the low quality of breed, which is predicted as the effect of inbreeding or raising management. The affects of genetic and cross breeding which usually inflict a loss are the decreasing of cattle’s endurance, fertility and birth weight. Seeing the fact, the government effort to introduce a quality bull to the breed source areas, the determination of cattle release including the controll on the cutting of productive female cattle, and to exactly count the number of Bali cattle which can be released in order to do not disturb its population balance, so it is necessary to do conservation attempt by in-situ and ex-situ. The result of this study shows that the characteristics on genetic resource of Bali cattle which comprises documentation, evaluation on reproduction and production, and attempt in increasing Bali cattle’s genetic quality in Indonesia have been done, eventhough those are still limited.

  9. Lesions associated with mineral deposition in the lymph nodes and lungs of cattle: a case-control study of environmental health hazard.

    OpenAIRE

    A Troncone; Losacco, C; Morelli, A; A. Tinelli; O Paciello; Perillo, A.

    2010-01-01

    This report focuses on the state of health of the cattle raised in the district of Taranto - city of Italy rated as environmentally at risk. Representative samples of lungs, bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes of cattle from district of Taranto's slaughterhouses were collected. After a macroscopic examination, samples with marked lesions were processed for light microscopy. Samples were also observed with polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and with microanalysis. The m...

  10. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Ricke, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different envir...

  11. DERMATITIS DIGITALIS GREAT PROBLEM OF MODERN CATTLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Hadzic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis digitalis is an extremely contagious disease of cattle hooves multicausal etiology, which soon turns into a problem of the whole herd. It significantly decreases the milk, which may be in the global market economy can seriously undermine the competitiveness of producers who do not suppressed adequately. Analysis of data collected in 2013. and 2014th year coincides with the findings from the literature that bacterial causes of dermatitis digitalis in conditions of high temperature and humidity raised the number of infected animals in the warm period of the year. The most economical way to control this disease is constant zoohygienic implementation of measures and procedures: Hygiene herd at the prescribed level, proper design and construction of the reservoir, the proper design of the ventilation facility and strict implementation measures of disinfection and hoof bearing animals. The most effective way suppression diseases and hoof it to reduce the losses caused by the conditions of intensive livestock production that preventive measures and procedures as well as raising the level of biotechnology thinking of all employees in cattle production, while curative repair problems in patients with animals but does not eliminate losses manufacturer.

  12. Spatial distribution and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Rondônia, North region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Bianca Rocha; Soares, Vando Edésio; Maia, Maerle Oliveira; Pereira, Cleidiane Magalhães; Ferraudo, Antônio Sergio; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Pires Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Gonçalves, Walter Antonio; da Costa, Alvimar José; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in cattle slaughtered for human consumption from rural properties in the state of Rondônia, North region, Brazil; the seroprevalence was determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFATs). Additionally, spatial distribution and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis were also analyzed. Of the 1000 cattle serum samples examined, 53 (5.3%) were determined to be seropositive for T. gondii with antibody titers (IgG) ≥64. In regard to results of the studied risk factors (presence of cats, cats with free access to cattle, breeding system, animal's gender, consumption of raw milk by humans on the property and cattle abortion in the last 12 months) and the odds ratio (OR) of each of these factors influencing cattle to acquire toxoplasmosis, only animals raised on a feeder/stocker/backgrounder system presented a higher probability of being seropositive for T. gondii (OR≥1, P=0.04) than cattle raised only in a feeder/stocker system. There was no association between the occurrence of reproductive problems and T. gondii seropositivity. Based on results obtained in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, it could be concluded that the presence of cats and their contact with cattle on each property, cattle breeding purpose and cattle abortion in the last 12 months were not considered risk factors for T. gondii infection in cattle. Considering that the presence of T. gondii was detected in animals slaughtered in the state of Rondônia, consuming raw or undercooked meat from seropositive cattle should be considered a route of transmission of T. gondii to humans. However, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis diagnosed in cattle from this state (5.30%) is lower than the prevalence of toxoplasmosis observed in South, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil, which may vary between 48.5% and 71.0%. The low prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is highlighted in Rondônia, which is the sixth largest state

  13. Spatial distribution and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in cattle slaughtered for human consumption in Rondônia, North region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Juliana Bianca Rocha; Soares, Vando Edésio; Maia, Maerle Oliveira; Pereira, Cleidiane Magalhães; Ferraudo, Antônio Sergio; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Pires Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Gonçalves, Walter Antonio; da Costa, Alvimar José; Zanetti Lopes, Welber Daniel

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in cattle slaughtered for human consumption from rural properties in the state of Rondônia, North region, Brazil; the seroprevalence was determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFATs). Additionally, spatial distribution and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis were also analyzed. Of the 1000 cattle serum samples examined, 53 (5.3%) were determined to be seropositive for T. gondii with antibody titers (IgG) ≥64. In regard to results of the studied risk factors (presence of cats, cats with free access to cattle, breeding system, animal's gender, consumption of raw milk by humans on the property and cattle abortion in the last 12 months) and the odds ratio (OR) of each of these factors influencing cattle to acquire toxoplasmosis, only animals raised on a feeder/stocker/backgrounder system presented a higher probability of being seropositive for T. gondii (OR≥1, P=0.04) than cattle raised only in a feeder/stocker system. There was no association between the occurrence of reproductive problems and T. gondii seropositivity. Based on results obtained in the Brazilian state of Rondônia, it could be concluded that the presence of cats and their contact with cattle on each property, cattle breeding purpose and cattle abortion in the last 12 months were not considered risk factors for T. gondii infection in cattle. Considering that the presence of T. gondii was detected in animals slaughtered in the state of Rondônia, consuming raw or undercooked meat from seropositive cattle should be considered a route of transmission of T. gondii to humans. However, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis diagnosed in cattle from this state (5.30%) is lower than the prevalence of toxoplasmosis observed in South, Southeast and Center-West regions of Brazil, which may vary between 48.5% and 71.0%. The low prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle is highlighted in Rondônia, which is the sixth largest state

  14. Terrestrial gamma radiation levels outdoors in Cantabria, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quindos, L.S.; Fernandez, P.L.; Soto, J.; Rodenas, C. (Cantabria Univ., Santander (Spain). Faculty of Medicine and Sciences)

    1991-06-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates have been measured outdoors throughout the region of Cantabria, located in the north of Spain. Results obtained are shown in tabular and cartographical form and are related to the nature of the ground and other influencing factors. The mean absorbed dose rate in air outdoors is 35.46 nGy h{sup -1}. The mean annual effective dose equivalent, when the duration of outdoor exposure and distribution of the population are considered, is about 32 {mu}Sv. This dose is in addition to those doses received from other sources of natural radiation, principally from the presence of radon gas indoors. (author).

  15. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  16. Comparison of Indoor Mercury Vapor in Common Areas of Residential Buildings with Outdoor Levels in a Community Where Mercury Is Used for Cultural Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Garetano, Gary; Gochfeld, Michael; Stern, Alan H

    2005-01-01

    Elemental mercury has been imbued with magical properties for millennia, and various cultures use elemental mercury in a variety of superstitious and cultural practices, raising health concerns for users and residents in buildings where it is used. As a first step in assessing this phenomenon, we compared mercury vapor concentration in common areas of residential buildings versus outdoor air, in two New Jersey cities where mercury is available and is used in cultural practices. We measured me...

  17. Pass-Through in United States Beef Cattle Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...

  18. Raising OER Awareness: VT Libraries and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Walz, Anita R.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights the first year of exploration into a possible Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative at the University Libraries, Virginia Tech. Key messages to convey while raising OER awareness include: copyright, open licensing, Creative Commons, OER availability and retrieval, adaptation and innovation, understanding one's institution, and pedagogy. Various events and activities of VT Libraries are mentioned in addition to resources for OER librarian support, library cha...

  19. Evaluation of the Voluntary Johne's Disease Herd Status Program as a source of replacement cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovich, D A; Wells, S J; Friendshuh, K

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the perceived value that enrolled producers gained from participation in the Voluntary Johne's Disease Herd Status Program (VJDHSP), and to evaluate the risk of infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) of cattle reared in a presumed Johne's free environment vs. cattle raised in an environment of unknown Johne's status. Producers enrolled in level 3 or 4 of the VJDHSP (98 and 99% probability, respectively, of being free from MAP infection) were interviewed via telephone. Producers were asked questions pertaining to their participation in the VJDHSP, and asked to identify herds to which they had sold replacement heifers. These cattle were presumed to be uninfected before sale. Fifty-nine cattle (identified as having been purchased into infected herds as heifers) were identified as having been raised in uninfected herds and sold to producers with herds of unknown Johne's disease status. On the purchasing farm, fecal and blood samples were collected from each cow of VJDHSP origin and 3 randomly selected home-reared cows per VJDHSP cow matched by lactation as controls. Samples were tested using commercial ELISA (serum) and bacterial culture (feces). Results indicated that enrolled producers saw value in VJDHSP participation, and that cattle reared in VJDHSP herds were less likely to be infected with MAP than herdmates as measured by serum ELISA MAP antibody and by fecal culture. This study provides evidence of the value of the VJDHSP in providing economic value to participants and supports the promotion of VJDHSP herds as a source of replacement cattle of low infection risk for MAP.

  20. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal;

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  1. The modern feedlot for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John J; Archibeque, Shawn L; Feuz, Dillon M

    2014-02-01

    The modern beef feedlot has evolved into a complex system that is very dependent upon technology. Modern feedlots are organized into departments, often including the office, cattle, yard, feed milling, and feed departments, that allow for improvements in production efficiency through the specialization of management and labor. Regardless of size, feedlots must succeed at the following tasks: cattle procurement, cattle receiving, cattle processing, daily cattle observations, health treatments, cattle marketing, feed procurement, feed commodity receiving, feed commodity storage, diet formulation, diet delivery, bunk management, and environmental management. Apart from cattle ownership, feedlots create most of their gross income from feed sales, yardage, inventory gain on flaked grain, and combinations of these sources. The future of the industry is filled with economic and political challenges, including high grain prices owing to competition from the ethanol industry, environmental regulations, excess feedlot capacity, and a diminishing labor pool owing to declining rural populations.

  2. Outdoor environmental assessment of attention promoting settings for preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårtensson, F; Boldemann, C; Söderström, M; Blennow, M; Englund, J-E; Grahn, P

    2009-12-01

    The restorative potential of green outdoor environments for children in preschool settings was investigated by measuring the attention of children playing in settings with different environmental features. Eleven preschools with outdoor environments typical for the Stockholm area were assessed using the outdoor play environment categories (OPEC) and the fraction of visible sky from play structures (sky view factor), and 198 children, aged 4.5-6.5 years, were rated by the staff for inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behaviors with the ECADDES tool. Children playing in large and integrated outdoor areas containing large areas of trees, shrubbery and a hilly terrain showed less often behaviors of inattention (pOPEC can be useful when to locate and develop health-promoting land adjacent to preschools. PMID:19643655

  3. Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Norling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments.

  4. Indoor-outdoor relationships of respirable sulfates and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Douglas W.; Spengler, John D.

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of respirable particulates and sulfates have been measured in 68 homes in six cities for at least 1 yr. A conservation of mass model was derived describing indoor concentrations in terms of outdoor concentrations, infiltration and indoor sources. The measured data were analysed to identify important building characteristics and to quantify their effect. The mean infiltration rate of outdoor fine particulates was found to be approximately 70%. Cigarette smoking was found to be the dominant indoor source of respirable particulates. Increased indoor concentrations of sulfates were found to be associated with smoking and also with gas stoves. The effect of full air conditioning of the building was to reduce infiltration of outdoor fine particulates by about one half, while preventing dilution and purging of internally generated pollutants. The model for indoor respirable particulate and sulfate levels was found to compare well with measurements.

  5. Survey of Irrigation of Outdoor Crops in 2001 – Engla

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherhead, E. K.; Danert, Kerstin

    2002-01-01

    National results have been released from the survey of irrigation of outdoor crops in 2001 in England. This survey was carried out by Cranfield University for Defra, and continues a series of similar surveys since 1982 by MAFF.

  6. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  7. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  8. Outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic ground target measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Steven; Ngaya, Therese-Ann; Vignola, Joe; Judge, John; Marble, Jay; Gugino, Peter; Soumekh, Mehrdad; Rosen, Erik

    2010-04-01

    A novel outdoor synthetic aperture acoustic (SAA) system consists of a microphone and loudspeaker traveling along a 6.3-meter rail system. This is an extension from a prior indoor laboratory measurement system in which selected targets were insonified while suspended in air. Here, the loudspeaker and microphone are aimed perpendicular to their direction of travel along the rail. The area next to the rail is insonified and the microphone records the reflected acoustic signal, while the travel of the transceiver along the rail creates a synthetic aperture allowing imaging of the scene. Ground surfaces consisted of weathered asphalt and short grass. Several surface-laid objects were arranged on the ground for SAA imaging. These included rocks, concrete masonry blocks, grout covered foam blocks; foliage obscured objects and several spherical canonical targets such as a bowling ball, and plastic and metal spheres. The measured data are processed and ground targets are further analyzed for characteristics and features amenable for discrimination. This paper includes a description of the measurement system, target descriptions, synthetic aperture processing approach and preliminary findings with respect to ground surface and target characteristics.

  9. Adaptive information design for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhöfer, Jan A; Govaers, Felix; El Mokni, Hichem; Alexander, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Augmented Reality focuses on the enrichment of the user's natural field of view by consistent integration of text, symbols and interactive three-dimensional objects in real time. Placing virtual objects directly into the user's view in a natural context empowers highly dynamic applications. On the other hand, this necessitates deliberate choice of information design and density, in particular for deployment in hazardous environments like military combat scenarios. As the amount of information needed is not foreseeable and strongly depends on the individual mission, an appropriate system must offer adequate adaptation capabilities. The paper presents a prototypical, vehicle-mountable Augmented Reality vision system, designed for enhancing situation awareness in stressful urban warfare scenarios. Tracking, as one of the most crucial challenges for outdoor Augmented Reality, is accomplished by means of a Differential-GPS approach while the type of display to attach can be modified, ranging from ocular displays to standard LCD mini-screens. The overall concept also includes envisioning of own troops (blue forces), for which a multi-sensor tracking approach has been chosen. As a main feature, the system allows switching between different information categories, focusing on friendly, hostile, unidentified or neutral data. Results of an empirical study on the superiority of an in-view navigation cue approach conclude the paper.

  10. Energy Optimization for Outdoor Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Boukhechba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone is no longer only a communication device, but also a powerful environmental sensing unit that can monitor a user’s ambient context. Mobile users take their devices with them everywhere which increases the availability of persons’ traces. Extracting and analyzing knowledge from these traces represent a strong support for several applications domains, ranging from traffic management to advertisement and social studies. However, the limited battery capacity of mobile devices represents a big hurdle for context detection, no matter how useful the service may be. We present a novel approach to online recognizing users’ outdoor activities without depleting the mobile resources. We associate the places visited by individuals during their movements with meaningful human activities using a novel algorithm that clusters incrementally user’s moves into different types of activities. To optimize the battery consumption, the algorithm behaves variably on the basis of users’ behaviors and the remaining battery level. Studies using real GPS records from two big datasets demonstrate that the proposal is effective and is capable of inferring human activities without draining the phone resources.

  11. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  12. Developing outdoor physics project using the activity theory framework

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation, implementation and evaluation of methodology of “outdoor physics” a project in science teacher education at Umeå University, Sweden (see http://outdoorphysics.educ.umu.se). Activity Theory was used as the theoretical framework for project development. The fundamental constructs of this theory: collaborative activity, motivation, object and context of learning were taken into consideration in the development of outdoor cases and methodology of the pro...

  13. Developing outdoor physics projects using the activity theory framework

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptualisation, implementation and evaluation of methodology of “outdoor physics” a project in science teacher education at Umeå University, Sweden (see http://outdoorphysics.educ.umu.se). Activity Theory was used as the theoretical framework for project development. The fundamental constructs of this theory: collaborative activity, motivation, object and context of learning were taken into consideration in the development of outdoor cases and methodolog...

  14. Comparison of indoor air and outdoor air contaminant concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pykhova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Since most people spend their time indoors, there has been increased interest in air pollution concen-trations. Number of very small liquid and solid particles suspended in the air is depending on different factors. But how should be decreased particle number? The field of this work is particulate matter concentration in the indoor and outdoor air. Measurements were carried out in number concentration. The Indoor-Outdoor correlation was de-termined in order to investigate normative parti...

  15. View Transformation Based on a Single Outdoor Image

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-hui Zhang; Shuo Yan

    2013-01-01

    An automatic approach for view transformation based on a single outdoor image is proposed in this paper. First, the hierarchical segmentation method is conducted to segment an outdoor image into several meaningful regions and each region is labelled as sky, ground or standing object. Then, different methods are used to estimate each region’s depth according to its label. After that, the obtained depth information is utilized to create a new view image after any rotation, translation and pitch...

  16. Introduction to Strand 9: environmental, health and outdoor science education

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Graça Simões; Achiam, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The field of environmental, health and outdoor science education has been increasing worldwide and this has also been found in the number and quality of the proposals to ESERA Conferences. In ESERA 2015 the strand “Environmental, health and outdoor science education” was focused on the following proposed areas of research: Ecological and Environmental Education, Education for Sustainable Development, environmental health, health education and health promotion; Lifestyles and attitudes towards...

  17. Traditional and New Tendencies to Outdoor Sacral Spaces in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Krūgelis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes some features and traditions of outdoor sacral spaces in Lithuania, includes a historical analysis and various features of different historical periods and explains the new tendencies and possibilities of future development in contemporary Lithuania. By analysing the phenomenon of outdoor sacral spaces, some archaeological and historical data is used to identify the principles of creating such sacral space.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the ...

  19. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  20. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  1. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  2. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  3. Selenium in Cattle: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589

  4. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  5. Calibration of the SR4500 Time-Of Camera for Outdoor Mobile Surveying Applications: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelé, C.; Labbé, M.; Muzet, V.; Charbonnier, P.

    2016-06-01

    3D-cameras based on Time-of-Flight (ToF) technology have recently raised up to a commercial level of development. In this contribution, we investigate the outdoor calibration and measurement capabilities of the SR4500 ToF camera. The proposed calibration method combines up-to-date techniques with robust estimation. First, intrinsic camera parameters are estimated, which allows converting radial distances into orthogonal ones. The latter are then calibrated using successive acquisitions of a plane at different camera positions, measured by tacheometric techniques. This distance calibration step estimates two coefficient matrices for each pixel, using linear regression. Experimental assessments carried out with a 3D laser-cloud after converting all the data in a common basis show that the obtained precision is twice better than with the constructor default calibration, with a full-frame accuracy of about 4 cm. Moreover, estimating the internal calibration in sunny and warm outdoor conditions yields almost the same coefficients as indoors. Finally, a test shows the feasibility of dynamic outdoor acquisitions and measurements.

  6. A note on the relationship between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for air pollution of outdoor origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-7 created by cosmic radiation has been used as a tracer in preliminary measurements designed to enable an estimation of the ratio between outdoor and indoor exposure integrals for aerosols of outdoor origin, with special reference to the reduction in inhalation dose that can be achieved by staying indoors during reactor accidents. Earlier investigations relevant to this problem are reviewed. It is concluded that the reduction is inhalation dose offered by an average Danish house is roughly one order of magnitude. (author)

  7. An Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Experiences in Outdoor `Places' and Intentions for Teaching in the Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica; Patrick, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    This study explores pre-service teachers' past interactions with 'place' in outdoor settings and how these experiences contribute to their current perceptions of the importance of taking their own students into the outdoors. Specifically, the researchers were interested in investigating if current pre-service teachers are part of the 'nature-deficit disorder' generation described by Louv in his book, Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder (2005), as a generation of children growing up without direct experiences in nature. Study participants included 148 undergraduate pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in science teaching methods instructional courses at an urban college in the Northeastern United States and two suburban universities in the Southeastern United States. Participants wrote essay responses after reading Louv's Last Child in the Woods in which they were asked to relate the reading to their own past experiences and their ideas about elementary science education. Results indicate that a large majority of participants (97%) describe significant youth experiences in the outdoors, view nature as important in varying ways (89.9%), and express a desire to expose their own students to the outdoors (65.5%). Key findings are illustrated with direct quotations from the pre-service teachers' essay responses, as they write vividly of their interactions in outdoor places, referred to as 'place meanings'. Implications are presented for teacher educators working with pre-service teachers to build upon their outdoor experiences and prepare them for implementing nature-based instruction.

  8. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  9. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  10. Efecto de la progesterona natural con o sin la adición de benzoato de estradiol sobre la presentación de celo, ovulación y gestación en animales tipo Bos indicus en el trópico mexicano Effect of natural progesterone with and without estradiol benzoate on the onset signs of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in Bos indicus cattle raised under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. DIAZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de un dispositivo intravaginal que contiene 1.9 g de progesterona y una cápsula de 10 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE (CIDR-B®, seguido o no de la aplicación intramuscular de BE, a las 24 horas de retirado el dispositivo, y se observó el porcentaje de estro, ovulación y gestación. Se utilizaron 122 vacas (experimento 1 y 30 novillas (experimento 2 tipo Bos indicus, que fueron asignadas aleatoriamente a tres grupos:Grupo ST: 20 vacas y 10 novillas sin tratamiento; Grupo CIDR-BE: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días respectivamente; y Grupo CIDRB+ E: 51 vacas y 10 novillas con un dispositivo por 10 ó 13 días, además de una inyección a las 24 horas de 1 ó 2 mg de BE. La detección de estros se realizó mediante la observación visual, haciéndose durante 96 horas después de retirar el CIDR-B, y posteriormente entre los 17 a 24 días posteriores a cada período de servicios, hasta concluir los 90 días que duró el empadre. Las que presentaron estro entre los días 0 a 47 fueron servidas por IA y las que lo presentaron del 48 al 90 por monta natural. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para medir niveles de progesterona para corroborar ovulación. El diagnóstico de gestación se realizó por palpación rectal y ultrasonografía. Las variables categóricas se analizaron mediante la prueba exacta de Fisher y las continuas mediante t de Student. Las condiciones reproductivas previas de las vacas se relacionaron con celos, ovulación y gestación con un modelo lineal logarítmico del Proc CATMOD, SAS. En ambos experimentos el grupo CIDR-B+E presentó un alto porcentaje de estro, 92.2 y 90.0% para vacas y novillas, siendo diferente (pThe effect of a intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone and one capsule of 10 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB (CIDR-B was evaluated in Bos indicus cattle. Upon withdrawal, calculations regarding estrous rate, ovulation and pregnancy were considered. 122 Bos

  11. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  12. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    OpenAIRE

    Mašić Zoran; Adamović Milan; Đilas Sandra M.; Mihaljev Željko A.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also pres...

  13. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...

  15. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik

    2005-01-01

    Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...

  16. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    E. SZÜCS; Gulyás, L.; L.T. CZISZTER; I. Demirkan

    2013-01-01

    Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of ...

  17. Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

  18. Most important types of cattle behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of cattle is a simple and easily established indicator of their health condition, production characteristics and welfare, showing whether and how the animal has adapted to the maintenance conditions. Essentially, all forms of cattle behavior are accompanied by certain physiological changes in the organism, and the basic moving forces of behavior are congenital. The moving forces of behavior of cattle are narrowed down to a certain number of biological needs (the need for food, water, sexual and other biological needs and congenital urges and instincts, such as the combative and maternal instincts. Cattle are grazing animals and they cannot exhibit all their congenital natural activities of behavior under intensive maintenance conditions. Different internal and external stimuli influence the types of behavior of cattle, changing the motivational activities of their organism. In the course of domestication, certain forms of behavior of cattle have sustained changes, some have adapted to the new conditions, and new ones have appeared as well. The social, reproductive, maternal, and feeding behavior of cattle in closed maintenance conditions has not changed fundamentally, but the model of its manifesting has changed. Furthermore, certain disorders in the behavior of cattle also appear as a consequence of the maintenance conditions, and they can also be of hereditary character. In order to promote welfare, cattle should be enabled to exhibit their natural behavior, but they should also be provided with an environment that has natural characteristics.

  19. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  20. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  1. Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis between farmers and cattle in central Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobena Ameni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis complex could be possible between farmers and their cattle in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A study was conducted in mixed type multi-purposes cattle raising region of Ethiopia on 287 households (146 households with case of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB and 141 free of TB and 287 herds consisting of 2,033 cattle belonging to these households to evaluate transmission of TB between cattle and farmers. Interview, bacteriological examinations and molecular typing were used for human subjects while comparative intradermal tuberculin (CIDT test, post mortem and bacteriological examinations, and molecular typing were used for animal studies. Herd prevalence of CIDT reactors was 9.4% and was higher (p<0.01 in herds owned by households with TB than in herds owned by TB free households. Animal prevalence was 1.8% and also higher (p<0.01 in cattle owned by households with TB case than in those owned by TB free households. All mycobacteria (141 isolated from farmers were M. tuberculosis, while only five of the 16 isolates from cattle were members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC while the remaining 11 were members of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM. Further speciation of the five MTC isolates showed that three of the isolates were M. bovis (strain SB1176, while the remaining two were M. tuberculosis strains (SIT149 and SIT53. Pathology scoring method described by "Vordermeier et al. (2002" was applied and the average severity of pathology in two cattle infected with M. bovis, in 11 infected with NTM and two infected with M. tuberculosis were 5.5, 2.1 and 0.5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that transmission of TB from farmers to cattle by the airborne route sensitizes the cows but rarely leads to TB. Similarly, low transmission of M. bovis between farmers and their cattle was found, suggesting requirement of ingestion of contaminated milk from

  2. Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarsson, Jesper J; Nordström, Henrik; Lundén, Peter; Nilsson, Mats E

    2014-06-01

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB LA eq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (LAS max,word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (LAS max,noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors. PMID:24907809

  3. A Novel Approach for Indoor Outdoor Air Pollution Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdullah Hussein

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current increase of atmospheric air pollution rates in developing and developed countries requires efforts to design more cost effective and affordable devices. In developed countries pollution monitoring chambers are available to aid the monitoring process. The culture and the society are aware of the polluted environment side effects and measures have been taken to reduce pollution amounts. Most developing countries lack these chambers and they do not have cost effective tools for measuring pollution amounts for indoor and outdoor environments. Here, an effort has been made to modify low cost available pollution devices to work for indoor and outdoor pollution monitoring and a simple cost effective approach has been carried out. Indoor carbon monoxide gas level monitoring using cheap alarms sensor, supported by a car oxygen sensor for oxygen gas level monitoring. The same approach is used for outdoor gas pollution monitoring. A computer program has been designed to facilitate computer based monitoring process and logging of pollution data.

  4. Fast color/texture segmentation for outdoor robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blas, Morten Rufus; Agrawal, Motilal; Sundaresan, Aravind;

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K-means to ......We present a fast integrated approach for online segmentation of images for outdoor robots. A compact color and texture descriptor has been developed to describe local color and texture variations in an image. This descriptor is then used in a two-stage fast clustering framework using K......-means to perform online segmentation of natural images. We present results of applying our descriptor for segmenting a synthetic image and compare it against other state-of-the-art descriptors. We also apply our segmentation algorithm to the task of detecting natural paths in outdoor images. The whole system has...

  5. Outdoor thermal environmental research of the mountainous city by GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The study of urban outdoor thermal environment was carried out in one of the mountainous cities by using geography information system(GIS) technique which is connected with predicting and evaluating models for the outdoor thermal environment, monitoring data and simulating data. A prediction and evaluation system were set up.A typical mountainous city, i. e. , Yunyang city in Chongqing in China, was taken as an example, its urbanization trend and population growth was predicted and evaluated. The heat island intensity and its trend were simulated, the temperature field, velocity field and the humidity field were analyzed. The results show that GIS is an effective tool to deal with the outdoor thermal environment, especially for the mountainous cities with special geographical particularities. GIS can be used in the environmental management and the city planning especially for the mountainous cities.

  6. The quality of service experience in outdoor activities programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Astrapellos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In our days the outdoor activities of recreation are new and continuously increasing tendency that has usually entered in the industry of tourism and called Alternative forms of tourism. The aim of this study was to examine the experience of service of individuals after their attendance in various programs of outdoor activities and recreation that offer various private companies of recreation. Another stream of research from the general marketing field has shown that subjective, affective and experiential factors comprise a substantial portion of consumer satisfaction with services. In the research participated 273 men and women of age of 20 – 50 years, which participated in various outdoor activities in Greece that were organised by two private companies of recreation. The results of this research should extend itself in future in a bigger number of companies of recreation so as to become the desirable generalisations but also be used in the frames of processes of marketing.

  7. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m-3. Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  8. Outdoor education in New Zealand: a comparative and cultural perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren

    2009-01-01

    with the theory and analysis of configurations (Eichberg, 2001), using interviews with leaders and participants (Kvale, 1994) and a series of observations of practise (Spradley, 1980). The study points out central cultural characteristics in outdoor education in New Zealand according to time, space, energy...... and personal relationships.    OE in New Zealand seems focused on action, risk and challenge with personal development as the central pedagogical goal. There seems to be a general search for effectiveness and functionalism and a special relationship to land and nature with both functionalism and personal...... in Denmark today we are experiencing more complexity of forms and settings within outdoor education (Andkjær 2005) with simple life in nature (enkelt friluftsliv) and adventure being two dominant trends.  The study identifies differences as well as similarities between the cultures of friluftsliv and outdoor...

  9. Thermal Perception in the Mediterranean Area: Comparing the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI to Other Outdoor Thermal Comfort Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Golasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor thermal comfort is an essential factor of people’s everyday life and deeply affects the habitability of outdoor spaces. However the indices used for its evaluation were usually developed for indoor environments assuming still air conditions and absence of solar radiation and were only later adapted to outdoor spaces. For this reason, in a previous study the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI was developed, which is an empirical index able to estimate the thermal perception of people living in the Mediterranean area. In this study it was compared numerically (by using the data obtained through a field survey with other selected thermal indices. This comparison, performed in terms of Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient, association Gamma, percentage of correct predictions and cross-tabulation analysis, led to identify the MOCI as the most suitable index to examine outdoor thermal comfort in the interested area. As a matter of fact it showed a total percentage of correct predictions of 35.5%. Good performances were reported even in thermophysiological indices as the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Moreover it was revealed that adaptation and acclimatization phenomena tend to have a certain influence as well.

  10. The effect of conspecific removal on behavioral and physiological responses of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Arney, David R; Waran, Natalie K; Handel, Ian G; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-12-01

    Adverse social and welfare implications of mixing dairy cows or separating calves from their mothers have been documented previously. Here we investigated the behavioral and physiological responses of individuals remaining after conspecifics were removed. We conducted a series of 4 experiments incorporating a range of types of different dairy cattle groupings [experiment 1 (E1), 126 outdoor lactating dairy cows; experiment 2 (E2), 120 housed lactating dairy cows; experiment 3 (E3), 18 housed dairy calves; and experiment 4 (E4), 22 housed dairy bulls] from which a subset of individuals were permanently removed (E1, n=7; E2, n=5; E3, n=9; E4, n=18). Associations between individuals were established using near-neighbor scores (based upon identities and distances between animals recorded before removal) in E1, E2, and E3. Behavioral recordings were taken for 3 to 5 d, before and after removal on a sample of cattle in all 4 experiments (E1, n=20; E2, n=20; E3, n=9; E4, n=4). In 2 experiments with relatively large groups of dairy cows, E1 and E2, the responses of cows that did and did not associate with the removed cows were compared. An increase in time that both nonassociates and associates spent eating was observed after conspecific removal in E1. In E2, this increase was restricted to cows that had not associated with the removed cows. A reduction in ruminating in remaining cattle was observed in E3 and eating in E4. Immunoglobulin A concentrations increased after separation in both E3 and E4 cattle, but did not differ significantly between associates and nonassociates in E2. Blood and milk cortisol concentrations were not affected by conspecific removal. These findings suggest that some animals had affected feeding behavior and IgA concentrations after removal of conspecifics.

  11. Fly ash, basic slag and Glenbrook slag toxicity in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewes, H.F.; McLeay, L.M.; Harfoot, C.G.

    1995-06-01

    In case studies of two herds of dairy cattle, a herd of 270 Friesian cows and heifers and a herd of 256 Jersey cows and heifers experienced high death rates and a protracted course of illness when fly ash was broadcast as a fertiliser over the farms at a rate of about 1 tonne per hectare. The onset of weakness, lassitude and diarrhoea in the cattle first appeared within 4-5 days and both fertility and milk fat production fell off dramatically. In the following 7 months, 51 animals died in the Friesian herd and a similar death rate and performance losses occurred in the Jersey herd. Emaciation and hepatic fibrosis were consistently reported from autopsies. Heavy metal poisoning was eliminated from the possible diagnosis. The slags and fly ash used as fertiliser had several features in common. They contained 29-40% calcium as calcium oxide, 15-35 grams of iron per kg, they were all extremely alkaline and concentrations of lead and arsenic were low. The effect of adding fly ash to rumen contents in vitro was to raise the pH to greater than 7.2, at which point fermentation was markedly reduced.

  12. Babesia bovis infection in cattle in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana G; Rocha, Rodrigo B; Barbieri, Fábio da S; Ribeiro, Elisana S; Vendrami, Fabiano B; Souza, Gislaine C R; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Regitano, Luciana C A; Falcoski, Thaís O R S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Márcia C S

    2013-02-01

    The present study provides the first epidemiological data on infection with Babesia bovis in cattle raised in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Blood clot samples were filtered through nylon cloth before being submitted to DNA extraction. PCR and nested-PCR were applied to assess the frequency of infection with B. bovis in calves with ages from 4 to 12 months bred in 4 microregions each in the states of Rondônia and Acre. After the DNA was extracted from the samples, the infection in cattle was investigated by amplification of the "rap1" gene from B. bovis. The DNA amplification results revealed a frequency of infection with B. bovis of 95.1% (272/286) in the samples from Rondônia and 96.1% (195/203) in those from Acre. The high frequency of B. bovis infection in the animals with ages from 4 to 12 months indicates a situation of enzootic stability in the regions studied. The infection rates are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnostic techniques in other endemic regions of Brazil. PMID:23312480

  13. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  14. Indoor and Outdoor Spectroradiometer Intercomparison for Spectral Irradiance Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Andreas, A.; Ottoson, L.; Gueymard, C.; Fedor, G.; Fowler, S.; Peterson, J.; Naranen, R.; Kobashi, T.; Akiyama, A.; Takagi, S.

    2014-05-01

    This report details the global spectral irradiance intercomparison using spectroradiometers that was organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The intercomparison was performed both indoors and outdoors on September 17, 2013. Five laboratories participated in the intercomparison using 10 spectroradiometers, and a coordinated measurement setup and a common platform were employed to compare spectral irradiances under both indoor and outdoor conditions. The intercomparison aimed to understand the performance of the different spectroradiometers and to share knowledge in making spectral irradiance measurements. This intercomparison was the first of its kind in the United States.

  15. Gamma dose measurements indoor and outdoor of some egyptian buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some physical parameters affecting the basic dosimetric properties of carbonized aluminum oxide were studied such as Response, Dose recovery, reproducibility, linearity and lower limit of detection. Indoor and Outdoor gamma radiation dose rates were measured inside and outside some Egyptian buildings using Al2 O3-C environmental thermo luminescence dosimeters for 70 days. For these purpose twenty dosimeters of TLD chips were positioned indoor and ten dosimeters were positioned outdoor inside a thin black polythene 30 cm long pipe at one meter above ground as a reference height

  16. Self-organized architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huan-cheng; ZHU Miao-liang

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposed a multi-agent based architecture for outdoor mobile robot navigation where event-driven control is used to handle the dynamically changing of the environment. With the support of a distributed communication infrastructure and an event-driven situation evaluation agent, the robot can initiate action adaptive to the dynamical changes in the environment through reorganize its internal architecture. Adaptiveness and feasibility of the proposed architecture is validated through navigation experiments on the robot in a variety of natural outdoor environments.

  17. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  18. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  19. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  20. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  1. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannen Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides background information concerning the extent of long range linkage disequilibrium in cattle. Results Linkage disequilibrium was assessed using r2 among all pairs of syntenic markers within eight breeds of cattle from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Bos taurus breeds included Angus, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black and Limousin while Bos indicus breeds included Brahman and Nelore. Approximately 2670 markers spanning the entire bovine autosomal genome were used to estimate pairwise r2 values. We found that the extent of linkage disequilibrium is no more than 0.5 Mb in these eight breeds of cattle. Conclusion Linkage disequilibrium in cattle has previously been reported to extend several tens of centimorgans. Our results, based on a much larger sample of marker loci and across eight breeds of cattle indicate that in cattle linkage disequilibrium persists over much more limited distances. Our findings suggest that 30,000–50,000 loci will be needed to conduct whole genome association studies in cattle.

  2. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  3. Genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits in Braunvieh cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, D C; Ferraz, J B S; Pinto, L F B; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Mattos, E C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for pre-weaning traits of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions in Brazil. The weight and weight gain parameters were birth weight (BW, N = 9955), weight at 120 days of age (W120, N = 5901), weaning weight at 205 days (WW, N = 6970), weight gain from birth to 205 days (GAIN205, N = 6013), weight gain from birth to 120 days (GAIN120, N = 5135), and weight gain from 120 to 205 days (GAIN85, N = 4482). Variance components were estimated using the animal model with the MTDFREML software. The relationship matrix included 35,188 animals; phenotypic measures were available for 18,688. Direct and maternal heritability increased from birth to weaning, with estimates of 0.23 +/- 0.037, 0.25+/- 0.050, 0.41+/- 0.059 for direct heritability for BW, W120 and WW, respectively, 0.08 +/- 0.012, 0.15 +/- 0.032, 0.22 +/- 0.036 for maternal genetic effects, and 0.18, 0.14 and 0.16 for total heritability estimates. For pre-weaning gains, estimates of heritability were 0.36 +/- 0.059, 0.30+/- 0.059, 0.12 +/- 0.035 for direct genetic effects of the traits GAIN205, GAIN120 and GAIN85, respectively, 0.23 +/- 0.038, 0.17 +/- 0.037, 0.03 +/- 0.029 for estimates of maternal heritability, and 0.12, 0.13, 0.16 for total heritability, respectively. Genetic correlations between weights were greater between measures taken at shorter intervals. This information can be used to optimize the design of programs for genetic improvement of Braunvieh cattle raised under tropical conditions.

  4. An Analysis of the Demand for and Value of Outdoor Recreation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, John C.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study of demand equations for 37 outdoor recreational activities using a multicommunity, multisite travel cost model suggest that determinants of the demand for outdoor recreation include population, residence, income, age, price, quality, and recreational opportunity substitutes. (JD)

  5. Projections of Future Participation and Needs in Outdoor Recreation for North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Randall S.; Leitch, Jay A.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents projected participation levels in selected outdoor recreation activities for North Dakota residents. It is the fifth study to collect data on recreation participation rates for North Dakota's State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan.

  6. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  7. Inorganic arsenic toxicosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J E; Boosinger, T R; Everson, R J

    1981-03-01

    In 4 occurrences of arsenic poisoning in cattle, the principal clinical sign was acute hemorrhagic diarrhea attributable to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Arsenic concentrations in the liver, kidney and rumen contents varied. In one occurrence, arsenic in the hair of affected survivors was assayed at 0.8-3.40 ppm, vs 0.09-0.10 ppm in randomly selected control samples of hair. Sudden death was the only clinical sign in another occurrence in which gastric contents contained arsenic at 671 ppm. In another occurrence, arsenic poisoning caused lesions similar to those of salmonellosis.

  8. Classification of the slaughter cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Houšková; Kateřina Kovářová

    2006-01-01

    In the frame of this project, the application of the SEUROP system for slaughter cattle in 2003 and 2004 years was investigated. The 29 990 heads were examined. The attention was laid on the particular classis, their quantity, average slaughter weight and its relationship to the fleshed and over-fat during monitored period. The average slaughter weight of the whole population was 319.6 kg, what is 23-29 kg higher then republic average value. The caws create main part of the population, what c...

  9. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for the detection of clenbuterol residues in treated cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaut, Ph.; Dubois, M. (Lab. d' hormonologie, Marloie (Belgium)); Pri-Bar, I.; Buchman, O. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev); Degand, G.; Ectors, F. (Liege Univ. (Belgium))

    A radioimmunoassay for clenbuterol detection in cattle has been validated and used to monitor treated cattle. The tracer used was 4-amino-3,5-dichloro-{alpha}(tert-butylaminomethyl) benzyl alcohol (benzyl-{sup 3}H)(clenbuterol) prepared by catalytic tritiation with tritium gas of 4-amino-3,5-dibromo-{alpha}-(tert-butylamino)-acetophenone, followed by chlorination at positions 3 and 5 in the aromatic ring. The rabbit antiserum was raised against a diazotized clenbuterol/human serum albumin conjugate. The assay described was sensitive (7.8 pg/tube) and reproducible. The intra- and inter-assay variability, which was assessed by measuring known quantities of clenbuterol in plasma, urine and faeces, was satisfactory for RIA. When this assay was used to monitor treated cattle the concentrations of clenbuterol in plasma, urine and faeces were directly related to the administered dose. The absorption and elimination of clenbuterol in cattle was rapid. Data obtained were consistent with results obtained in other species where a rapid clearance rate was also demonstrated. (author).

  10. Intestinal parasite infections in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee; Lee, Young-Ha

    2010-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  11. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from quarantined areas. 78.12... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not withstanding any provisions in the regulations to the contrary, cattle may be moved interstate from...

  12. Fostering Experiential Self-Regulation through Outdoor Adventure Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorp, Jim; Collins, Rachel; Rathunde, Kevin; Paisley, Karen; Schumann, Scott; Pohja, Mandy; Gookin, John; Baynes, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Learners thrive when they have the capacity to regulate interest and goal direction. Through direct experiences that are interesting and goal-relevant, learners can internalize and better understand their own agency in the learning process. This article further examines this premise in an outdoor adventure education (OAE) context through two…

  13. Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies Trial Edition. Set III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairwell, Kay, Ed.; And Others

    The predominant focus of the 24 Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies (OBIS) Trial Edition Set III activities is on animal behavior, and the adaptations and diversity of both plants and animals. Night time activities, games, investigation, experimentation, and crafts are used to study ants, birds, clams, water snails, water striders, spiders,…

  14. Nature and Its Influence on Children's Outdoor Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, Kellie; Gray, Tonia; Malone, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature indicates that humans need contact with nature for their wellbeing, however at the same time young children are becoming increasingly separated from the natural world as their access to the outdoors diminishes. The importance of school and prior-to-school settings in connecting children with nature has been…

  15. Outdoor Recreation Participation and Environmental Concern: A Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gretchen Newhouse; Simpson, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Many experiential educators assume that participation in outdoor recreation creates an awareness and commitment to the environment through direct experience. This research summary looks to whether the research supports such an assumption. Specifically it reviews the key literature on this topic, examines the various classifications of outdoor…

  16. Family Learning Outdoors: Guided Participation on a Nature Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy R.

    2016-01-01

    This informal learning research project examined how guided participation processes support the use of cultural tools (such as scientific equipment) during a nature walk at one nature center. This paper analyzed family interactions outdoors using microethnographic methods. An informal learning framework based on guided participation and cultural…

  17. Environmental impact of noise from mobile outdoor equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roo, F. de; Gerretsen, E.; Borst, J.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an evaluation study of European Directive 2000/14/EC relating to the noise emission by equipment for use outdoors, an environmental impact assessment was required to investigate the need for new or tighter noise limits. In contrast to other environmental noise sources, the operating locat

  18. COEO's Landmark Research Summary: "Reconnecting Children through Outdoor Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, Andrea Foster reviewed a wide array of current and international research into the multiple, powerful and lasting outcomes produced through utilizing outdoor and experiential education (OEE) as a key learning methodology. As co-authors, Foster and Linney produced an 80-page document that reports the findings according to the…

  19. Outdoor Orientation Program Effects: Sense of Place and Social Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Mathew L.; Martin, Bruce; Mittelstaedt, Robin; Schanning, Kevin; Ogle, Derek

    2009-01-01

    More than 200 schools currently use some form of the Outward Bound-adapted model of outdoor orientation (OO). Assisting students with the transition to college is a primary goal of these programs (Bell, Holmes, Vigneault, & Williams, 2008). This study was conducted at a small Midwestern liberal-arts college with a strong environmental mission.…

  20. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Spataru, Sergiu;

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module...

  1. Outdoor Motor Play: Analysis, Speculations,Research Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceciliani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our rapidly changing contemporary society, it has become apparentthat children spend significantly less time playing outdoors than their parents did. Therefore, considerable attention must be paid by professionals to engage this challenge, especially within early educational contexts. The goal of this study was to first explore the continual drive of play in educational growth and, second, the ways in which children play outdoors at school, in order to reap the developmental benefits of outdoor play in a supportive context, where such fundamental activity is not only allowed, but also supported. The results of this study reinforce existing research in this area, highlighting the findings of children’s physical play behaviour and its frequency, also in connection with the use of tools and toys; further findings highlight teacher’s attitudes and suggest severaloptions for early childhood professionals to foster children’s enjoyment of outdoor play. Finally, the study results have implications for future opportunities in the planning of active spontaneous-play.

  2. Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season.

  3. Entrepreneurship--Its Role in the Private Sector. Outdoor Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, John H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Small outdoor recreation businesses can benefit from implementing the entrepreneurial or strategic management philosophy. A discussion of the behavior and characteristics of these firms includes research findings. Strategy formulation and implementation, and an analysis of five relevant business environments are included. (IAH)

  4. Estimated environmental radionuclide transfer and deposition into outdoor swimming pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011, a large radioactive discharge occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This plant is located within a climatically temperate region where outdoor swimming pools are popular. Although it is relatively easy to decontaminate pools by refilling them with fresh water, it is difficult to maintain safe conditions given highly contaminated diurnal dust falls from the surrounding contaminated ground. Our objectives in this paper were to conduct daily radioactivity measurements, to determine the quantity of radioactive contaminants from the surrounding environment that invade outdoor pools, and to investigate the efficacy of traditional pool cleaners in removing radioactive contaminants. The depositions in the paper filterable particulates ranged from 0 to 62,5 Bq/m2/day, with the highest levels found in the southern Tohoku District containing Fukushima Prefecture and in the Kanto District containing Tokyo Metro. They were approximately correlated with the ground contamination. Traditional pool cleaners eliminated 99% of contaminants at the bottom of the pool, reducing the concentration to 41 Bq/m2 after cleaning. Authors recommended the deposition or the blown radionuclides into outdoor swimming pools must be considered into pool regulations when the environments exactly polluted with radionuclides. - Highlights: • Deposition into outdoor swimming pool in a habitable areas estimated 72 Bq/m2/day. • More than 500 Bq/m2/day deposition will exceed our national guideline (10 Bq/l) of swimming pool. • Vacuum pool cleaner eliminates 99% radionuclides deposition

  5. Model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1994-01-01

    A series of scale model experiments related to outdoor propagation over an earth berm is described. The measurements are performed with a triggered spark source. The results are compared with data from an existing calculation model based upon uniform diffraction theory. Comparisons are made...

  6. Outdoor Illumination Estimation in Image Sequences for Augmented Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a technique for estimating the radiance of the sky and sun for outdoor, daylight illumination conditions. Shadows cast by dynamic objects are detected using color imagery, combined with depth information from a commercial stereo camera setup. Color information extracted from...

  7. Geostudies: Structuring a Multi-Credit Outdoor Environmental Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Offers a guide for designing a multi-credit course integrating several subject areas including geography, environmental science, and outdoor education. The program has three main components-theoretical, experiential and practical-involving classroom and field studies, environmental co-op, and environmental leadership opportunities. Timetabling and…

  8. Robust Crop and Weed Segmentation under Uncontrolled Outdoor Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Y. Jeon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An image processing algorithm for detecting individual weeds was developed and evaluated. Weed detection processes included were normalized excessive green conversion, statistical threshold value estimation, adaptive image segmentation, median filter, morphological feature calculation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The developed algorithm was validated for its ability to identify and detect weeds and crop plants under uncontrolled outdoor illuminations. A machine vision implementing field robot captured field images under outdoor illuminations and the image processing algorithm automatically processed them without manual adjustment. The errors of the algorithm, when processing 666 field images, ranged from 2.1 to 2.9%. The ANN correctly detected 72.6% of crop plants from the identified plants, and considered the rest as weeds. However, the ANN identification rates for crop plants were improved up to 95.1% by addressing the error sources in the algorithm. The developed weed detection and image processing algorithm provides a novel method to identify plants against soil background under the uncontrolled outdoor illuminations, and to differentiate weeds from crop plants. Thus, the proposed new machine vision and processing algorithm may be useful for outdoor applications including plant specific direct applications (PSDA.

  9. Emerging Environmental and Weather Challenges in Outdoor Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Brocherie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the climatic changes around the world and the growing outdoor sports participation, existing guidelines and recommendations for exercising in naturally challenging environments such as heat, cold or altitude, exhibit potential shortcomings. Continuous efforts from sport sciences and exercise physiology communities aim at minimizing the risks of environmental-related illnesses during outdoor sports practices. Despite this, the use of simple weather indices does not permit an accurate estimation of the likelihood of facing thermal illnesses. This provides a critical foundation to modify available human comfort modeling and to integrate bio-meteorological data in order to improve the current guidelines. Although it requires further refinement, there is no doubt that standardizing the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index approach and its application in the field of sport sciences and exercise physiology may help to improve the appropriateness of the current guidelines for outdoor, recreational and competitive sports participation. This review first summarizes the main environmental-related risk factors that are susceptible to increase with recent climate changes when exercising outside and offers recommendations to combat them appropriately. Secondly, we briefly address the recent development of thermal stress models to assess the thermal comfort and physiological responses when practicing outdoor activities in challenging environments.

  10. Indoor-Outdoor Detection Using a Smart Phone Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Chang, Qiang; Li, Qun; Shi, Zesen; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In the era of mobile internet, Location Based Services (LBS) have developed dramatically. Seamless Indoor and Outdoor Navigation and Localization (SNAL) has attracted a lot of attention. No single positioning technology was capable of meeting the various positioning requirements in different environments. Selecting different positioning techniques for different environments is an alternative method. Detecting the users' current environment is crucial for this technique. In this paper, we proposed to detect the indoor/outdoor environment automatically without high energy consumption. The basic idea was simple: we applied a machine learning algorithm to classify the neighboring Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication cellular base station's signal strength in different environments, and identified the users' current context by signal pattern recognition. We tested the algorithm in four different environments. The results showed that the proposed algorithm was capable of identifying open outdoors, semi-outdoors, light indoors and deep indoors environments with 100% accuracy using the signal strength of four nearby GSM stations. The required hardware and signal are widely available in our daily lives, implying its high compatibility and availability. PMID:27669252

  11. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer: what now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade a substantial number of epidemiological studies suggested that outdoor air pollution and in particular respirable particulate matter (PM10 and fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.The most recent is a multicentre European study...

  12. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papachristou, C.; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Kazanci, Ongun Berk;

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment of buildings with a second "skin" and semi-outdoor space is examined in the present study. A literature review was conducted on similar structures and only a few studies were found focusing on the thermal environment. Two different building case studies were chosen with di...

  13. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...

  14. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  15. Insurance and Risk Management at the National Outdoor Leadership School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lantien

    1990-01-01

    Describes how an outdoor program specializing in wilderness expeditions approaches risk management, liability, and insurance. Discusses maintaining good communications with insurance agents, managing crisis situations, participating in program audits, reading the fine print, international insurance coverage, and the basis for insurance premiums.…

  16. Facilitator, Teacher, or Leader? Managing Conflicting Roles in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    A facilitator is commonly defined as a substantively neutral person who manages the group process in order to help groups achieve identified goals or purposes. However, outdoor educators rarely experience the luxury of only managing the group process, because they are typically responsible for the provision of leadership, skill instruction, and…

  17. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  18. On the development of approximate models for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1998-01-01

    The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound propagation depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive method such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. None of these approaches are at present...

  19. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as Parabolic Equation methods, FFP methods and Boundary Element Methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  20. On the applicability of models for outdoor sound (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    The suitable prediction model for outdoor sound fields depends on the situation and the application. Computationally intensive methods such as parabolic equation methods, FFP methods, and boundary element methods all have advantages in certain situations. These approaches are accurate and predict...

  1. Leadership Status Congruency and Cohesion in Outdoor Expedition Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A.; Ritchie, Stephen; Little, Jim; Slade, Heather; Oddson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between status congruency and group cohesion in outdoor expedition groups in an educational setting. Specifically, three aspects of status congruency were assessed in relation to group cohesion in four adventure canoe groups. The groups participated in 2-week expeditions in the…

  2. Play--The Making of Deep Outdoor Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Leif Inge

    2012-01-01

    To be outdoors and involved in adventures concerns the movement between safety and risk, the familiar and the unfamiliar. Deep involvement in activities and the seriousness found in play are essential in "Bildung." Findings in this paper stem from ethnographic fieldwork conducted in a kayak community, between late autumn 2006 until the fall of…

  3. A Curriculum Outline and Rationale for Outdoor/Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Wil

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the problems that face society in relation to misuse of our natural surroundings and our need for environmentally literate citizens. Includes examples of goals, themes, and objectives that should guide any outdoor and environmental program. Addresses the need to consider the cognitive development of the age group participating in the…

  4. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  5. Food for Thought: Eating Disorders and Outdoor Adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kaye; Allin, Linda

    2001-01-01

    The history and etiology of eating disorders are briefly outlined, with attention to their prevalence in adolescent girls. A critical examination of the links among outdoor adventure, eating disorders, and physicality shows how adventure programs can reinforce eating disorders. Strategies are presented that illustrate the potential of outdoor…

  6. Modeling the sensitivity of outdoor recreation activities to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finger, R.; Lehmann, N.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a methodological framework to analyze the climate sensitivity as well as climate change impacts on outdoor recreation activities, applied to a case study of 2 lidos in the city of Zurich. A negative binomial regression is used to link daily data on lido entries with weather varia

  7. Enhancing Children's Outdoor Learning Experiences with a Mobile Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikala, Jenni

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how a mobile learning application can enhance children's outdoor learning experiences. The study draws upon empirical evidence gathered in one case study conducted in a Finnish primary school setting in the fall of 2012. The data were collected with student and teacher surveys. The case study indicated that the mobile…

  8. Outdoor Play: Does Avoiding the Risks Reduce the Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2008-01-01

    Although the term "risk-taking" often has negative connotations, the reality is that the willingness to engage in some risky activities provides opportunities to learn new skills, try new behaviours and ultimately reach our potential. Challenge and risk, in particular during outdoor play, allows children to test the limits of their physical,…

  9. Research Update 2010: Outdoor Education Fatalities in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an on-going project to examine outdoor education related deaths in Australia since 1960. It records 17 incidents not previously recorded in papers in this series (Brookes, 2003a, 2003b, 2004, 2007), in which 15 participants, two supervisors or teachers, and one member of the public died. Eleven of the incidents occurred since…

  10. Vesicular demyelination induced by raised intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K J; Hall, S M; Schauf, C L

    1985-11-01

    myelin vesiculation. We conclude that vesicular demyelination can be initiated in vital Schwann cells by a raised intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Such demyelination does not necessarily lead to Schwann cell death. The possible relevance of the findings to vesicular demyelinating neuropathies is discussed, and a hypothesis regarding the mechanism of demyelination is advanced. PMID:3003255

  11. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  12. Early Childhood Educators' Preferences and Perceptions Regarding Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural outdoor settings for educational experiences with young children, survey research using photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to explore in-service early childhood educators' preferences and perceptions regarding outdoor settings and the educational opportunities and resource needs they…

  13. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in…

  14. Becoming Animate in Education: Immanent Materiality and Outdoor Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David A. G.; Mcphie, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor environmental education has long postulated a link between experiences outdoors in "natural" environments and environmental concern. This paper suggests a straightforward relationship is problematic due to its implicit assumption of a nature/culture divide. Critical outdoor education has sought to overcome this dualism by…

  15. The Constitution of Outdoor Education Groups: An Analysis of the Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Groups are ubiquitous in outdoor education and while there is a lot of literature on groups, there is limited examination of the assumptions made about groups and the effects these assumptions have on the practices of outdoor education. I utilise some of Michel Foucault's (1992) tools to investigate literature on outdoor education groups.…

  16. Growth curve of locally adapted pantaneiro cows raised under natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Araújo Barbosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use morphometric and ultrasound evaluations to estimate the growth curve of the Pantaneiro cattle breed, raised in its natural habitat, aiming at the re-insertion of this breed in production systems. One hundred and three females, aging from months to 11 years, and raised on native pastures, were evaluated. The animals belonged to the Conservation Nucleus of Embrapa Pantanal, located in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil. Weight, thoracic perimeter (TP, body length (BL, rump height (RH, height at withers (HW, hip height (HH, depth (DP, distance between the ilia (DI (cm and rib-eye area (REA were measured. To relate the measurements with the age of the animals, the univariate regression model was used, assigning the variable response to gamma distribution. The Pearson correlation between variables was also estimated. The inflection point of the growth curve was 37 months for HH; between 38 and 39 months for TP and HW; between 40 and 41 months for DI, HH and DP; and 45 months for BL. The REA results could not fit in a statistical model. The majority of the variables presented a correlation above 60% among themselves, except for REA × Age, of 15.81%; REA × HW, of 34.44%; HH × Age, of 46.19; HH × DI, of 58.07%; REA × HH, of 24.57%; and REA × TP, of 39.9%. The cows showed maturity age at 40 months, which may have occurred because they were raised in natural farming conditions. In Pantaneiro cows reared in extensive systems only on natural pastures, the use of ultrasound is not effective to estimate the curve of muscular development, perhaps because this breed was not selected for weight gain.

  17. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  18. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  19. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  20. Dynamics of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae infestation on Nelore cattle in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.

  1. Composition and quality differences between the longissimus and infraspinatus muscles for several groups of pasture-finished cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Zou, M

    2008-10-01

    Samples of longissimus (LT) and infraspinatus (IS) muscles from five contrasting groups of pasture-finished cattle (n=7/group) were assessed for quality and composition characteristics in order to determine whether features of pasture-finished beef reported previously apply across different muscles and different classes of cattle. The cattle were not raised together or slaughtered at the same time. Wagyu-cross steers had the highest intramuscular fat levels, particularly in the LT, followed by Angus steers, Charolais-cross steers and Belgian Blue-cross steers, with the lowest levels for Friesian bulls. Relative to the LT, the IS muscle had longer sarcomeres, higher cooking losses, higher concentrations of vitamin E, and lower myofibrillar fragmentation indexes, while its ultimate pH was slightly higher but less variable. Beef from Wagyu-cross steers had the highest chroma values and the lowest shear values, while Friesian bull beef was darkest and least tender. Intramuscular fatty acid composition and concentrations of bioactive compounds such as coenzyme Q(10) and carnosine, were similar to those reported previously for cattle finished on New Zealand pastures although taurine levels were lower. Generally concentrations of bioactive compounds differed more between muscles and groups than between cattle finished on pasture or grain as reported previously. PMID:22063355

  2. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  3. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  4. Raising and management for pollution-free beef cattle%无公害肉牛饲养与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳玲; 赵利军

    2007-01-01

    近几年来,肉牛市场价格一路走高、效益可观,促进了养牛业的发展,增加了农民养牛的积极性。生产无公害绿色肉牛产品,是稳占国内市场,拓展国际市场的必然趋势。本文结合黑山县实际情况对无公害肉牛饲养与管理做以介绍.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATE LOGOS FOR FARM-RAISED CATFISH

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.

    1993-01-01

    Product differentiation can consist of identifying the corporate firm that produces the product (such as Kraft) or the producer cooperative that produces the product (such as Ocean Spray). The Catfish Institute (funded by producers, feed mills and processors) was created to promote the generic sales of farm-raised catfish. Also, a number of Mississippi catfish processors are differentiating their product by promoting it as Mississippi Farm-Raised Catfish. Louisiana farm-raised catfish are hig...

  6. Screening for a raised rectal temperature in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.J.; O'Dempsey, T J; Greenwood, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare rectal and axillary temperature measurements in African children. Altogether 573 sick children were seen in an outpatient setting in rural West Africa. Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured and the parent or guardian was asked if they thought that the child had a raised body temperature. Normal ranges were defined from an age matched population of 203 healthy children. A raised axillary temperature predicted a raised rectal temperature wi...

  7. Family Formation and Raising Children Among Same-sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Proportionally fewer same-sex couples are raising children today than in 2006, and their families reflect greater racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity than often represented in the media and academic research. Notably, childrearing is substantially higher among racial/ethnic minorities. Also, among individuals in same-sex couples who did not finish high school, 43% are raising children, and 20% of children raised by same-sex couples live in poverty. The decrease in the proportio...

  8. Connecting outdoor field experiences to classroom learning: A qualitative study of the participation of students and teachers in learning science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebak, Kimberly

    2005-07-01

    these factors create borders for the participation and learning of science at The Outdoor Classroom. Cogenerative dialogues (Roth & Tobin, 2002) served as a means to raise these issues with all instructional stakeholders and in turn transform structures, recognizing the important role of the coteacher.

  9. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  10. Review on Thermal Characteristics of Compound Outdoor Wall of Wood Framed Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Benhua; ZHAO Yong; REN Haiqing; CHEN Enling

    2006-01-01

    As one of the most important components of a construction, the outdoor wall plays a significant role in heat insulation, heat preservation and energy saving. Improving the heat insulation of the outdoor wall is the focus of researchers. This paper reviews the development of the compound outdoor wall and introduces the structure of the compound outdoor wall of wood framed construction. Methods for measuring the thermal characteristics of the compound outdoor wall including the steady and unsteady state thermal characteristics, tests in laboratory and field, and researches on the thermal characteristics of the compound outdoor wall are elaborately reviewed. Researches on the thermal characteristics of the compound outdoor wall will promote the further development of wood framed construction in China.

  11. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  12. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  13. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  14. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  15. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  16. Safety Cultures in Water-Based Outdoor Activities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the study Safe in Nature (Tryg i naturen) in which the aim was to analyze and discuss risk and safety related to outdoor recreation in the coastal regions of Denmark. A cultural perspective is applied to risk management and the safety cultures related to three selected...... water-based outdoor activities: small boat fishing, sea kayaking, and kite surfing. The theoretical framework used was cultural analysis and the methodological approach was mixed methods using case studies with survey and qualitative interviews. The study indicates that safety is a complex matter...... and that safety culture can be understood as the sum and interaction among six categories. The safety culture is closely related to the activity and differs widely among activities. We suggest a broad perspective be taken on risk management wherein risk and safety can be managed at different levels. Small boat...

  17. Characterization of indoor and outdoor pool fires with active calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water cooled, 1 m x 1 m, vertical calorimeter panel has been used in conjunction with other fire diagnostics to characterize a 6 m x 6 m outdoor and three 3 m x 3 m indoor JP-4 pool fires. Measurements reported include calorimeter surface heat flux and surface temperatures, flame temperatures, and gas flow velocities in the fire. From the data, effective radiative absorption coefficients for various zones in the fires have been estimated. The outdoor test was conducted at Sandia's Coyote Canyon test facility, while indoor tests were conducted at the indoor SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at the same location. The measurements provide data useful in calibrating simple analytic fire models intended for the analysis of packages containing hazardous materials

  18. Structures that Include a Semi-Outdoor Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Papachristou, C.; Kazanci, Ongun Berk;

    2016-01-01

    two versions; with and without their climate shield. The results of the two versions were compared in terms of peak load and energy demand in the Copenhagen region, for three different cases; during the heating season, during the cooling season and during the cooling season with natural ventilation in...... the semi-outdoor space. In EMBRACE, the heating and cooling demand were only slightly affected by the addition of the climate shield. However, when implementing natural ventilation in the semi-outdoor space both the peak cooling load and the energy demand were reduced during the cooling season by 30.......8% and 14.6% respectively. In DoV, the addition of the shield resulted in a reduced heating demand (-37.7%) but significantly higher cooling demand (109.8%), although with natural ventilation the peak cooling load and the energy demand were reduced, by 34.8% and 61.6% respectively, compared to the...

  19. View Transformation Based on a Single Outdoor Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-hui Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An automatic approach for view transformation based on a single outdoor image is proposed in this paper. First, the hierarchical segmentation method is conducted to segment an outdoor image into several meaningful regions and each region is labelled as sky, ground or standing object. Then, different methods are used to estimate each region’s depth according to its label. After that, the obtained depth information is utilized to create a new view image after any rotation, translation and pitch. Finally, the image inpainting work for the missing colour region is accomplished using its neighbour’s colour. Extensive experiments show the proposed approach not only improves the accuracy of view transformation, but also performs well even for images with occlusion phenomena.

  20. Places for active outdoor recreation – a scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Søren; Arvidsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on places and facilities for physical activity in nature and reports on a scoping literature review. The study aims to bring together research from several research areas, and the perspective is both of conceptual and systematic character. The purpose is to provide...... an overview of existing research on the importance of the natural surroundings to active outdoor life. The article presents key research contributions that illuminate research, and provides an overview of research traditions in the field. A total of 51 studies are included in the literature study...... and are organised by location or nature setting: 1) studies on parks, 2) studies on forests, 3) studies on trails. Most of the studies have a quantitative design. Almost all studies are cross-sectional studies, and present snapshots of the importance of natural surroundings to active outdoor life. Many studies have...

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  2. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  3. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Sansoni; Daniela Fontani; Franco Francini; David Jafrancesco; Giacomo Pierucci; Maurizio De Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can...

  4. TIGRE - An autonomous ground robot for outdoor exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Alfredo; Amaral, Guilherme; Dias, André; Almeida, Carlos; Almeida, José; Silva, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    13th International Conference on Autonomous Robot Systems (Robotica), 2013 In this paper we present an autonomous ground robot developed for outdoor applications in unstructured scenarios. The robot was developed as a versatile robotics platform for development, test and validation of research in navigation, control, perception and multiple robot coordination on all terrain scenarios. The hybrid systems approach to the control architecture is discussed in the context of multiple robot coor...

  5. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  6. Education for sustainable development using indoor and outdoor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigon, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    Environmental education became an important part of our development in the last years. We put a lot of effort into a task how to improve students'values, skills, understanding and how to significantly enhance their learning and achievements regarding ecological problems. At the same time we also know that environmental learning is easier when our students have the opportunity to feel, see, touch, taste and smell the nature. Therefore teachers in my school develop regular access to the outdoors as a learning resource. Students understand the impact of their activities on the environment and they also like to participate in the nature protection. My school (Biotechnical Centre)is an example of educational centre where different research and development programes are strongly oriented to the sustainable development. Students are educated to become experts in biotechnology, agronomy, food technology and horticulture. At the same time they are educated how to care for the nature. The institution itself cooperates with different fields of economy (farms, food - baker industry, floristry, country design etc.). For these reasons the environmental education is an essential dimension of basic education focused on a sphere of interaction that lies at the root of personal and social development. We try to develop different outdoor activities through all the school year. These activities are: analyse the water quality; research waste water treatment plants; exploration of new food sources (like aquaponics - where fish and plants grow together); collecting plants with medical activities; care for the plants in the school yard; growing new plants in the poly tunnel; learning about unknown plants - especially when visiting national and regional parks; selling different things in the school shop - also for local citizens; participating in the world wide activity - "Keep the country tidy" etc. Students and teachers enjoy to participate in different outdoor activities; we both

  7. User perspectives on outdoor noise in buildings with operable windows

    OpenAIRE

    Goins, John; Chun, Chungyoon; Zhang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that buildings with operable windows in general, and mixed-mode (MM) buildings in particular can provide improved thermal comfort and control opportunities for users. Yet, there have been concerns about outdoor noise sources like traffic or construction noise when windows are opened. Concerns like these may hinder the installation of operable windows in buildings. This paper examines 23,000 office building occupants' perspectives on noise from both sealed and naturall...

  8. Relationship Between Outdoor and Indoor Ozone Pollution Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xiaogang; LIU Junjie

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing rule of indoor ozone concentration and its influencing factors. A for-mula of indoor-outdoor concentration ratio(I/O ratio)was deduced based on the indoor ozone mass-balance equa-tion. The ozone I/O ratio in different kinds of buildings was studied. Results show that I/O ratio is much related to air-exchange rate, which is well compatible with the theoretical calculation results.

  9. Mother and child constructions of risk in outdoor play

    OpenAIRE

    Allin, Linda; West, Amanda; Curry, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks to which children are exposed in contemporary Britain is complex, requiring parents to balance opportunities for a child’s development with an appropriate concern for the potential consequences. Managing risk is particularly an issue for mothers, who, despite societal changes, tend to retain overall responsibility for the care of children. This paper explores the meanings mothers attach to risk and how this influences their children’s outdoor play. It also extends the scope...

  10. Estimating Outdoor Illumination Conditions Based on Detection of Dynamic Shadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus B.; Lal, Brajesh Behari

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a technique for estimation outdoor illumination conditions in terms of sun and sky radiances directly from pixel values of dynamic shadows detected in video sequences produved by a commercial stereo camera. The technique is applied to the rendering of virtual object into the im...... scenes and does not require High Dynamic Range imagery. Experiments demonstrate that sun and sky radiances are estimated within 7% of ground truth values....

  11. Outdoor Advertising and Gender Differences : Factors Influencing Perception and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Belinskaya, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    The thesis examines attitudes towards outdoor advertising, with strong emphasis on gender-based differences. The research intends to reveal the most influencing factors, including gender, format, different images and recall. Earlier researchers have argued that females are inclined to rate advertisements more positively than men. Five different, but interconnected studies, one content analysis and four surveys, were implicated in order to measure the responses to advertising. It is further su...

  12. Outdoor Education: An Alternative Approach in Teaching and Learning Science

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan Mastura Tuan Soh; Tamby Subahan Mohd. Meerah

    2013-01-01

    To understand fully and aware of children’s science learning, one should look not only at learning that takes place in the kindergarten and primary school but also in learning that takes place outside the classroom. This paper aims to discuss outdoor education: an alternative approach in teaching and learning science in the Malaysian context. In this 21st century, the exposure and experience in the field of science and technology are needed in nurturing interest among students who are involve...

  13. Emergence and Development of Outdoor Sculpture in Southwestern Nigerian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. AKINTONDE R. O. ROM KALILU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Public outdoor sculpture in Southwest of Nigeria is prodigious. From its emergence as an art practice in 1934, its practice has passed through six phases of great importance. Yet the practice has not been studied in appreciable scholarly depth despite constant changes in taste necessitated by religious, socio-cultural, and political complexities of the Southwest. The study traces the emergence and the development of public outdoor sculpture in the zone. It examines the development of its forms, styles, themes, materials and techniques. It also investigates various attitudes associated with the productions, uses and maintenance of the sculptures among the various stake-holders at different levels. The study covers a period of one hundred and five years between 1900 and 2005; the period marked the beginning, high development level, proliferation and decline of outdoor sculpture practice in South-west of Nigeria. Data for study were derived from oral and bibliographical records and observation of the sculptures. In all, one hundred and sixty six sculptural works were identified, with larger concentrations of the works in Lagos and Osun States. The paper observes that sculptures were mainly expressed in realism. The medium mostly used is cement and is invariably rendered in additive techniques. Themes generally expressed centres on Yoruba heroes and heroines, socio-political and economic matters. The various attitudes of all the stakeholders concerning these sculptures indicate that there is the problem of poor control of standard, abuse and lack of maintenance. Significantly, the study resolved the chronological problem associated with the emergence of public outdoor sculpture in the Southwest zone of Nigeria.  

  14. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  15. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  16. Outdoor relative radiometric calibration method using gray scale targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; YiNi; YAN; Lei; YANG; Bin; JING; Xin; CHEN; Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiometric calibration of remote sensors is a basis and prerequisite of information quantification in remote sensing. This paper proposes a method for outdoor relative radiometric calibration using gray scale targets. In this method, the idea of two substitutions is adopted. Sunlight is used to replace the integrating sphere light source, and gray scale targets are used to re-place the diffuser. In this way, images at different radiance levels obtained outdoors can calculate the relative radiometric cali-bration coefficients using the least square method. The characteristics of this method are as follows. Firstly, compared with la-boratory calibration, it greatly reduces the complexity of the calibration method and the test cost. Secondly, compared with the existing outdoor relative radiometric calibration of a single radiance level, it uses test images of different radiance levels to re-duce errors. Thirdly, it is easy to operate with fewer environmental requirements, has obvious advantages in the rapid calibra-tion of airborne remote sensors before or after flight and is practical in engineering. This paper theoretically and experimental-ly proves the feasibility of this method. Calibration experiments were conducted on the wide-view multispectral imager (WVMI) using this method, and the precision of this method was evaluated by analyzing the corrected images of large uniform targets on ground. The experiment results have demonstrated that the new method is effective and its precision meets the re-quirement of the absolute radiometric calibration.

  17. Consciousness-raising Activities in Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the theories of grammatical instruction in communicative methodologies. In review of the related theories,this paper presents the methodologies,and designs three consciousness-raising tasks to verify the effectiveness of consciousness-raising instruction.

  18. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  19. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  20. The health of grandparents raising grandchildren: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Jessica C

    2014-04-01

    Around the world, an increasing number of grandparents are raising grandchildren in households without a biological parent. This is no less true in the United States, where grandparents raising grandchildren are at increased risk for depression and declining physical health. The purpose of this article is to explore the recent literature as it relates to the psychological and/or physical health of grandparents raising grandchildren. On reviewing 19 articles from the past 10 years, it is clear that the literature consistently verifies the health risks, especially depression, for grandparents raising grandchildren; however, the lack of research regarding grandfathers and non-African American caregivers is apparent. The factors influencing grandparents raising grandchildren are numerous, which calls for care providers to assess the needs, situations, and perceptions of grandparents individually. Finally, a need has arisen for more research suggesting and validating interventions that health care providers can use to support this population of older adults. PMID:24568146

  1. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  2. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  3. Next Evolution of the Seneca College Outdoor Recreation Program: One Year of High Level Professional Outdoor Training and Development for Post-Diploma/Post-Degree Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    1998-01-01

    Describes the steps in utilizing fast-tracking to phase out the overloaded two-year Outdoor Recreation Technician Co-op program at Seneca College (Ontario) and phase in a one-year graduate Outdoor Recreation Certificate program with a lower teacher-student ratio. A concept model relates generalist core skills to specializations and outdoor…

  4. Blood Pb and δ-ALAD inhibition in cattle and sheep from a Pb-polluted mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Pb pollution on cattle and sheep raised in an ancient mining area were studied through the use of blood Pb (PbB) levels and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity. Lead levels in livestock blood from the mining area (n = 110) were significantly elevated when compared to the controls (n = 79). In 91.4% of cattle (n = 58) and 13.5% of sheep (n = 52) sampled in the mining area, PbB levels corresponded to subclinical exposure (6–35 μg/dl). Two young cattle (35 μg/dl). Elevated PbB was also accompanied by δ-ALAD activity inhibition in blood, which confirms that measurable effects of Pb poisoning were taking place. Observed PbB levels suggest that a potential risk to human consumers of beef from the Pb polluted areas may also exist, as has been shown previously for game meat from the same mining area. - Highlights: ► We studied effects of Pb pollution on livestock raised in an old mining area. ► Livestock from the mining area had higher blood Pb levels than the controls. ► Pb levels were higher in cattle than in sheep. ► Pb exposure inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, especially in cattle. ► Lead uptake in livestock reared in this area poses a risk to human consumers. - Lead from an ancient mining area still affects livestock health and compromises the safety of derived food products.

  5. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  6. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison–cattle conflict in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve ‘the bison problem’, but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m2) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle (‘partial’) and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs (‘full’). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of ‘animal days’ in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife–cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m−2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m−2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m−2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m−2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots (P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m−2 increase (P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications. Cattle face a greater

  7. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  8. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  10. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    .003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...

  11. STILLBIRTH IN DAIRY CATTLE: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SZÜCS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of non-genetic factors, parity, sex of calf, age at first calving, season, level of nutrition during gestation and their supposed modes of action has to be considered. In the genetic model for calving traits estimates the following components has to be included such as direct, maternal, and direct-maternal interaction. Thus, accurate and complete reporting of calving ease and stillbirth data is critical for several reasons: increase the accuracy of sire calving ease and daughter calving ease evaluations; allow the development of national stillbirth evaluations; the farmer can enhance future sire selection opportunities for the herd. The aim is to reduce economic losses, improve welfare status of animals, meeting increased concern of consumer acceptance of milk and dairy products.

  12. [Inherited thrombopathia in Simmental cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R

    2016-02-01

    During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685

  13. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis. PMID:15303392

  14. Impact of cattle on the prevalence and severity of trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...

  15. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib

    2015-01-01

    Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...

  16. CTX-M producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto; Denny Widaya Lukman; Hadri Latif; Herwin Pisestyani; Eddy Sukmawinata; Omer Akineden; Ewald Usleber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia. Methods: A total of 220 cattle feces samples were collected from Bogor slaughterhouse from March to April 2015. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli was detected by disc diffusion test based on the recommendation from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2014). Bacterial strains which were confirmed as producing ESBLs were further analyzed for the presence of bla genes of the ESBL by PCR. Results: The results showed that CTX-M producing E. coli isolates were detected in 19 samples from 220 samples (8.6%). The b-lactamase genes detected were CTX-M-1 (n = 10) and CTX-M-9 (n = 9). All of the CTX-M producing E. coli isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least four antibiotics. The highest incidence of an-tibiotics resistance was showed to ampicillin (100.0%), cefotaxime (100.0%), and cef-podoxime (100.0%), followed by streptomycin (84.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.7%), erythromycin (52.6%), kanamycin (26.3%), doxycycline (10.5%), and ceftazi-dime (0.0%). Conclusions: Detection of CTX-M-producing E. coli in cattle feces raises important questions as they can represent a potential risk factor to public health.

  17. Organic matter fractions and soil fertility under the influence of liming, vermicompost and cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagi Renato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates effects of cattle manure vermicompost in association with liming on soil fertility indexes. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions, in pots containing samples of a Typic Hapludox, medium-textured soil. Five levels of vermicompost (equivalent to 0, 28, 42, 56, and 70 t ha-1, dry weight and five liming levels (to raise base saturation to 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% were combined in a factorial scheme and samples were incubated for 180 days. Samples of the same soil received the equivalent to 70 t ha-1 of the cattle manure used to produce the vermicompost, and the same lime rates. Cattle manure was better than vermicompost to supply K and Mg. Small differences in P supply were observed between the manures. The vermicompost increased the levels of Ca, pH, organic matter (OM and CEC more than the manure. C-humic acids decreased and C-humin increased with vermicompost application. With liming, C-humic acids decreased, but the total content of OM was not affected.

  18. Relationship between physical attributes and heat stress in dairy cattle from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Evelyn Priscila München; Barbosa da Silva, Marcos Vinicius Gualberto; dos Santos Daltro, Darlene; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Kolling, Giovani; Fischer, Vivian; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando (½ and ¾ Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

  19. Social network analysis of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. PMID:27012718

  20. Latent Demand and Time Contextual Constraints to Outdoor Recreation in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Wolf-Watz; Peter Fredman; Ulla Romild; Mike Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the latent demand to outdoor recreation participation and identifies what factors are constraining people from realizing this demand. In Sweden, recreation in the outdoors is seen as a public right as articulated in public policy and much of the outdoor recreation centre around forested landscapes—over 60 percent of the land area is classified as forest. Using data from a nationwide survey of 43 recreation activities, the study takes a time-contextual approach to reveal va...

  1. Ghettoizing Outdoor Advertising: Disadvantage and Ad Panel Density in Black Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Kwate, Naa OyoA.; Lee, Tammy H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated correlates of outdoor advertising panel density in predominantly African American neighborhoods in New York City. Research shows that black neighborhoods have more outdoor advertising space than white neighborhoods, and these spaces disproportionately market alcohol and tobacco advertisements. Thus, understanding the factors associated with outdoor advertising panel density has important implications for public health. We linked 2000 census data with property data at t...

  2. Learning outdoor leadership: a qualitative study of adult students' experiences in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Enoksen, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore students’ learning, experiences and understandings of outdoor leadership. In the theoretical framework different aspects of friluftsliv and outdoor leadership were reviewed. Experiential learning and the self-directed learning approach were the main learning perspectives in the theoretical framework. The literature review showed that limited research effort has been directed to the topics of outdoor leadership, transition into leadership and self-...

  3. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  4. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  5. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  6. Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People with Pacemakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158688.html Sleep Apnea May Raise Heart Risks in People With ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with heart pacemakers and sleep apnea are at much greater risk for a ...

  7. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  8. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  9. Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159036.html Pot While Pregnant May Raise Premature Birth Risk: Study Experts' advice ... May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking pot while pregnant may increase the risk of premature delivery, a ...

  10. 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161039.html 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk: Study But ... study tested a popular trend known as "baby-led" weaning: Instead of introducing solid foods the traditional ...

  11. Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160962.html Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay ... even higher when kids have more than one food allergy, researchers say To use the sharing features ...

  12. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  13. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  14. Risk factors associated with anthrax in cattle on smallholdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, P. K.; Islam, Md Zohorul; Shil, S. K.;

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented high rates of anthrax outbreaks have been observed recently in cattle and humans in Bangladesh, with 607 human cases in 2010. By enrolling 15 case and 15 control cattle smallholdings in the spatial zone in July-September 2010, we conducted a case-control study, data of which were...... independent risk factors for anthrax in cattle....

  15. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  16. 9 CFR 93.427 - Cattle from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...

  17. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  18. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  19. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  20. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison;

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we...

  1. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  2. Indoor radon concentration and outdoor/indoor pressure difference correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current approach to the radon issue, the radon risk for people living in a building is estimated based on the average indoor radon concentration. Short-term measurements as usually applied fail to reflect the wide range of radon variations arising from ventilation, radon supply and, in particular, human activities in the building. For this reason, efforts are made to find a new approach to the assessment of the quality of a building as a radon barrier, independent of the weather conditions and residential habits. A simple model of radon volume activity entering the building at a constant rate and simultaneously ventilated at a constant rate is applicable to this task. The rate of radon ingress can be regarded as a parameter making it possible to quantify the leakage of structures provided the barrier against the radon in a soil gas. The ventilation rate, on the other hand, characterizes the leakage of the whole building envelope at a given outdoor/indoor pressure difference. A unique measuring technique called the blower door exists whereby a defined pressure difference between the indoor and outdoor atmosphere can be established. Under such conditions both the ventilation rate and the rate of radon ingress can be measured and expressed as a function of the pressure difference. An analysis of the model of a room with a constant ventilation and constant radon supply is presented and the relationship between radon supply and ventilation rate can be assumed. Some experimental results show how the model can be utilized. The real indoor-outdoor air pressure differences, the indoor-soil air pressure differences, and some effects of different ventilation regimes are given. Other experiments, which have been done by using the blower door method, illustrate the possible effects and some restrictions for a routine application are discussed

  3. An indoor air aerosol model for outdoor contaminant transmission into occupied rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hui; ZHAO Shen; CAO Guo-qing

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a simple model for outdoor air contaminant transmission into occupied rooms. In the model, several factors such as filtration, ventilation, deposition, re-emission, outdoor concentration and indoor sources are included. The model results show that the air exchange rate plays an important role in the transmission of outdoor contaminants into the indoor environment. The model shows that increasing the value of the filtration efficiency decreases the mass concentration of indoor particles. In addition, if outdoor aerosol particles have a periodic behaviour, indoor aerosol particles also behave periodically but smoother. Indoor sources are found to be able to increase indoor concentrations greatly and continuously.

  4. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  5. Impedance characterization of PV modules in outdoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Matei-lon; Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso;

    2016-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy (IS) has been used for laboratory characterizations of photovoltaic (PV) technologies under well controlled conditions. This work applies IS for outdoor characterization of PV panels, in order to observe the effect of irradiance (G) and temperature (T) on the PV module’s...... impedance spectrum, and further construct an impedance model that can link environmental changes to the model’s parameters. To achieve this, an optimized setup has been developed for long-term impedance spectra monitoring synchronised with accurate irradiance and temperature data. Preliminary results show...

  6. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  7. Radon in outdoor air in the Mt. Etna area, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vaupotič, J.; Department of Environmental Sciences, Radon Center, Jožef Stefan Institute; Zvab, P.; Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana; Giammanco, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2010-01-01

    Radon (222Rn) activity concentration in outdoor air was measured, using AlphaGuard radon monitors, at 25 points in the Mt. Etna area, at different distances and in different directions from the summit. Values of up to 93 Bq·m–3 were found at three points close to the summit, at altitudes of about 3000 m above the sea level, and in the range of 3.0–19.6 Bq·m–3 elsewhere. An average radon concentration of 7.9 Bq·m–3 was obtained in the northern region, 4.8 Bq·m–3 in the eastern (ori...

  8. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  9. Spatial Resilience of Outdoor Domestic Space in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Felicio Veríssimo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the people of Mozambique have faced oppression and social spatial segregation and responded in a way that has reinforced rather than dismantled their traditional values. Since pre-colonial times, the population’s strategy for escaping from environmental and foreign political disruption has been to reinvent tradition, based on the principles of resilience, resistance and self-reliance. The development of decentralised human settlements, involving the appropriation of land for domestic space and the self-organisation of neighbourhoods, were strategies to protect communities from adversity and secure collective self-reliance. Following Mozambique’s conversion to globalization, the post-colonial ‘cement city’ is now the core of neo-liberalism, as a node of the global economy, where foreign donors and international market economy control national political economy, exacerbating the premise of the negation of self-sufficiency that continues to evolve resiliently at its margins. The adoption of a neo-liberal model of development during the 1990s, completely bypasses the realities of Mozambican society. This paper argues that the strategy of self-production of space regarding the household/Outdoor Domestic Space unit, which existed previously as a resistance strategy, first of all against colonialism and secondly, against the statist definition of socialism, thirdly, has become a successful strategy for survival, as the building block of the decentralised Agrocity, in the face of a global economy which totally neglects both the people and the land. Outdoor Domestic Space is a multifaceted space that refers to the external space surrounding the built house and which, in the case of Mozambique, is where daily life takes place, involving strong social, ecological and productive functions. Under successive periods of political economy oppression and environmental adversity, the Outdoor Domestic Space has been adapted and refined to

  10. Outdoor robot : characteristics and calculation of the mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Martínez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the following project is to work on an outdoor robot. It has been designed to explore and work in open areas or indoor places as big pipes or caves. The main idea of the project is to develop the movements of the robot. For which the program MATLAB is used to simulate the trajectories. The robot can make some type of movements; they are evaluated acording to the characteristics and the restrictions of the robot. First all the components of the robot are analysed. Once fini...

  11. It's a Wrap! Reviewing the 1997 Outdoor Season

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, J R

    1997-01-01

    The 100m world rankings of the 1997 outdoor track and field competition season are reviewed, subject to corrections for wind effects and atmospheric drag. The rankings and times are compared with those of 1996, and the improvements of each athlete over the course of a year are discussed. Additionally, the athletes' wind-corrected 50m and 60m splits from the 1997 IAAF World Championships are compared to the 1997 indoor world rankings over the same distances, as an attempt to predict possible performances for the coming 1998 indoor season.

  12. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  13. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  15. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  16. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  17. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  18. DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS’ BEHAVIOUR AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFORT TO ENHANCE THE ECONOMIC OF SCALE AT GETASAN DISTRICT, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Eddy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to investigate the behavior of dairy farmers and factorsaffecting the effort to enhance the economic of scale. Survey was conducted on 75 dairy farmers atGetasan District, Semarang Regency. Samples were drawn in random from villages of Jetak, Batur andTajur, 25 farmers each. The data were analyzed by logit model regression, using 15 indicators ofbehavioural approach and socio-economic factors as predictors (independent variables i.e. ages, formaleducation, family size, experience in cattle rearing, number of cattle raised, production of milk and landoccupation. The result showed that 40.04% of the farmers were good, 33.07% were moderate and20.89% were low risk takers. The farmers’ behaviour in enhancing economic of scale significantlyinfluenced by the farmers’ age, milk production and number of cattle reared. The odds ratio of ages,milk production and number of cattle reared were 0.93; 1.32 and 1.37, respectively. These valuesindicated that as values of ages increased as much as 1 year, the values of the willingness on risk takingwill decrease as much as 0.93 times; the values of milk production increase as much as 1 litre, the valuesof the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as 1.32 times; and the values of the number ofcattle increased as much as 1 AU, the values of the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as1.37 times.

  19. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.

  20. Possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nahed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities for converting conventional cattle production to the organic model were evaluated in the Grijalva River Basin, Mexico, and possible interventions were identified. A multi-criteria organic livestock conversion index (OLCI with 10 indicators comprising 35 variables was used. Information was obtained through participatory workshops, direct observation, and interviews to 91 farmers of 11 different communities in the municipalities of Mazapa de Madero (n = 17, Huitiupán (n = 30, and Tacotalpa (n = 44. Results show higher OLCI values in Mazapa (56.8% and Tacotalpa (56.7% than in Huitiupán (49.0%. The production units evaluated show: (i limitations with respect to indicators ecological weed control in pastures and crops, veterinary prevention and treatment, food safety, and ecological management, and (ii strengths to reach the organic standards are: feed management, sustainable pasture management, soil fertilization, ecological pest and disease control in pastures and crops, breeds and reproduction, and animal well-being. In order to revert the future scenario of conventional livestock production and to transition to organic cattle raising, it is necessary to: (1 train and advice farmers regarding ecological production techniques and management, principally with respect to the limitations pointed out, and (2 implement a policy for development of livestock raising with specific functional and structural changes.

  1. Study on the effects of season and genotypes on the reproductive performance in crossbred cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was aimed at determining the reproductive performance of various genotypes of crossbred cattle during two seasons (dry and rainy seasons) under smallholder and state farm conditions. The comparison of the fertility indices observed in various crossbred groups showed that oestrus and conception frequencies were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. The percentages of cows showing oestrus and elevated plasma progesterone level during the post-partum period were lower in the dry season than in the rainy season. The fertility indices were significantly different in crossbred groups (P<0.05), with those in 3/4 Holstein Friesian (HF) crossbred cows being better than those in 1/2 and 7/8 HF crossbred cows. The milk yield of crossbred cattle was positively correlated with the percentage of HF blood in crosses. The milk production in the rainy season was higher than that in the dry season. The lower daily crude protein intake in the dry season depressed milk yield. There was no correlation between daily dry matter intake and milk yield in both seasons. The fertility indices and milk yield of crossbred cows which were raised under smallholder farm conditions were higher than those in animals raised under state farm conditions. The results of this study show that 3/4 HF crossbreds performed better than 1/2 of 7/8 HF crosses and that seasons affected performance. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Feeding corn milling byproducts to feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfenstein, Terry J; Erickson, Galen E; Bremer, Virgil R

    2007-07-01

    Corn milling byproducts are expected to increase dramatically in supply as the ethanol industry expands. Distillers grains, corn gluten feed, or a combination of both byproducts offer many feeding options when included in feedlot rations. These byproduct feeds may effectively improve cattle performance and operation profitability. When these byproducts are fed in feedlot diets, adjustments to grain processing method and roughage level may improve cattle performance. Innovative storage methods for wet byproducts and the use of dried byproducts offer small operations flexibility when using byproducts. As new byproducts are developed by ethanol plants, they should be evaluated with performance data to determine their product-specific feeding values. PMID:17606148

  3. Naturally occurring radionuclides in pasture soil, feed ingredients and milk of dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turtiainen, T.; Kostiainen, E.; Solatie, D. [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are generally considered being respective part of the environment and hence no statutory monitoring of their levels are required in food products. Therefore, limited data are available on the naturally occurring radionuclides in food. Dairy products constitute a significant portion of Finnish diet (400-500 g/d) and hence it is reasonable to study radionuclide levels in milk in more detail. Contrary to caesium, strontium and iodine, few transfer coefficients are available in the literature for naturally occurring radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. The renaissance of mining industry in Finland has raised a question among the public about the baseline values of naturally occurring radionuclides in Finnish agricultural products. The objective of this study was to investigate naturally occurring radionuclides in the components of dairy cattle diet and milk and calculate their transfer to milk. This information is needed for regulating the permitted discharges to the environment and for setting up monitoring programs if any unplanned discharges are released. In modern dairy farming, cattle are fed a precise diet in order to maximize milk production and quality and to achieve cost-effectiveness. Therefore, several different components are found in dairy cattle's diet and pasture grass concentrations are not sufficient for calculating radionuclide transfer to cow's milk. In this study, we carried out comprehensive sampling at four dairy farms each representing different areas of natural radiation background. The pasture soils were characterized and measured for natural radioactivity. Samples were taken from cattle's total diet (including e.g. pasture grass, water, silage, mineral forage) and milk. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  4. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  5. Mobile gaze tracking system for outdoor walking behavioral studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Matteo; Pundlik, Shrinivas; Bowers, Alex R; Peli, Eli; Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Most gaze tracking techniques estimate gaze points on screens, on scene images, or in confined spaces. Tracking of gaze in open-world coordinates, especially in walking situations, has rarely been addressed. We use a head-mounted eye tracker combined with two inertial measurement units (IMU) to track gaze orientation relative to the heading direction in outdoor walking. Head movements relative to the body are measured by the difference in output between the IMUs on the head and body trunk. The use of the IMU pair reduces the impact of environmental interference on each sensor. The system was tested in busy urban areas and allowed drift compensation for long (up to 18 min) gaze recording. Comparison with ground truth revealed an average error of 3.3° while walking straight segments. The range of gaze scanning in walking is frequently larger than the estimation error by about one order of magnitude. Our proposed method was also tested with real cases of natural walking and it was found to be suitable for the evaluation of gaze behaviors in outdoor environments. PMID:26894511

  6. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km{sup 2}, the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km{sup 2} or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km{sup 2} are posted as surface contamination and 10 km{sup 2} are posted as underground contamination.

  7. The Archaeo-Astronomy Project -- Supporting the Outdoor Classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, D; Alder, A

    2010-01-01

    Field trips and the outdoor classroom are a vital part of many courses at school and FE/HE level. They apply previously obtained skills and knowledge in the field and further deeper learning. However, it would be desirable to teach the material in situ rather than providing a field trip at the end of a course; thereby avoiding referring to the field trip in a few months time where everything will become much clearer. Furthermore, there is clear evidence provided by the National Peak Park Authority on how neglected e.g. the Peak District National Park sites are by Primary and Secondary schools. They quote inaccessibility and other common barriers associated to the outdoor classroom. The archaeo-astronomy project envisages the development of an Elearning environment allowing FE/HE students and pupils (Key Stage 2-4) to experience and explore ancient landscapes e.g. in the Peak District National Park. This project would support the learning experience of students on science and environmental modules. Furthermore...

  8. Outdoor Air Quality Level Inference via Surveillance Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a universal problem confronted by many developing countries. Because there are very few air quality monitoring stations in cities, it is difficult for people to know the exact air quality level anytime and anywhere. Fortunately, large amount of surveillance cameras have been deployed in the cities and can capture image densely and conveniently in the cities. In this case, this provides the possibility to utilize surveillance cameras as sensors to obtain data and predict the air quality level. To this end, we present a novel air quality level inference approach based on outdoor images. Firstly, we explore several features extracted from images as the robust representation for air quality prediction. Then, to effectively fuse these heterogeneous and complementary features, we adopt multikernel learning to learn an adaptive classifier for air quality level inference. In addition, to facilitate the research, we construct an Outdoor Air Quality Image Set (OAQIS dataset, which contains high quality registered and calibrated images with rich labels, that is, concentration of particles mass (PM, weather, temperature, humidity, and wind. Extensive experiments on the OAQIS dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant. PMID:26531805

  10. Radon survey in outdoor workplaces of the Tsugaru area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously surveyed indoor Rn concentration in homes throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found a mean Rn concentration of 9 Bq m-3. For accurate evaluation of radiation dose from Rn, its concentration not only in the home but also in workplaces and schools is important, since workers and students spend approximately one-third of the day in these places. Then, we obtained indoor Rn concentrations in several indoor workplaces and schools in Aomori Prefecture. Now, measurements of Rn in outdoor workplaces have been planned for the prefecture during a two-year period. Results for half the prefecture, the Tsugaru area, are described here. Passive Rn detectors using polycarbonate film were employed for long-term monitoring. Diurnal variations of Rn and its daughter nuclides were measured by an active Rn detector with an ionization chamber and a working level meter, respectively. The mean Rn concentration obtained with the passive detectors was approximately 6 Bq m-3 in the outdoor workplaces, and lower than that in the indoor workplaces and school (14 Bq m-3). The Rn concentrations for fishing boats and harbors were slightly lower than typical values and some data for forests were higher than other workplaces. The diurnal variations, i.e. higher concentrations at night and lower ones during the day, were observed by the active detectors. (author)

  11. Drinking behaviour in sows kept outdoors during the winter months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    of water intake in sows kept outdoors with free access to water. Thestudy was performed on an organic pig herd with outdoor sows. Twenty-four Danish Lan-drace × Yorkshire sows of different parity (mean: 4.5 ± 2.8) housed in individual farrowingpaddocks with free access to water provided by a frost......-proof drinking bowl were used. Theindividual sow’s water intake from the drinking bowl was measured continuously fromsix days before farrowing until weaning at seven weeks after farrowing. Temperature ofsupplied water to each drinking bowl, air temperature and rainfall was measured contin-uously. Numbers of born...... between 8.00 and 20.00 h. The extra water uptake on FD compared toCD was recorded between 8.00 and 16.00 h (P Water intake did not differ at nightin the period from 20.00 to 8.00 h (6.42 l vs. 6.44 l, respectively for FD and CD). There wasno difference between FD and CD in number of visits...

  12. Geometric and Colour Data Fusion for Outdoor 3D Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacón

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the generation of accurate, dense and coloured 3D models of outdoor scenarios from scanners. This is a challenging research field in which several problems still remain unsolved. In particular, the process of 3D model creation in outdoor scenes may be inefficient if the scene is digitalized under unsuitable technical (specific scanner on-board camera and environmental (rain, dampness, changing illumination conditions. We address our research towards the integration of images and range data to produce photorealistic models. Our proposal is based on decoupling the colour integration and geometry reconstruction stages, making them independent and controlled processes. This issue is approached from two different viewpoints. On the one hand, given a complete model (geometry plus texture, we propose a method to modify the original texture provided by the scanner on-board camera with the colour information extracted from external images taken at given moments and under specific environmental conditions. On the other hand, we propose an algorithm to directly assign external images onto the complete geometric model, thus avoiding tedious on-line calibration processes. We present the work conducted on two large Roman archaeological sites dating from the first century A.D., namely, the Theatre of Segobriga and the Fori Porticus of Emerita Augusta, both in Spain. The results obtained demonstrate that our approach could be useful in the digitalization and 3D modelling fields.

  13. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  14. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  15. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  16. Determination of the Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Raw Milk Somatic Cell Count of Brown Swiss Cows Raised in Farmer Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Şahin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, it was aimed to determine Somatic Cell Count (SCC and the factors effecting on SCC in milk samples of Brown Swiss cattle raised at different farm conditions in Yıldızeli district of Sivas province in Turkey. Raw milk samples were collected at morning milking in months of May and November in year 2012. In total, 244 milk samples from 122 Brown Swiss cattle were analyzed. The effects of calving age, farm and test month on SCC were statistically significant. In the present study, the average SCC was determined as 1209696±111361 cells/ml. About 56.6% of milk from November month and about 48.4 % of milk samples from Brown Swiss were containing over 500.000 cell/ ml. As a result, Brown Swiss cattle identified SCC in raw milk samples were significantly higher than the values specified in the legislation of the European Union Commission and Turkish Food Codex.

  17. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Status of Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yong-jiang; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; XU Ming; ZHANG Liu; CHANG Guo-bin; SONG Wei-tao; WANG Dong-lei

    2006-01-01

    A total of 87 individuals of Luxi cattle from Juanchen and Liangshan counties, Shangdong Province, China, were sampled by simple random sampling in typical colony. Twenty-one blood proteins and enzymes loci were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE). In the meantime, the data of 7 loci of 13 cattle populations in China and other countries were collected and phylogeny relationships were studied. The results indicated that 9 out of 21 loci showed polymorphism (42.86%); the level of genetic variation in Luxi cattle population was relatively high, the mean heterozygosity was 0.1416. The Luxi cattle have a close phylogenetic relationship with the cattle populations of east and south of Asia, and this further confirmed the fact that Luxi cattle were the cross-breed between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China, but it is impossible that yellow cattle contained the blood of of Bali.

  18. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M A Islam; Alam, M.K.; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components...

  19. Raising awareness of climate change: Experience in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukantis, A.; Kliucininkas, L.; Rimkus, E.; Talockaite, E.

    2007-07-01

    Climate change is getting increased political attention all over the world. Academic research and studies, as well as formal and informal education are prominent participants in the public debate on climate change. Results of the public opinion poll show that although most people in Lithuania are aware of climate change and its threats, additional reliable information is highly required. Awareness-raising activities on climate change issues are foreseen in several national strategic documents. However, awareness-raising activities implemented in Lithuania in recent years could be considered to be isolated instances with a lack of monitoring of implementation and achieved results, lessons learnt, as well as a lack of continuity and coordination between different activities. New awareness-raising methods have to be created and used in order to attract as many target groups as possible. This chapter gives an overview of the main outcomes of the survey of public opinion on climate change issues in Lithuania. Recommendations for awareness-raising in different target groups, as well as several good examples of awareness raising on climate change in engineering studies and activities carried out by non-governmental organizations are presented. (orig.)

  20. Profitability analysis of beef cattle under extensive pasture in low-technology production system in the south of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the profitability of the beef cattle raising business of production systems with a complete production cycle (breeding, rearing and fattening under grazing regime of low technology in the region of Carrancas, south of the State of Minas Gerais. It was intended, to identify the components which exercised the greatest influence upon the final costs of the business, identify the break-even point and study the feasibility of the partnership in which the cattle raiser does posses any expenditure for pay of the worker who receives for the work of management of the animals in area to develop that livestock raising business. The data used was collected from the period of May of 2008 to September of 2009 (16 months. The profitability analysis was conducted by the software Custo Bovino Corte® (Beef Cattle Cost, taking into account the gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economic efficiency. The positive gross and net margins points out that the beef cattle business of complete cycle, under extensive grazing regime, developed in the studied production system, has conditions to survive on the short and long run; but on the long run, the stockman is decapitalizing, once the result was negative. The component items of the total cost which had most influence upon the costs of the business were, in a decreasing order: purchase of the animals, remuneration of the land, depreciation, remuneration on the invested capital, feeding and health.

  1. Transmembrane proteins--Mining the cattle tick transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Sabine A; Stutzer, Christian; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Managing the spread and load of pathogen-transmitting ticks is an important task worldwide. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, not only impacts the economy through losses in dairy and meat production, but also raises concerns for human health in regards to the potential of certain transmitted pathogens becoming zoonotic. However, novel strategies to control R. microplus are hindered by lack of understanding tick biology and the discovery of suitable vaccine or acaricide targets. The importance of transmembrane proteins as vaccine targets are well known, as is the case in tick vaccines with Bm86 as antigen. In this study, we describe the localization and functional annotation of 878 putative transmembrane proteins. Thirty proteins could be confirmed in the R. microplus gut using LC-MS/MS analysis and their roles in tick biology are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, 19 targets have not been reported before in any proteomics study in various tick species and the possibility of using the identified proteins as targets for tick control are discussed. Although tissue expression of identified putative proteins through expansive proteomics is necessary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using bioinformatics for the identification of targets for further evaluation in tick control strategies. PMID:26096851

  2. Thai indigenous cattle production provided a sustainable alternative for the benefit of small-scale farmers, healthy food and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there were 5.66 million indigenous cattle and 1.76 million of their crosses. Farmers raised these cattle integrated with crop and fish in livestock-crop-fish integrated farming systems. These farming systems are in small scales for efficient utilization of available resources and for maximisation of production of diversified products per unit area to increase the income of the farmers and enhance food production. Thai indigenous cattle meat have more specific nutrient that are beneficial for consumers, such as omega 3, omega 6, and CLA. Furthermore, farmers use cattle manures as fertilizer for crop production, production of plankton for the fish and biogas/electric power used in the household. Additionally, Thai indigenous cattle are used for draught power. Consequently, Thai indigenous cattle increased food production and there was minimal cattle waste on farms thus, we could keep the environment clean and green. Performance data, meat quality, compost production, biogas production, and draught animal and reference were collected from 103 smallholder farmers in the northern part of Thailand, northeastern, central and southern parts of Thailand during October 2005 to September 2007. Growth and reproductive performance: Thai indigenous cattle had various skin and hair colour such as red, light brown, black, piebald, and only Kow-Lamphun cattle in northern part of Thailand, orange-pink skin and white hair colour. Their navels were not slackened but attached to the belly. Their dewlaps were also not slacken. The average birth weight was 19.6 kg and the weaning weight at 200 d of age was 137.96 kg. They had good characteristics of heat tolerance, disease resistance, and high fertility traits. They were the main red-meat source for consumers. Thai indigenous cattle were main source of red meat for consumption in Thailand. They produced high Omega 3 and Omega 6 in red meat, so their meat was the main source of protein and healthy food.Other utility of Thai

  3. Host resistance in cattle to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Piper, E K; Constantinoiu, C C

    2014-11-01

    Resistance to Rhipicephalus microplus infestation in cattle has many effector mechanisms, each of which is likely to be modulated by complex, interacting factors. Some of the mechanisms of host resistance and their modulating factors have been identified and quantified, although much remains to be explained. The variation in resistance to tick infestation is most marked between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, taurine cattle given the same exposure carrying between five and 10 times as many ticks as indicine cattle. Tick resistance is mostly manifest against attaching larvae, which attempt to feed often and without success, death occurring mostly within 24 h of finding a host. There is evidence of innate and adaptive immune response to tick infestation, and it appears that the relative importance of each differs between indicine and taurine cattle. There is conflicting information regarding the role of humoral immunity in tick resistance, and recent studies indicate that strong IgG responses to tick antigens are not protective. A strong T-cell-mediated response directed against larval stages, as mounted by indicine cattle, seems to be protective. Variation in the extracellular matrix of skin (epidermal growth factors, collagens and other matrix components such as lumican) also contributes to variation in host resistance. PMID:25313455

  4. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  5. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  6. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management. PMID:27493068

  7. The Outdoor MEDIA DOT: The Development and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Tool Designed to Measure Food and Beverage Outlets and Outdoor Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently c...

  8. Energy and nutrient recovery from cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...

  9. On the history of cattle genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen; Beerling, Marie Louise; Buchanan, David S.; Theunissen, Bert; Koolmees, Peter A.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give

  10. RECENT SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS IN THE CATTLE GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (> or =90% sequence identity, > or =5 kb length) within the newest public version of the Bos taurus genome assembly (bta_3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the cattle assembly is approximately equiva...

  11. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  12. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  13. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  14. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  15. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementat

  16. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  17. Mastitis associated transcriptomic disruptions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...

  18. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  19. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  20. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  1. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  2. Using the visitor experiences for mapping the possibilities of implementing a robotic guide in outdoor sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, D.E.; Dijk, van E.M.A.G.; Evers, V.

    2012-01-01

    FROG (Fun Robotic Outdoor Guide) is a project that aims to develop an outdoor robotic guide that enriches the visitor experience in touristic sites. This paper is a first step toward a guide robot and presents a case study on how to analyze the visitors’ experience and examine opportunities for a fu

  3. Does outdoor work during the winter season protect against depression and mood difficulties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ina H; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Dalsgaard, Sofie B;

    2011-01-01

    At temperate latitudes, 1-5% of the population suffer from winter depression; during winter, mood difficulties tend to increase but may be alleviated by bright light therapy. Unlike indoor workers, outdoor workers are exposed to therapeutic levels of sunlight during winter. We hypothesized...... that outdoor work may protect against mood difficulties and depression....

  4. The Outdoor Environment in Norwegian Kindergartens as Pedagogical Space for Toddlers' Play, Learning and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Martinsen, Marianne T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some characteristics of the outdoor environment in Norwegian kindergartens. Understood as pedagogical space, outdoor conditions may enhance or restrict the youngest children's possibilities for play, learning and development. In 117 of 133 kindergartens (response rate: 87 %) participating in a longitudinal study, the heads of…

  5. Outdoor Centers and Camps: A 'Natural' Location for Youth Leadership Development. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielsmeier, James C.

    This digest offers camp leaders, outdoor experiential educators, school and college faculty, or youth agency staff who are interested in nurturing youth leaders a framework for designing youth leadership programs which employ an outdoor setting as a "leadership classroom." Basic categories for leadership theory are defined: trait theory,…

  6. Outdoor Natural Science Learning with an RFID-Supported Immersive Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tsung-Yu; Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chu, Yu-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Despite their successful use in many conscientious studies involving outdoor learning applications, mobile learning systems still have certain limitations. For instance, because students cannot obtain real-time, context-aware content in outdoor locations such as historical sites, endangered animal habitats, and geological landscapes, they are…

  7. A Historical Review of Outdoor Leadership Curricular Development and the Future with Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelchat, Christopher; Karp, Grace Goc

    2012-01-01

    This article is a call for research to be conducted on how to adequately design and evaluate outdoor leader preparation programs (Sugerman, 1999). The profession of outdoor leadership has been slow to examine effective ways of assessing the development of student knowledge, disposition, and performance that inform instructional practice and…

  8. An Empirical Examination of Outdoor Behavioral Healthcare Field Instructor Job-Related Stress and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Genevieve; Russell, Keith C.; Cross, Reid

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze demographic characteristics and job related difficulties experienced by field instructors in outdoor behavioral healthcare programs which utilized wilderness therapy as well as other treatment modalities. Three state-licensed outdoor behavioral healthcare programs in the United States provided a…

  9. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  10. View the Zoo! Evaluation of Visual Communication in an Outdoor Educational Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; And Others

    Almost all of what people learn from outdoor educational settings such as zoos and gardens stems from the exhibits themselves or signs about the exhibits. Evaluation of the various forms of visual communication in outdoor educational settings is necessary to determine the effectiveness of exhibitions, educational activities, and/or conservation…

  11. Perceived Impact on Student Engagement When Learning Middle School Science in an Outdoor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, James

    2014-01-01

    Human beings have an innate need to spend time outside, but in recent years children are spending less time outdoors. It is possible that this decline in time spent outdoors could have a negative impact on child development. Science teachers can combat the decline in the amount of time children spend outside by taking their science classes…

  12. The Indoorisation of Outdoor Sports. An Exploration of the Rise of Lifestyle Sports in Artificial Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenburg, Maarten van; Salome, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    During the last twenty years, a remarkable new type of service has been developed in the world of sports, which can be described as the indoorisation of outdoor sports. Typical outdoor sports like climbing, skiing, surfing, rowing, and skydiving, which used to be exclusively practiced in a natural e

  13. Students' Imaginings of Spaces of Learning in Outdoor and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I interrogate students' stories about the spaces and places in a tertiary Outdoor and Environmental Education course that support and shape their environmental ethics. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative study, I explore the ways in which particular sites of learning (outdoor, practical learning) are privileged and how…

  14. Exploring Kindergarten Teachers' Views and Roles Regarding Children's Outdoor Play Environments in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihmeideh, Fathi M.; Al-Qaryouti, Ibrahim A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore kindergarten teachers' views and roles regarding outdoor play environments in Omani kindergartens. Thirty kindergarten teachers from 15 private kindergartens were observed and interviewed. The results indicated that teachers recognize the importance of outdoor play in children's development and learning.…

  15. Improving the Accuracy of Outdoor Educators' Teaching Self-Efficacy Beliefs through Metacognitive Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Scott; Sibthorp, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Accuracy in emerging outdoor educators' teaching self-efficacy beliefs is critical to student safety and learning. Overinflated self-efficacy beliefs can result in delayed skilled development or inappropriate acceptance of risk. In an outdoor education context, neglecting the accuracy of teaching self-efficacy beliefs early in an educator's…

  16. Whose Place, Whose History? Outdoor Environmental Education Pedagogy as "Reading" the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alistair

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor education practice around the world occurs in diverse circumstances, environments and cultures. The application of outdoor education to specific cultural and environmental issues in particular places and communities has received little attention in research. While research in fields such as cultural geography has addressed the…

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-7 - Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor household articles. 301.45-7 Section 301.45-7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-7 Assembly and inspection of regulated articles and outdoor...

  18. Place-Based Curriculum Making: Devising a Synthesis between Primary Geography and Outdoor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Outdoor learning provides children with an opportunity to experience the interdisciplinary nature of the real world through interactions with each other and the planet. Geographical enquiry involves exploring the outdoors in an investigative capacity. Space, place and sustainability are three core concepts in primary geography, although…

  19. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently affixed, adjacent to the outlet, a metal tag which reads: This Connection Is for Air Conditioning Equipment Rated...

  20. Consumer expectations of the quality of pork produced in sustainable outdoor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone; Magnussen, Maria

    on all dimensions of expected quality apart from price. Unrealistic expectations about a better taste of outdoor pork may become a serious problem. Related research has shown that disappointment can only be avoided when product qualities are achieved in outdoor and organic pork that come at least close...

  1. The Hidden Turmoil: Females Achieving Longevity in the Outdoor Learning Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle; Gray, Tonia

    2013-01-01

    Being a woman in the outdoor learning profession can bring distinctive challenges and roadblocks. Even more difficult is sustaining a life-long career, flourishing into a woman's 50s or 60s. Based on this premise, career longevity seems elusive for some women who aspire to work in the outdoors. This paper analyses the autobiographies of three…

  2. Sustaining an Environmental Ethic: Outdoor and Environmental Education Graduates' Negotiation of School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Lou

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I draw on interviews with graduates from an Outdoor and Environmental Education course to explore the ways in which their environmental ethics changed since leaving university. I do this in relation to the graduates' personal and professional experiences, particularly in the context of teaching Outdoor Education and Physical…

  3. Recontextualizing the Role of the Facilitator in Group Interaction in the Outdoor Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ina

    2009-01-01

    The traditional role of the facilitator in outdoor education is frequently seen as outside the group of participants, either in a position of power over the participants or detached and passive. Following an ethnographic study at a residential outdoor centre, an in-depth analysis of the facilitation process was carried out, which revealed that the…

  4. Using Outdoor Recreation to Foster Intercultural Understanding and the Integration of New Immigrants in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattel, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Being outdoors together seems to allow people to get beyond cultural differences effortlessly. This article describes how the author uses outdoor recreation to foster intercultural understanding and the integration of new immigrants in Montreal. She aims to foster crosscultural understanding and the integration of new immigrants through…

  5. The Great Outdoors: Comparing Leader Development Programs at the U.S. Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Wesley S.; Smith, David G.; Thomas, Joseph J.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares outdoor adventure-based leader development programs with a traditional non-outdoor program to test predictions about differential effects on leader development outcomes. Participants were drawn from the population of U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen involved in experiential leader development programs as a component of their…

  6. Older persons afraid of falling reduce physical activity to prevent outdoor falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Jong, R. de; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective.: The aim of this study was to test the assumption that the level of outdoor physical activity mediates the relationship between fear of falling and actual outdoor falls according to the Task Difficulty Homeostasis Theory. Method.: A prospective follow-up study of 10 months conducted in th

  7. Community Development, Transitional Value, and Institutional Affinity: Outdoor Orientation Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ryan A.; O'Connell, Timothy S.; Lathrop, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact of an outdoor orientation program (OOP) on a cohort of first-year university students who participated in a canoe trip facilitated by peer leaders. The curriculum included training for outdoor skills and transitional guidance to university life (i.e., strategies for time management, critical thinking, becoming…

  8. A Strengths-Based Approach to Outdoor and Adventure Education: Possibilities for Personal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Angela; Hall, Eric; Anderson, Mallory

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor and adventure education has been shown to result in positive psychological outcomes. This paper connects positive psychology--specifically, strengths-based education--to important outcomes in outdoor and adventure education. Strengths-based education encourages participants to intentionally use their talents to achieve success in the…

  9. Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Michigan's Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, David N.

    Michigan is widely recognized as a traditional leader in outdoor recreation and tourism. Its location and resources provide many comparative advantages toward attracting visitors. State spending for outdoor recreation amounted to $95 million over the decade ending in 1960. State and Federal policies and programs are likely to emphasize outdoor…

  10. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Lesser Lenard I; Zimmerman Frederick J; Cohen Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on...

  11. Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejer, H; Roepstorff, A

    2006-09-01

    Transmission of Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichuris suis was studied in outdoor reared pigs. Six farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated in May to mid-June 2001 by experimentally infected seeder pigs. In early July 1 sow farrowed on each paddock and starting at week 3 post-partum (p.p.) the offspring was slaughtered serially every 2 weeks for parasite recovery. Faeces were collected regularly for parasite egg counts and acid-insoluble ash (AIA) content as an indicator of geophagy. Weaning took place at week 7 p.p. by removing the sow. Paddock infection levels were estimated in mid-June (O. dentatum) and late November (O. dentatum and T. suis) using helminth-naïve tracer pigs. Soil and vegetation samples were collected regularly. Despite a high initial contamination by the seeder pigs, O. dentatum paddock infectivity was negligible to low throughout the raising of the experimental piglets, which had a slow accumulation of nodular worms ending with a mean of 422 worms/pig at week 19 p.p. As only few eggs developed to infectivity overall T. suis transmission was minimal. The first T. suis were recovered at week 11 p.p. and the highest mean burden of 21 worms/pig was recorded at week 19 p.p. The experimental pigs initially had a high faecal level of AIA although it decreased over time. The results are discussed in relation to the biological characteristics of the 2 parasites and their occurrence in organic pig production. PMID:16740181

  12. Vertical transmission of Mycoplasma wenyonii in cattle, supported by analysis of the ribonuclease P RNA gene - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, Fumina; Suzuki, Jin; Hirata, Toh-Ichi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Harasawa, Ryô; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The vertical transmission of Mycoplasma (M.) wenyonii was investigated in beef cattle raised on a farm in Japan by analysing the ribonuclease P RNA (rnpB) gene sequence using PCR. Peripheral blood samples from 17 dams infected with M. wenyonii and from their neonatal calves were collected and colostrum samples were taken from cows immediately after parturition, and subsequently the blood samples of calves were monitored continuously for three months. At birth on day 0, although no rnpB gene was detected in the colostrum of any of the dams, four (23.5%) of the 17 calves born were positive. At three months after delivery, the number of positive calves decreased to three. Although horizontal transmission by blood-feeding arthropod vectors has been basically accepted as the most common route of haemoplasma infection, these findings suggest that vertical transmission is, at least in part, another most likely route of M. wenyonii infection in cattle. PMID:26551417

  13. Nature connection, outdoor play, and environmental stewardship in residential environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejewski, Robert G.

    A lack of exposure to the natural world has led to a generation of children disconnected from nature. This phenomenon has profound negative implications for the physical and psychological well being of today's youth. Residential environmental education provides one avenue to connect children to nature. One purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Outdoor School, a residential environmental education program, on ecological knowledge, children's connection to nature, school belonging, outdoor play attitude, environmental stewardship attitude, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior, as reported by participants. A quasi-experimental research design was utilized in the study. A total of 228 fifth grade students (156 treatment, 72 control) from central Pennsylvania participated. The results of the program evaluation indicated that Outdoor School was successful in achieving significant, positive gains in the areas of ecological knowledge, connection to nature, outdoor play behavior, and environmental stewardship behavior. No change was found from pretest to post-test in outdoor play attitudes, environmental stewardship attitudes, and school belonging. Additionally, the study addressed gaps in the literature regarding the relationship between connection to nature, environmental stewardship, and outdoor play using two different approaches. An adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to predict outdoor play behavior in children. In this model, favorable attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control lead to intentions to perform a given behavior. Intention to perform the behavior is the best predictor for behavior performance. For this study, participants' feeling of connection to nature was added as an affective independent variable. This model explained 45% of the variance in outdoor play. The hypothesis that a connection to nature would be a significant predictor of both attitudes toward outdoor play was

  14. Raised intracranial pressure in Crouzon syndrome: incidence, causes, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Sittah, Ghassan S; Jeelani, Owase; Dunaway, David; Hayward, Richard

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Patients with Crouzon syndrome (CS) are at risk for developing raised intracranial pressure (ICP), which has the potential to impair both vision and neurocognitive development. For this reason, some experts recommend early prophylactic cranial vault expansion on the basis that if ICP is not currently raised, it is likely to become so. The aim of this study was to examine the justification for such a policy. This was done by analyzing the incidence, causes, and subsequent risk of recurrence in a series of patients with CS, in whom raised ICP was treated only after it had been diagnosed. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of the medical records and imaging data of patients with a clinical diagnosis of CS. RESULTS There were 49 patients in the study, of whom 30 (61.2%) developed at least 1 episode of raised ICP. First episodes occurred at an average age of 1.42 years and were attributable to craniocerebral disproportion/venous hypertension (19 patients), hydrocephalus (8 patients), and airway obstruction (3 patients). They were managed, respectively, by vault expansion, ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion, and airway improvement. Fourteen of the 30 patients developed a second episode of raised ICP an average of 1.42 years after treatment for their initial episode, and 3 patients developed a third episode an average of 3.15 years after that. Causes of subsequent episodes of raised ICP often differed from previous episodes and required different management. Patients who were < 1 year old when the first episode was diagnosed were at increased risk of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS Although the incidence of raised ICP in CS is high, it did not occur in nearly 40% of children during the course of this study. The several possible causes of CS require different management and may vary from episode to episode. The authors recommend an expectant policy toward these children with careful clinical, ophthalmological, respiratory, and radiological monitoring for raised

  15. Teachers’ intentions with outdoor teaching in school forests: Skills and knowledge teachers want students to develop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Wilhelmsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an interest among Swedish teachers to locate teaching outdoors. This study focuses on four teachers in grades 4-6, to explore their intentions and objectives with regular teaching outdoors. Datasources consist of semi-structured interviews, descriptions on successful activities, and reflections on metaphors. The use of intentional analysis and Bloom’s revised taxonomy on teachers’ objectives show that the teachers stress the out-of-school learning that draws on the actual world and concrete material. Yet their objectives with these authentic experiences are diverse. Two teachers have mainly cognitive objectives with a holistic view of knowledge where outdoor and indoor interact. To become knowledgeable, each individual student needs teaching in this proper context. The other two teachers primarily have affective objectives, in a dichotomy between learning theoretical knowledge indoors, and learning practical, concrete knowledge outdoors. They consider the outdoor arena as crucial for students with learning difficulties.

  16. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  17. Exploring the Relationship of Outdoor Recreational Resources to Physical Inactivity, Obesity and Diabetes for the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Access to outdoor recreational resources is important for promoting healthy behavior and physical activity, which may decrease the risk of disease. To date, no study has examined the relationship between access to outdoor recreational resources (including protected l...

  18. 76 FR 8709 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... to eliminate bovine babesiosis, a severe and often fatal cattle disease, from the U.S. cattle... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick... cattle fever ticks and southern cattle ticks out of tick-free areas beyond the permanent quarantine...

  19. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  20. Leakage Current Waveforms and Arcing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin for Outdoor Insulators under Clean and Salt Fogs

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno; S.K. Ardianto

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic outdoor insulators have been used in high voltage transmission lines since long time ago. Due to superiority in their resistance to pollution, recently, polymeric outdoor insulators are widely used. Epoxy resin is one polymer which shows good properties for outdoor insulation. During service, outdoor insulators may severe a certain degree of pollution which may reduce their surface resistance. Leakage current (LC) usually increase and degradation may take place. This paper reports ex...