WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattle goat sheep

  1. Goats, sheep, and cattle: some basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...

  2. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources. PMID:17927711

  3. Cerebrospinal Nematodiasis of Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghafari-Charati

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of setariasis in cattle and cerebrospinal nematodiasis in sheep and goats were determined in two geographical regions of Iran.Methods: In two provinces of Iran: Mazandaran (zone I and Qazvine (zoneII   where sheep and goats were suffering from symptoms similar to cerebrospinal nematodiasis, the peritoneal cavities of  763 and 1020 cattle were searched for adult Setaria sp. respectively. History taking of 4770 sheep from zone I and 25550 sheep and 3190 goats from zone II were per­formed for the presence and determination of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in sheep and goats. To study pathological changes induced in central nervous system 7 sheep from zone I and 4 sheep and 2 goats from zone II with symptoms similar to CSN were necropsied.Results: Our findings revealed that 47% and 13.2% of cattle in zone I and II harboured Setaria digitata (99.45% and S. digitata (67.12% plus S.labiato-papillosa (17.46% respectively. History taking showed that each year 2.53% of sheep in zone I and 1.65% of sheep and 1.25% of goats in some districts of zone II (e.g. Roudbar Alamout  suffered from symp­toms similar to cerebrospinal nematodiasis the main clinical signs of which were difficulty in hind limbs movement (lumbar paralysis. At necropsy, no lesions were observed macroscopically in the brains as well as spinal cords. But in a few cases, central nervous system were congested  and edematous .Histopathological examination of CNS of necropsied animals showed mild leptomeningitis and eosinophilic and lymphacytic encephalomyelitis with numerous hemorrhagic tracts, degeneration and necrosis due to migration of the larvae. The cross section of nematode larvae was observed in the brain section of a sheep in zone I. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that setariasis of cattle is very prevalent in both region mainly in zone I and sheep and goats harbor low percentage of CSN but with marked pathological lesions.

  4. ELISA to study antibody responses to anthrax vaccine in cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ELISA based on tri-partite toxin partially purified from Bacillus anthracis was used to determine the antibody responses of groups of cattle, sheep and goats after anthrax vaccination. All species produced detectable increases in antibody titres after vaccination with the order being cattle>sheep>goats. A second vaccination induced variable anamnestic responses depending on the species or time (6 or 22 weeks) after the primary dose. Large differences were observed between individual animals with respect to the antibody induced by the 2 vaccine doses. This observation, together with differences in vaccine quality and apparent immunogenicity may affect efficient control of anthrax outbreaks. ELISA provided a convenient method of determining the relative contribution of these factors to the protection afforded by anthrax vaccination programs. (author). 10 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vilares, Anabela; Neto, Francisco; Alcina RODRIGUES; Martins, Tânia; Ferreira, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; Rodrigues, Manuela; Cardoso, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal.Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analy­sis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III).Results:...

  6. Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in India

    OpenAIRE

    V. Balamurugan; Krishnamoorthy, P.; Raju, D. S. N.; Rajak, K. K.; Bhanuprakash, V.; Pandey, A. B.; Gajendragad, M. R.; Prabhudas, K.; Rahman, H

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India an...

  7. Nutritional requirements of sheep, goats and cattle in warm climates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, N; Sauvant, D; Archimède, H

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the study was to update energy and protein requirements of growing sheep, goats and cattle in warm areas through a meta-analysis study of 590 publications. Requirements were expressed on metabolic live weight (MLW=LW0.75) and LW1 basis. The maintenance requirements for energy were 542.64 and 631.26 kJ ME/kg LW0.75 for small ruminants and cattle, respectively, and the difference was significant (Pmaintenance and gain. However, small ruminants of warm and tropical climate appeared to have higher ME requirements for maintenance relative to live weight (LW) compared with temperate climate ones and cattle. Maintenance requirements for protein were estimated via two approaches. For these two methods, the data in which retained nitrogen (RN) was used cover the same range of variability of observations. The regression of digestible CP intake (DCPI, g/kg LW0.75) against RN (g/kg LW0.75) indicated that DCP requirements are significantly higher in sheep (3.36 g/kg LW0.75) than in goats (2.38 g/kg LW0.75), with cattle intermediate (2.81 g/kg LW0.75), without any significant difference in the quantity of DCPI/g retained CP (RCP) (40.43). Regressing metabolisable protein (MP) or minimal digestible protein in the intestine (PDImin) against RCP showed that there was no difference between species and genotypes, neither for the intercept (maintenance=3.51 g/kg LW0.75 for sheep and goat v. 4.35 for cattle) nor for the slope (growth=0.60 g MP/g RCP). The regression of DCP against ADG showed that DCP requirements did not differ among species or genotypes. These new feeding standards are derived from a wider range of nutritional conditions compared with existing feeding standards as they are based on a larger database. The standards seem to be more appropriate for ruminants in warm and tropical climates around the world.

  8. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Weisbjerg, M. R.; Nadeau, E.;

    2015-01-01

    and cattle and feed characteristics established from Study I were tested on faeces samples from goat, sheep, llama and cattle fed other types of forages (Study II). Study I included 112 faeces samples from 5 trials, and Study II included 90 faeces samples from 3 trials. Animals were fed ad libitum......The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep...... and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle size in faeces from goat...

  9. Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P

    2008-09-01

    Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents. PMID:18774991

  10. Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Raju, D S N; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Pandey, A B; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India and were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 1,498 samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 21.83 % with 11.07 % in cattle, 16.20 % in buffaloes, 45.66 % in sheep and 38.54 % in goats. This report presents the results of PPRV-specific antibodies in situations where the subclinical, inapparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The presence of PPRV antibodies demonstrate that bovines are exposed to PPRV infection and it implies the importance of cattle and buffaloes as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats. Further, the study showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibodies in apparently healthy livestock under natural situation, 21.83 % of the animals were protected from PPRV re-infection. This inturn help in the implementation of disease control strategies such as vaccination in that particular geographical area. PMID:24426314

  11. The detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J.; McKay, J A

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. Examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in Gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to PPR virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. Cattle sera from Nigeria and Ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against...

  12. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camel in different districts of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Al-Eesa

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of serum antibodies to BTV in different domesticated animals in different localities of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 4845 field sera collected from different animal species within 10 districts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened for the presence of group-specific BTV antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA. Results: The overall BTV antibody prevalence was 54.1%, 53.3%, 44.8% and 25.7% in sheep, goat, cattle and camel respectively (at 95% confidence level. The Jizan and Eastern Province districts were the regions with the highest prevalence resulting 65.8% of sheep, 68.2% of goats, 49.3% of cattle, 44% of camel in Jizan and 65.8% of sheep, 62.5% of goats, 53.4% of cattle, 28.5% of camel in Eastern Province positive to c-ELISA. The second highest rate was in Najran district where the seropositivity for Bluetongue was found to be 60% of sheep, 57.9% of goats, 47.2% of cattle and 29.3% of camel. Our results recorded positive animals in all examined districts which indicate serological evidence of exposure to infection was widely distributed all over the country. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the high occurrence of the BTV that emphasize the necessity to a well-defined control strategy for preventing and controlling the BTV in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 389-393

  13. Comparison of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the brains of Listeria monocytogenes-infected cattle, sheep, and goats and in macrophages stimulated in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Jungi, T. W.; Pfister, H.; Sager, H.; Fatzer, R.; Vandevelde, M; Zurbriggen, A

    1997-01-01

    The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was studied in the brains of cattle, sheep, and goat that succumbed to a natural infection with Listeria monocytogenes. The lesions in infected brains are characterized by microabscesses, perivascular cuffs, gliosis, glial nodules, and large areas of malacia. Using immunocytochemistry, we detected bacteria in microabscesses, particularly in sheep and goats, and in areas without signs of inflammation, but not in perivascular infiltrates....

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci infections in the eyes of cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in contact with a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Ali, H A; ElJakee, J A; Galal, H M

    2013-06-01

    This work is an example of cooperation between veterinary and human medicine being fully complementary and at the same time, indispensable to improve our knowledge on animal chlamydiosis. This study investigated the existence of ocular chlamydiae and determined the prevalence of its presence, chlamydiosis, in asymptomatic and diseased farm animals and adjacent humans. Data were obtained by the omp2 gene family Chlamydiaceae-specific PCR. Two hundred cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats and 44 human specimens were also examined. Conjunctival swabs from both the eyes were collected from all animals and humans using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for chlamydiae by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, modified Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining (FA), immunoperoxidase, CFT and PCR. The PCR-RFLP revealed that Chlamydophila psittaci demonstrated in the conjunctival samples of cattle (68% asymptomatic and 88% diseased), of buffalo (68% asymptomatic and 72% diseased), of sheep (68% asymptomatic and 80% diseased), of goat (76% asymptomatic and 92% diseased) and of humans (77% asymptomatic and 82% diseased). The Cp. psittaci was the only chlamydiae demonstrated in all of the ocular conjunctival samples, which confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. Statistically, the animal species factor was calculated and was found to be of no significance. Yet, there appeared to be a significant difference in the percentage of animal that tested positive using the different methods. Detection of Cp. psittaci in most samples confirms the prevalence of Cp. psittaci in this population of animals and adjacent humans. PMID:22584046

  15. Collaborative study on the detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus in cattle, sheep and goats and the possible implications to rinderpest control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA (C-ELISA) have been used for the specific measurement of antibodies to both rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants (PPR) viruses in cattle, sheep and goats. Examination of serum samples from sheep and goats in Gambia, before and after vaccination with rinderpest vaccine, suggested that antibodies to PPR virus could prevent an immune response to the rinderpest vaccine. Cattle sera from nigeria and Ghana showed a high prevalence of antibody against PPR virus which may explain the difficulty experienced in some countries in achieving high post-vaccination immunity levels against rinderpest. This is further supported by experiments in Nigeria where a high percentage of cattle sero-positive for PPR failed to respond serologically following rinderpest vaccination. Because antibodies against PPR virus are both cross-neutralizing and cross-protective against rinderpest virus further vaccination in the presence of antibodies against PPR virus may be a waste of national resources. This paper presents serological evidence for the transmission of PPR virus from sheep and goats to cattle and highlights the need to include PPR serology in the sero-monitoring programme to give a better indication of national herd immunity in PPR endemic areas where problems of reaching high immunity without obvious cause are being encountered. (author). 7 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  17. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest. PMID:25581182

  18. First survey of hard ticks (Acari:Ixodidae) on cattle, sheep and goats in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoomeh Shemshad; Khadijeh Shemshad; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Majid Shokri; Alireza Barmaki; Mojgan Baniardalani; Javad Rafinejad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To carry out the distribution survey of hard ticks of livestock in Boeen Zahra and Takistan counties of Qazvin province from April 2010 to September 2010. Methods:Nearly about 2 638 sheep, 461 goats and 318 cattle of 38 herds in different geographical areas were searched for tick infestation. Results:The species compositions collected from the livestock of Boeen Zahra and Takistan were Haemaphysalis concinna (0.63%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (12.66%), Hyalomma anatolicum (3.80%), Hyalomma asiaticum (3.16%), Hyalomma detritum (5.70%), Hyalomma dromedarii (28.48%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%), Rhipicephalus bursa (3.16%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), and for Takistan’s livestock were Hyalomma dromedarii (9.86%), Hyalomma marginatum (13.29%), Hyalomma schulzei (1.89%) and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (3.16%), respectively. Hard ticks compositions in different topographic areas were different. Hyalomma species had the most prevalence in the areas. Conclusions:The veterinary and public health investigation of the above species should be taken.

  19. Productive and income contributions of sheep, goat, and cattle, and different diversification schemes in smallholder production systems of Northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Edgar Sebastián; Easdale, Marcos Horacio; Giraudo, Celso Gabriel; Bonvissuto, Griselda Luz

    2015-10-01

    Wool production oriented sheep keeping is the most important rural activity in Patagonia, Argentina, followed by goat and at a lower extent cattle production. The existing perception on the smallholder production systems from most decision makers (e.g., policy) is that they are marginal, with low productivity and have negative returns. Since the Argentinean economic scenario has changed drastically in the last decade, the aim of this study was to analyze the economic and productive contribution of different livestock species in smallholdings. The results showed that the post-1990's economic scenario turned most smallholder livestock systems to have positive economic performance, but there were still productive restrictions that limited to fully benefit from these favorable circumstances. Goats were the most profitable livestock due to their higher productive performance, followed by sheep and cattle, with poorer performances. A strong cooperation between the intervention programs and research institutions is recommended to overcome the current production bottlenecks, by focusing on cattle and sheep production systems. PMID:26089256

  20. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

  1. 9 CFR 312.2 - Official marks and devices to identify inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected and passed products of cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. 312.2 Section 312.2 Animals and Animal... cattle, sheep, swine, or goats. (a) The official inspection legend required by part 316 of this subchapter to be applied to inspected and passed carcasses and parts of carcasses of cattle, sheep, swine...

  2. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  3. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  4. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  5. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  6. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham Khamesipour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.

  7. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination...... for antibodies was performed using a blocking ELISA detecting antibodies to pestivirus. Data from 815 herds were analysed statistically by the maximum likelihood method in a multinomial model. The estimated herd prevalence was 0.083 and the estimated individual prevalence within the positive herds was...... 0.50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily...

  8. Toxoplasmosis of Goat and Sheep in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Tolibin Iskandar

    2008-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease, caused by Toxoplasma gondii attacking goat, sheep, and wild animals. This disease is zoonosis and widely distributed in many districts of Java and as a zoonotic disease. Cat is the definitive host of T. gondii, while sheep, goats, and humans are the intermediate hosts. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Java was between 7 to 84%, with an average of 42.9%. It occurs through out of the year and causes abortions and infertilities of infected animals. All bre...

  9. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must...

  10. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  11. Forage selection by teddy goats versus sheep on thal ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazing behaviours of Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were studied on rangelands of ThaI. Bite count method was used to determine the dietary composition of both animal species. The overall preference of Teddy goats was higher for Khabble grass (Cynodon dactylon), which was 40.57% of the total number of bite made on different plant species during the study period (March-July). Teddy goats utilized a wide range of browsing plant species like Wan (Salvadora oleoides), Phog (Calligonum polygonoides), Babil (Acacia jacquemontii), Jandi (Prosopis spicigera) etc. Browsing species were major component (>50%) of goat diets dur- ing March through June. Whereas Thalli sheep had been consistent in their heavy use of Khabble grass (overall 89.27%). Browsing plant species were not an important component of their diets. Teddy goats and Thalli sheep were competitive for Khabble grass particularly at its vegetative growth stage. (author)

  12. Orf virus infection in sheep or goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, V; Valiakos, G

    2015-12-14

    Orf virus, a member of the genus Parapoxvirus, is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma ('Orf'). It is a pathogen with worldwide distribution, causing significant financial losses in livestock production. The disease mainly affects sheep and goats, but various other ruminants and mammals have been reported to be infected as well. It is also a zoonotic disease, affecting mainly people who come in direct or indirect contact with infected animals (e.g. farmers, veterinarians). The disease is usually benign and self-limiting, although in many cases, especially in young animals, it can be persistent and even fatal. Production losses caused by Orf virus are believed to be underestimated, as it is not a notifiable disease. This review of literature presents all latest information regarding the virus; considerations regarding treatment and prevention will be also discussed. PMID:26315771

  13. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the fact that sheep and goats play a major economic role especially for small farms in Swiss agriculture and contribute to conservation of landscape and biodiversity especially in the mountain regions. ...

  14. Monitoring the on-farm welfare of sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    Agostino Sevi; Fabio Napolitano; Salvatore Pier Giacomo Rassu; Donato Casamassima; Mariangela Caroprese

    2009-01-01

    Schemes for on-farm welfare assessment in sheep and goats are not yet available. Factors responsible for this lack of availability are discussed in the first part of this review. Requisites for reliable methods of welfare assessment to be used in sheep and goat farms are discussed, taking into account the peculiarities of the small ruminant production systems in terms of flock management and farm location. Some housing parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment are reviewe...

  15. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  16. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  17. Prevalence of Tick Infestation and Theileriosis in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.

  18. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses to be destroyed. 51.27 Section 51.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep,...

  19. Field evaluation of an orf vaccine in sheep and goat flocks with high neonatal mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Giadinis Nektarios D; Filliusis George; Lafi Shawkat Q.; Panousis Nikolaos; Pourliotis Konstantinos; Bojkovski Jovan; Karatzias Harilaos

    2007-01-01

    A high percent of annual neonatal mortality attributed to orf infection was observed between 2001 and 2004 in 2 sheep and 2 mixed (sheep and goat) flocks of Northern Greece. In order to protect the neonatal lambs and kids from orf infection a commercially available live orf vaccine was used. Pregnant sheep and goats were vaccinated subcutaneously a month before parturition, while 10 sheep and 10 goats in each flock remained unvaccinated and were used as negative controls. The vaccine was sign...

  20. 9 CFR 93.435 - Sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plasm from a region other than Australia, Canada, New Zealand, or the United States, in accordance with...) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all sheep and goats imported into the United States must be placed in a flock or herd in the United States that participates in the Voluntary Scrapie...

  1. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively influence

  2. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the f

  3. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  4. Seroprevalence of bluetongue in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Mahmoud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to understand the epidemiological status of bluetongue infection in Egypt. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected sheep and goats. Samples were collected during the vector breeding season from September to November 2010, from 14 Egyptian governorates which represent different geographical regions of Egypt, and were tested by Agar Gel Immuno-precipitation Test (AGPT. Results: Out of total 1293 animal serum samples (sheep-1028 and goats-265, 17.5% of sheep and 14.7% of goats serum samples were found positive. The overall prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different governorates was 16.9%. The highest prevalence of bluetongue group specific antibodies was detected in Beni-Suef, Giza, and Al Sharqia governorates (13.2%. The results indicate that there is a necessity to run further studies to identify the negative governorates. In addition, there is a lack in information regarding the BTV serotypes in Egypt. Conclusion: This study reflected high seroprevalence of bluetongue infection in sheep than goats. The results indicated that further studies are needed to identify the vectors from different agro-climatic zones, in addition, the BTV serotypes that are circulating in Egypt.

  5. Nonsurgical embryo recovery and transfer in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Jeferson F; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna Maria G; Oliveira, Maria Emília F; Leite, Ceci R; Nascimento-Penido, Paula Maria P; Brandão, Felipe Z; Lehloenya, Khoboso C

    2016-07-01

    The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.

  6. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 th...

  7. Marker-assisted selection in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheep and goats are often kept in low input production systems, often at subsistence levels. In such systems, the uptake of effective commercial breeding programmes is limited, let alone the uptake of more advanced technologies such as those needed for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, effective breeding programmes exist in a number of countries, the largest ones in Australia and New Zealand aiming for genetic improvement of meat and wool characteristics as well as disease resistance and fecundity. Advances have been made in sheep gene mapping with the marker map consisting of more than 1 200 microsatellites, and a virtual genome sequence together with a very dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map are expected within a year. Significant research efforts into quantitative trait loci (QTL) are under way and a number of commercial sheep gene tests have already become available, mainly for single gene effects but some for muscularity and disease resistance. Gene mapping in goats is much less advanced with mainly some activity in dairy goats. Integration of genotypic information into commercial genetic evaluation and optimal selection strategies is a challenge that deserves more development. (author)

  8. 二里头遗址出土动物来源初探——根据牙釉质的锶同位素比值分析%Preliminary Explorations on the Resources of the Cattle,Sheep and Goat in Erlitou Site——Based on the Strontium Isotope A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春燕; 李志鹏; 袁靖; 赵海涛; 陈国梁; 许宏

    2011-01-01

    The Erlitou Site located at Yanshi City,Henan Province is a large settlement site of Erlitou Culture dated to 3800-3500 BP.According to the zooarchaeological study results,the bones of five animal species such as dog,pig,sheep/goat and cattle found in thi%前言考古发掘和研究表明,河南偃师市二里头遗址的主体文化遗存属于二里头文化。该遗址是二里头文化时期一处超大型聚落遗址,绝对年代约为公元前1800年至公元前1500年。该遗址拥有目前所知中国最早的

  9. Considerations on Trends in the Romanian Sheep and Goat Meat Market, 1990-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGATHA AGATHA POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose was to identify the main trends in the Romanian sheep and goat meat market based on the analysis of the specific indicators regarding sheep and goat livestock and production at country level and by region, using the data provided by National Institute of Statistic for the period 1990-2009. About 198,729 farmers are raising sheep and goats and the average farm size is about 16 heads. The sheep and goat livestock declined by 34 % in the analyzed period accounting for 10,058 thousand heads in 2009. Sheep/goat ratio changed from 14/1 in 1990 to 9.96/1 in 2009, in the advantage of goats. Sheep and goats are mainly grown in Central, North-Eastern and South-Western Romania. Mutton and goat meat production accounted for 1,443 thousand tons in 2009, being by 40 % lower than in 1990  because of  livestock  decline.  About 23 % mutton and sheep meat is produced in the South-Eastern Romania, 18 % in the Central part and 14 % in North-East. The share of mutton and goat meat declined from 8.38 % in 1990 to 7.21 % in 2009 in total meat production in the country. As a conclusion,  mutton  and goat meat market registered a decline during the last decades, in favour of pork and poultry meat.

  10. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  11. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with 125I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of 35S and 125I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any 125I or 35S-labeled surface proteins

  12. Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different

  13. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from Mexico. 93.428 Section 93.428 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.428 Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico. (a) Sheep and goats intended for importation from...

  14. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and horses destroyed. 51.22 Section 51.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of...

  15. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Yea-Sacc® (Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a feed additive for cattle for fattening, goats for fattening, dairy cows, dairy sheep, dairy goats and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Yea-Sacc® is an additive based on a live preparation of a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intended for use as a zootechnical additive. It is produced in a powder (Yea-Sacc® and in a prills (Yea-Sacc® TS form. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered by EFSA to be suitable for the qualified presumption of safety approach to safety assessment. As the identity of the production strain has been established, safety for the target species, consumer and the environment is presumed. Both formulations are non-irritant to skin, Yea-Sacc® TS is non-irritant to the eye whilst Yea-Sacc® is a moderate irritant. In the absence of data both formulations should be considered skin sensitisers. As both forms are highly proteinaceous, they should be considered as potential respiratory sensitisers. Yea-Sacc® TS is designed to reduce dustiness and no significant exposure of users is to be expected for this form. In the absence of data on the dusting potential of Yea-Sacc®, it would be prudent to treat it as a respiratory sensitiser. Based on the results of four trials Yea-Sacc® was shown to have the potential to increase milk production in dairy cows when supplied at a minimum dose of 5 x 107 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor species used for milk production can be presumed when used at the same minimum dose. Yea-Sacc® was also shown to have a potential to improve the production of cattle raised for fattening at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed. As the mechanism of action of the additive can be reasonably assumed to be same, efficacy for minor ruminant species reared for meat production can be presumed at a minimum dose of 1 x 108 CFU/kg complete feed.

  17. Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallowell Gayle D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.

  18. Taste of a new product: sheep and goat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Sandra; Teixeira, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a Project that aims to study a strategy which gives value-added to sheep and goat meat of animals which have very low price and out of quality label products as “Cabrito Serrano” and “Borrego Transmontano”. Bragançana ewes and Serrana goats’ carcasses were used in the production of a fresh sausage. Transformation was made in a traditional industry, according to 2 main recipes, including or not bonnet pepper. Thus, 4 treatments were considered: ewes with pepper, ewes with...

  19. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Rickettsiales in Goats and Sheep from Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Yin, Hongmei; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Members from Rickettsiales such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and some spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsiae are important tick-borne pathogens. One hundred goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the presence of Anaplasma, E. chaffeensis, and SFG Rickettsiae by PCR. A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, and Anaplasma centrale were detected in 15, 49, and 16 samples, respectively. The A. phagocytophilum and A. centrale were highly homologous to strains from Japanese sika deer and Japanese cattle, respectively, whereas a diversity of A. bovis sequences were detected. New genetic variants of Anaplasma close to A. centrale have been revealed. No Ehrlichia was detected in this study. The presence of SFG Rickettsiae was determined in 26 samples. The coinfection with more than two pathogens tested in this study was as high as 29%. This study has molecularly characterized the circulation of Anaplasma and Rickettsiae in goats and sheep in southeastern China, which highlights the risk of contracting the pathogens upon tick exposure. PMID:26872274

  20. Monitoring the on-farm welfare of sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Sevi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schemes for on-farm welfare assessment in sheep and goats are not yet available. Factors responsible for this lack of availability are discussed in the first part of this review. Requisites for reliable methods of welfare assessment to be used in sheep and goat farms are discussed, taking into account the peculiarities of the small ruminant production systems in terms of flock management and farm location. Some housing parameters related to structures, design and micro-environment are reviewed and could be included in schemes of welfare assessment on farm. Human-animal interaction, health status of the animals in terms of body condition scoring, skin and hair conditions, lameness and injuries, and management practices in relation to cleanliness, animal handling and moving, milking procedures and abnormal behaviours, are proposed as potential animal-based indicators. When available, validity, reliability and feasibility of the proposed parameters are discussed. The voluntary adhesion to welfare standards in Sardinia and the application of a scientifically validated protocol in Basilicata are reported as examples of practical experiences.

  1. THE RUMINANT EFFECT OF VEGETAL LECITHIN AT SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the extraction process of the vegetable soy oils and sun-flower oils results in large quantities a waste that contains approximately 45% fat from which 58% is lecithin. This waste called “dreg” creates problems of environment pollution because we didn’t find a use for it. We tested this waste in the food of small ruminants, at sheep and goat, watching the ruminant effect and the apparent digestibility of the nutritive substances in the food. The tested doses of “dregs” were of 100 g and 200 g per day. The food supplementation in sheep and goats with dregs up to 7% fat in the dry substance of the ration has favourable and proportional effects with the dose of fat on the digestibility of the nutritive substances from the food. The growth of ruminant bacteria is favoured at the 100 g dose of dregs but is depressed at the 200 g dose of dregs. On the ruminant protozoa the supplementation with fat from dregs leads to the reducing of the number of protozoa and even at defaunation. It is possible that the fat from the dregs to be a source of YATP and to protect the alimentary proteins of the degrading with proteolytic enzymes and therefore to make the protein ruminant by-pass.

  2. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  3. Sheep and goats as indicator animals for the circulation of CCHFV in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isolde; Mertens, Marc; Mrenoshki, Slavcho; Staubach, Christoph; Mertens, Corinna; Brüning, Franziska; Wernike, Kerstin; Hechinger, Silke; Berxholi, Kristaq; Mitrov, Dine; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus, which causes a serious illness with case-fatality rates of up to 80% in humans. CCHFV is endemic in many countries of Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. Next to the countries with endemic areas, the distribution of CCHFV is unknown in Southeastern Europe. As the antibody prevalence in animals is a good indicator for the presence or absence of the virus in a region, seroepidemiological studies can be used for the definition of risk areas for CCHFV. The aim of the present study was to reveal which ruminant species is best suited as indicator for the detection of a CCHFV circulation in an area. Therefore, the prevalence rates in sheep, goats and cattle in different regions of Albania and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia were investigated. As there are no commercial tests available for the detection of CCHFV-specific antibodies in animals, two commercial tests for testing human sera were adapted for the investigation of sera from sheep and goats, and new in-house ELISAs were developed. The investigation of serum samples with these highly sensitive and specific assays (94-100%) resulted in an overall prevalence rate of 23% for Albania and of 49% for Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Significant lower seroprevalence rates for CCHFV were found in cattle than in small ruminants in given areas. These results indicate that small ruminants are more suitable indicator animals for CCHFV infections and should therefore be tested preferentially, when risk areas are to be identified. PMID:26704262

  4. Study on polymorphisms of microsatellite DNA of six Chinese indigenous sheep and goat breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Dongyan; HUANG Danli; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhangping; GUO Xiaoya; MAO Yongjiang; SUN Wei; GEN Rongqing; MA Yuehui; REN Xianglian; CHANG Guobing

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of six populations were screened using microsatellites as molecular markers,including Ujmuqin sheep,small-tailed Han sheep,Tan sheep,Hu sheep,Tong sheep and Yangtse River Delta (YRD) white goat.A total of seven microsatellite markers were used and genetic diversity and genetic distance were also determined.The results showed that there were 224 alleles in six populations,all seven loci showed polymorphism in all populations.The average heterozygosity of all populations was 0.949 9,and the mean polymorphism information content (PIC) of all six populations was 0.842 5-0.929 4.The six sheep (goat) populations were lowly differentiated with all loci,and the coefficient of phaenotype differentiation (Fst) was 2.6%,which was consistent with the coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst).The global heterozygote deficit across of all populations (Fit) amounted to 0.5%.The overall significant deficit of heterozygotes because of inbreeding within breeds (Fis) amounted to -2.2%.Two Unweighted Pair-group Method using Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) dendrograms were constructed on the basis of Nei's standard genetic distance (DS) and Nei's genetic distance (DA) respectively.Hu sheep and Tong sheep were grouped at first,Ujmuqin sheep and small-tailed Han sheep clustered and then clustered with Tan sheep.Finally,Yangtse River Delta white goat joined in with all above.From this study,Ujmuqin sheep belongs to"Mongolia sheep"group,which corresponds with the historical records exactly.Ujmuqin sheep and small-tailed Han sheep,Tan sheep,Hu sheep and Tong sheep all vest in the"Mongolia sheep"group.

  5. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth;

    2015-01-01

    with T. solium, but showed no signs of otherinfections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem and theprevalence of T. hydatigena wassimilar in goats and sheep with 45.7% and 51.9%, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from...... a subsample of metacestodesfrom goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. Theprevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conductedin Africa, but for pigs it is one of the highest recorded to date. The presentstudy also confirms the occurrence of T.hydatigena and T. solium...

  6. Seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat in West Java area

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a species of bacteria that is distributed globally. Ruminant especially sheep and goats may play an important role in the transmission of the disease to human. The research of seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goats was carried out from August 2006 to March 2007 in West Java area. A total of 138 sera were collected; 69 sera from sheep and 69 sera from goats. The indirect immunoflourescent antibody test was used to determine the s...

  7. Exclusion performance in dwarf goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and sheep (Ovis orientalis aries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nawroth

    Full Text Available Using a comparative approach, we investigated the ability of dwarf goats and sheep to use direct and indirect information about the location of a food reward in an object-choice task. Subjects had to choose between two cups with only one covering a reward. Before making a choice, subjects received information about the baited (direct information or non-baited cup (indirect information. Both goats and sheep were able to use direct information (presence of food in the object choice task. After controlling for local enhancement, we found that goats rather than sheep were able to use indirect information (i.e., the absence of food to find a reward. The actual test setup could not clarify whether individual goats were able to inferentially reason about the content of the baited cup when only shown the content of the non-baited cup or if they simply avoided the empty cup in that situation. As browsing species, feral and wild goats exhibit highly selective feeding behaviour compared to the rather unselective grazing sheep. The potential influence of this species-specific foraging flexibility of goats and sheep for using direct and indirect information to find a food reward is discussed in relation to a higher aversion to losses in food acquisition in goats compared to sheep.

  8. Morphological characterization of Haemonchus contortus in goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries) in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wahab A; Abd Hamid, Suhaila

    2007-06-01

    The large stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus is an important pathogen of goats (Capra hircus) and sheep (Ovis aries). This paper describes characteristics of surface cuticular ridges (synlophe) of H. contortus adults from the two hosts. There were more ridges in H. contortus from goats compared to that from sheep. Total body length, vulvar morphology, spicule length and cervical papillae had been considered as markers of physical adaptation and were studied and described.

  9. Problems and Solution Proposals Related to Sheep and Goat Husbandry in Kastamonu Province

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    Hacer Tüfekci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted by using a survey made at 80 enterprises from 63 villages with the aim of determining situations, problems and solution proposals related to the sheep and goat farms in Kastamonu province. The average age of the farmers was 49.3 years. The farmers were 8.75% of primary school graduates, 68.75% of secondary school and also 22.6% of illiterate. The enterprises have raised animals as 31.75% of state + own land and 68.75%’ of private + leased land. Also they are kept the rate of 70% Hair goat, 30% Angora goat and 55% Merino sheep, 42.5% Akkaraman sheep, and 16.25% Turkmen genotype, 7.5% Sakız sheep and 6.25% of Kıvırcık Sheep. The average flock sizes goat and sheep enterprises were 77.3 head goats and 71.7 heads sheep, respectively. Sixty percent of the breeder feed their animals on the pasture for 8-10 months and only 30% the breeders give supplementary feeding before and during mating period. The enterprises have 31.2% parturition chamber and 92.5% lamb growth areas. While all enterprises are routinely used to protective vaccines but only used disinfectant of 73.7% enterprises. The reason of sheep and goat breeders is majority contributions of income and habits. So, flock sizes are small (74.5 heads animal. In conclusion, young people by encouraging small animal farming in the province of Kastamonu, should be given to technical, economic support and educational seminars. In the future, as the sole source of income and a large flock size may lead to a development of sheep and goat breeding in Kastamonu province.

  10. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrero, M Concepción; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F; Domínguez, Lucas; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2012-04-23

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility. The most frequent spa types in goats were t337 (N=9), t759 (N=6) and t1534 (N=5). Sheep isolates mainly belonged to spa types t1534 (N=72), t2678 (N=29) and t3576 (N=20). Eighteen novel spa-types were observed; two from goat strains, 13 from sheep and three in both species. The majority of the goat strains grouped in MLST CC133 (N=10) and ST522 (N=10), followed by CC9 (N=9), while the majority of the sheep strains were of ST522 (N=108) followed by CC133 (N=86) and CC130 (N=11). Nine new MLST types were detected; three in goat and sheep isolates (ST1739, ST1758 and ST1780), two identified in goats only (ST1740 and ST2061) and four in sheep only (ST1742, ST1743, ST1781 and ST2011). Strains showed resistance below 20% against penicillin and tetracycline; a strong association between CC-types and penicillin resistance was observed. No resistance was detected to cefoxitin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. This study suggests that ST522 is the most common S. aureus clone associated with small ruminants followed by CC133.

  11. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2015-11-30

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent strain in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran.

  12. New insights and current tools for genetically engineered (GE) sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, A; Anegon, I; Whitelaw, C B A; Baldassarre, H; Crispo, M

    2016-07-01

    Genetically engineered sheep and goats represent useful models applied to proof of concepts, large-scale production of novel products or processes, and improvement of animal traits, which is of interest in biomedicine, biopharma, and livestock. This disruptive biotechnology arose in the 80s by injecting DNA fragments into the pronucleus of zygote-staged embryos. Pronuclear microinjection set the transgenic concept into people's mind but was characterized by inefficient and often frustrating results mostly because of uncontrolled and/or random integration and unpredictable transgene expression. Somatic cell nuclear transfer launched the second wave in the late 90s, solving several weaknesses of the previous technique by making feasible the transfer of a genetically modified and fully characterized cell into an enucleated oocyte, capable of cell reprogramming to generate genetically engineered animals. Important advances were also achieved during the 2000s with the arrival of new techniques like the lentivirus system, transposons, RNA interference, site-specific recombinases, and sperm-mediated transgenesis. We are now living the irruption of the third technological wave in which genome edition is possible by using endonucleases, particularly the CRISPR/Cas system. Sheep and goats were recently produced by CRISPR/Cas9, and for sure, cattle will be reported soon. We will see new genetically engineered farm animals produced by homologous recombination, multiple gene editing in one-step generation and conditional modifications, among other advancements. In the following decade, genome edition will continue expanding our technical possibilities, which will contribute to the advancement of science, the development of clinical or commercial applications, and the improvement of people's life quality around the world.

  13. New insights and current tools for genetically engineered (GE) sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchaca, A; Anegon, I; Whitelaw, C B A; Baldassarre, H; Crispo, M

    2016-07-01

    Genetically engineered sheep and goats represent useful models applied to proof of concepts, large-scale production of novel products or processes, and improvement of animal traits, which is of interest in biomedicine, biopharma, and livestock. This disruptive biotechnology arose in the 80s by injecting DNA fragments into the pronucleus of zygote-staged embryos. Pronuclear microinjection set the transgenic concept into people's mind but was characterized by inefficient and often frustrating results mostly because of uncontrolled and/or random integration and unpredictable transgene expression. Somatic cell nuclear transfer launched the second wave in the late 90s, solving several weaknesses of the previous technique by making feasible the transfer of a genetically modified and fully characterized cell into an enucleated oocyte, capable of cell reprogramming to generate genetically engineered animals. Important advances were also achieved during the 2000s with the arrival of new techniques like the lentivirus system, transposons, RNA interference, site-specific recombinases, and sperm-mediated transgenesis. We are now living the irruption of the third technological wave in which genome edition is possible by using endonucleases, particularly the CRISPR/Cas system. Sheep and goats were recently produced by CRISPR/Cas9, and for sure, cattle will be reported soon. We will see new genetically engineered farm animals produced by homologous recombination, multiple gene editing in one-step generation and conditional modifications, among other advancements. In the following decade, genome edition will continue expanding our technical possibilities, which will contribute to the advancement of science, the development of clinical or commercial applications, and the improvement of people's life quality around the world. PMID:27155732

  14. Peste des petits ruminants virus tissue tropism and pathogenesis in sheep and goats following experimental infection.

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    Thang Truong

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a viral disease which primarily affects small ruminants, causing significant economic losses for the livestock industry in developing countries. It is endemic in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the Indian sub-continent. The primary hosts for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV are goats and sheep; however recent models studying the pathology, disease progression and viremia of PPRV have focused primarily on goat models. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. Upon infection with a virulent strain of PPRV, both sheep and goats developed clinical signs and lesions typical of PPR, although sheep displayed milder clinical disease compared to goats. Tissue tropism of PPRV was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue and digestive tract organs were the predominant sites of virus replication. The results presented in this study provide models for the comparative evaluation of PPRV pathogenesis and tissue tropism in both sheep and goats. These models are suitable for the establishment of experimental parameters necessary for the evaluation of vaccines, as well as further studies into PPRV-host interactions.

  15. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  16. Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection.

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    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M / threonine (T heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.

  17. Infection levels of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinari, M; Karl, S; Ryan, U; Lymbery, A J

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites of livestock cause diseases of important socio-economic concern worldwide. The present study investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats in lowland and highland regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Faecal samples were collected from a total of 165 small ruminants (110 sheep and 55 goats) from February to April 2011. Analysis by a modified McMaster technique revealed that 128 animals (72% of sheep and 89% of goats) were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites. The gastrointestinal parasites found and their prevalences in sheep (S) and in goats (G) were as follows: strongyle 67.3% (S), 85.5% (G); Eimeria 17.3% (S), 16.4% (G); Strongyloides, 8.2% (S), 23.6% (G); Fasciola, 5.5% (S), 18.2% (G); Trichuris, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G); and Nematodirus, 1.8% (S), 3.6% (G). Two additional genera were found in goats: Moniezia (9.1%) and Dictocaulus (3.6%). This is the first study to quantitatively examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats in PNG. The high rates of parasitism observed in the present study are likely to be associated with poor farming management practices, including lack of pasture recovery time, lack of parasite control measures and poor-quality feed.

  18. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of small ruminant lentiviruses isolated from Canadian sheep and goats

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    Bertoni Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV are widespread in Canadian sheep and goats and represent an important health issue in these animals. There is however no data about the genetic diversity of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV or Maedi Visna Virus (MVV in this country. Findings We performed a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of sheep and goat lentiviruses from a small geographic area in Canada using long sequences from the gag region of 30 infected sheep and 36 infected goats originating from 14 different flocks. Pairwise DNA distance and phylogenetic analyses revealed that all SRLV sequences obtained from sheep clustered tightly with prototypical Maedi visna sequences from America. Similarly, all SRLV strains obtained from goats clustered tightly with prototypical US CAEV-Cork strain. Conclusions The data reported in this study suggests that Canadian and US SRLV strains share common origins. In addition, the molecular data failed to bring to light any evidence of past cross species transmission between sheep and goats, which is consistent with the type of farming practiced in this part of the country where single species flocks predominate and where opportunities of cross species transmissions are proportionately low.

  19. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Jeffrey W. Bethel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reacti...

  20. Identification and Antibiotic Sensitivity of the Causative Organisms of Sub-clinical Mastitis in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1,5, Md. Sabbir Ahamed2, Md. Shahin Alam1, Md. Masudur Rahman3, Tazminaz Sultana4, Yoon-Seok Roh5 and Bumseok Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to isolate and identify organisms responsible for sub-clinical mastitis (SCM in goats and sheep for the determination of point prevalence of SCM and antibiotic sensitivity of the identified organisms. For this purpose 50 each of lactating sheep and goats were examined with the commercially available Leucocytest® SCM detection kit. It was found that 4 and 36% sheep and goats suffered from SCM, respective. The prevalence of clinical mastitis (CM was 4 and 6% in sheep and goats, respectively. Milk samples were collected individually from sheep and goats with SCM and were cultured in different media including nutrient agar, blood agar and eosin methylene blue agar. The bacteria were further characterized by biochemical tests. In both goats and sheep, the organisms responsible for SCM were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The organisms were found most sensitive to gentamicin (Gn. After Gn treatment to goats and sheep with SCM, total bacterial counts decreased and milk production significantly increased compared to levels prior to treatment. It is suggested from the study that early detection of SCM and treatment with proper antibiotics can control SCM in goats and sheep.

  1. TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO THE SHEEP AND GOAT MILK WITHIN ECHOLOGIC CONDITIONS

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    CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of HACCP system within sheep exploitations represents a unitary control manner, scientifically proved, which enforces the discipline and correctness, allows an objective evaluation of sheep and goat meat and milk quality. When determining the main components of sheep and goat milk from the animals that grazed on the pasture fertilized with stable manure, within ecologic conditions, the following results were obtained: at sheep there was a fat percent of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for sheep milk; at goats the fat percent was that of 6.22% and 6.11%, protein 5.32% and 5.52%, and dry substance 14.25% and 14.21%, normal values for goat milk. The milk samples taken from the sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed and from Carpatina breed were also analysed with regard to the toxic residues and it has been stated that the values obtained fit within the normal norms admitted by the food domain’ standards, being in compliance with the safety and protection of the consumers. The elimination of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides has led to the non-noticing of their presence within the sheep and goat products. By the regulation of ecologic products’ quality, in relation with the consumers’ and environment’s protection, a balance was created between the producers’ interests and obligations, those of the merchants and also those of the consumers. On the basis of results obtained through the microbiological examination of milk and meat samples taken from the sheep it has been stated that the microbial flora identified is formed by representatives of Staphylococcus–72.72% Streptococcus β hemolitic – 9.09% and Fungi filamentous – 18.18%. The microbial flora is non pathogen for man.

  2. Prevalence and Etiology of Abscess Disease of Sheep and Goats at Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

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    Khaled Bani Al-Harbi

    Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499

  3. Vaccination of cattle only is sufficient to stop FMDV transmission in mixed populations of sheep and cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Dekker, A.; Eblé, P.L.; Jong, de M.

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus in mixed cattle-sheep populations and the effect of different vaccination strategies. The (partial) reproduction ratios (R) in groups of non-vaccinated and vaccinated cattle and/or sheep were estimated from (published) transmission exper

  4. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  5. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats. PMID:26462199

  6. Serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats in Erbil city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Kader1

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sera from (259 sheep and (88 goats from Erbil city were examined for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by using latex, MAT, and ELISA. By using latex test, 75 (25.4% sheep and 25 (28.4% goats were seropositive. By testing the latex seropositive sheep serum by both MAT and ELISA the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 63 (84%, 12 (16%, 11 (14.7%, 64 (85.3%. Using both MAT and ELISA for testing the latex seropositive goats serum, the distribution of both positive and negative results were as such respectively: 21 (84%, 4 (16%, 3 (12%, 22 (88%. There was no significant difference between the results of ELISA vs. MAT.

  7. Epidemiology of haemonchosis in sheep and goats under different managemental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fiaz Qamar

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies were undertaken at slaughterhouses, livestock farms and veterinary hospitals under the different climatic conditions existing in Punjab province. Infection rate of haemonchosis was 35.44, 38.04 and 36.83 per cent, respectively in slaughtered sheep and goats, sheep and goats at livestock farms and at veterinary hospitals. Overall the highest (43.69% seasonal prevalence in all types of sheep and Goats was recorded during summer; followed by autumn (38.46%, spring (37.12%, while the lowest (28.79% was recorded during winter. It was noticed that animals of either sex are equally affected. A higher infection rate was recorded in animals below 9 months than above 9 months of age and did not show any significant difference. [Vet World 2009; 2(11.000: 413-417

  8. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  9. A Serological and Molecular study on Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and goat in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavari, H.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic diseases in human and animals. The disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the infection rate of toxoplasmosis in sheep and goats in east Azarbaijan province of Iran a total of 186 sera, 13 fetal brains, 13 cotyledons and 34 whole blood samples were collected from sheep and goats in Tabriz abattoir during the year 2010. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. This test is used in conjunction with direct and nested PCR techniques for detection of T. gondii DNA in blood,cotyledon and brain of fetuses, using 4 pairs of universal and specific primers, 18SrRNA, ITS-1, (Tg1,Tg2and (Tg3,Tg4. Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 18.3% serum samples. DNA of T. gondii was detected in 69% of fetal brains, 23% of cotyledons and 14.7% of blood samples. The prevalence rate of T. gondii in sheep was 24.8% and in goats was 10.6% and the significant difference was observed between sheep and goats groups (p≤0.05. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis antibodies was significantly higher in adult sheep and goats than younger animals. There was significant difference between male (10.5% andfemale (19.2% sheep and goat was observed (p≤0.05. Detection of T. gondii DNA using PCR minimizes the problems which the researcher may face when using serological methods and facilitates diagnosis incomplex cases. The presence of T. gondii in blood, fetal tissues and neonatal specimens strongly suggests active and or congenital infection.

  10. Q fever: baseline monitoring of a sheep and a goat flock associated with human infections

    OpenAIRE

    EIBACH, R.; BOTHE, F.; RUNGE, M.; Fischer, S. F.; Philipp, W.; Ganter, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Animal losses due to abortion and weak offspring during a lambing period amounted up to 25% in a goat flock and up to 18% in a sheep flock kept at an experimental station on the Swabian Alb, Germany. Fifteen out of 23 employees and residents on the farm tested positive for Coxiella burnetii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Ninety-four per cent of the goats and 47% of the sheep were seropositive for C. burnetii by ELISA. Blo...

  11. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in sheep and goats in the Black Sea Region in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate presence and distribution of Theileria and Babesia species via microscopic examination and reverse line blotting (RLB) techniques in sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey. For this purpose, 1,128 blood samples (869 sheep and 259 goats) were collected by active surveillance from sheep and goats in different provinces of various cities in the region in the years 2010 and 2011. Smears were prepared from the blood samples, stained with Giemsa, and examined under the light microscope for Theileria and Babesia piroplasms. The genomic DNAs were extracted from blood samples. The length of 360-430-bp fragment in the variable V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA gene of Theileria and Babesia species was amplified using the gDNAs. The polymerase chain reaction products were hybridized to the membrane-connected species-specific probes. A total of 38 animals (3.37%) including 34 sheep (3.91%) and 4 goats (1.54%) were found to be positive for Theileria spp. piroplasms in microscopic examination of smears while Babesia spp. piroplasm could not detected. Infection rates were 34.64% in sheep, 10.04% in goats, and totally 28.99% for Theileria ovis while 0.58% in sheep and totally 0.44% for Babesia ovis. However, Theileria sp. OT3 was detected in 2.65% of sheep and 2.04% of all animals; besides Theileria sp., MK had 0.58% prevalence in sheep and 0.77% in goats, with a total 0.62% with RLB. Although T. ovis and Theileria sp. MK were determined in both sheep and goats, B. ovis and Theileria sp. OT3 were observed only in the sheep. These results provide the first detailed molecular data for sheep and goat theileriosis and babesiosis in the region.

  12. Impact of treatment of gastrointestinal nemathelminths on body weight of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepesh; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, Rajeev Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    Gastrointestinal nemathelminths affect productive as well as reproductive performance of a wide range of ruminants. To assess the impact of anthelmintic treatment on gain in body weight (b. wt.) of sheep and goat, a study was conducted using two different flocks of sheep and goats each maintained in semi intensive system. Infected animals in both the flocks were divided into three groups each. Group I and II in each flock were treated with levamisole (@7.5 mg/kg b. wt. subcutaneously) and fenbendazole (@5 mg/kg b. wt. orally), respectively. Animals of group III were kept as untreated control. Individual b. wt. and faecal egg count were recorded up to 42nd day post treatment. Results showed 100 % reduction in faecal egg count of sheep on day 7 after treatment with levamisole and on day 10 after treatment with fenbendazole. In goats, the reduction in faecal egg count was 82.60 % after treatment with levamisole and 78.87 % after treatment with fenbendazole on day 14 post treatment. The study also revealed mean increase of 29.57 and 22.67 % in b. wt. of sheep treated with levamisole and fenbendazole respectively 42nd day post treatment whereas mean b. wt. of infected untreated control groups decreased by 7.14 %. Similarly, there was an increase of 10.71 and 14.47 % in mean b. wt. of goats 42nd day post treatment with levamisole and fenbendazole, respectively whereas mean b. wt. of untreated control group decreased by 15.38 %. More weight gain was recorded in sheep as compare to goats after treatment as compared to the untreated control group, which may be due to some drug resistance in goat and required clarification by further studies in these ecological zones of Udham Singh Nagar. PMID:27605787

  13. Ovine and Caprine Brucellosis (Brucella melitensis in Aborted Animals in Jordanian Sheep and Goat Flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadullah Samadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty five biological samples were collected from 188 animals (81 sheep and 107 goats during the lambing season from September 2009 to April 2010 from the Mafraq region of Jordan. Sampled animals belonged to 93 sheep and goat flocks that had abortion cases in the region. One hundred and seven (41.9% biological samples were positive for the omp2 primers that were able to identify all Brucella species in the collected samples which were obtained from 86 aborted animals (86/188=45.7%. Using the B. melitensis insertion sequence 711 (IS711 primers on the 107 omp2 positive samples, only 61 confirmed to be positive for B. melitensis. These positive samples were obtained from 28 sheep and 33 goats. The prevalence rate of B. melitensis was 27.1% (51/188 among aborted animals. For differentiation between vaccine strain and field strain infection, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method using PstI endonuclease enzyme was used. Vaccination with Rev-1 in the last year (OR=2.92, CI: 1.1–7.7 and grazing at common pasture (OR=2.78, CI: 1.05–7.36 were statistically significant (P≤.05 risk factors positively associated with the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks.

  14. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  15. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Saravanan, Paramasivam; Sen, Arnab; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This study measured the clinical prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) among sheep and goats in India between 2003 and 2009 by analyzing clinical samples from suspected cases of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory, Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar for PPR diagnosis. PPR outbreaks were confirmed by detecting PPR virus (PPRV)-specific antigen in the clinical samples. Clinical samples (blood, nasal swabs, spleen, lymph node, kidney, liver, intestine, and pooled tissue materials) were taken from a total of 592 sheep and 912 goats in different states of India and screened for the presence of PPRV antigen using a monoclonal antibody based sandwich ELISA kit. A total of 20, 38, and 11 laboratory-confirmed PPR outbreaks occurred among sheep, goat, and combined sheep and goat populations, respectively. Our findings provide evidence of widespread PPR endemicity in India. The underlying reasons could be variations in husbandry practices in different geographical regions, agro-climatic conditions, and livestock migration. Furthermore, decrease in the number of PPR outbreaks over time might be due to the effectiveness of current live PPR vaccines and timely vaccination of target species. Vaccination against PPR has been practiced in India since 2002 to control this disease.

  16. Clonal diversity of Staphylococcus aureus originating from the small ruminants goats and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concepción Porrero, M.; Hasman, Henrik; Vela, Ana I.;

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in humans and many animal species. The prevalence of different clonal types in animal species remains largely unknown. We analyzed 267 S. aureus from intramammary infections in goats (47) and sheep (220) by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (ML...

  17. Evaluation of isometamidium levels in the serum of sheep and goats after prophylactic treatment against trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Wesongah

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available years, but recently there have been reports of prophylaxis failure under natural conditions. In this study, use of the drug for prophylactic purpose against trypanosomosis in small ruminants was investigated. Forty-two sheep and 44 goats were divided into four treatment groups. Groups 1 and 2 were treated with isometamidium chloride (Samorin(R, Rhone Merieux, Lyon, France at 3-month intervals while groups 3 and 4 were used as controls. All the animals were exposed to natural tsetse challenge and monitored for serum isometamidium levels and anti-trypanosome antibodies. Seven days after drug administration, isometamidium levels were significantly higher in goats 13.7 + 0.07 ng/mℓ than in sheep 6.2 + 0.06 ng/mℓ. However, the elimination half-life in the sheep was 14.2 + 0.92 days and was significantly higher (P > 0.05 than that of the goats 12 + 0.5 days. This study established that isometamidium metabolism differs between sheep and goats and this difference may have important implications in high tsetse challenge areas.

  18. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official registry tattoos that have been recorded in the book of record of a sheep or goat registry... inspection. These tattoos may also be used as premises identification if they contain a unique premises... number of the flock of origin; (v) Premises identification eartags or tattoos, if the...

  19. Isolation of subtelomeric DNA sequences labelling sheep and goat chromosome ends

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    Cribiu Edmond P

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two techniques that make it possible to isolate telomere DNA are presented, using sheep as an example. The first technique is based upon the screening of a sheep BAC library with PCR amplified DNA segments preserved from high-power laser beam irradiation. Twenty-three BACs hybridising to 13 subtelomeric regions in sheep and goats were obtained (out of 27 in the sheep complement, of which 13 recognised more than one region, telomeric or not. Twenty-three microsatellites were isolated from these BACs and 22 were genetically mapped on the sheep international genetic map, always consistently with the cytogenetical localisation in 17 cases out of 22. These results are discussed. The second technique is based upon the selective cloning of subtelomeric enriched DNA. Preliminary results were obtained by this approach.

  20. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

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    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  1. Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís; Rosado, Maria; Marques, Fernando; Cachatra, António; Pais, José; Henriques, Nuno; Gomes, Patrícia; Agostinho, Fábio; Horta, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas L Fernandes, M Rosado, F Marques, A Cachatra, J Pais, N Henriques, P Gomes, F Agostinho and P Horta The present study is based upon technical and economic data collected, in the years 2010-2011, in several farms joining the ACBM (Mertolengos Cattle Breeders) and APCRS (Serpentina Goats Breeders) associations. It considers data sets collected at four farms of each of the ab...

  2. Experimental infection of calves, sheep, goats and pigs with HoBi-like viruses by direct inoculation or exposure to persistently infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Decaro, N; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2015-12-31

    HoBi-like viruses are an emerging species of pestiviruses associated with respiratory and reproductive disease in cattle and in water buffaloes. Although cattle appear to be the main natural hosts, little is know about the potential for HoBi-like viruses to be transmitted to other livestock. In this study, seronegative calves, goats and pigs, and sheep harboring pestivirus antibodies (probably due to previous exposure to BVDV) were exposed to HoBi-like viruses either by direct inoculation (GIn) or by contact with calves persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses (GEx). Both GIn and GEx groups were monitored for clinical signs, lymphocyte count, virus in buffy coats and nasal swabs up to day 18 post-inoculation (pi). Evidence of transmission of HoBi-like virus by PI calves was observed in all studied species. No difference in clinical presentation was observed between animals in the GIn or GEx groups. Evidence of infection, depending on the species included lymphocyte depletion, fever, viral RNA detection, and/or seroconversion. Depletion of lymphocytes was observed in calves and goats (35% and 50%, respectively) but not in pigs. Seroconversion was observed in at least one animal of each group and for all exposed species. The rate of seroconversion was higher in animals in the GIn experimental groups. In sheep, pre-existing moderate to high neutralizing titers against BVDV did not prevent viral replication and shed. The study demonstrated that naive cattle, goats and pigs, in addition to antibody positive sheep, can be infected by HoBi-like virus via persistently infected calf and potentially transmit the virus. PMID:26525738

  3. THE EFFECTS OF VEGETABLE LECITHIN ON SOME SANGUINE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AT LACTATING SHEEP AND GOATS

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    D. DRINCEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From a complex experiment of establishing the effects of lecithin supplemented in the diet of small ruminants, in this paper we present the influence of lecithin on some sanguine biochemical parameters at lactating sheep and goat. The researches were made on a experimental group formed by 5 sheep from łurcana breed and 5 goats from Crapatina breed, which were fed in the first experimental period with a base ratio (Br formed by 1.5 kg of hill hay and 0.2 kg concentrate forage mixture, in the second experimental period the Br was supplemented with 100 g lecithin/day/animal. At the end of each experimental period were taken blood samples to establish some biochemical parameters from sanguine serum. The supplementation of base ration with 100 g lecithin/day/animal at lactating sheep and goats did not produced significant changes to values of total proteins (TS, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubins (TB from sanguine serum. Contrary to expectation the cholesterol and triglycerides were higher than normal both in sheep (from 82 mg/dl to 83 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 23 mg/dl to 45 mg/dl for triglycerides but specially in goats (from 59 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl for cholesterol and from 24 mg/dl to 55 mg/dl for triglycerides. Were registered significant increment of activity of alkaline phosphatase and in γ – GT and a decrease of plasmatic activity of pancreatic α-amylase both in sheep and goats.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...... differences in antibody seroprevalences among communal land goats from the different agro-ecological zones (Natural regions IIb and III: 80 and 96.7%, respectively; Natural region IV: 65.9%; Natural region V: 45%; and Natural region III had a significantly higher seroprevalence than IV and V. The highest...... sheep from a large commercial farm (10%) was significantly lower than that of sheep reared under the communal grazing system (80%). Overall, significantly higher proportions of seropositive animals had antibody titres of 1:50 (34.2% of 225) and 1:100 (44% of 225) as compared to the 9.8% and 12% with...

  5. Clinico-pathological observations in sheep & goats exposed to lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Kenya

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    Maina S M, Gitao C G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that positive tissue samples from an active case in Turkana had viral RNA from a lineage III PPRV and the first available genome sequence was determined. Seven goats and sheep aged between 3-6 months that were tested to be negative for PPR antibodies by competitiveELISA were used for study. These animals were divided into two treatment groups and one control group. Each animal in the treatment groups was inoculated through intranasal route with 2ml of 30% infected mixed tissue suspension while the control group was inoculated with phosphate buffered saline. Animals were then examined daily for development of PPR clinical signs. Clinical signs were observed in treatment groups while the control remained apparently healthy. Fever started to develop from 6.6 ±1.14 and 8.6 ±1.34 days post infection (dpi in goats and sheep respectively. There was a progressive rise in respiratory rates from 9 to 16 dpi in goats and from 9 to 14 dpi in sheep. Nasal discharges were recorded from days 8.2 ±2.28 and 9 ±1.83 post infection in goats and sheep respectively. Ocular discharges were observed from days 10±2.24 and 9.8±2.17 post infection in goats and sheep respectively. Oral lesions were observed only in one goat and two sheep. Diarrhea was observed from day 13.5±0.58 post infection in sheep and from day 14±1 post infection in goats.Gross pathology revealed lesions mainly in the lungs, body lymph nodes and the intestines. The results from this study indicate that whereas PPR is thought to mainly affect goats, the disease in Kenya appear to evenly affect both, goat and sheep.

  6. Genotypes, Antibiotic Resistance, and ST-8 Genetic Clone in Campylobacter Isolates from Sheep and Goats in Grenada

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    Diana M. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rectal swabs from 155 sheep and 252 goats from Grenada were evaluated to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained (14 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli. The prevalence (3.7% did not differ significantly between sheep (4.5% and goats (3.2%. Among the seven antimicrobials tested, resistance was only detected for tetracycline (30.8% and metronidazole (38.5%. Campylobacter isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or percent of resistant isolates. Twelve of the isolates were successfully genotyped consisting of four recognized clonal complexes and three novel sequence types. Importantly, one isolate from one goat was identified as the C. jejuni sequence type-8, a zoonotic and tetracycline-resistant clone reported to be a highly virulent clone associated with ovine abortion in the USA. Although most samples were from comingled sheep and goat production units, there were no shared sequence types between these two host species. None of the sequence types identified in this study have previously been reported in poultry in Grenada, suggesting sheep- and goat-specific Campylobacter clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of Campylobacter isolates from sheep and goats in the Eastern Caribbean.

  7. Experimental infection of sheep and goats with a recent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus from Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Eschbaumer, Michael; Breithaupt, Angele; Maltzan, Julia; Wiesner, Henning; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious viral disease of sheep and goats common in Africa and Asia. Its high morbidity and mortality has a devastating impact on agriculture in developing countries. As an example, an Asian lineage IV strain of PPRV was responsible for mass fatalities among wild goats in Kurdistan in 2010/2011. In separate experiments, three sheep and three goats of German domestic breeds were subcutaneously inoculated with the Kurdish virus isolate; three uninfected sheep and goats were housed together with the inoculated animals. All inoculated animals, all in-contact goats and two in-contact sheep developed high fever (up to 41.7 °C), depression, severe diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge as well as ulcerative stomatitis and pharyngitis. Infected animals seroconverted within a few days of the first detection of viral genome. Clinical signs were more pronounced in goats; four out of six goats had to be euthanized. Necropsy revealed characteristic lesions in the alimentary tract. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) RNA was detected in blood as well as nasal, oral and fecal swabs and tissues. The 2011 Kurdish strain of PPRV is highly virulent in European goats and spreads easily to in-contact animals, while disease severity and contagiosity in sheep are slightly lower. PPRV strains like the tested recent isolate can have a high impact on small ruminants in the European Union, and therefore, both early detection methods and intervention strategies have to be improved and updated regularly. PMID:24908276

  8. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)

    2013-01-01

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, ...

  9. Sero prevelance study Of Rift Valley Fever Antibody In Sheep and Goat In Ninavah Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O B Saleh Aghaa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the sero- prevalence of Rift Valley Fever virus antibodies in sheep and goat in Ninavah Provence, The study was included Examination of 368 serum samples, 184 samples for each species of animals ( Ewes and female goats (Does, Pregnant, Aborted and lambs or kids 1-2 weeks old in different areas Ninavah from October 2012 to February 2013. The samples were examined by using competitive ELISA test and measured the level of blood protein ,total and direct bilirubin and estimation of some liver enzymes The results of study was revealed that the total percentage of seropositive samples to the c-ELISA was 2.99% (11/368 samples, divided to 1.08% in sheep (2/184 and 4.89% in goats (9/184 and 2.17% from the sample was doubtful. The highest ratio from seropositive was in aborted female goats 72.73% (8/11, While the ratio was equal between aborted ewes, pregnant ewe's and pregnant female goats was 9.09%. There was no any sample positive in lambs or kids 1-2 weeks of age. There was significantly increased in total protein in serum of seropositive animals at P<0.05 compared with control group.

  10. Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo Kassa

    2012-01-01

    epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7% at ≥4 mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7% at cutoff ≥2 mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28% and 47% (95% CI: 37–56% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5% and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149 and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.

  11. Possible cross-infection of Dichelobacter nodosus between co-grazing sheep and cattle

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    Rogdo Torunn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate possible cross-infection of Dichelobacter nodosus in Norwegian farms practising co-grazing of sheep and cattle. Methods Thirteen farms practising co-grazing of sheep and cattle were included in this descriptive study: five farms with a history of severe ovine footrot (Group I and eight farms with free-stall housing of cattle and signs of mild or no footrot in sheep (Group II. Sampling for PCR detection of D. nodosus was performed from animals in all farms, and clinical claw examination of sheep and cattle was performed in Group II. D. nodosus positive samples were analysed by a multiplex PCR method that detects variants of the fimA gene corresponding to D. nodosus serogroups A through I. Results D. nodosus serogroup A was identified more frequently in sheep from farms with a history of severe footrot (Group I versus from Group II, and in most of the farms with a history of severe footrot there was a coexistence of D. nodosus serogroup A in sheep and cattle. In one farm heel horn erosion and dermatitis emerged in cattle after co-grazing with sheep suffering from severe footrot where D. nodosus serogroup A was detected. Six months later heel horn erosion and dermatitis were still diagnosed, and D. nodosus serogroup A was identified. Out of the 16 D. nodosus positive sheep samples from Group II, ten of the samples were positive by the fimA serogrouping PCR. Among these 10 samples all serogroups except G were detected. All the D. nodosus serogroups detected in sheep were also present in the corresponding cattle herds. Conclusion The clinical findings and the coexistence of the same serogroups in co-grazing sheep and cattle could indicate cross-infection. However, further research including isolation of the bacterial strains, virulence-testing and genetic identification, is needed.

  12. Prevalence and Molecular Diagnosis of Fasciola hepatica in Sheep and Goats in Different Districts of Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Shahzad*, Khalid Mehmood1, Rashid Munir2, Waqar Aslam, Muhammad Ijaz1, Rashid Ahmad, Mohammad Sarwar Khan1 and Ahmad Jawad Sabir1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of fasciolosis in Lohi sheep and Beetal goats in Okara, Sahiwal and Lahore districts of Punjab province. A total of 800 samples including 200 fecal and 200 bile, each from Lohi sheep and Beetal goats were collected and processed for microscopic examination of Fasciola eggs as well as its confirmation through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Of the fecal samples, 3.5 and 2% samples whereas from bile samples, 6.5 and 4% bile samples from sheep and goats were found microscopically positive for Fasciola hepatica, respectively. By PCR, 4.5 and 3.5% fecal samples and 8.5 and 5% bile samples from sheep and goats, respectively were confirmed for F. hepatica. Statistically sheep and goats species were found equally likely acquiring the F. hepatica diagnosed by either source of material (fecal and bile samples similarly fecal and bile samples were equally likely showing fasciolosis in either of sheep and goats.

  13. The prevalence of brucellosis among sheep and goats in northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M A; Penjouian, E K; Dessouky, F I

    1979-08-01

    Out of a total of 2,368 sheep and 3,156 goats tested against brucellosis by the Brewer's card test in the 5 Mohafadhas of the northern region of Iraq, 0.93% and 4.4% respectively were recorded as positive reactors. The highest incidence (1.36%) among sheep was found in the Kirkuk region while the lowest (0.78%) was in the Mosul (Nineveh) region. Among goats the highest incidence (11.55%) was revealed in the Dukho region while the lowest (1.47%) was in the Sulaimaniya region. The need for more detailed work on the incidence and on the isolation of the local strains, as well as the need for a control programme, is also discussed. PMID:505594

  14. Evaluation of the biological activation of plasmin plasminogen system in sheep and goat milk

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    A. Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk composition and quality are affected by several factors of which stage of lactation and mammary gland health status represent the main ones. These two factors become more effective in small dairy ruminants, for which stage of lactation is synchronized as result of the seasonal breeding cycle. As a consequence in dairy sheep and goats milk quality and cheese making properties tend to decline. Most of these effects on milk quality are also associated with an increase in the somatic cell count (SCC, which is in turn related with the gradual involution of mammary gland with the lactation progress (Fantuz et al., 2001; Baldi et al., 2002. However, high SCC in milk could be related to intramammary infections (IMI, sub-clinical and chronic mastitis in both sheep and goats.

  15. Assessment of seroconversion against peste des petits ruminants vaccine among sheep and goats in Buchanan, Liberia

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    BO Olugasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serological response to a live commercial vaccine of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR virus administered to sheep and goats in Buchanan, the capital city of Grand Bassa County, Liberia was assessed in view of its importance for effective restocking of small ruminants in the city. Forty-four paired serum samples (pre- and post-vaccination were collected from vaccinated sheep and goats during a nation-wide campaign for food security promotion from March to October, 2011. Sheep and goats were vaccinated against PPR in late April, 2011. Pre-vaccination samples were collected in mid-April, 2011. Post-vaccination samples were collected in mid-October 2011 from the same groups of sheep and goats (6 months after vaccination. Paired serum samples gathered were stored at -4 0C until tested. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA was used to determine antibody levels against PPR virus. Only 34(77.3% out of 44 paired serum samples were adequate in quantity and quality for the test. Test results indicated 27(79.4% out of 44 paired serum samples increased significantly in antibody levels from pre-vaccination to post-vaccination levels that were equal or above threshold of Percentage Inhibition (PI > 50% against PPR vaccine. The importance of these findings to effective veterinary services delivery for the control of this neglected animal disease in Liberia is discussed. The present seroconversion status against PPR virus is considered to be a milestone in rebuilding veterinary services systems in Liberia towards national efforts for food security after prolonged civil war (1989-2003 in the country.

  16. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants among sheep and goats in India

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Saravanan, Paramasivam; Sen, Arnab; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Krishnamoorthy, Paramanandham; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the clinical prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) among sheep and goats in India between 2003 and 2009 by analyzing clinical samples from suspected cases of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory, Division of Virology, IVRI, Mukteswar for PPR diagnosis. PPR outbreaks were confirmed by detecting PPR virus (PPRV)-specific antigen in the clinical samples. Clinical samples (blood, nasal swabs, spleen, lymph node, kidney, liver, intest...

  17. Production of progesterone antibodies and their use in studying reproductive functions in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of antisera raised in six rabbits by immunization with progesterone-3-0-carboxymethyloxime-BSA are described. The performance of a progesterone RIA involving the use of the best antiserum is described. This progesterone RIA, carried out in sheep and goat plasma samples collected throughout the different stages of the reproductive life cycle turned out to be a reliable method to monitor ovarian activity. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. Evaluation of peste des petits ruminants cell culture vaccine in sheep and goats in Pakistan

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    Muhammad Asim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the antibody response of a locally prepared live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR cell culture vaccine in sheep and goats. Antibodies were measured using the competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. The vaccine was found to be safe and produced high serological titres within 21 days post vaccination. The serological titres remained high for one year post vaccination.

  19. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats

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    O. El-Tookhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to describe the ultrasonographic findings in relation to the clinical symptoms of some common ocular conditions in sheep and goats. Fifty animals (32 goats and 18 sheep with different ocular problems were examined. Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit, and the structure of the globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. Early cases (n=35, 70% showed varying ocular conditions; hypopyon, (n=8, 16%, stromal abscesses, (n=4, 8%, and anterior uveitis (n=23, 46%. Hypopyon appeared clinically as a white or yellowish material in the anterior chamber, and ultrasonographically as a hyperechoic mass in the anterior chamber. Severe iridocyclitis was noticed in acute cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC accompanied by blepharospasm, photophobia, excessive tearing and eyelid margin crust formation. Ultrasonographically, the pupil appeared constricted with increased hyperechoic thickening of the ciliary body. In chronic cases of IKC, corneal pigmentation (n=5, 10% and cataract (n=10, 20% were seen. Ultrasonographically the type and degree of cataract were diagnosed. The present study provides an inside view of the inner ocular structures during the course of certain eye diseases where ophthalmoscopic examination is not possible. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for the more complete diagnosis of certain external ocular conditions in sheep and goat herds.

  20. Cross-infection of virulent Dichelobacter nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Gilhuus, Marianne; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2014-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main aetiological agent of ovine footrot and the bacterium has also been associated with interdigital dermatitis is cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate possible cross-infection of virulent D. nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle. Five farms, where...... sheep previously diagnosed with virulent D. nodosus were co-grazing with cattle for different periods of time, were included. The study sample consisted of 200 cows and 50 sheep. All cows were examined for the presence of interdigital dermatitis, and ten ewes, preferably with symptoms of footrot, had...... of the cows stayed infected for at least eight months. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the isolates from the five cows were found to be genetically indistinguishable or closely related to isolates from sheep from the same farm. This indicates that cross-infection between sheep and cows have...

  1. Photosensitization in cattle and sheep caused by feeding Ammi majus (greater Ammi; Bishop's-Weed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollahite, J W; Younger, R L; Hoffman, G O

    1978-01-01

    Feeding Ammi majus to cattle and sheep caused photosensitization in both species. It also caused photosensitization in human beings who had dermal contact with the plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight.

  2. Progesterone and 5 beta-pregnanediol production by isolated fetal placental binucleate cells from sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wango, E O; Heap, R B; Wooding, F B

    1991-05-01

    Enzymic dispersion and density gradient separation were used for the isolation of enriched populations (60-90%) of cells from the corpus luteum, placenta and peripheral blood of pregnant sheep and goats. Analysis of the steroids produced from radioactive pregnenolone demonstrated that placental binucleate cells can produce progesterone and 5 beta-pregnanediol whereas white blood cells were relatively inactive. Thus, sheep binucleate cells converted pregnenolone predominantly to progesterone as did sheep luteal cells. However, goat binucleate cells produced 5 beta-pregnanediol as the major metabolite, which is consistent with its production in vivo during pregnancy. Production of progesterone (sheep) or 5 beta-pregnanediol (goat) by binucleate cells was shown to be proportional to the number and viability of the cells. In contrast with the binucleate cells there was no evidence that trophectodermal uninucleate cells play a significant role in placental progesterone or 5 beta-pregnanediol synthesis in either species. PMID:2040862

  3. Genetic characterizations of Giardia duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China and possibility of zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a widespread intestinal protozoan of both humans and mammals. To date, few epidemiological studies have assessed the potential and importance of zoonotic transmission; and the human giardiasis burden attributable to G. duodenalis of animal origin is unclear. No information about occurrence and genotyping data of sheep and goat giardiasis is available in China. The aim of the present study was to determine prevalence and distribution of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China, and to characterize G. duodenalis isolates and assess the possibility of zoonotic transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 678 fecal specimens were collected from sheep and goats on six farms ranging in age from one month to four years in Heilongjiang Province, China. The average prevalence of G. duodenalis infection was 5.0% (34/678 by microscopy after Lugol's iodine staining, with 5.6% (30/539 for the sheep versus 2.9% (4/139 for the goats. Molecular analysis was conducted on 34 G. duodenalis isolates based on the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi gene. 29 tpi gene sequences were successfully obtained and identified as assemblages A (n = 4, B (n = 2 and E (n = 23. High heterogeneity was observed within assemblage E at the tpi locus, with five novel subtypes found out of seven subtypes. Two subtypes of assemblage A were detected, including subtype AI (n = 3 and a novel subtype (designated as subtype AIV (n = 1. Two assemblage B isolates were identical to each other in the tpi gene sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of G. duodenalis infections in sheep and goats in China. The present data revealed the unique endemicity on prevalence, distribution and genetic characterization of G. duodenalis in sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province. The findings of assemblages A and B in sheep and goats implied the potential of zoonotic transmission.

  4. Effect of alternate and simultaneous grazing on endoparasite infection in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Daiana Lima; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Louvandini, Helder; dos Santos, Viviane Rodrigues Verdolin; Torres, Sonia Emília Figueirêdo de Araújo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to examine red and white cell series, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin and hemoglobin. FEC and estimated nematode pathogenicity index in sheep were lower in the SIM treatment. The Haemonchus spp. proportion was higher in isolated grazing systems. For sheep, mixed grazing was shown to reduce endoparasite infection, and SIM was better than ALT. For cattle, no difference between grazing systems was seen. Therefore, simultaneous grazing (sheep and cattle) may be a tool for reducing the need for anthelmintic treatments in sheep. PMID:24473872

  5. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, L.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Vellema, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs.

  6. Q fever seroprevalence and risk factors in sheep and goats in northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Francesca; Vitale, Nicoletta; Ballardini, Marco; Borromeo, Vitaliano; Luzzago, Camilla; Chiavacci, Laura; Mandola, Maria Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii; domestic ruminants, mainly goats and sheep, are the main source of Q fever outbreaks in humans. From both a public and an animal health perspective, providing reliable prevalence data is extremely relevant for the decision processes by policymakers and food producer organizations. Information on Q fever seroprevalence in small ruminants in Italy is currently incomplete and largely based on reports of reproductive disorders in livestock farms. To estimate animal and flock seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants (sheep, goats and mixed flocks), a cross-sectional study with a two-stage design was carried out in northwest Italy. Between January and December 2012, sera from 5738 animals (2553 sheep and 3185 goats) belonging to 411 flocks (206 goats, 111 sheep, and 94 mixed flocks) were examined for specific anti-C. burnetii IgG antibodies by a commercial ELISA kit. A questionnaire investigating possible associations between farm management and C. burnetii seropositivity was administered. At the flock level, the overall true seroprevalence adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity was 31.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-37.7). Sheep-farm and goat-farm true seroprevalence was 38.7% (95% CI 25.5-51.9) and 19.5% (95% CI 11.5-27.6), respectively. Interestingly, the true seroprevalence (48.5%; 95% CI 34.7-62.3) was higher in the mixed flocks (sheep and goats). At the animal level, the overall true seroprevalence was 15.9% (95% CI 15.4-16.4). No difference was found between the two species, but the true seroprevalence was significantly higher (χ(2)=7.49; p<0.007) among the goats in mixed flocks (25.7%; 95% CI 24.4-27.1) than the sheep (16.3%; 95% CI 15.1-17.4), suggesting a potential difference in susceptibility between the two species or the result of factors affecting their immune response or related to the livestock management system as the period of exposure to C. burnetii. A multivariable

  7. Control of the reproductive performance of Chios sheep and Damascus goats: Studies using hormone radioimmuoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of environment on conception rate and litter size, and of the goat status and age in the preceding season on the time of oestrus appearance were studied. Furthermore, the effect of season of kidding and daily milk production at the occurrence of oestrus on 'days open' was examined. Environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, age of goat or management and feeding could not account for the variation in reproductive behaviour. Ovarian activity monitored for 53 weeks showed that: there was a short period of anoestrus from late March to early July; conventional methods of heat detection are inadequate; there was an irregular heat wave in July which was not followed by repeated cycles; and the regular breeding season for the Damascus goat is in autumn (September to December) and the average length of the cycle is 21 days. The duration of oestrus was studied in parous and non-parous goats following oestrus synchronization with progesterone analogue and PMSG. Overt oestrus appeared 31.1 h (range 24-48 h) after the removal of sponges, and continued for 36-44 h. Its duration was somewhat longer in parous compared to non-parous goats. Serum progesterone levels correlated with oestrus detection by vasectomized males. Milk and blood samples were collected at regular intervals starting three days post-partum to study post-partum anoestrus in Chios sheep. Progesterone assays, carried out using skimmed milk and blood serum, showed that first ovulation occurred approximately within 30 days post-partum. Progesterone levels were much higher in serum than in skimmed milk. It is suggested that Chios sheep have ovulations during the suckling period although overt oestrus could not always be detected by vasectomized males. 50 refs, 8 figs, 7 tabs

  8. An estimate of seasonality and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats . in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriajaya

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Tracer Inoodle tbin-tail sheep and Kacang goats were used to measure the seasonal changes in gastrointestinal nematodes parasitism i ~'und[, .xillapek .Fodd~ 'ofis in West Java . Each 3 months for 12 months worm-free male sheep (5 and goats (5 about 5 months of age were ~ $Jri~tgldI o% ef- farmer, and managed as part of their flock for 2 months . Animals were then returned to the laboratory and maintained on "`~^taaan-ftwAiet in elevated slatted pens for 3 weeks prior to slaughter. In all trials sheep had higher faecal egg counts than goats . Egg counts were significantly lower during the late dry-early wet season due mainly to lower burdens of Oesophagostomum spp. than at other times of the year. The predominant genera recovered from faecal larval cultures were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus . At post mortem more than 94 percent of animals were infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T. axei, Haemonchus contortus, Oesophagostomum columbianwn and Strongyloides papillosus . Other species found, in descending order of occurrence, were Cooperia curticei, Trichuris ovis, Bunostornum trigonocephalum, Oesophagostomumn asperum, Capillaria bovis and Gaigena pachycelis. It was concluded that intensity of exposure of both sheep and goats to H contortus, T. axei and C. curticei was similar throughout the year, but that availability of infectioe larvae of T. colubriformis was higher during the dry than the wet season and vise versa for O. columbianum . Sheep had higher burdens of T. Colubrzformis than goats but similar numbers of other species.

  9. [Seroprevalence of antibodies to ruminant pestiviruses in sheep and goats in Tyrol (Austria)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, P; Krametter-Frötscher, R; Schleiner, A; Loitsch, A; Golja, F; Möstl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2006-02-01

    In this study 2058 blood samples from sheep of 150 flocks from the province of Tyrol were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation tests for antibodies to ruminant pestiviruses. In the ELISA, positive results were obtained with 34.9% of individual sheep sera and in 89.3% of the sheep flocks. The prevalence in sheep and sheep flocks varied according to areas. Seroprevalence of pestiviruses was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in small ruminants pastured during summertime on the Alps. Comparative neutralisation studies were carried out on all positive blood samples with BVDV-1, BVDV-2 and BDV. 443 seropositive sheep samples exhibited clearly the highest titre against one of the pestivirus strains tested. 413 revealed the highest titres (2 or more fold) to BVDV-1, 6 to BVDV-2 and 24 to BDV. In some areas a very high rate of pestivirus seroprevalence could be found. This fact could be harmful to the BVDV-Elimination and Controlling Program in cattle in Austria.

  10. Radioactivity in sheep meat, cow and goat milk, 1988-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the results of monitoring 137Cs in sheep, cow and goats milk from selected farms in 2004 and long-term effects from 1988-2004.The results give a basis for this years slaughter forecasts in 2004 and give information about the levels, variation and long-term effects of 137Cs in some of Norway's most important food chains. Sheep classification zones made clean feeding necessary wholly or partially in 34 municipalities in 2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in goat milk from Nord-Trondelag and Oppland were 9-10 years for the period 1989-2004. Effective ecological half-times for 137Cs in cow milk were 7 years in farms from Nordland county and 10 years in farms from Oppland county. Concentration of 137Cs in sheep meat from Oppland county measured in 1989-2004, showed an estimated effective ecological half-time of 10 years for ewes and 11 years for lambs. (Author)

  11. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle R. Adney

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses.

  12. Inoculation of Goats, Sheep, and Horses with MERS-CoV Does Not Result in Productive Viral Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Brown, Vienna R; Porter, Stephanie M; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first recognized in 2012 and can cause severe disease in infected humans. Dromedary camels are the reservoir for the virus, although, other than nasal discharge, these animals do not display any overt clinical disease. Data from in vitro experiments suggest that other livestock such as sheep, goats, and horses might also contribute to viral transmission, although field data has not identified any seropositive animals. In order to understand if these animals could be infected, we challenged young goats and horses and adult sheep with MERS-CoV by intranasal inoculation. Minimal or no virus shedding was detected in all of the animals. During the four weeks following inoculation, neutralizing antibodies were detected in the young goats, but not in sheep or horses. PMID:27548203

  13. Foot rot and other foot diseases of goat and sheep in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildeni M.N Aguiar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence and epidemiology of outbreaks of foot rot and other foot diseases in goats and sheep in the semiarid region of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Four farms were inspected for the presence of foot lesion in sheep and goats and for environmental conditions, general hygiene, pastures, and disease control measures. The prevalence of foot lesions was 19.41% (170/876 in sheep and 17.99% (52/289 in goats, ranging between 5.77% and 33.85% in different farms. Foot rot was the most common disease, affecting 12.1% of the animals examined (141/1165, but with significantly higher (p<0.05 prevalence in sheep (13.69% than in goats (7.27%. The frequency of malignant foot rot was also significantly lower (p<0.05 in goats (9.53% than in the sheep (40.83%. On one farm, Dorper sheep showed significantly higher (p<0.05 prevalence of foot rot (17.5% than Santa Inês sheep (6.79%, and the number of digits affected was also higher in the former. Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum were isolated from cases of foot rot. White line disease was found in 3.95% of the animals, sole ulcers in 1.29%, foot abscess in 1.03% and hoof overgrowth in 0.5%. The high rainfall at the time of occurrence, grazing in wetlands, clay soils with poor drainage, presence of numerous stony grounds, closure of the flocks in pens at night, and introduction of affected animals were considered predisposing factors for the occurrence of foot diseases.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...... seroprevalences found in Natural regions IIb and III are likely to be linked to the existence of more households and hence the possibility of a higher concentration of domestic cats that increases the chances of environmental contamination with their faeces harbouring T. gondii oocysts. The seroprevalence rate...

  15. Changes in the microflora composition of goat and sheep milk during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine extend of microbial contamination of raw milk in individual seasons. Raw goat milk (3 farms and sheep milk (2 farms were analyzed. Milk was produced on farms of different way of farming and with a different number of milked animals. Samples were taken during lactation three terms in the beginning, middle and end of lactation. In milk, following groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: total count of microorganisms (TCM, psychrotrophic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, enterococci, aerobic and anaerobic thermoresistant microorganisms (TMRae, TMRan, micromycetes (yeast and moulds. In goat milk, the following numbers of microorganisms were detected: total count of microorganisms (TCM from 105 to 109 CFU x mL-1, lactobacilli from 102 to 105 CFU x mL-1, bacteria fam. Enterobacteriaceae from 101 to 105 CFU x mL-1, enterococci from 101 to 105 CFU x mL-1, thermoresistant aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms (TMRae and TMRan from units to 103 resp. 105 CFU x mL-1, psychrotrophic microorganisms from 101 to 106 CFU x mL-1, micromycets from 101 to 104 CFU x mL-1. In the sheep milk, the following numbers of microorganisms were determined: TCM from 105 to 106 CFU x mL-1, lactobacilli from 103 to 106 CFU x mL-1, bacteria fam. Enterobacteriaceae from 101 to 105 CFU x mL-1, enterococci from 101 to 104 CFU x mL-1, TMRae and TMRan from units to 105 CFU x mL-1, psychrotrophic microorganisms from 104 to 106 CFU x mL-1, micromycets from 102 to 104 CFU x mL-1. From the above mentioned results, the following conclusions can be suggested. The bacterial counts of raw goat and sheep milk are highly variable and influenced by a number of important factors in the course of lactation and year (temperature, health, secondary contamination etc.. The bacterial numbers are not affected by the stage of lactation. High numbers of microorganisms in goat and sheep milk may be primarily

  16. Sensitivity of reproductive potential to environmental factors in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovulation rate, embryo survival, postnatal mortality, interval from parturition to conception, age at first parturition, number of parturitions before culling, and age at culling collectively declineate the ability of a breed to cope with the local environment and management which are often harsh and suboptimal. In tropical and subtropical countries, the reproductive performance of goat and sheep is low and far from their maximum potential. Identification of the main limiting factors and determination of the breed's sensitivity to these factors are essential preliminary steps before choosing the method(s) to improve reproductive performance in such countries. (author)

  17. Paratuberculose em caprinos e ovinos no Brasil Paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, determinar medidas de controle e avaliar a possibilidade de transmissão para humanos.This paper reports paratuberculosis in sheep and goats for the first time in Brazil. On Farm 1 in a flock of 33 goats and 13 sheep, one adult female goat presented progressive weight loss during about one year, and soft feces during one month before death. All the animals from the flock were submitted to the comparative tuberculin test. One sheep was positive to the avian tuberculin (2.2% and in two the results were inconclusive. On Farm 2, in a flock of 200 sheep and 80 goats, one adult ewe presented progressive weight loss during about one year, and soft feces during 20 days before death. All sheep older than four months of age and 23 goats were submitted to tuberculin test with avian tuberculin; 47 (25.4% sheep were positive, 115 (61.5% had inconclusive results, and 25 (13.4% were negative. No positive tuberculin test were observed in the goats, but in 11 (47.8% the test was inconclusive and in 12 (52.2% was negative. At necropsy both affected animals had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. In the affected sheep, the gut wall was thickened and corrugated, mainly in the ileum and ileocecal valve. Histologically, granulomas with mainly foamy macrophages were observed in the lamina propria and submucosa of the gut, in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in the goat also in the liver. One tuberculin positive sheep and one tuberculin negative goat from Farm 1 were euthanized and necropsied. A mild thickened of the intestinal wall was observed grossly in both animals. Inflammatory infiltrate with mainly lymphocytes was observed on the submucosa and lamina propria of the gut. In the four cases acid-alcohol positive rods, positive for Mycobacterium spp. on immunohistochemical examination were observed in macrophages and lymphocytes. New studies are necessary to know the prevalence and economical impact of paratuberculosis in goats and sheep in Brazil, to determine control

  18. Managing Genetic Variation to Conserve Genetic Diversity in Goats and Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. B. Shrestha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic goat and sheep populations maintained for many generations with small numbers of male and female parents, or declining in total numbers, not only endure accumulated genetic drift but also a steady rise in inbreeding, which can be directly attributed to dispersive forces of evolutionary significance that influence gene frequency. Increasing effective population size shows theoretical promise in lessening the impact on erosion of biodiversity from genetic drift. For example, doubling the effective numbers of parents which increases effective population size reduces rate of inbreeding by nearly one-half in many of the scenarios in the present study. Similarly, equalizing the number of male and female parents can decrease the variance among progeny of each parent, which in turn increases effective population size. The recurring erosion of domestic goat and sheep diversity has contributed to decreased fecundity, reduced fitness and poor adaptability, all known to influence efficiency of production. The potential loss in performance of livestock and poultry following many generations of accumulated genetic drift, which often goes unnoticed, can be predicted for specific populations from precise estimates of their mean value, additive genetic variance and heritability along with their effective number of male and female parents. For example, when the effective population size decreases from 200 to 40, the potential reduction in mean performance for economically important traits of goat and sheep populations following 20 generations of accumulated genetic drift will nearly double. In contrast, increasing effective population size from 200 to 600 will have the potential reduction in mean performance. The accumulation of favourable mutations could imply an effective population size of 100 or more, which is equal to a rise in rate of inbreeding of 0.5% or less, may be acceptable in sustaining genetic response to artificial selection in commercial

  19. Investigation of the Development of Farming Professional Cooperatives of Cashmere-goat and Wool-sheep in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; SHI; Haifeng; XIAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data from the survey of cashmere-goat and wool-sheep in 12 demonstration counties of China’s main producing areas in 2012,the development of farming professional cooperatives of cashmere-goat and wool-sheep was analyzed from aspects of status quo,problems and causes,and some suggestions about cooperation cognition and mode,service capacity,personnel training,system improvement and preferential policies were put forward to promote the development of the farming professional cooperatives.

  20. Presence of Coxiella burnetii in Airborne Dust Samples from Goat and Sheep Farms in Kerman, Iran

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    Mohammad Khalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by inhalation of the bacterium Coxiellaburnetii. Ruminant livestock are common reservoirs for C. burnetii, and bacteria present inaerosols derived from the waste of infected animals can infect humans. C. burnetii is thought toinfect humans primarily via airborne transmission.Methods: 64 environmental swab samples were collected from 24 sheep and goat farms inSoutheast Kerman province (Iran.Results: In this study touchdown nested trans- PCR were used for detection of C. burnetii inenvironmental samples. We detected C. burnetii DNA in inhalable dust samples collected at 5farms.Conclusion: This first report in Iran highlighted presence of C. burnetii in dust originated fromgoat and sheep farms and that role in human infections with disseminating by wind.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the Capripoxvirus RPO30 gene and its use in a PCR test for differentiating sheep poxvirus from goat poxvirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) of the Poxviridae family comprises sheep poxvirus (SPPV), goat poxvirus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) which are responsible for economically important diseases affecting sheep, goats and cattle respectively. To date, there have been no molecular criteria upon which to base strain designation. The complexity of CaPVs host specificity shows the need to develop more reliable tools for CaPVs identification than the current method which is based on the host origin. Previous reports, based on partial or full genome sequencing indicated that CaP viruses are genetically distinct from each other and can be grouped as three different species: SPPV, GTPV and LSDV. In contributing to the creation of more stringent data for geno-typing CaPVs, we have analysed the RPO30 gene of several isolates. The phylogenetic reconstructions have shown that the viruses can be segregated into three different lineages according to their host origins: the SPPV, the GTPV and the LSDV lineages. In addition, a 21-nucleotides deletion found in all individuals within only the SPPV group was exploited to design a classical PCR method to differentiate SPPV from GTPV. This test allows the rapid differential diagnosis of diseases caused by either SPPV or GTPV strains. (author)

  2. The pathogenicity of some ovine or caprine mycoplasmas in the lactating mammary gland of sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G E

    1985-07-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, M. arginini and M. conjunctivae were each inoculated into the lactating mammary gland of goats and sheep. M. ovipneumoniae was mastitogenic in both species, causing persistent colonization, raised lacteal cell numbers, decreased milk output and separation of milk into 3 layers throughout the periods of observation in virtually all animals. Its effects in sheep were variable, however, and appeared to depend less on the strain and titre of inoculum than on individual variation in response. M. arginini and M. conjunctivae were not mastitogenic for goats, but one of each pair of sheep injected with these agents showed organism persistence at high titres and lacteal neutrophilia over 9 days of observation. Effects on milk production were obscured by the apparent poor ability of the ovine udder to regain previous yield after a fall in output, but milk consistency and appearance were only temporarily or mildly affected in these animals. A. laidlawii, injected into sheep only, produced transient effects but with poor recovery of milk production after elimination of the organism. Goats were superior to sheep in consistency of reaction and milk output, and equally if not more susceptible to intra-mammary challenge with M. ovipneumoniae. The goat was therefore concluded to be the better experimental animal in a potentially useful method for screening strains of M. ovipneumoniae for virulence.

  3. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis, Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries, and Goats (Capra hircus in Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries and domestic goat (Capra hircus and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  4. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  5. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Slaughter Value and Carcass Composition of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate slaughter characteristics and carcass composition of indigenous long fat tailed sheep and Small East African goats purchased from the auction markets slaughtered at 1.5 to 2 yrs of age and 20 kg to 25 kg live weight. The animals were slaughtered according to halal standard procedures. The left half carcasses were jointed into eight wholesale joints, and dissected into muscles, fat and bone, which were weighed separately. Sheep had greater (p

  7. Isolation and Identification of Pasteurella multocida from Sheep & Goat in Iran

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    Valadan, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out with the objective of isolation and identification of agent(s of pasteurella pneumonia in sheep and goat in Iran using bacteriological and biochemical assays to be identified in the pursuant researches to be used in pasteurellosis vaccine production. To accomplish this objective, samples were gathered from areas suspicious to pasteurellosis infection and industrial abbatoirs according to clinical and autopsy symptoms from eight provinces of Bushehr, Esfahan, Kerman, Kohgilooyeh & Boyr Ahmad, Fars, Qom, Tehran and Qazvin in a period from spring 2008 to spring 2011. Samples were different in sort due to the existent condition but generally were comprised of palatine tonsil swabs or blood samples taken from jugular vein in live animals and lungs or upper respiratory tract lymph glands in dead or slaughtered animals. Totally, 1454 samples (1120 samples of sheep, 334 samples of goat composed if 1084 samples of live animals and 370 samples of dead or slaughterd animals were tested. Considering results obtained from assays, only 54 samples (3.71% were assessed as being pasteurella, genus of which was totally identified as multocida.

  8. Diversity and seasonal occurrence of Eimeria species in a mixed flock of communally reared sheep and goats in Mafikeng in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Bakunzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and seasonal occurrence of coccidia in a communally reared mixed flock of sheep and goats at Mafikeng, North West Province, South Africa, was determined between March 2008 and February 2009. Faecal specimens were collected directly from the rectum of the animals and the number of oocysts per gram of faeces (opg determined. The mean monthly opg for goats was significantly higher than that for sheep. Higher oocyst counts were observed during the hot, rainy season than during the cold, dry season. The highest mean values for both the sheep (862.5 opg and goats (1200 opg were recorded during March. Six species (Eimeria crandallis, E. bakuensis, E. weybridgensis, E. ahsata, E. intricata, and E. ovinoidalis were recovered from sheep, with E. crandallis and E. bakuensis occurring most frequently. The last 2 species, together with E. ahsata, are considered among the most pathogenic species in sheep. In goats, 7 species (E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. caprina, E. alijevi, E. caprovina, E. christenseni and E. hirci were recovered, with E. arloingi and E. jolchijevi occurring most frequently. Up to 5 Eimeria species were recovered from individual specimens in goats while up to 4 were recovered in sheep. No cross-infections between goats and sheep were recorded and no clinical coccidiosis was noted during the study. It is increasingly becoming evident that the pathogenic E. arloingi is one of the most commonly occurring Eimeria species in goats in South Africa.

  9. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5′-nucleotidase

    OpenAIRE

    Hope, M.; Jiang, X.; Gough, J.; CADOGAN, L; JOSH, P; Jonsson, N.; P. Willadsen

    2010-01-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5′-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5′-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant p...

  10. Human Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia by Regions Depending on Vaccination Procedures in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharko Stojmanovski

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Decline of the incidence of human brucellosis is one of the major indicators for successfully implemented new control programs and strategies for prevention and eradication of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Vaccination was good measure to control brucellosis in the 3 regions.

  11. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats. 93.420 Section 93.420 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND...

  12. SERO-PREVALENCE OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR VIRUS IN SHEEP AND GOATS IN PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

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    H. A. KHAN, M. SIDDIQUE, M. J. ARSHAD1, Q. M. KHAN2 AND S. U. REHMAN

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute febrile viral disease of sheep and goats characterized by mucopurulent nasal and ocular discharge, necrotizing and erosive stomatitis, enteritis and pneumonia. The disease is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses due to high rates of mortality and morbidity in infected sheep and goats. In the present study, 660 serum samples of sheep and goat were collected from 24 districts of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the serum against PPRV. Findings suggested that the sero-positive cases were significantly higher in sheep than in goats (51.29 versus 39.02%; P=0.002. The overall sero-prevalence of PPRV in small ruminants was 43.33%. Highest prevalence (35.71-100% was observed in Southern districts, while no antibodies were found in serum from some of Northern and Eastern districts of the Punjab Province.

  13. Sero-epidemiological study of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats in India between 2003 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, V; Saravanan, P; Sen, A; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Singh, R K

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the serosurveillance of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in sheep and goats that was carried out between 2003 and 2009 using serum samples from animals suspected of PPR that were submitted to the Rinderpest and Allied Disease Laboratory (Division of Virology of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute [IVRI]). A total of 2,197 serum samples from sheep and 2,687 from goats were screened for PPR virus (PPRV) antibody using a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed at IVRI. Screening of the 4,884 serum samples showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibody in sheep and goats was 41.01% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.86 to 50.16) and 46.11% (95% CI: 37.18 to 55.04), respectively, with an overall prevalence of 43.56% (95% CI: 36.78 to 50.34) during the period. This indicates increased and widespread infection with the virus in India compared with earlier reports, which is attributed to the variations in sheep and goat husbandry practices in different regions, the agro-climatic conditions, the topography of different states, the socio-economic status of individual farmers and the migration of livestock in India.

  14. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  15. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams.

  16. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in fresh and dry cattle, horse, and sheep manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R W; Entry, J A; Graves, Alexandria

    2005-10-01

    Livestock are known contributors to stream pollution. Numbers of fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli in manure naturally deposited by livestock in the field are needed for activities related to bacterial source tracking and determining maximum daily bacterial loading of streams. We measured populations of fecal streptococci and E. coli in fresh and dry manure from cattle (Bos taurus L.), horses (Equus caballus L.), and sheep (Ovis aires L.) on farms in southern Idaho. Populations of indicator bacteria in dry manure were often as high as that in fresh manure from horse and sheep. There was a 2 log10 drop in the population of fecal coliform numbers in dry cattle manure from cattle in pastures but not from cattle in pens. Bacterial isolates used in source tracking should include isolates from both fresh and dry manure to better represent the bacterial source loading of streams. PMID:16333344

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity among sheep and goats in a peri-urban region of Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Elisabeth Lindahl; Grahn, Cecilia; Ljung, Isabel; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats on small-scale farms in a peri-urban area of Tajikistan and identify factors associated with seropositivity. The study population was 667 female sheep and goats >6 months of age from 21 villages in four districts surrounding the capital city, Dushanbe. Individual blood samples were collected during October and November 2012 and analysed with indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were confirmed with competitive ELISA. To identify factors associated with seropositivity at an individual level, a generalised linear mixed model was applied to account for clustering of individuals within villages and districts. The true individual seroprevalence was 6.7 % and ranged from 1.0 to 15.6 % between the four districts. Fourteen villages had at least one seropositive sheep or goat, resulting in apparent prevalence of 67 % at village level. The seroprevalence at individual level was significantly lower in Rudaki district (odds ratio (OR) = 0.1; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.03-0.4) and Varzob district (OR = 0.3; 95 % CI 0.09-0.8) than in Vahdat district. Sheep were more likely than goats to be seropositive (OR = 2.7; 95 % CI 1.3-5.5). Increasing age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI 1.2-1.6). These results indicate high prevalence of Brucella infection among sheep and goats in the peri-urban area of the capital city in Tajikistan. Given the dense human population in such areas, this could constitute a threat to public health, besides causing significant production losses.

  18. Seroprevalence and Spatial Distribution of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep and Goats in North-Eastern Region of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Haroon; Malik, Ayesha; Arshad, Muhammad; Mustafa, Irfan; Khan, Mobushir Riaz; Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Shahzad; Mobeen, Muhammad; Simsek, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a protozoan disease that is caused by Toxoplasma gondii in livestock and humans. Due to its medical and veterinary importance, it is essential to study the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among humans and animals in various parts of the world. The major objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants (sheep and goats) of north-eastern region, Pakistan. A total of 1,000 animals comprising of sheep (n=470) and goats (n=530) were examined for T. gondii infection by using ELISA. An epidemiological data was collected in the form of questionnaire. A surface has been generated by using method of interpolation in Arc GIS with the help of IDW (inverse distance weight). The results showed higher seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats (42.8%) as compared to sheep (26.2%). The seroprevalence was higher in females as compared to males in all examined ruminants. Similarly, there is a wide variation in the seroprevalence of T. gondii in different breeds of sheep and goats showing higher seroprevalence in Teddy (52.8%) and Damani breed (34.5%) of goat and sheep's, respectively. The geographical and spatial distribution of T. gondii shows that it is widely distributed in different parts of the north-eastern region of Pakistan. Our results suggest widespread environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. It suggests us that small ruminants could be a potentially important source of T. gondii infection if their infected meat is consumed undercooked. PMID:27658595

  19. Molecular and morphological characterization of Parabronema skrjabini of sheep and goats at three different geographical zones in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Meshgi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and morphological aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goats in Iran. The worms were collected from these animal species from three different regions. An internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) fragment of Parabronema skrjabini was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). Morphological studies based on the body length, the frontal shield, spicules of male and egg dimensions were performed. ITS2-rDNA sequences were between 167 and 299 bp in different isolates. ITS2 homology in different isolates was between 68% and 77% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. Morphological results showed that the average length of male and female worms in sheep were 16.5 mm and 36 mm and in goats 16 mm and 35.5 mm, respectively. The average length of the small and large spicules in sheep were 657.5 μm and 304.07 μm and in goats 653.08 μm and 302.66 μm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of Parabronema in sheep and goats. Add this sentence in discussion: the low ITS2-rDNA identity in different isolates from Iran as compared to the reference sequence in GenBank (68-77%) raise questions regarding the species identity of the parasites isolated in Iran.

  20. Molecular and morphological characterization of Parabronema skrjabini of sheep and goats at three different geographical zones in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminasab, Seyed Sajjad; Jalousian, Fatemeh; Meshgi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Parabronema skrjabini is a spirurid nematode of the family Habronematidae that lives in the abomasum of ruminants such as sheep and goats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular and morphological aspects of Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goats in Iran. The worms were collected from these animal species from three different regions. An internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) fragment of Parabronema skrjabini was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a pair of specific primers (Para-Ir-R and Para-Ir-F). Morphological studies based on the body length, the frontal shield, spicules of male and egg dimensions were performed. ITS2-rDNA sequences were between 167 and 299 bp in different isolates. ITS2 homology in different isolates was between 68% and 77% compared with the sequence data in GenBank. Morphological results showed that the average length of male and female worms in sheep were 16.5 mm and 36 mm and in goats 16 mm and 35.5 mm, respectively. The average length of the small and large spicules in sheep were 657.5 μm and 304.07 μm and in goats 653.08 μm and 302.66 μm, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study in the world exploring the genetic diversity of Parabronema in sheep and goats. Add this sentence in discussion: the low ITS2-rDNA identity in different isolates from Iran as compared to the reference sequence in GenBank (68-77%) raise questions regarding the species identity of the parasites isolated in Iran. PMID:27262958

  1. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in naturally infected adult sheep and cattle in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Ionita, Mariana; Costin, Irina Ioana; Predoi, Gabriel; Avram, Eugeniu; Rinaldi, Laura; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Genchi, Claudio

    2014-12-15

    An epidemiological and molecular study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus granulosus isolates from adult sheep and cattle in Romania. Overall, 642 sheep (aged over 3 years) and 1878 cattle (aged over 5 years) from 16 counties were examined for hydatid cysts. Of them, 421 (65.6%) sheep and 754 (40.1%) cattle were found infected by cystic echinococcosis (CE). Germinal layers were collected from 98 individual cysts (one cyst per animal; 31 from sheep and 67 from cattle), DNA was extracted and two different mitochondrial DNA genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 (CO1) and 12S ribosomal DNA (12S rDNA) were used as genetic markers. The assessment of the genetic diversity of the Echinococcus strains showed the presence of the E. granulosus sensu stricto complex and disclosed an apparent dominance of the G1 genotype within the G1–G3 complex. Furthermore, several mitochondrial variants were identified for the G1 and G2 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s. complex. Overall, the findings were of epidemiological relevance and highlighted a high potential risk of zoonotic infection.

  2. The gamma fibrinogen gene (FGG) maps to chromosome 17 in both cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S E; Barendse, W; Hetzel, D J

    1993-01-01

    The gamma fibrinogen gene (FGG) was localised in both cattle and sheep using in situ hybridisation. The probe employed was a 1-kb bovine cDNA fragment. Based on observations of QFQ-banded chromosome preparations, this locus is on bovine chromosome 17q12-->q13 and on the homologous sheep chromosome 17. This localisation is, to our knowledge, the first assignment to chromosome 17 in either the bovine or ovine genome. In addition to localising FGG to this chromosome, the assignment provisionally maps the previously unassigned syntenic group U23, containing (besides FGG) the genes for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), interleukin 2 (IL2), immunoglobulin lambda (IGL), and beta fibrinogen (FGB), to chromosome 17 in cattle and probably to the same chromosome in sheep.

  3. Molecular and virological studies on contagious pustular dermatitis isolates from Egyptian sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Soliman, Hatem

    2010-10-01

    Orf virus was clinically diagnosed from different field cases of sheep and goat in Hawamdia, Giza, Egypt during the summer 2006. Skin scabs were collected and used for virus isolation, electron microscopy, PCR and sequencing for confirmation, and differential diagnosis. The aetiological virus was fruitfully isolated on the chorio-allantoic membrane of SPF embryonated chicken eggs indicated by expressing the characteristic pock lesions of Poxviridae family. Electron microscopy examination exposed negatively stained oval-shape virus particles trait for members of the genus Parapoxvirus. A 392 bp fragment of the late transcription factor (VLTF-1) gene of orf virus was amplified by PCR from the DNA extracted from the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 99% identity with other orf virus strains reported worldwide. Selection and processing of clinical specimens and PCR assay applied in this endeavor, presented a reliable laboratory diagnostic tool for orf infections and first molecular characterization of Egyptian orf isolates. PMID:20304450

  4. Prevalence of Theileria infections in goats and sheep in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Pan, Weiqing; Yin, Hong

    2012-05-25

    Theileriosis is an important tick-borne hemoprotozoan disease, which can cause severe economic loss in animal husbandry. In this paper, one hundred peripheral blood samples of goats and sheep from southeastern China were examined for the Theileria infection. A region of Theileria 18S rRNA gene was amplified by nested PCR in 26 samples. All the nested PCR amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Alignment analysis has shown that these sequences are highly homologus to each other with identities from 99.2% to 100%. Blast the sequences against NCBI database indicated 99% homology with Theileria sp. China 1 (Theileria luwenshuni). Phylogenetic tree has also shown that the newly identified Theileria are in the same clade with T. luwenshuni. The results have revealed a relatively high prevalence of Theileria in some areas of southeastern China and little genetic diversity in these infections.

  5. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  6. 125I-labeled protein A as a general tracer in immunoassay: suitability of goat and sheep antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunoassay method in which 125I-labeled staphylococcal Protein A ([125I]PA) serves as a general tracer has been extended to include goat and sheep IgG antibodies. Goat and sheep IgG normally do not react significantly with PA. However, once IgG antibody is bound to immobilized antigen or hapten, binding of [125I]PA is enhanced markedly. Binding efficiencies of [125I]PA to immune complexed goat anti-human IgM, human IgE, methotrexate and sheep anti-IgE were determined and compared quantitatively to rabbit IgG with the corresponding specificity. Immunoassays were developed based on the inhibition of [125I]PA binding as a measure of antibody inhibition by fluid-phase homologous ligand. Goat antibody to the monovalent hapten methotrexate behaved anomalously: for each concentration of IgG tested, there was an optimal amount of methotrexate beads that gave maximum binding of [125I]PA. In the other immune systems, for each antibody concentration maximum binding of tracer was a function only of the amount of immobilized anitgen added. In contrast to the results obtained with solid-phase antigen, solutions containing antibody and amounts of antigen ranging from large antigen excess to antibody excess failed to react significantly with PA or [125I]PA. (Auth.)

  7. Experimental vaccination of sheep and cattle against tick infestation using recombinant 5'-nucleotidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, M; Jiang, X; Gough, J; Cadogan, L; Josh, P; Jonsson, N; Willadsen, P

    2010-02-01

    Limited prior evidence suggests that 5'-nucleotidase, an ectoenzyme principally located in the Malpighian tubules of the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, could be an effective antigen in an anti-tick vaccine. To assess this, recombinant 5'-nucleotidase was expressed in Escherichia coli and used in vaccination trials with both sheep and cattle. Vaccinated sheep were challenged with freshly moulted adult ticks. Those with high titres of anti-nucleotidase antibodies showed significant protection against tick infestation, although protection was less than that found with the previously characterized antigen, Bm86. Cattle were vaccinated, in separate groups, with 5'-nucleotidase, Bm86 and both antigens combined. Cattle, as the natural host, were challenged with larval ticks. Although Bm86 showed typical efficacy, no significant protection was seen in cattle vaccinated with 5'-nucleotidase. Cattle receiving a dual antigen formulation were no better protected than those receiving Bm86 alone. One possible reason for the difference between host species, namely antibody titre, was examined and shown to be an unlikely explanation. This demonstrates a limitation of using a model host like sheep in vaccine studies. PMID:20070827

  8. Assessment of progesterone concentration using enzymeimmunoassay, for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscos, C M; Samartzi, F C; Lymberopoulos, A G; Stefanakis, A; Belibasaki, S

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine a value of serum progesterone (P4) concentration, assessed using an enzymeimmunoassay (EIA), for the early distinction between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes and goats. Adult, non-lactating ewes of Chios (n=53), Berrichon (n=30) and Sfakia (n=45) breeds were synchronized during the breeding season with progestagens and gonadotrophins and mated to fertile rams (Experiment I). Adult, lactating goats of Swiss breeds (Alpine and Saanen, n=104) and indigenous Greek breed (n=45) were synchronized during the transitional season with progestagens, PGF2alpha and gonadotrophins. Cervical artificial insemination (AI) with fresh semen was applied once, 42-44 h after sponge removal (Experiment II). Jugular blood samples were collected on day 19 after sponge removal (ewes) or on day 21 after AI (goats) and serum P4 concentration was determined by EIA. Progesterone concentrations >/=1.0, >/=1.5, >/=2.5 and >/=4.0 ng/ml were tested as indicative of pregnancy. Pregnancy diagnosis was verified on birth. In the case of sheep, using a discriminatory level of 2.5 ng/ml, overall accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis was 91.4% and predictive value of negative and positive diagnoses were 98.3 and 85.3%, respectively. In the case of goats, predictive value of negative diagnosis was 95.8 and 94.0% and predictive value of positive diagnosis 71.3 and 71.7%, for 1.5 and 2.5 ng/ml, respectively; overall accuracy was 79.2% using either level. The other discriminatory levels tested did not improve these results. A significant positive correlation was observed between P4 concentration and the number of lambs or kids born, and further analysis indicated that this relationship is not a simple linear function. Based on the results of this study, P4 concentrations of 2.5 ng/ml in the case of ewes and 1.5-2.5 ng/ml in the case of goats, determined with EIA, are proposed as discriminatory levels between pregnant and non-pregnant animals, at an interval of one

  9. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2013-01-01

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, ...

  10. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil. PMID:26786832

  11. Progesterone and oestrogen concentrations in plasma of Barbary sheep (aoudad, Ammotragus lervia) compared with those of domestic sheep and goats during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, M H; Heap, R B

    1990-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations have been measured in the peripheral plasma of 3 Barbary sheep over 3 breeding seasons. During pregnancy mean progesterone values rose initially and after a small decline between Days 30 and 50, increased again and remained between 17 and 28 nmol/l until the last 2 days of pregnancy. Oestradiol-17 beta reached a peak of about 300 pmol/l during mid-pregnancy, increasing to over 400 pmol/l in the last 5 days of pregnancy. Oestrone sulphate began to increase in concentration from about Day 40 of pregnancy and reached a peak of about 19 nmol/l by Day 120. Following a slight decrease from Day 130, there was a further rise in values just before parturition. Values for these steroids in the Barbary sheep studied were between those expected for domestic sheep and goats. PMID:2172532

  12. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Virdis; Christian Scarano; Vincenzo Spanu; Gavino Murittu; Carlo Spanu; Ignazio Ibba; Enrico Pietro Luigi De Santis

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii in Sheep, Cattle and Horses in Urmia North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Akaberi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite found worldwide and responsi­ble for major economic losses in most classes of livestock. This study was aimed to deter­mine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep, cattle and horses in Urmia, north-west of Iran, using MAT.Methods: Blood samples of 276 livestock and 26 horses were collected from July 2009 till April 2010. The data were analyzed by the Chi-square, Fisher's Exact and Cochran's and Mantel-Haen­s­zel Tests. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: Thirty-three (21.1% sheep, 2 (1.6% cattle and 3 (11.5% horses were seropositive to T. gondii. Analysis showed that sheep were 15 times more likely to be seropositive comparing to cattle also 2 times more likely to be seropositive than horses.Conclusion: This study showed seroprevalence of equine T. gondii infection with a considerable rate in sheep in Urmia, northwest of Iran. More comprehensive studies on livestock toxoplasmo­sis are required for further analysis of the parasite reservoir for human infection.

  14. Hematological, serological and virological findings in sheep and goats experimentally infected with lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus isolates in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maina S M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the hematological and serological changes in experimentally infected sheep and goats and to validate use of Real time reverse transcriptase PCR analysis in diagnosing PPRV in Kenya. In this study, five sheep and five goats aged 3-6 months and of different sexes were experimentally infected with lineage III PPR virus. Further, two goats and two sheep that were confirmed using c-ELISA kit to be free from PPR were used as controls. Hematological examination of infected animals revealed a modest decrease in lymphocyte counts (L and a slight increase in Neutrophils (N and White Blood Cell Count (WBC in goats. Parameters of the erythron apart from an increase in HB were unremarkable in goats. An increase in White Blood Cells (WBC, Neutrophilia, lymphopaenia and relative change in red blood cells (RBCs parameters were consistently observed in infected sheep. Serology revealed the presence of antibodies against PPRV by 10th day post infection with both goats and sheep showing mean competition percentage of 41.10 ±10 and 40.768 ±5.26, respectively. Antibodies against PPRV continued to rise by day 14 where both goats and sheep showed a mean competition percentage of 29.77 ±4.98 and 22.51 ±6.69, respectively. Real-time -PCR revealed positive amplification in ocular swabs, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines and in lungs. Results of this study indicated that infection with PPR in sheep and goats provide valuable data about hematological and serological findings that can be used for diagnosis of PPR. Samples of choice for real-time PCR diagnosis for PPR are ocular swabs, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestines and lungs.

  15. Response to dietary tannin challenges in view of the browser/grazer dichotomy in an Ethiopian setting: Bonga sheep versus Kaffa goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Lourenço, Marta Ribeiro Alves; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36% Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9% Ficus elastica (FE) + 55% FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47% more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9% when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P < 0.001). The addition of PEG as a tannin binder improved digestion and performance in both species, but with the highest effect size in sheep.

  16. Response to dietary tannin challenges in view of the browser/grazer dichotomy in an Ethiopian setting: Bonga sheep versus Kaffa goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Lourenço, Marta Ribeiro Alves; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36% Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9% Ficus elastica (FE) + 55% FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47% more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9% when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P effect size in sheep. PMID:26519145

  17. [From the Scrapie syndrome of sheep and goat to the mad cow disease - the history of the discovery of prion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Weng, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Since the discovery of Scrapie Syndrome in sheep and goats in 1730, there emerged a series of diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. In the research of kuru disease, the American scientist D. Carlteton Gajdusek found a new virus without the characteristic of DNA and RNA, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1976. Since then another American scientist, Stanley B. Prusiner, found a new virus-prion, taking protein as the genetic medium, which was awarded the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 1997. The discovery of prion is a great landmark in the research of life science, which laid a theoretical foundation for people to conquer a series of diseases such as Scrapie syndrome in sheep and goats, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. PMID:19930927

  18. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mette O; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein; Chwalibog, Andre; Alstrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to test whether the digestive and metabolic characteristics of pseudo ruminants provide superior ability to utilise low-quality diets compared to true ruminants. A total of 18 mature, non-pregnant, non-lactating female animals, including six llamas (Lama glama), six Danish Landrace goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg(0.75) was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP compared to HP diet. Llamas had lower daily energy expenditure (324 kJ · kg(-0.75)) than sheep (416 kJ · kg(-0.75)) and goats (404 kJ · kg(-0.75)) on the LP diet. Llamas in comparison with sheep and goats had lower methane emission (0.83 vs 1.34 and 1.24 l · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), lower MEm (328 vs 438 and 394 kJ · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05) and lower FEExp (246 vs 333 and 414 kJ · d(-1) · kg(-0.75), p < 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, llamas had lower basal metabolic rate and hence maintenance requirements for energy. PMID:24870266

  19. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for biological hazards to be covered by meat inspection of domestic sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In this report, harmonised epidemiological indicators are proposed for food-borne biological hazards that are related to domestic sheep and goats and meat thereof and that can be addressed in the context of meat inspection. These hazards include Toxoplasma gondii, pathogenicverocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and mycobacteria. An epidemiological indicator is defined as the prevalence or concentration of the hazard at a certain stage of the food chain or an indirect measure of the hazard ...

  20. A survey on Aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Virdis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6% were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6% showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain.

  1. Serological survey using ELISA to determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep and goats in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambton, S L; Smith, R P; Gillard, K; Horigan, M; Farren, C; Pritchard, G C

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) in sheep flocks and goat herds in Great Britain was undertaken. A total of 5791 sheep (384 flocks) and 522 goats (145 herds) were examined for C. burnetii antibodies using an ELISA. Overall, 53 sheep (37 flocks), and four goats (four herds), tested positive. Estimates of individual animal, between-flock/-herd and within-flock/-herd crude prevalences were 0·9%, 10·2% and 9·0%, respectively, for sheep, and 0·8%, 3% and 26·3%, respectively, for goats. With sheep, the likelihood of an animal testing positive increased with total flock size (P = 0·002) and number of breeding ewes in the flock (P = 0·021). It also increased with number of goats within a 10 km radius (P = 0·038). There was no evidence for spatial clustering of positive herds above that expected by chance alone. No analysis of risk factors was attempted for goats because of the paucity of positives. PMID:25990008

  2. Epidemiological survey of brucellosis in sheep and goats in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral lowlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintayehu, G; Melesse, B; Abayneh, D; Sintayehu, A; Melaku, S; Alehegne, W; Mesfin, S; De Blas, I; Casal, J; Allepuz, A; Martin-Valls, G; Africa, T; Abera, K

    2015-12-01

    An epidemiological survey was conducted in pastoral regions of Ethiopia to investigate the distribution of brucellosis in sheep and goats. Between November 2004 and December 2007, a total of 6,201 serum samples were collected from 67 randomly selected peasant associations, 25 districts and eight pastoral zones of Ethiopia. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and complement fixation test were used in series. Samples for bacteriology were collected from three export abattoirs, where 285 goats were randomly selected and tested by RBPTthree days before slaughter. Tissue samples were collected from 14 strongly positive goats and cultured in dextrose agar and Brucella agar base. To confirm and subtype the isolates, staining, biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction were used. The overall standardised seroprevalence of brucellosis was 1.9%, ranging from 0.07% in Jijiga zone to 3.3% in Borena zone. There was statistically significant variation among the studied regions, zones, districts and peasant associations (p brucellosis in goats and sheep in these areas justifies the use of control measures to minimise the economic losses and public health hazards.

  3. Prevalence, pathogenic capability, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance of Listeria in goat and sheep milk confirms need of hygienic milking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamelia M; Zolnikov, Tara Rava; Samir, Ahmed; Orabi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Goat and sheep milk is consumed by human populations throughout the world; as a result, it has been proposed as an alternative, nutrient-rich milk to feed infants allergic to cow's milk. Unfortunately, potentially harmful bacteria have not been thoroughly tested in goat or sheep milk. Listeria monocytogenes is a harmful bacterium that causes adverse health effects if ingested by humans. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and characterize the phenotype, genotype, virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiopotential of Listeria isolated from the milk of goat and sheep. Udder milk samples were collected from 107 goats and 102 sheep and screened for mastitis using the California mastitis test (CMT). Samples were then examined for the presence of pathogenic Listeria spp; if detected, the isolation of pathogenic Listeria (L. monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii) was completed using isolation and identification techniques recommended by the International Organization for Standards (ISO 11290-1, 1996), in addition to serological, in vitro and in vivo pathogenicity tests. The isolates were subjected to PCR assay for virulence associated genes (hlyA, plcA, actA, and iap). Pathogenic Listeria spp. were isolated from 5·6% of goat and 3·9% sheep milk samples, with 33·3 and 25% of these selected samples respectively containing L. monocytogenes. The results of this study provide evidence of the low-likelihood of contamination leading to the presence of L. monocytogenes in raw goat and sheep milk; however, this study also confirmed a strong in vitro ability for biofilm formation and pathogenic capability of L. monocytogenes if discovered in the milk. L. monocytogenes may be present in goat and sheep milk and in order to reduce the exposure, hygienic milking conditions must be employed for the milk to be considered a safe alternative for human consumption. PMID:24548157

  4. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from goat and sheep milk seem to be closely related and differ from isolates detected among bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel eMerz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with S. aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine i spa types and clonal complexes and ii virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus were detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and clonal complexes and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven clonal complexes, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain.

  5. Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Goat and Sheep Milk Seem to Be Closely Related and Differ from Isolates Detected from Bovine Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Axel; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Dairy goat and sheep farms suffer severe economic losses due to intramammary infections, with Staphylococcus aureus representing the main cause of clinical mastitis in small ruminants. In addition, S. aureus contamination of goat and sheep milk may cause staphylococcal food poisoning, as many traditional caprine and ovine milk products are not subjected to pasteurization. Data on virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as on the clonality of S. aureus detected in goat and sheep milk is scarce. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to determine (i) spa types and clonal complexes (CC) and (ii) virulence and resistance gene profiles of S. aureus isolated from goat and sheep milk. A total of 162 milk samples from sheep and goats presenting signs of an intramammary infection and 104 bulk milk samples were collected. While low prevalence rates of S. aureus was detected on single animal level, 46% of the bulk tank milk samples from small ruminants were positive for S. aureus. All isolates were spa typed and CC and virulence and resistance gene patterns were determined using a DNA microarray. Data from 49 S. aureus isolates was included in the statistical analysis and the construction of a SplitsTree. The analyzed isolates could be assigned to eleven CC, with the large majority of goat and sheep isolates being assigned to CC130 and CC133. The findings of this study suggest that S. aureus shows pronounced adaptation to small ruminants in general, but not to sheep or goats in particular. Although some common characteristics among S. aureus from caprine, ovine, and bovine milk samples were observed, S. aureus from small ruminants seem to form a distinct population. As 67% of the detected S. aureus strains exhibited at least one enterotoxin gene, many caprine, or ovine raw milk products may be contaminated with low levels of enterotoxigenic S. aureus, stressing the importance of strict maintenance of the cold chain. PMID:27014240

  6. Hepatic biotransformation pathways and ruminal metabolic stability of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Maté, L; Viviani, P; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2016-10-01

    Monepantel (MNP) is a new amino-acetonitrile derivative anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in sheep. The present work investigated the main enzymatic pathways involved in the hepatic biotransformation of MNP in sheep and cattle. The metabolic stability in ruminal fluid of both the parent drug and its main metabolite (monepantel sulphone, MNPSO2 ) was characterized as well. Additionally, the relative distribution of both anthelmintic molecules between the fluid and particulate phases of the ruminal content was studied. Liver microsomal fractions from six (6) rams and five (5) steers were incubated with a 40 μm of MNP. Heat pretreatment (50 °C for 2 min) of liver microsomes was performed for inactivation of the flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) system. Additionally, MNP was incubated in the presence of 4, 40, and 80 μm of methimazole (MTZ), a FMO inhibitor, or equimolar concentrations of piperonyl butoxide (PBx), a well-known general cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor. In both ruminant species, MNPSO2 was the main metabolite detected after MNP incubation with liver microsomes. The conversion rate of MNP into MNPSO2 was fivefold higher (P < 0.05) in sheep (0.15 ± 0.08 nmol/min·mg) compared to cattle. In sheep, the relative involvement of both FMO and CYP systems (FMO/CYP) was 36/64. Virtually, only the CYP system appeared to be involved in the production of MNPSO2 in cattle liver. Methimazole significantly reduced (41 to 79%) the rate of MNPSO2 production in sheep liver microsomes whereas it did not inhibit MNP oxidation in cattle liver microsomes. On the other hand, PBx inhibited the production of MNPSO2 in liver microsomes of both sheep (58 to 98%, in a dose-dependent manner) and cattle (almost 100%, independently of the PBx concentration added). The incubation of MNP and MNPSO2 with ruminal contents of both species showed a high chemical stability without evident metabolism and/or degradation as well as an extensive

  7. The anaerobic co-digestion of sheep bedding and ⩾ 50% cattle manure increases biogas production and improves biofertilizer quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro, Taiana; Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de Mendonça; Costa, Luiz Antônio de Mendonça; Rozatti, Marcos Antonio Teofilo; Pereira, Dercio Ceri; Lorin, Higor Eisten Francisconi; Carneiro, Leocir José

    2015-12-01

    Sheep manure pellets are peculiarly shaped as small 'capsules' of limited permeability and thus are difficult to degrade. Fragmentation of manure pellets into a homogeneous mass is important for decomposition by microorganisms, and occurs naturally by physical shearing due to animal trampling, when sheep bedding is used. However, the high lignocellulose content of sheep bedding may limit decomposition of sheep manure. Here, we evaluated if co-digestion of sheep bedding with cattle manure would improve the yield and quality of the useful products of anaerobic digestion of sheep bedding--biogas and biofertilizer--by providing a source of nutrients and readily available carbon. Mixtures of sheep bedding and cattle manure in varying proportions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% cattle manure) were added to 6-L digesters, used in a batch system, and analyzed by uni and multivariate statistical tools. PC1, which explained 64.96% of data variability, can be referred to as 'organic fraction/productivity', because higher rates of organic fraction consumption (COD, cellulose and hemicellulose contents) led to higher digester productivity (biogas production, nutrient concentration, and sample stability changes). Therefore, productivity and organic fraction variables were most influenced by manure mixtures with higher (⩾ 50%) or lower (⩽ 25%) ratios of cattle manure, respectively. Increasing the amount of cattle manure up to 50% enhanced the biogas potential production from 142 L kg(-1)TS (0% of cattle manure) to 165, 171, 160 L biogas kg(-1)TS for the mixtures containing 100%, 75% and 50% of cattle manure, respectively. Our results show that the addition of ⩾ 50% cattle manure to the mixture increases biogas production and improves the quality of the final biofertilizer.

  8. The use of epigenetic phenomema for the improvement of sheep and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Edward Goddard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the evidence for inheritance across generations of epigenetic marks and how this phenomenon could be exploited in the cattle and sheep industries. Epigenetic marks are chemical changes in the chromosomes that affect the expression of genes and hence the phenotype of the cell and are passed on during mitosis so that the daughter cells have the same chemical changes or epigenetic marks as the parent cell. Although most epigenetic marks are wiped clean in the process of forming a new zygote, some epigenetic marks (epimutations may be passed on from parent to offspring. The inheritance of epigenetic marks across generations is difficult to prove as there are usually alternative explanations possible. There are few well documented cases, mainly using inbred strains of mice. The epimutations are unstable and revert to wild type after a few generations. Although, there are no known cases in sheep or cattle, it is likely that inherited epimutations occur in these species but it is unlikely that they explain a large part of the inherited or genetic variation. There is limited evidence in mice and rats that an environmental treatment can cause a change in the epigenetic marks of an animal and that this change can be passed on the next generation. If inherited epimutations occur in sheep and cattle, they will already be utilised to some extent by existing genetic improvement programs. It would be possible to modify the statistical models used in the calculation of EBVs to better recognise the variance controlled by epimutations, but it would probably have, at best, a small effect on the rate on genetic (inherited gain achieved. The inheritance of epigenetic marks caused by the environment experienced by the sire offers a new opportunity in sheep and cattle breeding. However, at present we do not know if this occurs or, if it does, what environmental treatment might have a beneficial effect.

  9. Climate change and adaptation of small-scale cattle and sheep farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Mandleni, B.; Anim, F.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affected the decision of small-scale farmers who kept cattle and sheep on whether to adapt or not to climate changes. The Binary Logistic Regression model was used to investigate farmers’ decision. The results implied that a large number of socio-economic variables affected the decision of farmers on adaptation to climate changes. The study concluded that the most significant factors affecting climate change and adaptation w...

  10. Intoxicação por Mascagnia rigida (Malpighiaceae em ovinos e caprinos Poisoning by Mascagnia rigida (Malpighiaceae in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson S. de Vasconcelos

    2008-10-01

    . A outra cabra pariu um cabrito que morreu imediatamente após o parto, sem ter ingerido colostro. Estes resultados sugerem que o princípio ativo da planta foi eliminado pelo leite em doses tóxicas. Recomendamse medidas de controle da intoxicação.Mascagnia rigida is the most important toxic plant for cattle in the Northeastern region of Brazil, causing sudden death during exercise. The objectives of this research were to report three outbreaks of poisoning by M. rigida in sheep and one in goats in the semiarid of the state of Paraíba, to reproduce experimentally the disease, and to determine if the active principle of the plant is eliminated through the milk. The outbreaks occurred at beginning of the raining season, when the plant sprouts ahead other forages, or after the end of the raining season, when M. rigida stayed green and other forages had dried. In the experimental reproduction of the poisoning doses of 10 and 20g of M. rigida per kg body weight from two different regions were lethal to 3 goats and 3 sheep. One goat that ingested 20g/kg and a sheep that ingested 10g/kg recovered. Two sheep and two goats that ingested 5g/kg had mild clinical signs and recovered. Clinical signs of experimental and spontaneous cases were ingurgitation of the jugular veins, reluctance to move, sternal recumbence, incoordination, respiratory distress, depression, instability, and muscular tremors. Death occurred after a clinical manifestation period of about 4 min to 27h40min. The main lesions were pulmonary edema and vacuolization and necrosis of epithelial cells in some renal tubules. To test if the active principle of M. rigida causes sudden deaths in newborn lambs and kids, 2g/kg of the plant were given daily to two goats and five sheep in the 15 days previous to parturition. One sheep aborted two lambs, 5 days before parturition. The four lambs of the other four sheep ingested the colostrum without problems. The kid from one goat ingested the colostrum and died

  11. Uptake of Heavy Metal Residues from Sewerage Sludge in the Milk of Goat and Cattle during Summer Season

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    Bilal Aslam, Ijaz Javed*, Faqir Hussain Khan and Zia-ur-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of different heavy metal residues including cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, led (Pb, arsenic (As, and mercury (Hg were determined in goat and cattle milk collected from two areas, each consisted of three sites. Area 1 was selected in the North-East and Area 2 in the North-West of Faisalabad city along the main sewerage drains. Levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than the most reported values in the literature. The levels of heavy metal residues in the milk of cattle from Area 1 were higher than those present in cattle milk from Area 2. However, in case of goat milk the residual values from Area 1 and Area 2 were non-significantly different. It was concluded that the levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Hg in the milk of goat and cattle were higher than reported values in the literature.

  12. Determination of hard tick species (Acarina:Ixodidae) on sheep and cattle in Hamedan Province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jamal Gharekhani; Abbas Gerami-Sadeghian; Zivar Sadeghi-Dehkordi; Mohammadreza Youssefi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the fauna and frequency of hard tick species on sheep and cattle in Hamedan Province, Western Iran. Methods: Tick sampling was performed on the whole body of 18000 sheep and 4200 cattle in 3 rural regions (mountain, plateau, and plain-mountainous zone) during the year of 2010 to 2011. The ticks were identified with appropriate identification keys. Results: A total of 1534 hard ticks (62.1% male and 37.9% female) were collected in animals. The infestation rate was found 2.4% in animals (4.2% in cattle and 2.0% in sheep). The ticks were classified into 3 genera and 7 species including: Hyalomma marginatum (34.1%), Hyalomma excavatum (29.7%), Rhipicephalus bursa (13.8%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (7.5%), Hyalomma detritum (7.1%), Haemaphysalis punctata (5.1%) and Hyalomma dromedarii (2.7%). Conclusions: Current study is the first report of fauna and frequency of hard ticks in this region. The results showed that Hyalomma marginatum is the dominant hard tick species. Further studies are needed to determine the importance of Ixodidae ticks of veterinary and public health in this region of Iran.

  13. DIGESTION OF HIGH FIBER DIET IN SHEEP AND GOAT OF JENEPPONTO

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    D.P. Rahardja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four does (goat, G and four ewes (sheep, S of Jeneponto were fed chaffed rice straw hay (3.7%crude protein, 63.5% cell wall constituents, 44.5% acid detergent fiber and 6.2% acid detergent lignin,all based on dry matter. The intakes and digestibility of the diet by G and S were compared. Bothspecies consumed the same level of the diet. G digested dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crudefiber, and lignin of the diet to a significant higher extent than did by S. The superiority of G over S indigesting the diet was attributable with longer retention time of ruminal fluid and particulate matters inthe rumen and the entire gut, which then resulted in higher proportion of small size particles (<1 mmsieve, higher proportions of propionic, butyric, valeric and isovaleric acid concentrations produced inthe rumen. Additionally for further studies, there were some possibilities of G having a better chewingactivity (duration and intensity, and ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia levels by a greater urearecycle to the rumen, particularly through salivation.

  14. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

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    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  15. Mycoplasmas isolated from the respiratory tract of cattle and goats in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusiluka, L J; Ojeniyi, B; Friis, N F; Kazwala, R R; Kokotovic, B

    2000-01-01

    A microbiological study of the mycoplasma flora in the respiratory tracts of cattle and goats in selected regions of Tanzania is described. In the examination of cattle, mycoplasmas were isolated from 60 (17.8%) of the 338 examined lung samples, 8 (47.1%) of the 17 lymph nodes, 4 (13.3%) of the 30 pleural fluid samples and 4 (3.9%) of the 103 nasal swabs examined. All the isolates were identified as Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type except for one isolate from pleural fluid which was identified as Mycoplasma arginini. M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type was isolated from samples originating from Dodoma, Iringa, Mbeya, Morogoro and Shinyanga regions where outbreaks of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia had been reported. In the examination of goats, mycoplasmas were isolated from 54 (34.0%) of the 159 examined lung samples, 41 (18.1%) of the 226 nasal swabs and 4 (40.0%) of the 10 pleural fluid samples. The species demonstrated were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, M. mycoides subsp. mycoides, Small Colony type Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. Capricolum subsp. arginini. The isolation of M. capripneumoniae in the Coast and Morogoro regions confirmed the presence of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia in the regions.

  16. The relationship of Haitian small farm management to goat and cattle diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, H P; McCarthy, F; Friedericks, J; Cashin, M; Angert, R

    1993-01-01

    A 40 week study of 43 farmers, 60 goats and 60 cattle was conducted in order to identify abnormal conditions or diseases and predisposing seasonal, managemental or nutritional factors. Farms were visited, farmers interviewed and animals examined up to 4 times, about every 10 weeks and bled for Ht, total WBC, selected serum vitamins and minerals hair collected for mineral analysis. Soil and forages were collected for analysis. There were serious soil, forage and animal phosphorus and lesser vitamin E and A deficiencies due to a lack of appropriate soil fertilization, and/or dietary insufficiency. Presumptive parasitic anaemia was a common clinical sign in goats (43% incidence) and in cattle (19% incidence). Infectious diseases, external and internal parasitism were partially controlled by animal isolation, movement and tethering, rarely by therapeutics. Overall, livestock condition was fair, reproductive and growth performance poor, but catastrophic disease rare. Ruminant feeding was entirely from scavenging of crop residues for human consumption, or voluntary plants. Given the scarcity and/or high cost of forages, fertilizer, vitamin-mineral supplements, drugs and vaccines, the present system of Haitian small farm management is successful in catastrophic disease prevention, but is inefficient for minor diseases, reproduction and growth. PMID:8134655

  17. Effect of In Vitro Transcorneal Approach of Aceclofenac Eye Drops through Excised Goat, Sheep, and Buffalo Corneas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study involves the evaluation of factors that influence the transcorneal permeation of aqueous drops of aceclofenac ophthalmic formulation through freshly excised goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas. Aceclofenac formulation with different concentrations 0.1–0.5% (w/v and with different pH and different preservatives, was taken into account. The amount of drug permeated from different formulations was estimated using an Franz diffusion cell. A linear increase in drug permeation was observed with increase in pH (5.5 to 7.4. The apparent permeability coefficient was found to be maximum 15.01±0.45 on goat cornea and maximum transport of aceclofenac was observed at physiological pH of tears (i.e., 7. The results advocate that aceclofenac 0.5% (w/v ophthalmic solution (pH 7.0 containing BAK (0.01% provides maximum in vitro ocular permeability through goat, sheep, and buffalo corneas.

  18. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126

  19. Sheep and Goat Farming in Greece: Implications and Challenges for the Sustainable Development of Less Favoured Areas

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    Evangelia N. Sossidou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat farming is considered to be one of the most dynamic sectors of the rural economy in Greece, both in terms of employment and overall income. The aim of this paper is to review the levels of sustainability in the small ruminant production systems in two Less Favoured Areas of Greece (LFAs: (1 in the mountainous areas of Epirus, and (2 in the island of Lesvos. In this context, the characteristics of the production systems that have significant impact on the sustainable development of rural areas under study are underlined. The sustainability is examined by the ecological, social and economic points of view, supplemented with cultural and regional elements. The ultimate purpose is to conclude with the challenges for the future rural development in LFAs through the sustainable development of sheep and goat farming. Data is based on surveys undertaken by the SEE-ERA.NET PLUS ‘INDI_SHEEP TRADI_CHEESE’ Project and the ARIMNET ‘DoMEsTIc’ Project, still in process.

  20. Independent confirmation of a diagnostic sheep/goat peptide sequence through DNA analysis and further exploration of its taxonomic utility within the Bovidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, Michael G.; Robinson, Terence; Campos, Paula F.;

    2013-01-01

    Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach that amplif......Buckley et al. (2010) recently identified a Type I collagen (COL1A2) peptide sequence that discriminates between sheep and goat species. The exact location of this peptide sequence on the genome was not reported. We identified the sequence's location and developed a PCR based approach...... that amplifies the diagnostic sequence from exon 41 of the COL1A2 gene. Using DNA analysis, we confirmed that this COL1A2 peptide discriminates between goat and sheep species reliably, but is limited as a more general phylogenetic marker. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd....

  1. Field-oriented trial of the Chinese Brucella suis strain 2 vaccine on sheep and goats in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, A A; Abusowa, M

    1993-01-01

    The Chinese Brucella suis S2 vaccine was studied in a flock of sheep and goats in field conditions. The locally-produced vaccine was orally administered in the form of a drench to 446 ewes, 50 lambs and 20 adult goats. After vaccination, abortion and excretion of the vaccine strain in vaginal discharges or in milk did not occur. Serological tests became positive in 92% of animals at 4 wk post-vaccination and declined to near nil after 1 yr. The protection conferred by the vaccine against a double virulent B melitensis conjunctival challenge which infected 10/10 control ewes was on average 53% in ewes (32/60) and 71% in goats (5/7). Abortion rates were respectively 100% (7/7) in control ewes versus 44% (25/57) and 28% (2/7) in vaccinated ewes and goats. The vaccine was thus found to be safe, antigenic and reasonably protective against the challenge dose used. PMID:8260964

  2. Anthelmintic-resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from an organic sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Enemark, Heidi L.; Thansborg, Stig M.

    2013-01-01

    ) or 10 mg/kg closantel (CLO). Kids were treated with 10 mg/kg FBZ, 0.3 mg/kg MOX, 14 mg/kg LEV, 0.2 mg/kg IVM or 10 mg/kg CLO. FECs were performed at day of treatment and 14 days post treatment. In a subsequent investigation, faeces from adult goats were cultured to obtain 3rd-stage nematode larvae (L3......A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance (AR) was investigated in an organic dairy sheep and goat farm. The herd was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from a number of other farms. Selection for the study was based on history of anthelmintic-treatment failure. Forty-eight lambs and 48...... %. This is the first isolation of BZ-resistant H. contortus and T. colubriformis in Denmark and highlights the need for continuous surveillance of AR in conventional and organic farms....

  3. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for biological hazards to be covered by meat inspection of domestic sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, harmonised epidemiological indicators are proposed for food-borne biological hazards that are related to domestic sheep and goats and meat thereof and that can be addressed in the context of meat inspection. These hazards include Toxoplasma gondii, pathogenicverocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and mycobacteria. An epidemiological indicator is defined as the prevalence or concentration of the hazard at a certain stage of the food chain or an indirect measure of the hazard that correlates with the human health risk caused by the hazard. The indicators can be used by the European Commission and the Member States to consider when adaptations to meat inspection methods may be required, and to carry out risk analysis to support such decisions. It is foreseen that the indicators will be used in the integrated sheep and goats meat safety assurance system outlined in the EFSA Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats, particularly to help categorise farms/flock and slaughterhouses according to the risk related to the hazards and process hygiene. Depending on the purpose and the epidemiological situation, risk managers should decide on the most appropriate indicator(s to use, either alone or in combination, at national, regional, slaughterhouse or farm/flock level. It is recommended that risk managers should define the harmonised requirements for controlled housing conditions of farms, and the requirements for food chain information. Member States are invited to report data generated by the implementation of the indicators in accordance with Directive 2003/99/EC. The proposed indicators should be regularly reviewed in light of new information and the data generated by their implementation.

  4. Mixed Species Grazing of Cattle and Goats on Gastrointestinal Infections of Haemonchus Contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renita Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the meat of goat is the fastest growing class of livestock in the U.S.A. Due to the sub-tropical climate in the South Eastern region of the US, internal parasites pose a major constraint to the industry. The blood-feeding nematode, Haemonchus contortus results in production losses and even death in untreated animals. The control of H. contortus calls for the use of a combination of different control methods/strategies. An experiment was conducted over three successive years (2008, 2009 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of mixed species grazing on fecal egg counts (FEC in epg, FAMACHA© scores (FS and Packed Cell Volume (% PCV in goats. In a 2×2 factorial, 50 Spanish does and 14 Brangus cows were randomly assigned to continuous or rotational grazing systems. Goats were allowed to graze alone or mixed with cattle. The rotational pastures were divided into four paddocks and each paddock was grazed for 7d and allowed to rest for 21d. Every 28d Body Weight (BW, body condition scores (BCS; 1 = thin and 5 = fat, FS (1 = red and 5 = white, blood and feces were collected. Fecal and blood samples were analyzed in the lab for FEC and %PCV. Data was statistically analyzed using SAS’s MIXED and correlation coefficients were determined among the measurements. Overall means for PCV, FEC, BCS and FS were 27.4%, 613 epg, 2.3 and 2.5, respectively. PCV was negatively correlated to FS (r = -0.35, p<0.001 and FEC (r = -0.16, p<0.005. BCS was negatively correlated to FS (r = -0.59, p<0.001 and FEC (r = -0.17, p<0.005, while FS and FEC were positive (r = 0.20, p<0.005. Except for the effect of month (p<0.05, no differences due to the main effects were observed and interaction effects were significant at only p<0.10. Goats grazing alone in continuous pastures had a higher PCV and FS scores (28.6% and 2.7, respectively than goats in mixed rotational pastures (25% and 2.2. The percentages of does in mixed pastures falling in FS-1, FS-2 and

  5. Oxidative and conjugative metabolism of xenobiotics by livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G S; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Rozman, K; Klaassen, C D

    1984-02-01

    Homogenate preparations from fresh livers of cattle, sheep, swine and rats were assayed for microsomal cytochrome P-450 content, for mixed-function oxidase activities and for a wide array of conjugative activities using numerous xenobiotic substrates. Results show that hepatic enzymatic capabilities toward xenobiotics do not parallel phylogenetic classifications, thus strengthening the view that most of the comparative data available at present is more descriptive than predictive of relationships among species. Livestock species differed widely from rats in having lower activities of benzo(alpha)pyrene hydroxylase, glutathione S-transferase and acetyltransferase toward isoniazid and sulfamethazine and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase toward bilirubin. Acetyltransferase activities toward beta-naphthylamine and 2-aminofluorene were not detected in livers of livestock species studied. Cattle livers were remarkably high in activities of styrene oxide hydrolase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, 2-naphthol sulfotransferase and p-aminobenzoic acid acetyltransferase; but notably low in activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward sulfobromophthalein and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene. Swine livers had low activity of glutathione-S-transferase toward four of six substrates and low acetyltransferase activity toward four of five substrates. Sheep livers generally were higher than cattle livers in sulfo- and UDP-glucuronsyltransferase activities and lower in acetyl- and glutathionyl-S-transferase. Findings emphasize the risk of error in extra-polations among species and in extrapolations among substrates.

  6. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT)

    OpenAIRE

    N Zia-Ali; H Kamyabi; M Fasihi Harandi; M Beigzadeh; M Bahrieni

    2008-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT) in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MA...

  7. Risk Factors Analysis Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii in Sheep and Goats in Southeastern Iran Using Modified Agglutination Test (MAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zia-Ali

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in many species of warm-blooded animals including human. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii from slaughtered sleep and goats by mod­ified agglutination test (MAT in Kerman region, southeastern Iran. Methods: Altogether 1340 blood samples were collected from 562 sheep and 778 goats from April to September 2005 in Kerman slaughterhouse. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies by MAT using an antibody titer of 1:20 or higher considered positive. The statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and logistic regressions to analyze the influ­ence of all examined factor (age, sex and type of animals on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis.Results: Antibodies were found in sera of 262 out of 1340 (19.6% samples. of 262 seropositive sera, 139 sheep (24.7% and 123 goats (15.8% were infected. Seropositive animals more than one year were 1.6 times more likely to be seropositive than the others were. Sheep were 1.5 times more likely to be infected than goats were (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.15-2.04, p=0.004.Conclusion: Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among sheep and goats slaughtered in Kerman region and suggest that consumption of raw and undercooked meat of these animals can be a probable source of human toxoplasmosis.

  8. Chemical Composition and Meat Quality Attributes of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition and quality attributes of meat between male long fat tailed sheep (n = 17) and Small East African goats (n = 17) existing in Tanzania. Animals of 1.5 to 2 yrs in age and live body weight of 22.59±0.50 kg were purchased from livestock auction markets. Animals were fasted for 18 h and slaughtered according to standard halal procedure. Left carcasses were dissected into muscles, fat and bone and the muscle and fat were mixed together and c...

  9. Enantiometric composition and isomeric-specific PCB determination in dairy products from three different species. Cow, sheep and goat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordajandi, L.R.; Gonzalez, M.J. [Institute of Organic Chemistry-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, the concentration of the most relevant PCB congeners and the enantiomeric fraction (EF){sup 5} of 11 chiral PCBs was determined in milk and dairy products made of milk from three different species (cow, sheep and goat). Heartcut multidimensional gas chromatography was employed for the unambiguous determination of both enantiomers, using two different chiral columns, i.e., Chirasil-Dex and BGB-172. The aim of the study was to assess the enantiomeric composition of the dairy samples and to evaluate the possible differences between species and between the dairy products.

  10. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk......-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk...

  11. Scientific Opinion on monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion proposes toolboxes of welfare indicators for developing monitoring procedures at slaughterhouses for sheep and goats stunned with the head-only electrical method or slaughtered without stunning. In particular, the opinion proposes welfare indicators together with their corresponding outcomes of consciousness, unconsciousness or death. In the case of slaughter with head-only electrical stunning, the opinion proposes a toolbox to assess consciousness at three key stages of monitoring: (a after electrical stunning and during shackling and hoisting, (b during neck cutting and (c during bleeding. For slaughter without stunning, another toolbox is proposed for (a assessing unconsciousness before releasing the animals from restraint, and (b confirming death before carcass dressing begins. Various activities—including a systematic literature review, an online survey and stakeholders’ and hearing experts’ meetings—were conducted to gather information about the sensitivity, specificity and feasibility of the indicators. On the basis of such information, a methodology was developed to select the most appropriate indicators to be used in the monitoring procedures. The frequency of checking differs according to the role of each person with responsibility for ensuring animal welfare. The personnel performing stunning, shackling, hoisting and/or bleeding will have to check all the animals and confirm that they are not conscious following stunning or before releasing from the restraint. For the animal welfare officer, who has the overall responsibility for animal welfare, a mathematical model for the sampling protocols is proposed, giving some allowance to set the sample size of animals to be checked at a given throughput rate (total number of animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouses and threshold failure rate (number of potential failures—proportion of animals that are conscious after stunning. Finally, different risk

  12. An epidemiological survey of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle, buffaloes, and sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsify, Ahmed; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Nayel, Mohammed; Salama, Akram; Elkhtam, Ahmed; Rizk, Mohamed; Mosaab, Omar; Sultan, Khaled; Elsayed, Shimaa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2015-02-01

    Cattle, buffaloes, and sheep are the main sources of meat and milk in Egypt, but their productivity is thought to be greatly reduced by hemoprotozoan parasitic diseases. In this study, we analyzed the infection rates of Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis, using parasite-specific PCR assays in blood-DNA samples sourced from cattle (n=439), buffaloes (n=50), and sheep (n=105) reared in Menoufia, Behera, Giza, and Sohag provinces of Egypt. In cattle, the positive rates of B. bovis, B. bigemina, T. annulata, and T. orientalis were 3.18%, 7.97%, 9.56%, and 0.68%, respectively. On the other hand, B. bovis and T. orientalis were the only parasites detected in buffaloes and each of these parasites was only found in two individual DNA samples (both 2%), while one (0.95%) and two (1.90%) of the sheep samples were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that the B. bovis Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 and the B. bigemina Apical Membrane Antigen-1 genes were highly conserved among the samples, with 99.3-100% and 95.3-100% sequence identity values, respectively. In contrast, the Egyptian T. annulata merozoite surface antigen-1 gene sequences were relatively diverse (87.8-100% identity values), dispersing themselves across several clades in the phylogenetic tree containing sequences from other countries. Additionally, the T. orientalis Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) gene sequences were classified as types 1 and 2. This is the first report of T. orientalis in Egypt, and of type 2 MPSP in buffaloes. Detection of MPSP type 2, which is considered a relatively virulent genotype, suggests that T. orientalis infection may have veterinary and economic significance in Egypt. In conclusion, the present study, which analyzed multiple species of Babesia and Theileria parasites in different livestock animals, may shed an additional light on the epidemiology of hemoprotozoan parasites in Egypt.

  13. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species: V. Prolonged antibody titers in Dall sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) and domestic goats (Capra hircus) immunized with porcine zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyda, Robin O; Frank, Kimberly M; Wallace, Roberta; Lamberski, Nadine; Kirkpatrick, Jay F

    2013-12-01

    Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP. Of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park animals, the 4 comparison species demonstrated the typical 1-yr pattern of anti-PZP antibodies, whereas the Armenian sheep and Himalayan tahr showed prolonged (2-3 yr) antibody responses after a single primer and booster dose. The Dall sheep and domestic goats had significantly longer durations of antibody titers (3 yr) from a single year's treatment (primer plus booster). Analysis of the data indicates that Armenian sheep, Himalayan tahr, Dall sheep, and domestic goats have prolonged responses, and are more sensitive to PZP in that they produce a protracted antibody response.

  14. Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in Faeces from Chickens, Sheep and Cattle in Elazığ Province

    OpenAIRE

    KALENDER, Hakan

    2003-01-01

    Faecal samples collected from 206 chickens, 170 sheep and 130 cattle were investigated for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in animals slaughtered at local abattoirs in Elazığ. The prevalance of L. monocytogenes was 4.36% in chickens, 0.58% in sheep and 1.53% in cattle. Of the 12 L. monocytogenes isolates, seven (58.33%) and five (41.66%) belonged to serotypes 1 and 4, respectively. Other species isolated were L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, L. murrayi and L. grayi. These ...

  15. Application of C-ELISA for the sero-survey of rinderpest virus antibody in cattle and goats in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim is to study the applicability of C-ELISA for seromonitoring of antibodies against RP virus in ruminants in Bangladesh. As no outbreaks of RP have been reported since 1957, a broader belt rinderpest vaccination programme is being carried out in order to protect cattle from rinderpest originating from neighbouring States of India. However, the emergence of rinderpest-like epidemics in goats has been noticed for the last three years. Thus, the use of the rinderpest competitive ELISA technique will be helpful to measure the current status of rinderpest serosurveillance as well as to confirm the rinderpest-like epidemics in goats as peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in Bangladesh

  16. Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sharma, S; Shukla, N; Misra, S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Kumar, H; Patil, P K; Misra, P; Sandhu, K S

    2008-09-01

    Present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Punjab) of Hariana cattle and Murrah buffaloes in North India. Indigenous and in-house plate ELISA kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison type' strain of goat origin), originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in bovines and used for screening. For this study, 33 villages of south and west UP were randomly selected and surveyed from 2001 to 2003. There were 7943 farmer's families having 38,251 livestock, including cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep (per family 4.8% livestock). Numerically, buffaloes and cattle were 54.7% and 22.1%, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 726 animals (4.2% of 16, 981 livestock with 4375 farmer's families) located in 33 randomly surveyed villages. Serum samples (699), submitted to Epidemiology Department of Veterinary College (Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana), in the year 2004 by farmer's and organized farm herds (Buffaloes, 372, Cattle, 327), were screened by this ELISA kit. Soluble protoplasmic antigen was prepared from Map (S 5) 'Bison type' strain isolated from a terminally sick goat with Johne's disease. Of the total 1425 bovine (Buffaloes and cattle) serum samples screened using indigenous ELISA kit, sero-prevalence of Johne's disease was 29.0% (28.6% in buffalo and 29.8% in cattle) in Northern India. State-wise sero-prevalence was 31.9% and 23.3% in UP and Punjab, respectively. In UP, of the 601 randomly sampled buffaloes, sero-prevalence was 40.3% (16.6% in young and 40.9% adults) and 25.5% (10.5% in young and 26.3% adults) in south and west UP, respectively. Of the 125 cattle screened, sero-prevalence was 42.6% (nil in young and 44.4% adults) and 30.0% (nil in young and 30.6% adults

  17. Stress associated with road transportation in desert sheep and goats, and the effect of pretreatment with xylazine or sodium betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al-Qarawi, A A; Mousa, H M

    2006-06-01

    The present work investigates some clinical, endocrinological, biochemical and haematological variables in desert sheep and goats stressed in the course of individual road transportation, and the influence thereon of pretreatment with an established anti-stressor drug, xylazine HCl, and a test compound, sodium betaine (trimethylglycine). Road transportation for 2h resulted in variable and statistically insignificant increases in heart, pulse and respiratory rates in both control and experimental animals. Transportation stress significantly increased the concentrations of plasma cortisol, and glucose, and decreased that of magnesium. The endogenous thiocyanate concentration was unaffected. The stress also insignificantly decreased the haematocrit (PCV), and the number of lymphocytes, and increased the concentration of haemoglobin. Pretreatment of sheep and goats with xylazine at a single dose of 0.01 mg/kg by the intravenous route significantly ameliorated the effects induced by the stressful stimulus. The effects of pretreatment of the two species with sodium betaine (10 mg/kg) produced variable and insignificant effects. PMID:16181650

  18. Comparative efficacy of allopathic, herbal, homeopathic and effective micro-organisms for the control of haemochosis in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemonchosis caused by Haemonchus contortus causes great economic losses in terms of weight loss, poor quality meat and loss of wool in sheep and goats. Therapeutical trials were conducted by using various allopathic, homeopathic, herbal and biological products. For this purpose total of 120 sheep and goats were randomly divided into groups A, B, C, D, E and F and animals in group A, B, C and D were treated with Ivermectin, Azedarachta indica (neem Leaves) Powder, Trematox (a homeopathic drug), EM-Biovet (Effective micro-organisms) respectively. Whereas E and F were kept as infected untreated and control respectively. Efficacy of drugs was measured based on reduction in EPG count, it was found that ivermectin at recommended dose rate is found more effective; Azedarachta Indica (Neem) found second and Trematox third drug of choice in combating the infection against haemonchosis, whereas EM Biovet was inferior to other drugs. In these studies it was found that Azedarachta Indica (Neem) is cheapest and easily available drug than others. Comparison based on reduction in EPG count indicated that Azedarachta indica and Trematox were fairly affective in combating haemonchosis but EM Bio-vet fail to cure all cases of haemonchosis. It was also noted that all drugs were more affective at two-dose level as compared to one dose level. Ivermectin proved to be best drug against haemonchosis. Efficacy of Azedarachta indica (neem) found to be closer to Ivermectin and EM Bio-vet was inferior as compared to Ivermectin. (author)

  19. Intoxicação experimental por Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae em caprinos e ovinos Experimental poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae in goats and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A.S. Araújo

    2008-10-01

    foram encontrados nos dendritos das células de Purkinje e incluíam tumefação, decréscimo ou ausência das espículas dendríticas, diminuição ou ausência de neurotúbulos e neurofilamentos, vacuolizações do dendroplasma, tumefação do retículo endoplasmático liso e inclusões eletro-densas no dendroplasma. Tumefação dos processos astrocitários era bastante evidente. Sugere-se que essas alterações, que provavelmente constituam um mecanismo de defesa neuronal, sejam resultado dos tremores induzidos pela substância ou substâncias tóxicas contidas na planta, com liberação de glutamato no espaço extracelular que causa excitotoxicidade.Ipomoea asarifolia causes a tremogenic syndrome in sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes. The objectives of the experiments were (1 to determine the toxicity to goats of fresh I. asarifolia collected during the raining and the dry season, and the toxicity of the dried plant, and (2 to determine the toxicity of the plant to sheep, and if the active principle is eliminated through the milk. In the first experiment the plant collected in the dry season and in the raining season was fed to 16 goats. The plant collected during the dry season caused clinical signs at the daily doses of 5g and 10g/kg body weight. The plant collected during the raining season was toxic at daily doses of 20g and 30g/kg, indicating that the plant is more toxic during the dry season. The plant collected in the dry season and dried was fed to 9 goats at doses of 1.7g, 2.0g, 3.4g, and 5.1g per kg. Daily doses of 3.0g, 4.0g and 5.1g/kg caused clinical signs, showing that the plant maintains its toxicity after being dried. In the second experiment the fresh plant collected in the dry and in the raining season was fed to 10 sheep. The plant collected in the dry season was toxic at the dose of 5g/kg, and the plant collected in the raining season was toxic at the doses of 10g and 20g/kg. The experimental results suggest that sheep are more susceptible to the

  20. Antibody response in cattle, sheep and rats to infection with. gamma. -irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, D.L.; Doy, T.G. (Agricultural Research Council, Compton (UK). Inst. for Research on Animal Diseases); Hanna, R.E.B. (Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1982-05-01

    Cattle, sheep and rats were infected orally with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica, or with normal metacercariae. The antibody response was monitored in each host to metacercarial tegument (T0), juvenile tegument (T1), adult tegument (T2) and gut antigens. The response was examined at weekly intervals for cattle and sheep throughout 15 weeks of infection and four weeks after infection in rats, using an indirect fluorescent antibody labelling technique. It was found that the irradiated metacercariae engendered a normal humoral response to T0, T1 and gut antigens in all three hosts although the antibody levels were somewhat reduced due to early death or stunting of the flukes. T0 and T1 appeared to be antigenically similar. Antibodies against T2 appeared late in the animals infected with ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae and the titres attained were considerably lower than in the controls. The T2 antigen stimulus in the animals given ..gamma..-irradiated metacercariae was probably provided by flukes which 'broke through' the developmental barrier imposed by irradiation and which were found alive at autopsy.

  1. Molecular differentiation of sheep and cattle isolates of Fasciola hepatica using RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khakpour, M.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding genetic structure and status of genetic variation of Fasciola hepatica isolates from different hosts, has important implications on epidemiology and effective control of fasciolosis. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR was used to study the genetic variation of F. hepatica in sheep and cattle. DNA was extracted from adult helminthes removed from livers of each infected animal in slaughterhouse at East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. DNA template amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, using three oligonucleotide decamers with arbitrary DNA sequences as primers. RAPD patterns showed the specific but different pattern DNA patterns for each primer. The intraspecific similarity coefficient within two isolates of F. hepatica was ranged between 69 to 100%. Present findings showed that the interspecific genetic distance was higher than intraspecific genetic distances (19-47% compares to 0-19%. Pair wise similarity matrices generated from each isolates-primer combination were totaled and the similarity coefficient between strains were calculated both manually (Nei and Li method and software analysis (Free-Tree-Freeware program. The inferred phylogenetic tree on the fingerprinting of these isolates clearly demonstrated the existence of population genetic diversity sub structuring within F. hepatica of sheep and cattle of Iran, raising interesting questions on the host specificity, epidemiology (e.g., zoonotic transmission and ecology of this fluke. RAPD-PCR is useful for both individual identification and epidemiological investigations in endemic regions.

  2. Fasciola hepatica from naturally infected sheep and cattle in Great Britain are diploid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, N J; Cwiklinski, K; Williams, D J L; Hodgkinson, J

    2015-08-01

    Diploid (2n = 2x = 20) and triploid (2n = 3x = 30) Fasciola hepatica have been reported in the UK, and in Asia diploid, triploid and mixoploid (2x/3x) Fasciola spp. exist but there is little information to indicate how common triploidy is, particularly in UK fluke. Here the ploidy of 565 adult F. hepatica from 66 naturally infected British sheep and 150 adult F. hepatica from 35 naturally infected British cattle was determined. All 715 of these parasites were diploid, based on observation of 10 bivalent chromosomes and sperm (n = 335) or, since triploids are aspermic, sperm alone (n = 380). This constitutes the first extensive analysis of the ploidy of F. hepatica field isolates from Great Britain and shows that most F. hepatica isolated from cattle and sheep are diploid and have the capacity to sexually reproduce. These data suggest that triploidy, and by extension parthenogenesis, is rare or non-existent in wild British F. hepatica populations. Given that F. hepatica is the only species of Fasciola present in Britain our results indicate that the parasite is predominantly diploid in areas where F. hepatica exists in isolation and suggests that triploidy may only originate in natural populations where co-infection of F. hepatica and its sister species Fasciola gigantica commonly occurs.

  3. Effect of Leucaena and Sesbania supplementation on body growth and scrotal circumference of Ethiopian highland sheep and goats fed teff straw basal diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitho, R.J.; Tegegne, A.; Umunna, N.N.; Nsahlai, I.V.; Tamminga, S.; Bruchem, J. van; Arts, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The long term effect of supplementation of Leucaena pallida and Sesbania sesban on growth and reproduction performance was determined on 30 male Ethiopian highland sheep and 25 East African goats. Unchopped teff straw (Eragrostis tef) was given ad libitum and supplemented with either wheat bran (150

  4. Effect of sera of normal cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) on in vitro maturation of buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Sabasthin; Sumanta Nandi; Venkataswamy Girish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the oocytes maturation capacity of buffalo, sheep and goat using media containing sera of three different groups of buffaloes (regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding). Methods: The buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes were matured under suitable conditions in medium containing sera of regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes. Results:The oocytes maturation rate containing buffalo oocytes cultured in media containing sera of the control group and regularly cycling group were not significantly different. However when oocytes cultured in the media containing sera of pregnant buffaloes the maturation rate were significantly declined. Further significant declined in maturation rate were observed when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. When sheep and goat oocytes cultured in the media containing control, pregnant and regularly cycling animals sera the oocytes maturation rate were not significantly different. A significant decline in maturation rate of sheep and goat oocytes were observed, when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. Conclusion: We may conclude that serum collected from normal cycling buffaloes can be used for oocytes maturation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous species.

  5. Genetically similar strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from sheep, cattle and human patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderlund Robert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparatively little is known about the prevalence or the molecular characteristics of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in the sheep reservoir. To investigate this and determine the host specificity of subclones of the bacterium, we have conducted a slaughterhouse prevalence study in sheep and compared the collected isolates to O157:H7 previously isolated from cattle and human patients. Results Verotoxin-producing O157:H7 was found in 11/597 (1.8% of samples from sheep in Swedish slaughterhouses, 9/492 faecal (1.8% and 2/105 ear samples (1.9%. All positive sheep were eaeA, hlyA, cdtV-B, vtx1, and partial sequencing of vtx2. The observed profiles were similar to those of cattle strains investigated previously. Conclusions The same pathogenic subtypes of VTEC O157:H7, including the highly virulent clade 8, appear to be present in both sheep and cattle in Sweden, suggesting strains can circulate freely between ruminant reservoirs.

  6. Determinants of biosecurity behaviour of British cattle and sheep farmers-a behavioural economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Luiza; Stott, Alistair W; Heffernan, Claire; Ringrose, Siân; Gunn, George J

    2013-03-01

    The paper analyses the impact of a priori determinants of biosecurity behaviour of farmers in Great Britain. We use a dataset collected through a stratified telephone survey of 900 cattle and sheep farmers in Great Britain (400 in England and a further 250 in Wales and Scotland respectively) which took place between 25 March 2010 and 18 June 2010. The survey was stratified by farm type, farm size and region. To test the influence of a priori determinants on biosecurity behaviour we used a behavioural economics method, structural equation modelling (SEM) with observed and latent variables. SEM is a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relationships amongst variables, some of which may be latent using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions. Thirteen latent variables were identified and extracted, expressing the behaviour and the underlying determining factors. The variables were: experience, economic factors, organic certification of farm, membership in a cattle/sheep health scheme, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, knowledge about biosecurity measures, perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, perceived effect (on farm business in the past five years) of welfare/health regulation, perceived effect of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, attitudes towards livestock biosecurity, attitudes towards animal welfare, influence on decision to apply biosecurity measures and biosecurity behaviour. The SEM model applied on the Great Britain sample has an adequate fit according to the measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious fit. The results suggest that farmers' perceived importance of specific biosecurity strategies, organic certification of farm, knowledge about biosecurity measures, attitudes towards animal welfare, perceived usefulness of biosecurity information sources, perceived effect on business during the past five years of severe outbreaks of animal diseases, membership

  7. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes at goats

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Žutić M.; Pavlović I.

    2010-01-01

    Listeriosis is the infectious disease of numerous mammals' species, including cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, and humans. Cause is Listeria monocytogenes, widespread in the nature and relatively resistant microorganism. Listeria come in environment by excretes of sick humans and animals as well as of clinically healthy organisms. This microorganism can be found in waste and water, soil, plants, feedstuffs, walls and floors of the buildings where live animals, various kinds of foods of...

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cattle and sheep in Shiraz-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahamtan, Y.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli have been associated with HUS, HC and TTP in human. We found recto-anal mucosal sample in sheep as well in cattle is the main site for E. coli O157 localization. 1246 E. coli isolates from 872 both healthy and diarrheic animals were analyzed, by screening for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing (VT 1 and VT 2 and intimin (eae genes used Multiplex PCR. 87(9.75% VTEC from 52 cattle and 28(7.90% from 28 sheep were isolated. VT2 gene was found to be more frequent than VT1 in cattle (54.02% vs 26.43%, in contrast the same genes in sheep (21.42%vs25%. There was observed significant difference in the origin of VT positive sheep in close contact with farms of cattle origin. Having cattle and sheep with each other was a possible risk factor. The animal was kept in pen was more localized than tethered. Young cattle were documented strongly significant high prevalence rate in E. coli O157:H7 than older, but no effect of age was observed on the occurrence of E. coli O157 in sheep. Both diarrheic and healthy animals were shed E. coli O157:H7 in their feces. Sheep and dairy cow were not illustrated any significance differences geographical region and seasonal variation with E. coli O157:H7 prevalence rate.

  9. Effect of supplementing urea-treated sorghum stover with sesame cake or fishmeal on the body weight of sheep and cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeding trials were carried out on-farm to examine the effect of supplementing urea-treated sorghum stover (UTSS) with sesame cake (SC) or fishmeal (FM) on the body weight (BWt) of sheep and cattle. Twenty one male sheep and nine Barka cattle were divided into three groups of seven sheep and three cattle in each trial. The trials were conducted at the same time, but on two different farms. The control diet consisted of UTSS fed ad libitum to both species of animals. The second and third diets were UTSS supplemented daily with SC or FM. The experimental period lasted for 90 d. Feed intakes and BWt were recorded regularly. The dry matter intake (DMI) in sheep was significantly different (P 0.05) from each other. The BWtG of cattle fed urea-treated sorghum stover alone was 559 g/head/d. This increased to 650 g/head/d with FM and to 741 g/head/d with SC supplementation. In cattle, BWtG was not significantly different (P>0.05) between the treatments. Feed conversion was best on SC followed by FM supplementation in both species (6.92 and 7.70 for sheep and 8.28 and 8.93 for cattle respectively). It can be concluded that feeding UTSS alone or supplemented with small amounts of SC or FM can increase the live weights of cattle and sheep at a reasonable cost. (author)

  10. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio

    2016-04-15

    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. PMID:26675863

  11. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk-categorisation of flocks/herds based on improved Food Chain Information (FCI, classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce faecal contamination, and use of improved process hygiene criteria. It is proposed to omit palpation and incision from post-mortem inspection in animals subjected to routine slaughter. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were ranked as being of high potential concern. Monitoring programmes for chemical hazards should be more flexible and based on the risk of occurrence, taking into account FCI, which should be expanded to reflect the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat inspection is a valuable tool for surveillance and monitoring of animal health and welfare conditions. Omission of palpation and incision would reduce detection effectiveness for tuberculosis and fasciolosis at animal level. Surveillance of tuberculosis at the slaughterhouse in small ruminants should be improved and encouraged, as this is in practice the only surveillance system available. Extended use of FCI could compensate for some, but not all, the information

  12. Experiences with integrated concepts for the control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep and goats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Thomas H; Miller, James E; Burke, Joan M; Mosjidis, Jorge A; Kaplan, Ray M

    2012-05-01

    The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. PMID:22178411

  13. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  14. The application of genomic technologies to investigate the inheritance of economically important traits in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Amills

    2014-01-01

    Goat genomics has evolved at a low pace because of a lack of molecular tools and sufficient investment. Whilst thousands and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in cattle and sheep, respectively, about nine genome scans have been performed in goats dealing with traits as conformation, growth, fiber quality, resistance to nematodes, and milk yield and composition. In contrast, a great effort has been devoted to the characterization of candidate genes and their associ...

  15. Transplacental Transmission of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 in Cattle with Sheep-associated Malignant Catarrhal Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, S A; Pimentel, L A; Oliveira, V H S; Toma, H S; Alfieri, A F; Carvalho, A M; dos Santos, M D; Alfieri, A A

    2015-11-01

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) is an important infectious disease of ruminants worldwide that is caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). OvHV-2 is transmitted predominantly by contact between infected and susceptible hosts, while the documentation of vertical transmission is rare. This report presents the pathological and molecular findings associated with transplacental transmission of OvHV-2 in cattle. Two Girolanda cows with corneal oedema, lethargy, mucopurulent nasal discharge and ulcerative stomatitis died spontaneously; one of these was pregnant with a 4-month-old fetus. Significant pathological findings included widespread lymphoplasmacytic necrotizing vasculitis and lymphoplasmacytic accumulations in several organs of both cows and the fetus. A polymerase chain reaction that targeted the tegument protein gene of OvHV-2 amplified viral DNA from the brain of the pregnant cow and her fetus, as well as from the kidney of the pregnant cow. The pathological findings observed in the cow and her fetus, together with the presence of OvHV-2 DNA in tissues of these animals, are suggestive of transplacental transmission of OvHV-2 in SA-MCF in cattle.

  16. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  17. A Survey on aflatoxin M1 content in sheep and goat milk produced in Sardinia region, Italy (2005-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Spanu, Carlo; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005- 2012 showed...

  18. Detection and confirmation of PPR virus antigen in sheep and goats by sandwich-ELISA and RT-PCR in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saritha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild small ruminants. Rapid and accurate laboratory assay are essential to enable the implementation of appropriate control strategies to restrict the spread of PPR. The present study was designed to detect the PPR virus (PPRV antigen (N-gene in nasal swabs and tissue samples. A total of 195 samples comprising of 138 nasal swabs from PPR suspected sheep (n=72 and goats (n=66, and 57 tissue samples comprising of lymph nodes from dead sheep (n=39 and goats (n=18 were collected from certain parts of Andhra Pradesh. The samples were subjected to sandwich-ELISA followed by RT-PCR for confirmatory diagnosis. In this study, PPRV could be detected in 27.53% (n=38/138 nasal swabs and 49.12% (n=28/57 tissue samples. Data showed that PPRV infection is widespread in the Andhra Pradesh, India.

  19. Migrating mast cells in the gallbladder epithelium of cattle and sheep. A comparative morphologic and histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, O M; Morales, C R; Pereyra, L A; Jordão, T; Montes, G S

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports the existence of mast cells in an epithelial location in the gallbladders of both cattle and sheep. The histochemical studies performed on these cells showed that their cytoplasmic granules contain heparin and biogenic amines in both species. Optical- and electron microscopic observations demonstrated that, in both species, mast cells from the connective tissue of the gallbladder diapedese across the basal lamina and migrate through the epithelium all the way to the luminal surface, and that a degranulation process takes place during this migration. The biochemical results showed a correlation between the number of mast cells present in the epithelium and the amount of heparin detected in the different regions of the gallbladders of the species studied. Unusually high contents of heparin were found in both cattle and sheep gallbladders, suggesting that they should be studied as possible commercial sources of this polimer.

  20. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    /CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... fragile-X probes on cattle chromosomes was however, medium-prominent sub-centromeric signal on two homologues. BrdU administration in 12 h before harvesting identified these homologues to be chromosome number 5. In addition retrospective slides of cattle and sheep chromosomes used for fragile site studies...... showed no signals whatsoever. It was therefore concluded that no homology existed between human and bovine fragile-X....

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  2. Histomorphometric and fractal analysis of femoral, tibial, and metatarsal compact bone samples in sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    GUDEA, ALEXANDRU; STEFAN, ANDREI

    2015-01-01

    Histological sections of femur, tibia, and metatarsals originating from sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) were examined in this study. Our research focused mainly on the quantitative characteristics of the microstructure of these bones. The areas, perimeters, minimum and maximum diameters of the secondary Haversian units, as well as structures of the primary osteonal units were assessed using comparative statistical methods. In addition to these param...

  3. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  4. Cloning and comparative analysis of gene structure in promoter site of alpha-s1 casein gene in Naeinian goat and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Najafi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5′ end or alpha-S1 casein promoter has a significant role in milk protein gene expression. The understanding of the translation process of alpha-S1 casein mutants will provide us an opportunity to make the best selection in livestock providing more proteins in milk. Blood samples were taken from three hundred of Naeinian goats and sheep, and DNA extraction was done using modified salting out method. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR were carried out using a specific primer pairs for amplification a fragment of 1133 bp from part of 5′-UTR and exon 1 of alpha s1 casein gene. The AluI and HinfI restriction enzyme treatment of all samples provided the same homozygous AA genotype in both species. Subsequently, one sample of each species was selected and cloned, and the final sequences were analyzed by BioEdit, CLC genomic, Mega4 and DNASIS MAX software. Several polymorphisms are recognized between Naeinian goat and sheep that are presented on motif sites. In this research, the interested location, including exon I and a part of 5′, was analyzed, and genetic element comparisons were done between Naeinian goat and sheep. The number and location of probable binding sites can have a crucial role as a result of antagonistic and synergistic effects on gene regulation activities.

  5. Blood Pb and δ-ALAD inhibition in cattle and sheep from a Pb-polluted mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of Pb pollution on cattle and sheep raised in an ancient mining area were studied through the use of blood Pb (PbB) levels and δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity. Lead levels in livestock blood from the mining area (n = 110) were significantly elevated when compared to the controls (n = 79). In 91.4% of cattle (n = 58) and 13.5% of sheep (n = 52) sampled in the mining area, PbB levels corresponded to subclinical exposure (6–35 μg/dl). Two young cattle (35 μg/dl). Elevated PbB was also accompanied by δ-ALAD activity inhibition in blood, which confirms that measurable effects of Pb poisoning were taking place. Observed PbB levels suggest that a potential risk to human consumers of beef from the Pb polluted areas may also exist, as has been shown previously for game meat from the same mining area. - Highlights: ► We studied effects of Pb pollution on livestock raised in an old mining area. ► Livestock from the mining area had higher blood Pb levels than the controls. ► Pb levels were higher in cattle than in sheep. ► Pb exposure inhibited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, especially in cattle. ► Lead uptake in livestock reared in this area poses a risk to human consumers. - Lead from an ancient mining area still affects livestock health and compromises the safety of derived food products.

  6. Isolation and characterization of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains from Dutch cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelink, A E; van den Biggelaar, F L; de Boer, E; Herbes, R G; Melchers, W J; Huis in 't Veld, J H; Monnens, L A

    1998-04-01

    In the periods from July to November 1995 and 1996, fecal samples from Dutch cattle and sheep were collected at the main slaughterhouses of The Netherlands, located at different geographic sites. The samples were examined for the presence of verocytotoxin (VT)-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup 0157. E. coli O157 strains could be isolated from 57 (10.6%) of 540 adult cattle, 2 (0.5%) of 397 veal calves, 2 (3.8%) of 52 ewes, and 2 (4.1%) of 49 lambs. Immunomagnetic separation with O157-specific-antibody-coated beads appeared to be significantly more sensitive than conventional plating for detection of the organism in feces. With the exception of two isolates from adult cattle which appeared to be negative for VT genes, all animal isolates were positive for both VT (VT1 and/or VT2) and E. coli attaching-and-effacing gene sequences, and therefore, they were regarded as potential human pathogens. Although genomic typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed a wide variety of distinct restriction patterns, comparison of the 63 animal isolates with 33 fecal O157 VTEC strains previously isolated from humans with the diarrhea-associated form of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome by their phage types and VT genotypes showed a marked similarity between animal and human isolates: 30 (90.9%) of the 33 human isolates appeared to be of E. coli O157 strain types also isolated from cattle and sheep. It was concluded that Dutch cattle and sheep are an important reservoir of E. coli O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. PMID:9542902

  7. Herd evaluation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the determination of Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep and cattle from the Altiplano of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Buchón, P; Bjorland, J

    1996-02-01

    A study was designed to determine by ELISA the seroprevalence of fasciolosis both in sheep (29 herds totaling 184 sheep), in samples collected in 1988, and in cattle (41 herds totaling 299 animals, samples collected in 1988; 34 herds totaling 147 animals, samples collected in 1989) in the same area of Corapata in which a seroprevalence survey had been done in humans. The results show high seropositivity in sheep (89%) and lower seropositivity in cattle (58% in 1988, and 57% in 1989). The seroprevalence in cattle in 1988 was essentially identical to that detected in 1989. Faecal examinations were also done in the 1988 sheep and 1989 cattle. Results of the study showed that of the 184 sheep examined, 22 were positive for F. hepatica eggs, while 163 were positive by serology. All of the 22 sheep which were positive parasitologically were also positive serologically for a sensitivity of 100%. On the other hand, of 147 cattle tested, 38 were positive parasitologically while 84 were positive serologically. Of the 38 positives for F. hepatica eggs, 31 were positive by serology (sensitivity 82%).

  8. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  9. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to the most commonly used anthelmintics in sheep, cattle and horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Geurden, T; Bartram, D J; Martínez-Pérez, J M; Robles-Pérez, D; Bohórquez, A; Florez, E; Meana, A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ruminants and horses in Spain. The efficacy of commonly used macrocyclic lactones (MLs) - ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) - was measured in sheep, cattle and horses. In addition, albendazole (ABZ) and levamisole (LEV) were evaluated in sheep and oxibendazole (OXI) and pyrantel (PYR) in horses. Efficacy was evaluated based on the difference between the arithmetic mean pre- and post-treatment faecal egg count (in cattle and horses), or compared to an untreated control group (in sheep). AR was present when the percentage reduction in egg count was <95% and the lower 95% confidence interval (CI) was <90%; if only one of these two criteria was met, the finding was recorded as suspected AR (SAR). In horses, AR-PYR and OXI was considered when the percentage reduction in egg count was ≤ 90% and the lower 95% CI was ≤ 80%. For each animal species, at least 10 study sites were selected. AR to at least one of the drugs was detected in all 10 sheep flocks; the main parasite identified after treatment was Teladorsagia circumcincta. Moreover, in 5 flocks multidrug resistance was identified, on 4 farms to drugs from different families, on one farm to both MOX and IVM and on another farm to all drugs tested. In cattle, the efficacy of both MOX and IVM was 100% on 4 and 3 farms, respectively, and therefore 60% of these farms were considered to have AR or SAR to both MLs. The most frequent parasite identified after treatment was Trichostrongylus spp., although Ostertagia ostertagi was also identified after treatment on one farm. In contrast to ruminants, the 4 drugs evaluated in horses were highly efficacious against strongyles, with efficacies for the MLs and OXI between 95 and 100% and between 94 and 100% for PYR, although 3 herds were SAR against PYR. In conclusion, AR to at least one of the commonly used drugs was identified on all sheep flocks investigated in the northwest of

  10. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  11. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant⁄antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Nawito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet and another group grazing natural forage (low diet. Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes. Results: MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Conclusion: Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  12. Specific detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in sheep and goat sera by the luciferase immunoprecipitation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berguido, Francisco J; Bodjo, Sanne Charles; Loitsch, Angelika; Diallo, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal transboundary animal disease affecting mostly sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. This disease is endemic in most of Africa, the Middle, Near East, and large parts of Asia. The causal agent is peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), which belongs to the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This genus also includes measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and rinderpest virus (RPV). All are closely related viruses with serological cross reactivity. In this study, we have developed a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) for the rapid detection of antibodies against PPRV in serum samples and for specific differentiation from antibodies against RPV. PPR and rinderpest (RP) serum samples were assayed by PPR-LIPS and two commercially available PPR cELISA tests. The PPR-LIPS showed high sensitivity and specificity for the samples tested and showed no cross reactivity with RPV unlike the commercial PPR cELISA tests which did cross react with RPV. Based on the results shown in this study, PPR-LIPS is presented as a good candidate for the specific serosurveillance of PPR. PMID:26506137

  13. Specific detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antibodies in sheep and goat sera by the luciferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a contagious and often fatal transboundary animal disease affecting mostly sheep, goats and wild small ruminants. This disease is endemic in most of Africa, the Middle, Near East, and large parts of Asia. The casual agent is peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), which belongs to the genus Morbilivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. This genus also includes measles virus (MV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and rinderpest virus (RPV). All are closely related viruses with serological cross reactivity. In this study, we have developed a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) for the rapid detection of antibodies against PPRV in serum samples and for specific differentiation from antibodies against RPV. PPR and rinderpest (RP) serum samples were assayed by PPR-LIPS and two commercially available PPR cELISA tests. The PPR-LIPS showed high sensitivity and specificity for the samples tested and showed no cross reactivity with RPV unlike the commercial PPR cELISA tests which did not cross react with RPV. Based on the results shown in this study, PPR-LIPS is presented as a good candidate for the specific serosurveillance of PPR. (author)

  14. Comparison of Two Methods for the Measurement of Medial and Lateral Metapodial Bones in Karagouniko Sheep (Ovis aries, L. 1758 and Hellenic Goat (Capra hircus, L. 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Pourlis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the metapodial lengths of sheep and goats measured with a caliper with those measured using a 2-dimensional digital method. Complementarily, the lengths of medial and lateral metapodials in these species were compared. The limbs of 30 ewes and 30 goats were used. After preparation, the lateral and medial length of the metacarpals and metatarsals were measured twice with a caliper. Afterwards, each bone was scanned and the same lengths were digitally measured twice using commercial software. Data analysis revealed strong linear relationship between the two methods but the absolute relative deviation of the measurements with the caliper was significantly higher than those with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. All lengths measured with the caliper were significantly higher compared to those measured with the 2-dimensional method (P<0.05. In goats, the lateral length of both metacarpals and metatarsals was significantly higher than medial length (P<0.05; in sheep the lateral length was significantly higher compared to the medial one only in metatarsal bones (P<0.05. In conclusion, the 2-dimensional method is more accurate for the measurement of the metapodials’ length than the caliper and there is asymmetry between the medial and lateral metapodials in these species.

  15. Genetic diversity of Sardinian goat population based on microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last century, the selection for production traits of the main livestock species has led to a reduction in number of local populations with consequent loss of genetic variability. In Sardinia, the genetic improvement strategy has been based on selection for the local pure breed in sheep, whereas in the other species (cattle, swine and goat, an often unplanned crossbreeding with improved breeds has been applied.

  16. Kid Goats are More Sensitive to Penicillin Overdose

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Nikvand; H. Najafzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Hipracilina suspension contains benzyl penicillin (200000I U), dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (250 mg), chlorpheniramine maleate (15 mg) and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.6 mg). This drug is used for treatment infection in respiratory, urinary, reproductive, forelimb and hind limb systems in cattle, goats, sheep and rabbits. Hipracilina is intramuscularly injected at dose 1 mL/10 kg body weight once or twice in day for 3 days. Hipracilina was clinically used at dose 1.5 mL/B.W in kid goats. ...

  17. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of recent and previous lineages of peste-des-petits-ruminants viruses of sheep and goats in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantip, Samuel; Quan, Melvyn; Shamaki, David; Van Vuuren, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) is a highly contagious, fatal and economically important viral disease of small ruminants that is still endemic and militates against the production of sheep and goats in endemic areas of the world. The aim of this study was to describe the viral strains within the country. This was carried out by collecting tissue and swab samples from sheep and goats in various agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The phylogeny of archived PPRV strains or isolates and those circulating and causing recent outbreaks was determined by sequencing of the nucleoprotein (N)-gene. Twenty tissue and swab samples from apparently healthy and sick sheep and goats were collected randomly from 18 states, namely 3 states in each of the 6 agro-ecological zones visited. A total of 360 samples were collected. A total of 35 samples of 360 (9.7%) tested positive by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, of which 25 were from oculo-nasal swabs and 10 were from tissue samples. Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis using Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) identified four different lineages, that is, lineages I, II, III and IV. Interestingly, the Nigerian strains described in this study grouped in two separate major lineages, that is, lineages II and IV. Strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau and Ondo states grouped according to the historical distribution of PPRV together with the Nigerian 75/1 strain of lineage II, while other strains from Sokoto, Oyo, Plateau, Akwa-Ibom, Adamawa, Kaduna, Lagos, Bauchi, Niger and Kano states grouped together with the East African and Asian strains of lineage IV. This finding confirms that both lineage II and IV strains of PPRV are circulating in Nigeria. Previously, only strains of lineage II were found to be present in the country. PMID:27608505

  18. Transhumant sheep and goat farming sector in the region of Sterea Ellada-Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANNIS MITSOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transhumance connects highlands and lowlands creating that way a farming system with important social, cultural, economic, landscape and environmental effects. Despite the continuous reduction of the number of transhumant herds in Greece the later years, this farming system still preserves a considerable position in country’s animal husbandry. Aim of this paper is the study of management practices and the nomination of productivity indicators of the transhumant reared animals in the region of Sterea Ellada. The necessary data were collected through a specially conducted questionnaire from totally 140 transhumant herders. The results reveal average herd size of 364.40, with herd sizes that excides one thousand, especially for goat herds, and residence on mountainous, semi-mountainous areas for at least 5 months. The main source of income is the trade of milk, but it should be noted that a small proportion of the herders process milk and trade only feta and/or other traditional kinds of cheese complementary of meat trade. In addition average traded milk production and prolificacy reveal the influence of more intense farming practices, such as crossbreeding and/or rational feed and the continuous effort of the producers and correspond to consecutive increase of the needs of the market.

  19. Molecular identification of Theileria and Babesia in ticks collected from sheep and goats in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Fatih; Aktas, Munir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    A molecular survey was undertaken in the Black Sea region of Turkey to determine the presence of Theileria and Babesia species of medical and veterinary importance. The ticks were removed from sheep and goats, pooled according to species and locations, and analyzed by PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing. A total of 2241 ixodid ticks belonging to 5 genus and 12 species were collected and divided into 310 pools. Infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 310 pools tested, 46 (14.83%) were found to be infected with Theileria or Babesia species, and the overall MLE of the infection rate was calculated as 2.27% (CI 1.67-2.99). The MLE of the infection rates were calculated as 0.691% (CI 0.171-1.78) in Haemaphysalis parva, 1.47% (CI 0.081-6.37) in Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 1.84% (CI 0.101-7.87) in Ixodes ricinus, 2.86% (CI 1.68-4.48) in Rhipicephalus turanicus, 5.57% (CI 0.941-16.3) in Hyalomma marginatum, and 6.2% (CI 4.02-9.02) in Rhipicephalus bursa. Pathogens identified in ticks included Theileria ovis, Babesia ovis, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia microti. Most tick pools were infected with a single pathogen. However, five pools displayed mixed infections with T. ovis and B. ovis. This study provides the first molecular evidence for the presence of B. microti in ticks in Turkey.

  20. In vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, P K; Majumdar, D K

    2007-11-01

    The objective of present investigation was to study the in vitro permeation characteristics of moxifloxacin from oil drops through freshly excised goat, sheep, buffalo and rabbit corneas. Moxifloxacin, 0.043 to 0.048% (w/v) ophthalmic solutions with or without (0.5% v/v) benzyl alcohol were made in arachis, castor, cottonseed, olive, soybean, sunflower and sesame oils. Permeation studies were conducted by putting 1 ml oil formulation on cornea (0.50 cm2) fixed between donor and receptor compartments of an all glass modified Franz diffusion cell and measuring the drug permeated in receptor (containing 10 ml bicarbonate ringer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C under stirring) by spectrophotometry at 291 nm, after 120 min. Post permeation corneal hydration was measured to assess corneal damage. The study was designed with paired corneas i.e. one cornea of an animal received formulation without benzyl alcohol while the contralateral cornea received formulation with benzyl alcohol. Moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution in castor oil showed maximum permeation with all the corneas. Addition of benzyl alcohol, a preservative, to oil drops reduced permeation of moxifloxacin from each oil drop, with corneas of all the species. Partition experiments with moxifloxacin oil drops and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) indicated higher partitioning of drug in the oil phase, in presence of benzyl alcohol. Thus results of permeation are consistent with the partition characteristics of drug between oil and aqueous phase. Corneal hydration obtained with all the formulations was between 75 to 80% indicating no corneal damage.

  1. Effect of forage quality on intake, chewing activity, faecal particle size distribution, and digestibility of neutral detergent fibre in sheep, goats, and llamas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis;

    2012-01-01

    into six sieving fractions with pore sizes in the 2.4–0.1 mm range and a bottom bowl. The dimension of each particle in sub-samples from each fraction was measured using image analysis. The DM intake per metabolic body weight (BW) was higher in sheep and llamas fed GH than in those animals fed GSS (P ... types of forage for two periods in a crossover design. The species included six adult, non-pregnant female Danish Landrace goats, Shropshire sheep, and Lama glama llamas with body weights of 45 ± 5, 75 ± 6, and 135 ± 20 kg (mean ± SD), respectively. Forage included chopped artificially dried grass hay...... in the forestomach system. Across animal species and forage type, the mean particle size in faeces was negatively correlated with NDF digestibility....

  2. Estimation of the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected sheep to cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was perfor

  3. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat Milk Samples in Kordestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki, P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious agalactiae (C.A. is one of the most common disease affecting small ruminants which is caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae. This disease is particularly widespread around the world and Iran is one of the countries that C.A. is present. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of M. agalactiae (MG with culture and PCR technique in milk samples in Kordestan province, Iran. A total of 367 milk samples were collected from sheep and goat. Specific published primers amplify a 375 bp gene of MG were used for PCR. Twenty (5.5% out of 367 were positive in PPLO agar and 5 (25% out of these isolates were positive with Mycoplasma agalactiae primers. Four (75% out of 5 isolates was from sheep and 1(25% from goat. Result of PCR with 367 milk samples showed that 11(3% of them were positive with these primers. The isolation of M. agalactiae showed that C.A is present in Kordestan province and our results suggested that PCR method because of reduces the time consuming could be an alternative method beside culture.

  4. Distribution of PLD and FagA, B, C and D genes in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolates from sheep and goats with caseus lymphadenitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Aquino de Sá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caseous lymphadenits (CL is a chronic and subclinical disease that affects goats and sheep and, consequently, causes economic losses, especially to small producers. The purpose of this study, through use of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, was to verify the presence of virulence genes of phospholipase D (PLD, integral membrane protein (FagA, iron enterobactin transporter (FagB, ATP binding cytoplasmic membrane protein (FagC and iron siderophore binding protein (FagD in 168 isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis obtained from cases of caseous lymphadenitis in goats and sheep. FagA, FagB and PLD genes were detected in all 145 strains isolated from abscesses in superficial lymph nodes and in 23 strains isolated from viscera. The FagC gene was positive in 167 (99.40% isolates. The FagD gene was detected in 160 (95.23% isolates. All virulence factors analyzed were found more frequently among isolates collected in the viscera of animals with CL, indicating a multifactorial nature, as well as variations, in the invasive potential of C. pseudotuberculosis strains.

  5. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  6. A Survey on Sarcocystis Infection Rate in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep by Macroscopic Inspection and Pepsin Digestion Methods in Hamadan Abattoir, Iran, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Parandin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: 130 heteroxenous species of sarcosytis with different life cycle and pathogenesis have been recognized. The pathogenic species for humans are S. hominis from cattle and S. suihominis from pig that humans are definitive and cattle and pig are intermedi-ate hosts. Some species of Sarcocystis can cause important economic loss and disease in livestock, and health issues in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered Cattle and sheep in Hamadan, west of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study a total of 324 cattle and 334 sheep carcasses were examined using naked eye inspection for macroscopic Sarcocysts, and digestion method, for microscopic types of parasite. Muscles from thigh, heart, tongue, esophagus, diaphragm and costal muscles were examined. All carcasses examined by naked eyes and tissues were minced and poured in digestion medium separately and sediment was examined microscopically. Results: The prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis in cattle was detected in 100% and there was no macroscopic cyst in examined carcasses. However, the prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis in the sheep was also 100% and the sarcocysts were found in the 48.34 % of esophagus and 29.49% of diaphragm muscles by naked eyes inspection. Conclusion: The digestion is found the most sensitive method for diagnosis of Sarcocystis. Al-though 100% of muscles were found infected but the majority of the cysts in the sheep and all in the cattle were as microcysts. That means, the meat should be cooked sufficiently irrespec-tive of meat inspection results. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (3: 210-216

  7. Molecular study on infection rates of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noaman, Vahid; Bastani, Davood

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and frequency of Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep and dairy cattle in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total number of 200 blood samples were randomly collected via the jugular vein from apparently healthy cattle (100) and sheep (100). The extracted DNA from blood cells was screened using genus-specific (Anaplasma spp.) nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on 16S rRNA gene primer sets. Species-specific PCR was set up using major surface protein 4 (MSP4) gene primer set. None of cattle blood samples were positive for Anaplasma spp. by the first nested PCR. Five samples among the 100 sheep blood samples were both positive in the first nested PCR and A. ovis -specific PCR, based on MSP4 gene. In total, 5.00% of animals were A. ovis positive. This study identified a low prevalence of A. ovis in the blood of apparently healthy sheep in West Azerbaijan province. PMID:27482362

  8. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Winai PRALOMKARN; Supakorn, China; Dolrudee BOONSANIT

    2012-01-01

    The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been f...

  9. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Thamsborg, Stig M; Demeler, Janina; Enemark, Heidi L

    2014-12-15

    We describe a case of anthelmintic resistance on one of the largest organic small ruminant farms in Denmark. The flock was established in 2007 by purchase of animals from other Danish farms and had history of clinical parasitism, high mortality of young stock and anthelmintic treatment failure. In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose of MOX and 2× sheep dose of FBZ and LEV. Untreated lambs and kids were also included and three methods for calculating faecal egg count (FEC) reduction were compared. In a subsequent investigation, a controlled efficacy test (CET) with FBZ and IVM was performed in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis isolated from adult goats on the farm. Recovered specimens of H. contortus were subjected to pyrosequencing for detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to benzimidazole (BZ) resistance. During the FECRT, FECs in untreated lambs dropped significantly by 47%. No FEC reduction was detected in untreated kids. After FBZ treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids ranged from 15 to 54% and 49-56%, respectively, according to the different calculation methods. Post IVM treatments, FEC reductions in lambs and kids varied between 71-90% and 81-83%, correspondingly. LEV and MOX reduced FECs by 98-100% in both species. In the CET, FBZ reduced H. contortus worm counts by 52-56% and no reduction in T. colubriformis counts were detected after treatment. IVM eliminated 100% of H. contortus and reduced T. colubriformis counts by 84-92%, according to different calculation methods. Pyrosequencing of isolated H. contortus revealed increased frequencies of the BZ resistance-related SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene

  10. Rainfall simulations as a tool for quantification of soil erosion processes caused by the trampling of sheep and goats in semi-arid and arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthenberg, Jonas; Tumbrink, Jonas; Wilms, Tobias; Peter, Klaus Daniel; Wirtz, Stefan; Ries, Johannes B.

    2015-04-01

    As there is a massive increase of livestock husbandry in semi-arid and arid landscapes, the investigation of trampling-induced soil erosion has become indispensable for a better understanding of erosive processes such as loosening and translocation of sediment, as well as the genesis of rill erosion and gully systems. Our work will support other studies focusing on desertification and land-use changes in the investigated landscapes. Up to this date, research on livestock-induced soil erosion, even in relation to other erosion processes such as aeolian and fluvial/pluvial sediment translocation, is very scarcely found in literature. The presented study on trampling-induced soil erosion by sheep and goats in arid and semi-arid landscapes aims to create a general understanding, an estimation and quantification of the influencing factors of these erosive processes. Within this study, we present the first results of several field rainfall experiments on rock fragment translocation as well as loosening and transportation of coarse and fine sediment depending on the motion sequence and the individual weight, size, and hoof beat of the animals. Furthermore, we conducted additional experiments to investigate the trampling-induced erosion processes for various other sediments, especially those in the range of clay, silt, and sand. To do so, we used a specially designed test plot, equipped with sediment traps on each side. For a clear and reliable analysis of the measured parameters, univariate as well as multivariate statistical methods have been used. For all field methods, we developed relevant statements concerning flock size. The rock fragment translocation experiments done so fare have shown that a flock of 45 sheep or goats moved 87 % of 320 spread out rock fragments with a mean translocation distance of 0.123 m when trampling across a test plot of 3.2 m^2. Besides that we found out that the soil surface was worked up in a way that the loosened fine sediment proved to

  11. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety. PMID:25932502

  12. Evaluation of Risk Factors for Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Sheep and Goats at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Ul-Rahman; Abubakar, Muhammad; Rasool, Muhammad Hidayat; Manzoor, Shumaila; Saqalein, Muhammad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Munir, Muhammad; Ali, Qurban; Wensman, Jonas Johansson

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is causing infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate in domestic and wild small ruminants of Pakistan with valuable economical losses. The present study was carried out to investigate risk factors of PPRV in domestic small ruminants which were present in the vicinity of wildlife parks. A total of 265 sera samples (27 wild ruminants and 238 domesticated small ruminants) from apparently healthy animals from two different wildlife parks were collected and analysed for PPRV antibodies. Also, 20 nasal swabs from domestic small ruminants showing respiratory signs were collected to check for presence of PPRV antigen. Competitive ELISA revealed highest proportions of anti-PPRV antibodies in domestic small ruminants around the Wildlife Park at Lahore (35%) as compared to Faisalabad (13%), with no existence of PPRV antibodies in tested serum of wild ruminants at these parks. Higher seropositivity was observed in females (25.6%) than in males (5.1%) and in goats (34.5%) compared to sheep (11.2%). The results of N-gene based RT-PCR highlight the absence of PPRV due to lack of current PPR outbreak in the region during study period. Even though grazing was not a significant risk factor, there is still a possibility of wildlife-livestock interactions for feed and water reservoirs, resulting in spillover of PPR to wildlife. Keeping in view the high seropositivity and risk of PPR, vaccination should be adopted to avoid circulation of PPRV among wild and domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats). PMID:27294134

  13. Characterization of Exon 2 and Intron 2 of Leptin Gene in Native Anatolian Goat Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge BAKIRCIOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies performed on farm animals like cattle and pig have shown that there has been a relationship between leptin gene (LEP and carcass meat quality, milk production and content, and economic parameters such as reproduction and food consumption. There has been scarce research conducted related to leptin gene of sheep and especially goat. The aim of the study is to reveal the genetic structures of goats living in Turkey through nucleotide sequence analysis in targeted zones of LEP gene Exon 2 and Intron 2 of Anatolian Black, Kilis and Angora goat breeds which are commonly fed in Anatolia. According to the sequence analysis results of each three breeds, Anatolian Black goat breed have the highest haplotype number with nucleotide and haplotype diversity both in exon 2 and intron 2. There was only one haplotype found in both exon 2 and intron 2 in Angora goat breed. There was no nucleotide diversity found in individuals belonging to Angora goat breed. Taking the regions analyzed for LEP gene into consideration, it is seen that Anatolian Black goat breed has the highest genetic diversity among other goat breeds fed in Anatolia. Future studies upon the LEP gene in goats should take into account of increasing the sample size and of base in order to obtain more useful information for better understanding the gene structure.

  14. Comparative Study on Small Intestinal Mucosal Structure between Tibetan Sheep and Tibetan Goat%藏绵羊和藏山羊小肠黏膜结构的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏飞; 陈付菊; 叶先林; 常兰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨藏绵羊和藏山羊在高寒低氧环境中小肠黏膜结构的适应特征.[方法]采用组织学和图像分析法,对4只藏绵羊和4只藏山羊小肠不同肠段的黏膜结构的形态特征进行比较.[结果]藏山羊小肠绒毛长度和V/C值均显著高于藏绵羊(P<0.05),而藏绵羊小肠黏膜的厚度大于藏山羊,但差异不显著(P>0.05),藏绵羊小肠肌层的厚度显著大于藏山羊的(P<0.05).[结论]藏山羊的消化吸收功能强于藏绵羊.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the characteristics of adaptation of small intestinal mucosal structure in Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. [Method] The morphology characteristics of mucosal structure in different parts of small intestine between Tibetan antelope (n =5) and Tibetan sheep(n =5) were measured by histological method and the scion image software analysis techniques method. [ Result] The length of small intestine villi and V/C values of Tibetan goat were significantly higher than those of Tibetan sheep { P 0.05). The muscle thickness in Tibetan sheep was significantly greater than that of Tibetan sheep (P<0.05). [Conclusion] The small intestinal digestion and absorption function of Tibetan goat are stronger than that of Tibetan sheep.

  15. An exploration of the drivers to bio-security collective action among a sample of UK cattle and sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Claire; Nielsen, Louise; Thomson, Kim; Gunn, George

    2008-11-17

    At present, collective action regarding bio-security among UK cattle and sheep farmers is rare. Despite the occurrence of catastrophic livestock diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and foot and mouth disease (FMD), within recent decades, there are few national or local farmer-led animal health schemes. To explore the reasons for this apparent lack of interest, we utilised a socio-psychological approach to disaggregate the cognitive, emotive and contextual factors driving bio-security behaviour among cattle and sheep farmers in the United Kingdom (UK). In total, we interviewed 121 farmers in South-West England and Wales. The main analytical tools included a content, cluster and logistic regression analysis. The results of the content analysis illustrated apparent 'dissonance' between bio-security attitudes and behaviour.(1) Despite the heavy toll animal disease has taken on the agricultural economy, most study participants were dismissive of the many measures associated with bio-security. Justification for this lack of interest was largely framed in relation to the collective attribution or blame for the disease threats themselves. Indeed, epidemic diseases were largely related to external actors and agents. Reasons for outbreaks included inadequate border control, in tandem with ineffective policies and regulations. Conversely, endemic livestock disease was viewed as a problem for 'bad' farmers and not an issue for those individuals who managed their stock well. As such, there was little utility in forming groups to address what was largely perceived as an individual problem. Further, we found that attitudes toward bio-security did not appear to be influenced by any particular source of information per se. While strong negative attitudes were found toward specific sources of bio-security information, e.g. government leaflets, these appear to simply reflect widely held beliefs. In relation to actual bio-security behaviours, the logistic

  16. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i2.12548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.

  17. Comparación entre las comunidades de nematodos parasitos de ovinos y caprinos criados en zonas áridas de Venezuela Comparison between the communities of parasite nematoda of sheep and goats bread in arid zones of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available La estructura y composición de la comunidad de nemátodos parásitos de ovinos es similar a la de los caprinos (r**s = 0,90 P Under the studied conditions, the structure and composition of community of parasitic nematodes observed in both sheeps and goats, is similar (r**s = 0,90 P <= 0,05 y C**ss = 93,33%, the Shannon-Weaver index of diversity was 1.23 more or less 0.15 bits and 1.15 more or less 0.24 bits for sheeps and goats, respectively. The equitability index resulted in 0.49 more or less 0.06 for sheep-nematodes and 0.44 more or less 0.09 for goats-nematodes. However, no significant difference was observed when the means of these indexes, were compared. Not withstanding, a greater homogenity was observed in the ovine parasitic nematodes.

  18. Monitoring of embryonic and fetal losses in different breeds of goats using real-time B-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Haney; Karen, Aly; Ashmawy, Tarek; Abo-Ahmed, Mostafa; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-15

    Compared to cattle and sheep, few studies had been undertaken to evaluate the incidence of embryonic and fetal losses (EFL) in goats. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the timing of EFL and to identify the factors that are associated with EFL in goats such as breed, age, parity, method of estrous synchronization, and breeding. Moreover, this study aimed to ensure whether a relationship existed between serum progesterone (P4) and EFL. Goats (n = 151) of different breeds (70 Zaraiebi, 42 Damascus, and 39 Cross goats [Baladi × Damascus]) were evaluated by ultrasonography to monitor EFL during different stages of gestation (D20-23, D26-29, D33-36, D40-45, and D47-54 after breeding). Blood samples were collected at D7, D20, and at each ultrasonographic scanning to clarify changes of serum P4 levels concurrently with EFL. Results revealed that 45 of 109 goats (41.28%) were exposed to EFL. A higher EFL % was observed between D20 to 23 and D47 to 54 (19.61%) compared with D47 to 54 to birth (11.76%). Moreover, a higher EFL % was observed in Zaraiebi goats compared with others. Age and goat parity had no significant effect on the EFL % in all goats. A high EFL % were observed in goats synchronized by P4 sponge, as well as artificially inseminated goats compared with goats with spontaneous estrus, and bred by natural mating, respectively. Serum P4 at D7 or D20 after breeding showed nonsignificant difference between normal pregnant goats and goats that experienced EFL. Unlike goats that experienced partial EFL, goats that experienced total EFL between D20 to 23 and D26 to 29 showed an abrupt P4 reduction (85.06%; P EFL between D26 and 29 to D33 to 36 showed a low P4 reduction (24.90%; P EFL. In conclusion, different factors such as breed, estrous synchronization, breeding, and stage of pregnancy may be involved in EFL in goats. Therefore, improvement of the goat management in the early stage of pregnancy is important to decrease EFL % in goats

  19. Scenario planning: The future of the cattle and sheep industries in Scotland and their resiliency to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Lisa A; Auty, Harriet; Bessell, Paul; Duckett, Dominic; Liu, Jiayi; Kyle, Carol; McKee, Annie; Sutherland, Lee-Ann; Reynolds, John; Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; McKendrick, Iain J

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a description of foresighting activities undertaken by EPIC, Scotland's Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks, to investigate the future uncertainty of animal health security in the Scottish sheep and cattle sectors. Using scenario planning methodologies, we explored four plausible but provocative long-term futures which identify dynamics underpinning the resilience of these agricultural sectors to animal disease. These scenarios highlight a number of important drivers that influence disease resilience: industry demographics, the role of government support and regulation and the capacity for technological innovation to support the industry to meet local and global market demand. Participants in the scenario planning exercises proposed creative, robust strategies that policy makers could consider implementing now to enhance disease control and industry resilience in multiple, uncertain futures. Using these participant-led strategies as a starting point, we offer ten key questions for policy makers and stakeholders to provoke further discussion about improving resiliency and disease preparedness. We conclude with a brief discussion of the value of scenario planning, not only for the development of futures which will inform disease contingency plans and improve industry resilience, but as a mechanism for dialogue and information sharing between stakeholders and government. PMID:26349432

  20. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the scrapie situation in the EU after 10 years of monitoring and control in sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    of breeding programmes for resistance to CS (BP-CS) in the dissemination of resistance into the general sheep population has been assessed for those countries for which the CS trend analysis has been performed. CS in sheep was reported in 17 MSs (average prevalence: 8.7 cases/10 000 tests), with heterogeneous...... trends and geographical distribution: among the 13 countries reporting a consistent number of cases, the trend analysis shows a statistically significant decreasing trend only for six of them. Variations in the implementation of genetic and non-genetic measures for the control of CS may explain...... the failure to improve the disease situation in the remaining seven MSs. At a national level, a reduction in CS seems to be linked to better-achieving BP-CSs. Control options applied to CS in sheep and goats indicate that a CS eradication policy that relies solely on the detection of infected flocks by post...

  1. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities. PMID:27609458

  2. Relationship among eye and muzzle temperatures measured using digital infrared thermal imaging and vaginal and rectal temperatures in hair sheep and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, W D; Godfrey, R W; Ketring, R C; Vinson, M C; Willard, S T

    2014-11-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) using a thermal camera has potential to be a useful tool for the production animal industry. Thermography has been used in both humans and a wide range of animal species to measure body temperature as a method to detect injury or inflammation. The objective of these experiments was to compare the temperature of the eye (EYE) or muzzle (MUZ) measured using DITI to vaginal (VT) and rectal temperature (RT) as measures of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle. In Exp.1 EYE, VT and RT were measured in lactating, multiparous hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White, n = 10, and Dorper × St. Croix White, n = 10) in a non-febrile state 5 times over a 48-h period. Data loggers were used to measure VT and a digital veterinary thermometer was used to measure RT. There was a high correlation (P 0.10) between RT or VT and MUZ. The findings of these three studies indicate that temperature of the eye, measured using DITI, can be used as an indicator of core body temperature in hair sheep and beef cattle as an alternative to using vaginal or rectal temperature.

  3. Histomorphometric, fractal and lacunarity comparative analysis of sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) compact bone samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudea, A I; Stefan, A C

    2013-08-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies dealing with histomorphometry of the bone tissue play a new role in modern legal medicine/forensic medicine and archaeozoology nowadays. This study deals with the differences found in case of humerus and metapodial bones of recent sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus) and roedeer (Capreolus capreolus) specimens, both from a qualitative point of view, but mainly from a quantitative perspective. A novel perspective given by the fractal analysis performed on the digital histological images is approached. This study shows that the qualitative assessment may not be a reliable one due to the close resemblance of the structures. From the quantitative perspective (several measurements performed on osteonal units and statistical processing of data),some of the elements measured show significant differences among 3 species(the primary osteonal diameter, etc.). The fractal analysis and the lacunarity of the images show a great deal of potential, proving that this type of analysis can be of great help in the separation of the material from this perspective. PMID:24068686

  4. Bivalent vaccination against pneumonic pasteurellosis in domestic sheep and goats with modified-live in-frame lktA deletion mutants of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Robert E; Hauglund, Melissa J; Maheswaran, Samuel K; Tatum, Fred M

    2013-11-01

    A temperature-sensitive shuttle vector, pBB80C, was utilized to generate in-frame deletion mutants of the leukotoxin structural gene (lktA) of Mannheimia haemolytica serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12. Culture supernatants from the mutants contained a truncated protein with an approximate molecular weight of 66 kDa which was reactive to anti-leukotoxin monoclonal antibody. No protein reactive to anti-LktA monoclonal antibody was detected at the molecular weight 100-105 kDa of native LktA. Sheep and goats vaccinated intramuscularly with a mixture of serotypes 5 and 6 mutants were resistant to virulent challenge with a mixture of the wild-type parent strains. These vaccinates responded serologically to both vaccine serotypes and exhibited markedly-reduced lung lesion volume and pulmonary infectious load compared to control animals. Control animals yielded a mixture of serotypes from lung lobes, but the proportion even within an individual animal varied widely from 95% serotype 5-95% serotype 6. Cultures recovered from liver were homogeneous, but two animals yielded serotype 5 and the other two yielded serotype 6 in pure culture. PMID:24021458

  5. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  6. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  7. Assessing the effect of interventions on the risk of cattle and sheep carrying Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the abattoir using a stochastic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, K F; Parsons, D J; Christiansen, K H; Burton, C H

    2007-04-16

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 persists in being a threat to food safety. The mechanisms behind the spread of E. coli O157:H7 on the farm are complex and poorly understood. The objective of this study was to apply a Monte Carlo model, constructed to simulate the propagation of E. coli O157:H7 in cattle and sheep on the farm, to both test the effect of different interventions on the risk of animals carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir and to develop understanding of the underlying processes, including the identification of areas that could benefit from further research. An overview of the model including key assumptions is given. The output statistics from batches of 100 runs of the model were collected. From the model output, a cumulative frequency distribution of the prevalence and specific shedding level for the groups of cattle or sheep being sent to the abattoir were generated. Stochastic dominance was used to compare the results of the model outputs. Using the shorthand that "risk" means the likelihood of carrying E. coli O157:H7 to the abattoir, key conclusions from the study included: mixing sheep and cattle increases the risk in both groups; merging groups of animals of the same species into larger groups increases the risk substantially; increasing stocking density increases the risk independently of group size; decreasing the group size decreases the E. coli O157:H7 prevalence independently of stocking density; a very high level of barn hygiene reduces the risk; a shorter time between spreading farmyard manure and grazing and an increased background level of E. coli O157:H7 in the model increases the risk. The background level could be influenced by the presence of wild animals carrying the organism. The parameters to which the model is most sensitive are those related to transmission from grass and enclosures to animals, pathogen survival on grass, in slurry and in barns and contact between animals.

  8. Insights into Hemoglobin Polymorphism and Related Functional Effects on Hematological Pattern in Mediterranean Cattle, Goat and Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pieragostini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This report is a review of some of the results obtained over the course of 20 years spent investigating hemoglobin phenotypes and the related functional effects on hematological patterns in ruminant breeds. Tests included qualitative and quantitative analyses of hemoglobins and qualitative and quantitative analyses of α and β globins, as well as hemochromocytometric analysis. Understanding the adaptive significance of the hemoglobin variants was the goal of most of these investigations. The advances presented in this review and the previously unpublished findings included here provide evidence that Mediterranean breeds exhibit a fair number of positively charged variants, whose possible adaptive significance is discussed.

  9. Serological Screening Suggests Presence of Schmallenberg Virus in Cattle, Sheep and Goat in the Zambezia Province, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Blomström, A-L; Stenberg, H; Scharin, I; Figueiredo, J; Nhambirre, O; Abilio, A P; Fafetine, J; Berg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel Orthobunyavirus within the family Bunyaviridae belonging to the Simbu serogroup. Schmallenberg virus infects ruminants and has since its discovery in the autumn 2011 been detected/spread to large parts of Europe. Most bunyaviruses are arboviruses, and SBV has been detected in biting midges in different European countries, suggesting that they may play a role in the transmission of the virus. It is not known how SBV was introduced to Europe and if SBV is pr...

  10. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: A common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214

  11. Detection of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR virus antibodies in sheep and goat populations of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP of Pakistan by competitive ELISA (cELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Mehmood

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to carry out a seroprevalence study of PPR antibodies in North West Frontier Province (NWFP including Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA, using competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA kit. A total of 4548 serum samples collected from 26 locations of the NWFP including. Eight hundred twenty eight samples were found positive for PPR antibodies yielding an overallseroprevalence of 18.20 percent in the small ruminant population included in the study. 337 (24.90% serum samples from sheep and 491 (15.36% from goats were found positive in PPR c-ELISA yielding a marginal difference in seroprevalence of PPR.  The current situation of PPR in Pakistan could be regarded as of low magnitude but constant threat. Incidence may increase to the alarming level due to uncontrolled/ free movement within and from across boarders to the stocks of non-immunized susceptible population of sheep and goats in the country but production systems and economic realities constraint the effective animal movement control within and across the boarders. Based on the limited reports of outbreaks and uneven distribution of occurrence over the years of past decade, the best available options are high level of prevention and objective surveillance. Keeping in view the high risk of PPR, control strategy should be adopted and further study needs to be undertaken to ascertain the extent of PPR virus circulating in the population of goats and sheep in the country. Under existing production and marketing system, sanitation and preventive vaccination are two practicable options for control of PPR in Pakistan. Homologous PPR vaccine is now available which is a freeze dried live vaccine derived from tissue culture from attenuated PPR virus. The vaccine is intended for sheep and goats and is required to be injected to all animals above the age of 3 month. The vaccine may be repeated after one year of the primary vaccination in high risk areas. [Vet World 2009

  12. Impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the response to an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole goats and Black Belly sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceï, W; Salah, N; Paut, C; Dumoulin, P-J; Arquet, R; Félicité, Y; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2016-03-15

    In small ruminants, the response against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections is influenced not only by the host genotype and the physiological stage but also by environmental factors, particularly the nutritional status at the time of infection. In this study we evaluated the long-term effect and the interaction between the host species and the nutritional history on the response to GIN infection in two animal models differing in their phenotypic growth and their level of GIN resistance: Black Belly sheep and Creole goats. Lambs and kids were subjected to three distinct nutritional conditions at weaning: low dietary conditions (100% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance, corresponding to 548v. 484KJ/Kg BW(0.75) for lambs and kids respectively and 6% of crude protein, CP), medium dietary conditions (150% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 13% CP) and high dietary conditions (200% of the theoretical energy requirement for maintenance and 20% CP). This 3-months period was followed by a 1-month period on the medium dietary conditions for all the animals before an experimental Haemonchus contortus infection. We monitored the impact of the nutritional history (nutritional condition after weaning), on the intensity of the GIN infection by measuring individual faecal egg counts (FEC), growth rate (ADG), blood eosinophil counts and other pathophysiological parameters. The FEC, growth rate and blood eosinophil counts were significantly affected by the nutritional history in lambs but not in kids. The lowest FEC was found for lambs placed in high dietary conditions, however during the same period body weight loss was observed in this group. In low dietary conditions, kids were more resistant than lambs and the ADG was higher in lambs. However, the anaemia and the level of serum pepsinogen, marker of the abomasal mucosa integrity, were higher in kids. Our data suggest that the impact of the post-weaning nutritional history on the

  13. Whole genome analysis of Vietnamese G2P[4] rotavirus strains possessing the NSP2 gene sharing an ancestral sequence with Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Loan Phuong; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Gauchan, Punita; Kaneko, Miho; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dang, Anh Duc; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Because imminent introduction into Vietnam of a vaccine against Rotavirus A is anticipated, baseline information on the whole genome of representative strains is needed to understand changes in circulating strains that may occur after vaccine introduction. In this study, the whole genomes of two G2P[4] strains detected in Nha Trang, Vietnam in 2008 were sequenced, this being the last period during which virtually no rotavirus vaccine was used in this country. The two strains were found to be >99.9% identical in sequence and had a typical DS-1 like G2-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2 genotype constellation. Analysis of the Vietnamese strains with >184 G2P[4] strains retrieved from GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ DNA databases placed the Vietnamese strains in one of the lineages commonly found among contemporary strains, with the exception of the NSP2 and NSP4 genes. The NSP2 genes were found to belong to a previously undescribed lineage that diverged from Chinese sheep and goat rotavirus strains, including a Chinese rotavirus vaccine strain LLR with 95% nucleotide identity; the time of their most recent common ancestor was 1975. The NSP4 genes were found to belong, together with Thai and USA strains, to an emergent lineage (VIII), adding further diversity to ever diversifying NSP4 lineages. Thus, there is a need to enhance surveillance of locally-circulating strains from both children and animals at the whole genome level to address the effect of rotavirus vaccines on changing strain distribution. PMID:26382233

  14. Survival and infectivity studies of in-vitro cultivated larvae of Haemonchus contortus in Sheep and Goats in Nigeria

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    A O Sonibare

    Full Text Available The survival and infectivity of indigenous isolates of Haemonchus contortus and in vitro cultivated infective larvae (L3 were studied. Active motile gravid females, adult and immature parasites were morphologically and morphometrically characterized and isolated from Haemonchus infected goats. These were subsequently inoculated into the abomasum of parasite free lambs through left sided laparatomy for production of fertile eggs to be used for coproculture. Harvested faeces from these lambs were cultured in a nutritive medium and kept in the incubator at 320C and room temperature 24-280C to obtain in vitro cultivated L of H. contortus. The infectivity and survival of in vitro cultivated L3 stored in refrigerator at 4-80C and under room temperature 24-280C were evaluated. Incubation period of 3 coproculture was observed to be shorter in medium at 320C than under room temperature 24-280C. The storage of in vitro cultivated L under different temperature range showed that the quantity of active larvae in a given volume 3 decreased at p<0.05 from the 5th day under 24-280C while at 4-80C became significantly lower from 20th day. Infectivity of isolate kept at 4-80C was sustained for 18-20 days while at 24-280C it was maintained for 10-12 days. Laboratory invitro cultivated L of H. contortus had limited infectivity and larvae mortality increase with time under different 3 temperatures. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 533-536

  15. Field efficacy of four anthelmintics and confirmation of drug-resistant nematodes by controlled efficacy test and pyrosequencing on a sheep and goat farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Demeler, Janina;

    2014-01-01

    . In October 2011, 40 lambs and 40 kids were selected for a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) with fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM), moxidectin (MOX) and levamisole (LEV). Lambs were treated with the recommended sheep dose of each product while kids received the sheep dose of IVM, 1.5× sheep dose...

  16. PENINGKATAN USAHA TERNAK DOMBA MELALUI DIVERSIFIKASI TANAMAN PANGAN: EKONOMI PENDAPATAN PETANI (IMPROVEMENT OF CATTLE SHEEP THROUGH CROPS DIVERSIFICATION: ECONOMIC INCOME FARMERS

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    S. Rusdiana

    2015-11-01

    , plantations, even land around the forest. Diversification of cattle and crops in Indonesia varied, sheep population in 2013 is about 12.7 million head and cassava production in 2013 about 21 million tons. Considering the role of farmers to economic growth, it is necessary to increase productivity to be more productive and efficient. The purpose of writing was to determine the increase of cattle sheep through crop diversification in the economic analysis of income by business diversification can reduce risk and still provide the potential rate of profit to farmer. Diversification of livestock and tatanam can be concluded that cattle scale of 5 rams can be achieved on the sales value of about 4.17sheeps, and production BEP selling price around Rp.1.043.625/tail, net gain of about Rp.1.121.875/period by value of B/C approximately 1.19, butter and arsin variety of cassava with an area of about 2 hectares has profit of cassava on varieties of butter around Rp.8.414.085/ha/year, profit of cassava varieties on Arsin around Rp.6.921.705/ha/year, the value of B/C ratio was 2.7 and 2.6 are not significantly different from the results obtained by the farmers.Diversification become more important for farmers due to income source as economic trigger at rura. Basec on cost and investment calculation, cattle sheep and cassava as main product is technically feasible, economically and financially was good, means that the business had conducted feasible diversification to be continued.

  17. 国外羊弓形虫感染情况及影响因素研究进展%Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, sheep in foreign country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑斌; 尹志奎; 韩丁丁; 亢彩彩

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii which can infect human and almost all warm-blooded animals.Infection in goats and sheep not only result in significant reproductive and economic losses,but also represent an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk.In the present paper,information on the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats,sheep in foreign country is reviewed.%弓形虫可以感染多种动物和人导致人兽共患弓形虫病.山羊和绵羊感染后不仅影响其发育、繁衍,对畜牧业发展造成一定的经济损失.若以感染动物来源的奶和肉制品为食物,还可能威胁到人类的健康.本文对国外的山羊、绵羊弓形虫感染情况及影响因素的研究进展进行了综述.

  18. ECTOPARASITES IN GOATS AND SHEEPS IN THE TOWN OF MOSSORO, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE ECTOPARASITOS EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS NO MUNICÍPIO DE MOSSORÓ, RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    ana diogenes suassuna bezerra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Goats and sheeps present an ectoparasite diversity that may result in considerable losses in these animals productivity. Fifteen agrarian reform settlements were visited, with the purpose of identifying ectoparasites in goats and sheeps, in which scraping, direct exams, and auricle exsudate collections were carried out. From the 494 examined goats, 89.87% had ectoparasites, as well as 232 sheeps, 76.72%. The arthropods identified in the goats were: Bovicola caprae (80.76%, Rhipicephalus microplus (1.01%, Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae (0.6%, Psoroptes cuniculi (0.4%, and Ctenocephalides felis (3.23%, Amblyomma parvum (1.01% and Linognathus stenopsis (0.2% which were described for the first time in Brazilian northeast. Mixed parasitism of B. caprae with R. microplus (0.46% and P. cuniculi with B. caprae (0.23% was also identified. In sheeps, B. ovis (74.5%, R. microplus (0.86%, C. hominivorax larvae (0.43% and A. parvum (0.43% were the ones registered for the first time, in this species, in Brazilian northeast, besides the association of B. ovis with R. microplus (0.56%. There was no association between gender and age (P>0.05. The development of studies to evaluate the ectoparasite importance as a limiting factor to animal production becomes important. 

    KEY WORDS: Goats, ectoparasite, sheeps.

    Caprinos e ovinos apresentam uma diversidade de ectoparasitos que podem resultar perdas consideráveis na produtividade desses animais. Visitaram-se quinze assentamentos de reforma agrária, com o objetivo de identificar ectoparasitos de caprinos e ovinos, procedendo-se à realização de raspados, exames diretos e coletas de exsudato do pavilhão auricular. Dos 494 caprinos examinados, 89,87% apresentaram ectoparasitos, e dos 232 ovinos, 76,72%. Os artrópodes identificados em caprinos foram: Bovicola caprae (80,76%, Rhipicephalus microplus (1,01%, larvas de Cochliomyia hominivorax (0,6%, Psoroptes cuniculi (0,4%, além de

  19. Sheep-related Culture of Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuZhengguang

    2003-01-01

    Sheep and goats, major livestock in Guizhou Steppe of southwest China, are of both practical and social value for local dwellers. As sheep is pronounced similar as "auspicious" in Chinese, its image is widely applied to every aspect of local society, including religious rites, calendar calculation, arts creation and architecture. Thus a sheep-related culture has been developed and prospered.

  20. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  1. Study on Expelling Pattern of Plateau Cattle and Sheep Gastrointestinal Nema%高原牛羊胃肠道线虫驱治模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文艺

    2011-01-01

    According to the urgent conditions of serious death of cattle and sheep caused by gastrointestinal nema in spring lack period on plateau areas,a self-study project was conducted.Three large areas were separated in Gannan,the project was as center,several points were set in the counties and villages where cattle and sheep were sick and dead highly.93330 cattle and sheep were divided into 3 groups which were as technical module of prevention and control.The results indicated that for 3 groups infecting rates of different parasites were 100% before drugs using.Drugs Saiaijixiajie,Kechongte,Albendazole were fed before grazing in the morning,feces examination of EPG after 7 days,negative rate and decreasing amount of worm eggs were 100%.Expelling worms was conducted with 7 days interval,the effect of prevention and control was evidence.Drugs Albendazole,Kechongte and Ivermectin were used in planned way.Two times of expelling worms can improve organism immunity of cattle and sheep,and decline diseases and mortality infected with gastrointestinal nema in Spring(February and March) and in Autumn(August and September),as well as decrease harm to livestock breeding.%根据高原地区"春乏"期间,牛、羊因胃肠道线虫病引起死亡严重的突出情况,自列项目,在全州范围划为三大区域,以项目区为中心,在牛、羊发病率和死亡率相对高的乡(镇)、村设点,将93330头(只)牛、羊分为三个组,作为高原地区牛、羊胃肠道线虫病防治技术模块,结果3个试验组用药前胃肠道寄生虫感染率均为100%,早晨在放牧前投喂赛爱吉夏结、克虫特和丙硫苯咪唑等药物后,7 d粪检EPG,虫卵转阴率和虫卵减少数均为100%。间隔7 d重复驱虫1次,防治效果显著。有计划的用驱虫药丙硫咪唑,克虫特、伊维菌素。在每年春季2~3月,秋季8~9月份进行两次驱虫。可提高牛、羊有机体的免疫力,降低牛、羊胃肠道

  2. Serological survey of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in goatssheep and cattle in slaughter houses ofMazandaran province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Daryani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In addition to economic losses, this disease is transfer able to human and regarding the special ecological conditions of this parasite in nature of Mazandaran province, it is necessary to determine the situation of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of antibodies against T. gondii in cattle, sheep and goats slaughtered in official slaughterhouses in Mazandaran province, in 2004.Materials and Methods: To determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in slaughtered animals, in a descriptive cross-sectional study, 639 blood samples were obtained from cattle, sheep and goats between December 2004 and April 2005, from the three main geographical zones of Mazandaran province, Iran. Nine slaughterhouses were randomly selected in Western, Central and Eastern regions. Sera were extracted from 5mL venous blood samples, by centrifugation at 2000xg for 10 min, and were stored at –20º C prior to testing. Sera were screened for T. gondii antibodies by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT and serum samples showing a titre of 1:16 were further diluted to determine the end point. Data were analyzed using Chi-square (X2 test.Results: Of the 639 serum samples examined, 27.5% (176/639 showed positive titers equal or higher than 1:16 by IFAT. The highest frequency of antibody titres (1:16 titre were found in sheep and the least in cattle (9%. The highest infection rates in cattle were seen in western region with 5.5 % antibody titres of 1:16. In three regions, 35% of sheep sera showed positive titers with high frequency of 1:16 antibody titre (17.3% in Western region. Thirty percent of goat sera in 3 regions were seropositive and the highest infection rate was seen in 1:16 titre (18.5% in Western region.Conclusion: The results of this study show that the presence of T. gondii specific antibodies for sheep and goats in Northern Iran is high

  3. Mixed Species Grazing of Cattle and Goats on Gastrointestinal Infections of Haemonchus Contortus

    OpenAIRE

    Renita Marshall; Sebhatu Gebrelul; Lisa Gray; Yemane Ghebreiyessus

    2012-01-01

    At the present time, the meat of goat is the fastest growing class of livestock in the U.S.A. Due to the sub-tropical climate in the South Eastern region of the US, internal parasites pose a major constraint to the industry. The blood-feeding nematode, Haemonchus contortus results in production losses and even death in untreated animals. The control of H. contortus calls for the use of a combination of different control methods/strategies. An experiment was conducted over three successive yea...

  4. Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia

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    Tschopp Rea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN human patients. Methods The comparative intradermal test (CIDT was carried out for all animals involved in the cross-sectional study and results interpreted using a > 4 mm and a > 2 mm cut-off. One PPD positive goat was slaughtered and lymph nodes subjected to culture and molecular typing. In the same villages, people with lymphadenitis were subjected to clinical examination. Fine needle aspirates (FNA were taken from suspected TBLN and analyzed by smear microscopy and molecular typing. Results A total of 1214 cattle and 406 small ruminants were tested for BTB. In cattle, overall individual prevalence (> 2 mm cut-off was 6.8% (CI: 5.4-8.5% with 100% herd prevalence. Only three small ruminants (2 sheep and 1 goat were reactors. The overall individual prevalence in small ruminants (> 2 mm cut-off was 0.4% (CI: 0.03-5.1% with 25% herd prevalence. Cattle from owners with PPD positive small ruminants were all PPD negative. 83% of the owners kept their sheep and goats inside their house at night and 5% drank regularly goat milk. FNAs were taken from 33 TBLN suspected cases out of a total of 127 screened individuals with lymph node swellings. Based on cytology results, 12 were confirmed TBLN cases. Nine out of 33 cultures were AFB positive. Culture positive samples were subjected to molecular typing and they all yielded M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis was also isolated from the goat that was slaughtered. Conclusions This study highlighted a low BTB prevalence in sheep and goats despite intensive contact with cattle reactors. TBLN in humans was caused entirely by M. tuberculosis, the human pathogen. M. tuberculosis seems to circulate also in livestock but their role at the interface is unknown.

  5. Design and characterization of a 52K SNP chip for goats.

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    Gwenola Tosser-Klopp

    Full Text Available The success of Genome Wide Association Studies in the discovery of sequence variation linked to complex traits in humans has increased interest in high throughput SNP genotyping assays in livestock species. Primary goals are QTL detection and genomic selection. The purpose here was design of a 50-60,000 SNP chip for goats. The success of a moderate density SNP assay depends on reliable bioinformatic SNP detection procedures, the technological success rate of the SNP design, even spacing of SNPs on the genome and selection of Minor Allele Frequencies (MAF suitable to use in diverse breeds. Through the federation of three SNP discovery projects consolidated as the International Goat Genome Consortium, we have identified approximately twelve million high quality SNP variants in the goat genome stored in a database together with their biological and technical characteristics. These SNPs were identified within and between six breeds (meat, milk and mixed: Alpine, Boer, Creole, Katjang, Saanen and Savanna, comprising a total of 97 animals. Whole genome and Reduced Representation Library sequences were aligned on >10 kb scaffolds of the de novo goat genome assembly. The 60,000 selected SNPs, evenly spaced on the goat genome, were submitted for oligo manufacturing (Illumina, Inc and published in dbSNP along with flanking sequences and map position on goat assemblies (i.e. scaffolds and pseudo-chromosomes, sheep genome V2 and cattle UMD3.1 assembly. Ten breeds were then used to validate the SNP content and 52,295 loci could be successfully genotyped and used to generate a final cluster file. The combined strategy of using mainly whole genome Next Generation Sequencing and mapping on a contig genome assembly, complemented with Illumina design tools proved to be efficient in producing this GoatSNP50 chip. Advances in use of molecular markers are expected to accelerate goat genomic studies in coming years.

  6. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

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    Saw Bawm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162 of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4% samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06, farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94, and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83. This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country.

  7. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03-21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57-11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06-0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  8. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai PRALOMKARN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been focused on breeding and genetic improvement, feed and feeding, management, health, diseases and socio-economics. This paper presents background and facilities on goat research in Thailand such as knowledge in terms of breeds and genetic improvement (genetic resources, breed evaluation and breeding and molecular genetics, nutrition, management, diseases and parasites, goat’s milk and meat processing. Conclusions and recommendations are also provided.

  9. Características físico-mecânicas de couros caprinos e ovinos no Cariri Paraibano Goat and sheep leather physical-mechanical characteristics in the Cariri Paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson José Freitas Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar as características físico-mecânicas de couros de um genótipo ovino e de três genótipos caprinos. Utilizaram-se 43 peles curtidas ao cromo, provenientes de 9 ovinos Santa Inês, 12 caprinos ½ Anglo Nubiano, 16 ½ Boer, todos mestiços com animais Sem Raça Definida (SRD, e 6 caprinos nativos denominados SRD. No período pré-experimental, todos os animais foram desmamados aos 90 dias de idade aproximadamente e criados em sistema de produção semi-intensivo utilizando pastagem cultivada. O período experimental iniciou quando os caprinos (5 meses de idade e os ovinos (4 meses de idade, alcançaram o peso médio de 18,3 kg. Os animais foram abatidos com peso médio de 30 kg e idades de 180 e 270 dias, para ovinos e caprinos, respectivamente. O genótipo e a direção amostrada influenciaram o resultado do teste de resistência ao rasgamento progressivo, apesar de todos os valores terem sido inferiores aos valores de referência recomendados para um couro de boa qualidade. Nas determinações da medida de distensão e resistência da flor, não foram detectadas diferenças entre os genótipos, no entanto, no teste de resistência à tração e ao alongamento, observaram-se diferenças entre os genótipos ou a direção da amostra. Todos os resultados foram superiores aos recomendados para um produto de qualidade industrial.This work had as objective to evaluate the physical-mechanic characteristics of the leather from one genotype of sheep and three genotypes of goat. Forty three tanned chrome skins were used: 9 Santa Inês sheep, 12 ½ Anglo Nubiano, 16 ½ Boer, all crossbed with animals of non-defined breeds (NDB and six NBD native goats. In the pre-experimental period, all animals were weaned at 90 days of age approximately and raised under semi-intensive production systems using cultivate pasture. The experimental phase began when the goat (5 moths of age and sheep (4 moths of age reached 18.3 kg

  10. POLYMORPHISM IN THE CODING REGION SEQUENCE OF GDF8 GENE IN INDIAN SHEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, M; Mishra, S K; Kumar, S N; Mohamed, N F; Kataria, R S; Yadav, D K; Arora, R

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify polymorphism in the coding sequence of GDF8gene across indigenous meat type sheep breeds. A 1647 bp sequence was generated, encompassing 208 bp of the 5'UTR, 1128 bp of coding region (exon1, 2 and 3) as well as 311 bp of 3'UTR. The sheep and goat GDF8 gene sequences were observed to be highly conserved as compared to cattle, buffalo, horse and pig. Several nucleotide variations were observed across coding sequence of GDF8 gene in Indian sheep. Three polymorphic sites were identified in the 5'UTR, one in exon 1 and one in the exon 2 regions. Both SNPs in the exonic region were found to be non-synonymous. The mutations c.539T > G and c.821T > A discovered in this study in the exon 1 and exon 2, respectively, have not been previously reported. The information generated provides preliminary indication of the functional diversity present in Indian sheep at the coding region of GDF8gene. The novel as well as the previously reported SNPs discovered in the Indian sheep warrant further analysis to see whether they affect the phenotype. Future studies will need to establish the affect of reported SNPs in the expression of the GDF8 gene in Indian sheep population. PMID:26845859

  11. 云南宾川地区牛羊片形吸虫感染调查及分子鉴定%Surveillance and molecular identification of Fasciola spp.from cattle and goats at Binchuan, Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾琳; 陈木新; 吕山; 臧伟; 诸廷俊; 许学年; 蔡玉春; 陈韶红; 罗家军

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate and evaluate the situation of infection of cattle and goats with Fasciola spp.in the villages at Binchuan.Methods Parasite eggs from cattle and goats were collected by nylon pocket egg concentration method.The eggs were examined using microscopic examination method.Sequencing and PCR method were used for the amplification of pcox1 gene and species identification.Phylogenetics analysis was performed using MP,NJ,and ML methods.Results 134 (28.63%) cattle and 27 (25.23%) goats were found to have infection.After blast comporation and phylogenetics analysis,it was found that the samples belong to the species of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica.Conclusion Fasciola spp.infection of cattle and goats is serious at Binchuan.The infection was mainly F.hepatica and F.gigantica.The local government should pay more attention to the prevention and treatment of fascioliasis.%目的 对云南宾川地区爆发人体片形吸虫病的村落进行牛羊的片形吸虫感染调查和检测,为当地片形吸虫病的研究提供数据.方法 采用尼龙袋集卵法收集牛羊粪便中的虫卵,进行镜检.对检出的样本进行PCR扩增和测序;用MP法、NJ法及ML法进行种系发育分析.结果 从134 (28.63%)头牛和27(25.23%)头羊中查到了片形吸虫的虫卵,对所检到的虫卵进行线粒体pcox1基因的扩增和测序,比对后发现所检样本主要为肝片吸虫和大片吸虫两个种.采用MP法、NJ法及ML法进行种系发育分析表明,宾川地区牛羊感染的片形吸虫虫种主要为肝片吸虫和大片吸虫两种.结论 宾川地区牛羊片形吸虫感染严重,云南宾川为肝片形吸虫及大片形吸虫混合感染地区,当地政府应重视该病的防治.

  12. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  13. Kid Goats are More Sensitive to Penicillin Overdose

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    A.A. Nikvand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hipracilina suspension contains benzyl penicillin (200000I U, dihydrostreptomycin sulfate (250 mg, chlorpheniramine maleate (15 mg and dexamethasone sodium phosphate (0.6 mg. This drug is used for treatment infection in respiratory, urinary, reproductive, forelimb and hind limb systems in cattle, goats, sheep and rabbits. Hipracilina is intramuscularly injected at dose 1 mL/10 kg body weight once or twice in day for 3 days. Hipracilina was clinically used at dose 1.5 mL/B.W in kid goats. The kids had 6 days age and 3kg weight. These animals had diarrhea after high milk eating. One kids died after 15 min. Fourteen kids had signs such as ataxia, depression, hind limb paralysis, hyperesthesia, mydriasis, decreasing of respiratory rate, tachycardia and falling. Two kids died after 4 h. Supportive treatment was carried by ORS powder and furosemide administration. The kids returned to normal state after 24 h. In another experimental study we divided kids 3 groups which received A: benzyl penicillin, B: benzyl penicillin+dihydrostreptomycin, and C: chlorpheniramine. Group A and B showed depression. Thus, Hipracilina can be toxic in kid goats at nearly 4-5 folds dose. It seems that this toxicity is related to penicillin compound.

  14. Studies on Using Cattle and Sheep Hydatid Cyst Fluid Instead of the Fetal Calf Serum in Leishmania Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Rezvan; Amin Afsahi; Zahra Aeini; Sakineh Aazami

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leishmania is a single cell parasite causing leishmaniasis, which is a common disease between humans and animals. Due to the importance of in-vitro culture of the parasite in leishmania research, developing new methods for in-vitro cultivation of the parasite has always been a goal for leishmania researchers. The main objective of7T 5T7Tthis study was to use sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluids as alternatives for fetal calf serum (FCS) in leishmania in-vitro5T culture5T. Mater...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    Stormoen Marit; Tharaldsen Jorun; Hopp Petter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2...

  16. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26920319

  17. Production of bioactive peptide hydrolysates from deer, sheep, pig and cattle red blood cell fractions using plant and fungal protease preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Clara S F; Carne, Alan; McConnell, Michelle A; Mros, Sonya; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A

    2016-07-01

    Protease preparations from plant (papain and bromelain) and fungal (FP400 and FPII) sources were used to hydrolyze the red blood cell fractions (RBCFs) separated from deer, sheep, pig, and cattle abattoir-sourced blood. After 1, 2, 4 and 24h of hydrolysis, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the peptide hydrolysates obtained were investigated. The increase in trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides over the hydrolysis period was examined using the o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) assay and the hydrolysis profiles were illustrated using SDS-PAGE. Papain generated RBCF hydrolysates exhibited higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) compared to those generated with bromelain, FP400 and FPII. At certain concentrations, 24h hydrolysates of RBCF using FP400 and FPII were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicated that the use of proteases from plant or fungal sources can produce animal blood hydrolysates with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

  18. Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachinandan De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the diversity of MHC-DRB3 alleles in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. Previously reported BoLA-DRB exon 2 alleles of Indian Zebu cattle, Bos taurus cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats were analyzed for the identities and divergence among various allele sequences. Comparison of predicted amino acid residues of DRB3 exon 2 alleles with similar alleles from other ruminants revealed considerable congruence in amino acid substitution pattern. These alleles showed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism at positions forming peptide-binding regions. A higher rate of nonsynonymous substitution was detected at the peptide-binding regions, indicating that BoLA-DRB3 allelic sequence evolution was driven by positive selection.

  19. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

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    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  20. Forage supply in thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. grazed by goats and sheep=Oferta de forragem em Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L. pastejada por ovinos e caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo da Costa Soares

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forage supply from herbs was assessed in a thinned Caatinga enriched with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. exposed to goat and sheep grazing. The 2.4 ha experimental area, located at the Experimental Station of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Santa Terezinha, Paraíba State, Brazil, was divided into four 0.6 ha paddocks, which were further subdivided into two 0.3 ha experimental plots. Twelve F1 (Boer x SRD goats and 12 Santa Inês sheep were divided in four groups of six animals of the same species. The herbaceous vegetation was separated into buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotyledons and other grass species. Treatments were randomized to plots according to a completely random design with two treatments, four replications, with measures repeated in time (July/1, Aug/1, Sept/1 and Oct/1. Buffel grass dry mater (DM availability was higher in the sheep grazed than in the goat-grazed area. Buffel grass DM supply did not change from July to September, while dicotyledons DM supply decreased. Grazing affected availability, accumulation rate and supply of the forage produced (DM basis by dicotyledonous herbs. Buffel grass forage availability was not affected during the experimental period.Objetivou-se avaliar a oferta de forragem do estrato herbáceo de uma Caatinga raleada e enriquecida com capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., submetida ao pastejo de caprinos e ovinos. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba. A área experimental foi de 2,4 ha, dividida em quatro piquetes de 0,6 ha, nos quais foram alocadas parcelas experimentais de 0,3 ha. Utilizaram-se 12 caprinos F1 (Bôer x SRD e 12 ovinos Santa Inês, que foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de seis animais. A vegetação herbácea foi separada em capim buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris L., dicotiledôneas e outras gramínea. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com observações repetidas no tempo (1/jul., 1/ago., 1

  1. The Application of Genomic Technologies to Investigate the Inheritance of Economically Important Traits in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Amills

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat genomics has evolved at a low pace because of a lack of molecular tools and sufficient investment. Whilst thousands and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified in cattle and sheep, respectively, about nine genome scans have been performed in goats dealing with traits as conformation, growth, fiber quality, resistance to nematodes, and milk yield and composition. In contrast, a great effort has been devoted to the characterization of candidate genes and their association with milk, meat, and reproduction phenotypes. In this regard, causal mutations have been identified in the αS1-casein gene that has a strong effect on milk composition and the PIS locus that is linked to intersexuality and polledness. In recent times, the development of massive parallel sequencing technologies has allowed to build a reference genome for goats as well as to monitor the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs in a broad array of tissues and experimental conditions. Besides, the recent design of a 52K SNP chip is expected to have a broad impact in the analysis of the genetic architecture of traits of economic interest as well as in the study of the population structure of goats at a worldwide scale.

  2. 从羊瘙痒症到疯牛病——朊病毒发现史%From the Scrapie Syndrome of sheep and goats to the mad cow disease-the history of the discovery of prion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锐; 翁屹

    2009-01-01

    从1730年人们发现羊瘙痒症开始,克-雅氏症、库鲁病、疯牛病等一系列疾病随之出现.在库鲁病的研究中,美国科学家盖达塞克发现其病原体不具有DNA或RNA特性,并因此获得了1976年的诺贝尔生理学医学奖.其后,另一位美国科学家普鲁塞纳在进一步研究中,发现了以蛋白质为遗传媒介的新型病毒--朊病毒,并因此获得了1997年诺贝尔生理学医学奖.朊病毒的发现是生命科学研究中的重大事件,为人类战胜羊瘙痒症、克-雅氏症、库鲁病和疯牛病等一系列疾病奠定了理论基础.%Since the discovery of Scrapie Syndrome in sheep and goats in 1730, there emerged a series of diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. In the research of kuru disease, the American scientist D. Carlteton Gajdusek found a new virus without the characteristic of DNA and RNA, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1976. Since then another American sci-entist, Stanley B. Prusiner, found a new virus-prion, taking protein as the genetic medium, which was awar-ded the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 1997. The discovery of prion is a great landmark in the re-search of life science, which laid a theoretical foundation for people to conquer n series of diseases such as Scrapie syndrome in sheep and goats, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc.

  3. Esofagitis eosinofílica por sensibilización a proteínas de leche de cabra y oveja Eosinophilic esophagitis due to allergy to sheep and goat milk proteins

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    M. Armisén

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La esofagitis eosinofílica, entidad caracterizada por la infiltración de la mucosa esofágica por más de 20 eosinófilos por campo de gran aumento, se suele presentar en forma de disfagia intermitente de larga evolución, pudiendo estar asociada a sensibilización alérgica a aeroalérgenos y/o alimentos. Presentamos el caso de un varón con clínica de disfagia intermitente coincidiendo con la toma de quesos curados de oveja y cabra que precisó asistencia urgente tras la impactación de un comprimido de ibuprofeno a 30 cm de la arcada dentaria. El estudio practicado demostró la existencia de estenosis en el esófago a ese nivel con infiltración eosinofílica difusa y sensibilización a proteínas de la leche de cabra, oveja y vaca, con especial relevancia para la IgG bovina, lactoferrina y albúmina sérica. Tras tratamiento con fluticasona deglutida y medidas de evitación se consiguió la resolución del cuadro clínico y la desaparición de los eosinófilos en la mucosa.Eosinophilic esophagitis is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus characterized by the presence of high numbers of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosal layer (> 20 high-power field. It is uncommon in adults but in such cases intermittent dysphagia and food impaction are the most common presenting symptoms. We report the case of a male with long-standing intermittent dysphagia after eating selected goat and sheep cheese types, who required medical help following the impaction of an ibuprofen pill in the esophagus. A biopsy demonstrated the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, and allergy testing showed specific IgE against proteins in the milk of goats and sheep. Topical steroid therapy with oral fluticasone, and the elimination of these dairy products from the diet induced complete symptom resolution, and biopsy specimens taken 4 months later showed no eosinophils.

  4. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

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    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  5. Study on genetic variability at αS1 and αS2 casein loci in autochthonous goat populations of the Lombardy Alps

    OpenAIRE

    P. Crepaldi; D. Milani; P. Ramelli; M. Marilli; D. Meggiolaro

    2011-01-01

    In cattle, sheep and goats (Hayes et al., 1993) the casein genes form a cluster, on the chromosome 6, of four tightly linked genes, whose sequence is: αS1-β-αS2-k (Threadgill and Womack, 1990; Ferretti et al., 1990; Gallagher et al., 1994; Rijnkles et al., 1997). For this reason the alleles at these loci are generally inherited all together (Di Stasio and Mariani, 2000), with low recombination frequency. Thus it is worth noting the importance of describing the casein haplotyp...

  6. Investigations on the effects of Ca-soap of linseed oil on rumen fermentation in sheep and on milk composition of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkvári, E; Fekete, S; Fébel, H; Veresegyházi, T; Andrásofszky, E

    2005-01-01

    Six rumen-cannulated wethers were fed by a diet composed of alfalfa hay and concentrate and supplemented by 75 g Ca-soap of linseed oil (5.4% in dry matter, DM) daily. A model trial was performed to detect the effects of the Ca-soap on rumen fermentation parameters and on fibre digestion. Approximately 3 h after feeding Ca-soap, ratio of C2:C3 decreased (from 4.33 to 4.02) and the production of i- and n-butyrate and i- and n-valeriate increased by 28, 5.3, 11.76% and 6.80% respectively. Total volatile fatty acid concentration in rumen fluid did not change (126.1 vs. 126.4 mm) as a result of Ca-soap supplementation. The in vitro trial showed no detrimental influence of Ca-soap on the acid detergent fibre (ADF) degradation. Using feed samples containing Ca-soap to be incubated in tubes, ADF digestion proved to be significantly higher (p soap on milk composition. Their ration contained alfalfa hay, millet straw and a concentrate. In the experimental group (seven goats) the diet was supplemented with Ca-soap of linseed oil (75 g/animal/day). The milk composition was changed (slightly reduced solid content, sometimes significantly reduced milk fat contents), when Ca-soap was included in the diet of lactating goats.

  7. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

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    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  8. Analysis of Volatile Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissue from Sheep,Cattle and Pig%绵羊、牛和猪脂肪组织中挥发性脂肪酸的组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩卫杰; 宦霞娟; 陈玉林

    2009-01-01

    为了研究不同畜种之间脂肪组织中挥发性脂肪酸的组成成分,利用同时蒸馏萃取技术和气相色谱技术对猪、牛和羊脂肪组织中的挥发性脂肪酸进行了测定.结果表明,绵羊、牛和猪脂肪组织中总挥发性脂肪酸分别为600.512、456.029、202.371 mg/kg.在猪脂肪组织中没有检测到支链脂肪酸;在牛脂肪组织中检测到了4-甲基辛酸,质量比为7.508 mg/kg,远小于羊脂肪组织中4-甲基辛酸的含量,其质量比为28.119 mg/kg;在羊脂肪组织中,检测到种类较为丰富的挥发性脂肪酸,其中对羊肉膻味起主要作用的4-甲基辛酸,在羊脂肪组织中有较高的含量,这一特征与猪和牛的挥发性脂肪酸形成显著的区别.%To study the volatile fatty acid composition of different livestock,the simultaneous distillation/extraction technology and gas chromatogram (GC) were used to determine the volatile fatty acids in adipose tissue of pig,cattie and sheep.Results: The total volatile fatty acids of pig,cattle and sheep is 600.512 mg/kg,456.029 mg/kg and 202.371 mg/kg,respectively.In the adipose tissue of pig,branched chain fatty acids and odd fatty acids are not found; in the adipose tissue of cattle,the concentration of 4-methyloctanoic acid is 7.508 mg/kg,less than the 28.119mg/kg in sheep adipose tissue.In the adipose tissue of sheep ,many volatile fatty acids are found,among them,the concentration of 4 -methyloctanoic acid which has important role for mutton odor is high,obviously different with the adipose tissue of pig or cattle.

  9. Study on genetic variability at αS1 and αS2 casein loci in autochthonous goat populations of the Lombardy Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Crepaldi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, sheep and goats (Hayes et al., 1993 the casein genes form a cluster, on the chromosome 6, of four tightly linked genes, whose sequence is: αS1-β-αS2-k (Threadgill and Womack, 1990; Ferretti et al., 1990; Gallagher et al., 1994; Rijnkles et al., 1997. For this reason the alleles at these loci are generally inherited all together (Di Stasio and Mariani, 2000, with low recombination frequency. Thus it is worth noting the importance of describing the casein haplotypes namely the inherited combination of closely linked alleles (King and Stansfield, 1985; Meuwissen and Goddard, 2001. The knowledge of the casein allele associations could be important for the selection. In goat milk the casein alleles are related to important differences in the level of synthesis of the respective gene products and in milk chemical-physical properties........

  10. Establishment of multiplex fluorescent PCR assay for the detection of bovine,goat and sheep- derived materials in animal products and feeding stuffs%动物产品及饲料中牛源和羊源性成分三重荧光PCR检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冉; 蔡振鸿; 陈永锋

    2012-01-01

    为鉴定和区分饲料及动物产品中牛、山羊、绵羊源性成分,根据线粒体DNA(mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)种间保守序列,设计合成了3对特异性引物与TaqMan探针,通过对荧光PCR反应体系和反应条件的优化筛选,建立了三重荧光PCR方法,在同一个荧光PCR反应中完成3种动物源性成分的检测.用该方法对16种不同源性的动物DNA进行检测,结果表明能特异地鉴别检测出牛、山羊和绵羊源性成分,且敏感性比现行国标PCR法高100倍.该方法适用于饲料、肉制品、奶制品等动物源性产品的检测.%In this study, a multiplex fluorescent PCR assay capable of detecting and differentiating bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials was developed using specific primers and TaqMan probes designed according to mitochondrial DNA gene sequences. The multiplex fluorescent PCR reaction system was optimized. The developed method could successfully detect bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials of 16 animals. The result showed that the real-time PCR can work accurately and efficiently, and can be 100 times as sensitive as conventional PCR of GB/T 20190-2006. Therefore, this method has the potential application for detection of bovine, goat and sheep-derived materials in feed, meat products, milk products, etc.

  11. Dairy goat demography and Q fever infection dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogerwerf, Lenny; Courcoul, Aurélie; Klinkenberg, Don; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta; Nielen, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms had been observed since 2005. Since one putative cause of these abortion storms is the intensive husbandry systems in which the goats are kept, the objective of this study was to assess whether these could be explained by herd size, reproductive pattern and other demographic aspects of Dutch dairy goat herds alone. We adapted an existing, fully parameterized simulation model for Q fever transmission in French dairy cattle herds to represent the demographics typical for Dutch dairy goat herds. The original model represents the infection dynamics in a herd of 50 dairy cows after introduction of a single infected animal; the adapted model has 770 dairy goats. For a full comparison, herds of 770 cows and 50 goats were also modeled. The effects of herd size and goat versus cattle demographics on the probability of and time to extinction of the infection, environmental bacterial load and abortion rate were studied by simulation. The abortion storms could not be fully explained by demographics alone. Adequate data were lacking at the moment to attribute the difference to characteristics of the pathogen, host, within-herd environment, or a combination thereof. The probability of extinction was higher in goat herds than in cattle herds of the same size. The environmental contamination was highest within cattle herds, which may be taken into account when enlarging cattle farming systems. PMID:23621908

  12. Effects of Tannin and Polyetylene Glycol on Ruminal Microorganism Quantity and Nutrient Apparent Digestibility of Sheep and Goats%单宁和聚乙二醇对绵羊和山羊瘤胃微生物数量和营养物质表观消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大彪; 于永强; 王卫云; 张梅梅; 李红磊; 邢媛媛

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of different dietary tannin levels and high tannin diet supplemented with polyetylene glycol ( PEG) on ruminal microorganism quantity and nutrient apparent di-gestibility of sheep and goats. Four Mongolia sheep and four cashmere goats aged 1.5 to 2.0 years, weighted 45 kg, fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were selected as experimental animals. A self-control design was applied, and the study comprised four periods. Animals at stage 1 were fed a basal diet ( group Ⅰ, control group) , and those at stages 2, 3 and 4 were fed the basal diet additionally supplemented with 2% tannin ( group Ⅱ) , 6% tannin ( groupⅢ) and 6% tannin+12% PEG ( groupⅣ) of feed intake, respectively. Each stage lasted for 30 days with 12 days of pre-test period and 18 days of test period. The results showed as fol-lows:1) for goats, the apparent digestibility of organic matter ( OM) , crude protein ( CP) and acid detergent fiber ( ADF) in group Ⅲ, dry matter ( DM) , OM and CP in group Ⅳ were significantly lower than those in control group ( P0.05). 2) Ruminal protozoa number of sheep in groups Ⅲ and Ⅳ before morning feeding ( 0 h) , and that of sheep and goats in groupⅣ were significantly lower than that in control group( P0.05)。2)晨饲前(0 h)山羊Ⅲ、Ⅳ组,6 h绵羊和山羊Ⅳ组瘤胃原虫数量均显著低于对照组(P>0.05)。3)0 h绵羊和山羊试验组瘤胃总细菌数量显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。6 hⅡ、Ⅲ组山羊瘤胃总厌氧真菌的数量显著低于对照组( P<0.05)。结果提示,在饲粮中添加单宁会降低瘤胃总细菌和总厌氧真菌数量以及营养物质表观消化率,PEG可削弱单宁对瘤胃总细菌生长的影响;山羊的瘤胃微生物区系受单宁的影响程度比绵羊更大。

  13. Ectima contagioso em ovinos e caprinos no semi-árido da Paraíba Contagious echtyma in sheep and goats in the semiarid of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Jandui E. Nóbrega Jr

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se dez surtos de ectima contagioso em caprinos e dois em ovinos no semi-árido da Paraíba. Os animais jovens foram os mais afetados, mas em oito surtos animais adultos também foram afetados, principalmente cabras lactantes que apresentavam lesões no úbere. Em nenhum dos rebanhos afetados havia antecedentes de vacinação contra ectima contagioso. Histologicamente a epiderme apresentava acantose com hiperplasia pseudoepiteliomatosa e com múltiplos focos de degeneração hidrópica formando vesículas ou pústulas. Inclusões intracitoplasmáticas eosinofílicas foram observadas em queratinócitos. Havia restos celulares necróticos formando crostas, hiperqueratose e microabscessos intracorneais ou extensas áreas ulceradas. Na derme observou-se infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear difuso. Também foi registrado um caso humano em um pesquisador que tinha administrado planta por via oral a um caprino que, posteriormente, apresentou lesões de ectima contagioso. Neste caso, também foram observadas lesões características em uma biopsia e o vírus foi identificado por microscopia eletrônica. Conclui-se que a doença é endêmica no semi-árido e que é necessária a vacinação sistemática dos rebanhos para diminuir os prejuízos econômicos causados pela mesma. A utilização de luvas para o manuseio de animais afetados é necessária para evitar casos humanos da enfermidade.Ten outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in goats and two in sheep in the semiarid of Paraíba State are reported. Young animals were more frequently affected, but in 8 outbreaks adult animals were also affected, mainly lactating goats which developed udder lesions. None of the affected flocks had been vaccinated. Upon histologic examination the epidermis showed acanthosis with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and multifocal ballooning degeneration forming vesicles or pustules. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were observed in keratinocytes. Crust of necrotic cells

  14. Beta-globin gene evolution in the ruminants: evidence for an ancient origin of sheep haplotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Wang, X; Kijas, J W; Dalrymple, B P

    2015-10-01

    Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) can be divided into two groups with significantly different responses to hypoxic environments, determined by two allelic beta-globin haplotypes. Haplotype A is very similar to the goat beta-globin locus, whereas haplotype B has a deletion spanning four globin genes, including beta-C globin, which encodes a globin with high oxygen affinity. We surveyed the beta-globin locus using resequencing data from 70 domestic sheep from 42 worldwide breeds and three Ovis canadensis and two Ovis dalli individuals. Haplotype B has an allele frequency of 71.4% in O. aries and was homozygous (BB) in all five wild sheep. This shared ancestry indicates haplotype B is at least 2-3 million years old. Approximately 40 kb of the sequence flanking the ~37-kb haplotype B deletion had unexpectedly low identity between haplotypes A and B. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the divergent region of sheep haplotype B is remarkably distinct from the beta-globin loci in goat and cattle but still groups with the Ruminantia. We hypothesize that this divergent ~40-kb region in haplotype B may be from an unknown ancestral ruminant and was maintained in the lineage to O. aries, but not other Bovidae, evolving independently of haplotype A. Alternatively, the ~40-kb sequence in haplotype B was more recently acquired by an ancestor of sheep from an unknown non-Bovidae ruminant, replacing part of haplotype A. Haplotype B has a lower nucleotide diversity than does haplotype A, suggesting a recent bottleneck, whereas the higher frequency of haplotype B suggests a subsequent spread through the global population of O. aries. PMID:26096044

  15. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, Behave Differently in Water Buffaloes than in Cattle or in Their Respective Reservoir Species

    OpenAIRE

    Stahel, Anina B J; Rhea Baggenstos; Monika Engels; Martina Friess; Mathias Ackermann

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine her...

  16. Palatability of Forage Chicory Cultivars for Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) may have anthelmintic activity against gastrointestinal parasites in sheep and goats, but have been implicated in poor palatability of forage. We used three levels of soil P fertilization to influence SL concentrations in three cu...

  17. Anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos, ovinos e bubalinos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Antibodies to Neospora caninum in cattle, sheep and water buffalo in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silveira Flôres Vogel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo Neospora caninum é distribuída mundialmente e tem sido considerada uma importante causa de abortos em bovinos, que são hospedeiros intermediários do protozoário. O presente artigo relata um estudo sorológico da infecção pelo N. caninum em 1.024 amostras de bovinos, ovinos e bubalinos, oriundos de 55 propriedades em 16 municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Anticorpos contra o agente foram detectados por um teste imunoenzimático do tipo ELISA em 11,4% (89/781 das amostras de bovinos, em 14,6% (24/164 dos bubalinos e em 3,2% (2/62 dos ovinos. Bovinos soropositivos foram detectados em todos os municípios amostrados. Esses resultados demonstram que a infecção pelo N. caninum encontra-se amplamente difundida no rebanho bovino e também em outras espécies de ruminantes do Estado. Aliados a relatos clínicos e histopatológicos anteriores, esses resultados ressaltam a importância do N. caninum como agente etiológico de falhas reprodutivas em bovinos no RS.The infection by Neospora caninum is distributed worldwide and has been considered an important cause of abortion in cattle, which are intermediate hosts of the parasite. The present article reports an serological survey of the N.caninum infection in 1024 serum samples of cattle, sheep and water buffalo from 55 herds in 16 counties of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. Antibodies to the agent were detected by ELISA in 11.4% (89/781 bovine samples, in 14.6% (24/164 water buffalo and in 3.2% (2/62 sheep sera. Positive cattle were detected in all tested counties. These results demonstrate that N. caninum infection is widespread among bovine and other ruminants in the state. Taken together with previous clinical and pathological reports, these results are indicative of the importance of the parasite as the etiological agent of reproductive failure in cattle in RS.

  18. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  19. Flutuação das variáveis séricas em cabras e estudo comparativo da absorção de anticorpos em cabritos recém-nascidos utilizando colostro bovino e caprino Fluctuation of serum variables in goats and comparative study of antibody absorption in new-born kids using cattle and goat colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anali Linhares Lima

    2009-11-01

    .The objective of this study was to determine the fluctuation of serum antibodies in goats in the period before and immediately after kidding and the passive immunity acquisition efficiency in kids fed bovine and goat colostrum, to assess an alternative for colostrum management. Eighteen goats and their offspring were used in a total of 33 animals. Goat blood samples started to be collected 45 days before the predicated kidding date, at five-day intervals until the 5th day post kidding. The kids were distributed in two groups: one group received goat colostrum and the other cattle colostrums. Blood collections were made 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours, and at 5, 10, 15, 17, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days of age. The serum concentration of total protein (TP and immunoglobulins (Ig, and the colostrum IgG concentration were analyzed. A randomized complete design was used and the serum variables were analyzed as repeated measurements. The absence of fall in TP and Ig serum concentration in the pre partum period, indicated that the mobilization of serum antibodies to mammary gland occurred in concentrations that allow the animals to keep these variables without great alterations. In the group that received cattle colostrum, the highest concentration data for TP was observed at 48.68 ± 0.79 hours after birth, with mean of 7.16 ± 0.28 g/dL, and the highest concentration date for Ig at 48 ± 0.73, with mean of 37.56 ± 2.38 ZST units (zinc sulfate turbidity. In the group that received goat colostrum, the maximum values for serum TP and Ig occurred later, at 20.05 ± 1.36 and 20.11 ± 1.72 days after birth, with means of 5.91 ± 0.22 g/dL and 28.17 ± 2.05 ZST units (zinc sulphate turbidity, respectively. Goat colostrum can be substituted by cattle colostrums, that promotes better initial immunoglobulin acquisition by the neonates.

  20. Substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino para cabritos alpinos Replacement of goat milk for cattle cheese whey in artificial feeding of Alpine kids

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar a substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo bovino no aleitamento de cabritos alpinos. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de substituição do leite de cabra por soro de queijo (0, 15, 30 e 45% e dois sexos (três machos e quatro fêmeas por tratamento. A inclusão do soro de queijo na dieta não afetou o desenvolvimento ponderal dos cabritos dos 7 aos 42 dias de idade. Os cabritos alimentados com leite de cabra apresentaram maiores pesos finais, em torno de 13,0 kg; consumiram 70,0 litros/animal de leite de cabra, 172,0 g MS/animal/dia de concentrado e tiveram ganho médio de 137,5 g/dia. Nos cabritos alimentados com a dieta com 15, 30 e 45% de soro de queijo, os pesos finais foram de 11,1; 9,88 e 10,27 kg; o consumo de leite foi de 59,5; 49,0 e 38,4 litros/animal; e o de concentrado, 148,0; 117,0 e 135 g MS/animal/dia, com ganhos de 122,2; 99,5 e 100,8 g/dia, respectivamente. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre as dietas. O efeito do sexo evidenciou-se a partir dos 21 dias de idade, mas não houve interação dieta × sexo. Ao final do estudo, aos 70 dias de idade, o peso dos machos (12,4 kg foi maior que o das fêmeas (10,6 kg. A maior rentabilidade média (168,15% foi obtida com o fornecimento dos níveis mais altos de soro de leite. O aleitamento de cabritos com até 45% de soro de queijo é tecnicamente viável e proporciona melhor retorno econômico. O uso de leite integral de cabra para criação de cabritos em rebanhos leiteiros é economicamente inviável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the replacement of whole goat milk for cattle cheese whey in the artificial nursing of alpine kids. The animals were distributed in a complete randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement made up with four levels of goat milk replacing for cheese whey (0, 15, 30 and 45% and two sexes (three

  1. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

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    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  2. 78 FR 54620 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before November... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  3. 75 FR 31743 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Brucellosis in Sheep, Goats, and Horses; Payment of Indemnity AGENCY..., and horses destroyed because of brucellosis. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on... for sheep, goats, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis, contact Dr. Debra Donch,...

  4. Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a canonical discriminant approach

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    R. Bozzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985, goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996 and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993...

  5. Molecular cloning, SNP detection and association analysis of 5' flanking region of the goat IGF1 gene with prolificacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Naicy; Venkatachalapathy, Thirupathy; Aravindakshan, Thazhathuveettil; Raghavan, K C

    2016-04-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 has an important role in reproduction, foetal development and growth. It regulates the secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone, stimulates ovarian function and steroidogenesis. The present study was conducted to characterise the 5' flanking region of goat IGF 1 gene, ascertain ovarian expression of the IGF1 gene, detect SNPs and assess the association with prolificacy in the two indigenous goat breeds of South India viz., low prolific Attappady Black and high prolific Malabari. The 5' flanking region of IGF1 gene was PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced from both breeds. Genotyping was performed in 277 goats from the two genetic groups using the PCR-Single Strand Conformational Polymorphism (SSCP) and the expression of the IGF1 gene in the ovary was analysed by quantitative real time PCR. The 5' flanking region of the IGF1 gene was 601 bp long and located at 450 bp upstream of the start codon. Sequence exhibited 97-99% similarity with that of the sheep, cattle and sika deer IGF1 genes. Three genotypes, PP, PQ and QR were observed at this locus with the frequency of 0.62, 0.30 and 0.08, respectively. Sequencing of the representative PCR products from each genotype revealed two SNPs, g.224A>G and g.227C>T. The population was found to be in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at both loci. Statistical results indicated that these loci were associated with litter size (P ≤ 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the expression of the IGF1 gene in the ovaries of the two goat breeds. These results suggest the significant influence of the IGF1 gene on prolificacy in goats and identified SNPs would benefit the selection of prolific animals in future breeding programs. PMID:26852275

  6. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

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    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  7. Avaliação in vitro dos efeitos do óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis Aubl. sobre larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos In vitro evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. seed oil effects on larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.O Farias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar in vitro a ação do óleo da semente da Carapa guianensis (Andiroba no cultivo de larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de animais das espécies caprina e ovina, foram testadas cinco diluições do óleo de andiroba (100, 50, 30, 25 e 10%, com três repetições por tratamento, utilizando-se tween 80 como dispersante, formando-se ainda três grupos controle, um controle negativo (água destilada, outro controle negativo (água destilada + tween 80 e um controle positivo (Doramectina. A atividade da andiroba sobre os ovos de nematóides gastrintestinais foi determinada pelo cálculo dos percentuais de redução de larvas por gramas de fezes. Os resultados revelaram na espécie caprina redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais para os tratamentos 100, 50 e 30% com médias nulas para todos os gêneros de nematóides. Na espécie ovina observou-se redução altamente efetiva no número de larvas totais em todos os tratamentos, com médias nulas nos tratamentos 100, 50 e 30%. Os resultados obtidos neste experimento demonstram que o óleo da semente de Carapa guianensis possui atividade in vitro contra larvas de nematóides gastrintestinais de caprinos e ovinos.This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro action of Carapa guianensis (Andiroba seed oil on the cultivation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of goats and sheep. Five andiroba oil dilutions (100, 50, 30, 25, and 10% were assayed, with three replicates per treatment, using Tween 80 as surfactant. Three control groups were formed: a negative control (distilled water, another negative control (distilled water + Tween 80 and a positive control (Doramectin. The activity of andiroba on the eggs from gastrointestinal nematodes was obtained by calculating larva reduction percentages per gram of feces. In goats, a highly effective reduction in the total number of larvae was detected for treatments 100, 50 and 30%, with null means for all nematode genera

  8. Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelin eChi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orf virus (ORFV, a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes nonsystemic, highly contagious and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP and OV-SJ1. The four strains were 132 to 139 kb in length, with each containing 124 to 132 genes and about 64% G+C content. The most notable differences between the four strains were found near the genome termini. OV-NP lacked seven and OV-SJ1 lacked three genes near the right terminus when compared against other ORFVs. We also investigated the skin-virulence of the four Fujian ORFVs in goats. The ORFVs with gene deletions showed low virulence while the ORFVs without gene deletions showed high virulence in goats suggesting gene deletion possibly leads to attenuation of ORFVs. Gene 134 was disrupted in OV-NP genome due to the lack of initial code. The phylogenetic tree based on complete Parapoxviruse genomes showed that sheep originated and goat originated ORFVs formed distinctly separate branches with 100% bootstrap. Based on the single gene phylogenetic tree of 132 genes of ORFVs, 32 genes can be easily distinguished as having originated from sheep or goats. Multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of gene 008 from the genome of 5 goat ORFVs and 4 sheep ORFVs revealed 33 unique amino acids differentiating it as having sheep or goats as host. The availability of genomic sequences of four Fujian goat ORFVs aids in our understanding of the diversity of orf virus isolates in this region and can assist in distinguishing between orf strains that originate in sheep and goats.

  9. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in goats and sheep in western Maranhão, Brazil Ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos e ovinos do oeste do Maranhão, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Martins de Brito Moraes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis and toxoplasmosis are parasitic diseases which can cause reproductive problems in goats and sheep. The current study aimed to determine the occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in goats and sheep from the districts of Amarante do Maranhão and Buritirana, Imperatriz microregion, western area of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil, and to assess factors associated to infection by these etiologic agents. Blood samples from 110 animals (46 goats and 64 sheep from five herds were collected, and indirect immunofluorescence assay was used for serological testing. Of 46 goat samples, 17.39% (n = 8 showed anti-N. caninum antibodies and 4.35% (n = 2 anti-T. gondii, while of 64 sheep samples 4.69% (n = 3 and 18.75% (n = 12 showed anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies, respectively. No significant difference regarding the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs on the property and veterinary care was seen for both etiologic agents studied. However, food supplementation and animal reproductive failure were significantly (p A neosporose e a toxoplasmose são doenças parasitárias que podem causar problemas reprodutivos em caprinos e ovinos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos IgG anti-Neospora caninum e anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos e ovinos dos municípios de Amarante do Maranhão e Buritirana, microrregião de Imperatriz, Oeste maranhense, Nordeste do Brasil, bem como avaliar fatores associados à infecção por esses agentes etiológicos. Amostras de sangue de 110 animais (46 caprinos e 64 ovinos, provenientes de cinco propriedades, foram coletadas, e a reação de imunofluorescência indireta utilizada para o diagnóstico sorológico. Das 46 amostras de caprinos, 17,39% (n = 8 apresentaram anticorpos anti-N. caninum e 4,35% (n = 2 anti-T. gondii, enquanto das 64 amostras de ovinos, 4,69% (n = 3 e 18,75% (n = 12 apresentaram anticorpos anti-N. caninum e anti

  10. FREQÜÊNCIA DE AGLUTININAS ANTI-Brucella abortus EM CAPRINOS E OVINOS DO SERTÃO DO ESTADO DE PERNAMBUCO, BRASIL FREQUENCY OF ANTI-Brucella abortus AGGLUTININS IN GOATS AND sheep OF THE “SERTÃO” (BACKLANDS OF THE STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Lúcia de Assis Santana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a freqüência de aglutininas anti-Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos do Sertão do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram processadas 700 amostras de soros sangüíneos, das quais 340 eram da espécie caprina (115 machos e 225 fêmeas e 360 (136 machos e 224 fêmeas ovina. Empregou-se a técnica do antígeno acidificado tamponado (AAT corado com rosa bengala (RB. Das 340 amostras de caprinos avaliadas, duas (0,6% foram reagentes ao AAT. Não se observaram associações significativas para as variáveis faixa etária (p= 0,430, raça (p= 0,936 e sexo (p= 0,562. Das 360 amostras de ovinos, nove (2,5% foram reagentes. Também não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis analisadas e a soropositividade para brucelose: faixa etária (p= 0,522; raça (p= 0,576 e sexo (p= 0,461. Verificou-se associação significativa (p= 0,042 entre as espécies estudadas e soropositividade para brucelose nos animais investigados. A soropositividade para Brucella abortus em caprinos e ovinos foi descrita pela primeira vez no Sertão de Pernambuco, fato que pode dificultar o sucesso do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose, tendo em vista que nessa região é comum a criação consorciada de pequenos ruminantes com bovinos, além de representar riscos à Saúde Pública.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Brucelose, ovinos, caprinos, pequenos ruminantes, sorodiagnóstico. The objective was to investigate the frequency of anti-Brucella abortus agglutinins in goats and sheep of the backlands of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. 700 samples of sanguine serums were processed, of which 340 were of the goat (115 males and 225 females and 360 (136 males and 224 females sheep. The technique of the Tamponed Acidified Antigen (AAT dyed with Bengalese Rose (BR was used. Of the 340 samples of goat evaluated two (0.6% were reactive to AAT. Significant associations were not observed for the variable age group (p = 0.430; race (p = 0

  11. 布鲁氏菌病疫苗(S2株)免疫羊抗体消长规律的研究%Studies on the Antibody Development in Sheep and Goats Immunized with Brucellosis Vaccine(S2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申捷; 郝璐; 郭金贵; 菊花; 刘志伟; 毛开荣; 申之义; 赵心力; 宝音达来; 马立峰; 戴晓光; 马晓雪; 苏胜杰; 萨茹拉; 云涛; 双燕

    2015-01-01

    为探讨羊经布鲁氏菌病疫苗免疫后的血清抗体消长规律,本研究分别对绵羊和山羊进行布鲁氏菌S2株疫苗不同剂量的灌服,于免疫前和免疫后不同时间采集血清样品,采用虎红平板凝集试验和试管凝集试验进行血清抗体检测。结果表明,绵羊及山羊均在免疫后20d时血清抗体阳性率达到最高峰,之后呈下降趋势,免疫后90天降至低点。免疫后90至360d,绵羊组抗体阳性率几乎一直维持在14%以下,各时段无显著性差异(P>0.05);山羊组抗体阳性率在免疫后90至360d期间时高时低,起伏较大,无明显规律。试验期间,山羊的抗体阳性率普遍高于绵羊,且降升幅度较大。同时,研究表明,同种羊100亿和200亿两个免疫剂量组的抗体阳性率差异不大。%To investigate the pattern of increasing or decreasing of serum antibody in sheep and goats immunized with brucellosis vaccine,RPST and tube agglutination test were used in the study to determine the level of serum antibody in sheep and goats before and after immunization with Brucella strain S2 vaccine. The results indicated that the serum antibody positive rate in sheep reached the highest level 20 DPI,then started to decrease and remained relatively low level 90-360 DPI,mostly below 6%,and relatively higher in few individuals,up to 14%. The positive rate in goats reached the highest 20 DPI,then decreased and remained low or relatively low level 90-360 DPI,but with decreasing or increasing sometimes. Comparatively,antibody positive rate in goats was generally higher than in sheep,and the descending and ascending range was bigger. It was also shown that there was no significant difference in antibody posi-tive rate between 10 billion CFU dose group and 20 billion CFU dose group in same species.

  12. 我国南方地区羊泰勒虫病的流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation of theileriosis in goats and sheep in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁延庆; 李有全; 刘志杰; 杨吉飞; 陈泽; 关贵全; 罗建勋; 殷宏

    2013-01-01

    为研究我国南方四省羊泰勒虫病的流行情况,分别采用血涂片镜检和PCR方法对采自我国广西壮族自治区、贵州省、广东省和重庆市部分地区的180份羊血液样品进行检测,并对部分阳性样品进行测序分析.PCR结果显示,在贵州省、广东省和重庆市的样品中均有羊泰勒虫感染,其中吕氏泰勒虫阳性率分别为46.8%(29/62)、90.9%(30/33)和12.7%(7/55),绵羊泰勒虫和尤氏泰勒虫均为阴性;在广西壮族自治区样品中没有检测到羊泰勒虫感染.系统发育树分析表明,检测到的泰勒虫与我国流行的吕氏泰勒虫亲缘关系最近(部分虫株之间同源性高达100%),与水牛泰勒虫、瑟氏泰勒虫和东方泰勒虫亲缘关系较近,与羊巴贝斯虫和牛巴贝斯虫亲缘关系较远.为进一步了解我国羊泰勒虫病的流行现状及优势虫株的分布提供了重要的参考依据.%To study the prevalence of ovine and caprine theileriosis in southern areas of China,a total of 180 peripheral blood samples of sheep and goats were collected from Guangxi,Guizhou,Guangdong and Chongqing and detected by microscopic examination and PCR.Theileria 18 S rRNA gene was cloned using a part of positive samples and sequenced.PCR results showed that the infection of Theileria spp.was existed in Guizhou,Guangdong and Chongqing and the positive rate of T.luwenshuni was 46.8% (29/62),90.9% (30/33) and 12.7%(7/55),respectively,but no T.ovis and T.uilenbergi.No infection of Theileria spp.was found in Guangxi.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that the relationship of the newly identified Theileria spp.was most closely related to T.luwenshuni(100%,partly),T.buffeli,T.sergenti and T.orientalis,but more distantly related to Babesia ovis and B.bovis.The results provided important evidence for understanding the prevalence of theileriosis and the distribution of predominant strains.

  13. Nutritional management to improve sheep and goat performances in semiarid regions Manejo nutricional para melhorar o desempenho de ovinos e caprinos em regiões semiáridas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Ben Salem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Small ruminant production is the main source of income of farmers living in arid and semiarid regions. Sheep and goats raised in these areas are generally confronted with severe nutritional deficits during food scarcity period which exacerbate disease and health problems and consequently low productive and reproductive performances. These areas are characterized by rainfall seasonality and scarcity resulting in a low fodder potential. Therefore, native rangelands are degrading due to overgrazing, high stocking rates and mismanagement. Options to improve small ruminant-based production systems include i innovative technologies targeting the increase of feed resources availability, rumen manipulation using natural compounds to boost microbial activity, improving diets' quality, alleviation of feeding cost, and better control of livestock watering. Although this paper is focussing on the benefits from these technical options, we should bear in mind that i the organization of local institutions for better adoption of these technologies and for protecting the main natural resources (rangelands and water and ii the participatory approach involving all partners concerned with the improvement of farmer's income and livelihood are key tools for promoting livestock sector in the target areas. A set of simple, inexpensive and environmentally friendly options that could ameliorate small ruminant production in the semiarid regions are discussed in this paper.A produção de pequenos ruminantes é a principal fonte de renda dos agricultores que vivem em regiões áridas e semiáridas. Ovinos e caprinos criados nessas áreas geralmente enfrentam severas deficiências nutricionais durante o período de escassez de alimentos, que comprometem a sua saúde e, conseqüentemente, resultam em baixo desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo. Estas áreas são caracterizadas pela sazonalidade e escassez das chuvas, que resultam em baixo potencial forrageiro. Além disso, as

  14. 藏绵羊脂蛋白脂酶基因克隆及序列分析%Tibetan Sheep LPL Gene Clone and Bioinformatic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高思; 徐亚欧; 毛亮; 邵欢欢; 杨虎林; 舒浩国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为深入研究藏绵羊肉用性能的遗传调控与营养代谢关系.[方法]利用RT-PCR和T-A克隆技术获得了藏绵羊LPL基因,并对其进行生物信息学分析.[结果]藏绵羊LPL编码基因全长1437 bp,编码478个氨基酸.将藏绵羊LPL基因及氨基酸序列分别与GenBank中公布的11种动物进行序列一致率比对,发现藏绵羊与所选动物的LPL基因序列一致率在84.6%-99.6%,LPL氨基酸序列一致率在88.8%-99.0%.藏绵羊与普通绵羊LPL基因存在6个位点核苷酸差异,其中有一个核苷酸位点的差异没有引起相应氨基酸的改变,其余5个住点核苷酸的不同都引起了氨基酸的差异.[结论]该研究可为了解LPL基因的演化关系及作用机理提供资料.%[ Objective ] The aim was to deeply study the relationship between the genetic regulation of meat performance of Tibetan sheep and nutrition and metabolism. [ Method ] The LPL coding gene of Tibetan sheep was cloned by reverse-translation PCR and T-A clone technology,then it was analyzed by Bioinformatics software. [ Result] The results showed that LPL gene of Tibetan sheep contained 1437 bp nucleotides and encoded 478 amino acids. The multiple sequence alignment such as Tibetan sheep, sheep, goat, cattle, yak, pig, dog, cat, baboon, orangutan, human, Norway rat and rattus showed that the total homologous rate of LPL gene was 84.6% - 99.6%, and the homologous rate of amino acids was 88.8% ~ 99.0%. Moreover,6 different nucleotides were foumd between Tibetan sheep and common sheep. One of these nucleotide was synonymous codon so that the amino acid which the synonymous codon encoded was identical between Tibetan sheep and common sheep,and the other five nucleotides which encoded different amino acids between Tibetan sheep and common sheep. [ Conclusion ] The study can provide reference for knowing the evolution relation of LPL gene and its mechanism of action.

  15. Effects of urea-molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) on cattle/yak production and medicated UMMB (MUMB) on control of parasites in sheep in Gansu Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea-molasses multi-nutrient blocks (UMMB) were prepared and evaluation trials conducted in Gansu Province, China. Supplementation with UMMB had a positive effect on animal performance. In Jiuquan, cross-bred beef cattle (local X Simmental) aged 1.5 years were offered UMMB during a 45 day fattening period. After the fattening period, each animal was worth an extra 80.8 Yuan of net profit from the additional weight gain and the cost/benefit ratio was increased by more than four times. A production increase of smaller magnitude was evident in a trial in Linxia with chauri (cattle X yak), aged from 8 to 12 years, and the cost/benefit ratio was 1 : 2.3. Another trial was conducted in dairy cows (cross-bred local X Friesian Holstein) in Yunchang, in 2000, where UMMB supplementation resulted in a significant increase in milk production with a cost/benefit ratio of 1 : 5.6. Detailed studies on rumen NH3-N levels were conducted in cannulated yak before and after eating UMMB and the dynamic concentration of NH3-N level increased by two to five times when UMMB was available. A trial with UMMB containing herbal anthelmintic medication was carried out in sheep in Linxia and Yunchang and it was shown that this treatment was as effective as the conventional treatment with albendazole. Economic evaluation of this treatment showed that the cost of medicinal herbs was four times that of chemical anthelmintics to control parasites and, hence, this method is not likely to be adopted by smallholder farmers in this area of China. (author)

  16. 单宁和聚乙二醇对绵羊和山羊瘤胃纤维降解菌数量的影响%Effects of Tannin and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Quantity in Sheep and Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大彪; 张梅梅; 于永强; 李红磊; 塔娜; 邢媛媛; 王卫云

    2015-01-01

    goats. Four sheep and four cashmere goats aged 1.5 years, weighted 45 kg and fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were selected as experimental animals. Own control experimental design was used, and the study was conducted in consecu-tive four periods. Animals in the four periods were fed a basal diet ( period 1, group Ⅰ) , and the basal diet supplemented with 2% tannin ( period 2, group Ⅱ) , 6% tannin ( period 3, group Ⅲ) and 6% tannin + 12%PEG ( period 4, group Ⅳ) , respectively. Each period lasted for 30 days consisted of a 12-day pre-test period and 18-day test period. On the 1st day of each test period, ruminal content was collected, rumen fluid pH, and the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen ( NH3-N) and microbial protein ( MCP) were measured, and real-time PCR was used to quantify R. albus, R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes adherent to solid phase, liquid phase and full chyme. The results showed that as follows: 1) compared with group Ⅰ, the supplementation of 6%tannin significantly decreased NH3-N concentration in rumen fluid in goats and MCP concentration in rumen fluid of sheep ( P<0.05) . These two indices recovered to the same level with group Ⅰ after the supplementa-tion of 6% tannin+12% PEG. 2) Compared with groupⅠ, the supplementation of 6% tannin significantly de-creased the quantity of R. albus in solid phase of ruminal content in sheep and goats, and in liquid phase of ru-minal content in sheep ( P<0.05);the supplementation of 2% and 6% tannin significantly decreased the quan-tity of R. flavefaciens in solid phase of ruminal content in sheep and goats ( P<0.05) , and the supplementation of 6% tannin significantly decreased the quantity of R. flavefaciens in liquid phase of ruminal content in sheep and goats ( P<0.05);the supplementation of 6% tannin significantly decreased the quantity of F. succinogenes in solid phase of ruminal content of sheep and goats, and in full chyme of ruminal content in sheep ( P<0.05) . The quantity of the

  17. FLOW CYTOMETRY BASELINE ON PERIPHERAL LEUKOCYTE CELL PROFILES FOR DAIRY GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Darcy M.; Vogt, Megan B.; Hannah E. Pirner; Hess, Ann M; Bowen, Richard A.; Marcela Henao-Tamayo; Torsten M. Eckstein

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminants, like goats, would make excellent animal models for not only infectious diseases in large ruminants but also analogous diseases in humans, such as human tuberculosis, Crohnâs disease, melioidosis and brucellosis. The main disadvantage for the small ruminant model is the lack of sufficient baseline data on normal, healthy goat kids. Furthermore, most reagents (antibodies and the like) were not developed for goats or sheep. It is important to demonstrate that available resources...

  18. Researches Concerning Body Development of Carpatina Purebreds and Boer Crossed Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Vicovan

    2015-01-01

    Researches were carried out at the Institute of Research and Development for Sheep and Goat Breeding from Palas - Constanta, situated in Eastern Romania. A comparative study was implemented concerning body development of four adult goat genotypes, as follows: Carpatina purebreds (n=25) and 74 crossbred goats, with different gene inputs from the South African Boer breed, F1 Boer x Carpatina, R1 Boer x (Boer x Carpatina) and R1 Carpatina x (Carpatina x Boer). In order to evaluate the body devel...

  19. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M A; Rahman, S. M. M.; Jalil, M. A.; Sarder Nasir Uddin; M. M. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI), Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification p...

  20. 40 CFR 180.610 - Aminopyralid; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measuring only aminopyralid. Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.02 Cattle, kidney 0.3 Cattle, meat 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.02 Goat, fat 0.02 Goat, kidney 0.3 Goat, meat 0.02 Goat... byproducts, except kidney 0.02 Milk 0.03 Sheep, fat 0.02 Sheep, kidney 0.3 Sheep, meat 0.02 Sheep,...

  1. 40 CFR 180.490 - Imazapic-ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.10 Cattle, kidney 1.0 Cattle, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.1 Cattle, meat 0.1 Goat, fat 0.1 Goat, kidney 1.0 Goat, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.1 Goat... Milk 0.1 Sheep, fat 0.1 Sheep, kidney 1.0 Sheep, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.1 Sheep, meat 0.1...

  2. A genome-screen experiment to detect quantitative trait loci affecting resistance to facial eczema disease in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, S H; Dodds, K G; Morris, C A; Henry, H M; Beattie, A E; Garmonsway, H G; Towers, N R; Crawford, A M

    2009-02-01

    Facial eczema (FE) is a secondary photosensitization disease arising from liver cirrhosis caused by the mycotoxin sporidesmin. The disease affects sheep, cattle, deer and goats, and costs the New Zealand sheep industry alone an estimated NZ$63M annually. A long-term sustainable solution to this century-old FE problem is to breed for disease-resistant animals by marker-assisted selection. As a step towards finding a diagnostic DNA test for FE sensitivity, we have conducted a genome-scan experiment to screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting this trait in Romney sheep. Four F(1) sires, obtained from reciprocal matings of FE resistant and susceptible selection-line animals, were used to generate four outcross families. The resulting half-sib progeny were artificially challenged with sporidesmin to phenotype their FE traits measured in terms of their serum levels of liver-specific enzymes, namely gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase. In a primary screen using selective genotyping on extreme progeny of each family, a total of 244 DNA markers uniformly distributed over all 26 ovine autosomes (with an autosomal genome coverage of 79-91%) were tested for linkage to the FE traits. Data were analysed using Haley-Knott regression. The primary screen detected one significant and one suggestive QTL on chromosomes 3 and 8 respectively. Both the significant and suggestive QTL were followed up in a secondary screen where all progeny were genotyped and analysed; the QTL on chromosome 3 was significant in this analysis.

  3. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  4. A survey on Sarcocystis spp. infection in cattle of Tabriz city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Sarcocystis is one of the most prevalent protozoan parasites in the striated muscles of livestock slaughtered for food such as cattle, sheep and goat. Meat that is heavily infected may be condemned as unfit for human consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in slaughtered cattle in Tabriz, northwest of Iran. The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. infection was investigated in 670 cattle, slaughtered from April 2013 to October 2013 in the Tabriz abattoir, Iran using naked eye examination for macroscopic Sarcocysts, and peptic digestion, muscle squash, squeezing methods for microscopic types. Muscles from oesophagus, tongue, heart, diaphragm and cervical and abdominal of 670 slaughtered cattle were examined for Sarcocystis spp. cysts. The prevalence of microscopic Sarcocystis spp. cysts in cattle was detected in 100 % and there was detected in macroscopic cyst 8.2 % in examined cattle. There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different organs (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences among the infection rates of the different ages (P > 0.05). The prevalence of macroscopic infection in the oesophagus was higher than that of the other organs (P sex (8.25 % in males and 8.13 % in females, P > 0.05). This suggests that meat should be cooked sufficiently, since a macroscopic inspection may not provide true results. Also, it has of great importance the farmers to be trained not to feed their dogs and cats with uncooked meat, and the abattoir remnants to be burned, in order to be effectively broken of infection cycle between the intermediate and the definitive hosts in Tabriz city, northwest of Iran. PMID:27605760

  5. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Hoving, R.A.H.; Priem, J.; Bossers, A.; Keulen, van L.J.M.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined

  6. Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling for the detection of Rift Valley fever virus in naturally infected cattle and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Lieza; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Romito, Marco; Coetzer, Jacobus A W; Clift, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), histopathology, and immunohistochemical labeling (IHC) were performed on liver specimens from 380 naturally infected cattle and sheep necropsied during the 2010 Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic in South Africa. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of real-time RT-PCR, histopathology, and IHC were estimated in a latent-class model using a Bayesian framework. The Se and Sp of real-time RT-PCR were estimated as 97.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 95.2-98.8%) and 71.7% (95% CI = 65-77.9%) respectively. The Se and Sp of histopathology were estimated as 94.6% (95% CI = 91-97.2%) and 92.3% (95% CI = 87.6-95.8%), respectively. The Se and Sp of IHC were estimated as 97.6% (95% CI = 93.9-99.8%) and 99.4% (95% CI = 96.9-100%), respectively. Decreased Sp of real-time RT-PCR was ascribed to cross-contamination of samples. Stratified analysis of the data suggested variations in test accuracy with fetuses and severely autolyzed specimens. The Sp of histopathology in fetuses (83%) was 9.3% lower than the sample population (92.3%). The Se of IHC decreased from 97.6% to 81.5% in the presence of severe autolysis. The diagnostic Se and Sp of histopathology was higher than expected, confirming the value of routine postmortem examinations and histopathology of liver specimens. Aborted fetuses, however, should be screened using a variety of tests in areas endemic for RVF, and results from severely autolyzed specimens should be interpreted with caution. The most feasible testing option for countries lacking suitably equipped laboratories seems to be routine histology in combination with IHC.

  8. Fasciola hepatica: Specificity of a coproantigen ELISA test for diagnosis of fasciolosis in faecal samples from cattle and sheep concurrently infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidians and/or rumen flukes (paramphistomes), under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajugu, P-E; Hanna, R E B; Edgar, H W; McMahon, C; Cooper, M; Gordon, A; Barley, J P; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-09-15

    Chronic fasciolosis is often diagnosed by faecal egg counting (FEC), following concentration of the eggs in the sample by a zinc sulphate floatation method. However, concentration by a sedimentation technique gives improved sensitivity. Interpretation of FEC results for fasciolosis is complicated by factors such as the long pre-patent period and irregular egg shedding. Thus, FEC reduction tests (FECRT), when used alone, are not completely reliable for diagnosis of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance in local fluke populations, especially when parasite burdens are small. A Fasciola hepatica coproantigen ELISA test has been introduced which more accurately reflects the presence of flukes in the host bile ducts in late pre-patent infections, and absence of flukes following successful chemotherapeutic intervention. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the specificity of the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA technique, particularly regarding potential cross-reactivity with rumen fluke (paramphistome), gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian infections. The method involved parallel testing of a large battery of faecal samples from field-infected cattle and sheep using floatation and sedimentation FECs and coproantigen analysis. No evidence was found for significant false positivity in the F. hepatica coproantigen ELISA due to paramphistome, coccidian and/or gastrointestinal nematode co-infections. With sedimentation FECs less than 10 F. hepatica eggs per gram (epg), the likelihood of a positive coproantigen result for the sample progressively decreased. Diagnosis of fasciolosis should be based on consideration of both FEC and coproantigen ELISA findings, to ensure optimum sensitivity for pre-patent and low-level infections.

  9. SNPs in coat colour genes in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nicoloso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Coat colour genes are useful candidates for breeds traceability of farm animals. To identify SNPs in genes involved in pigmentation in goat, we carried out in silico studies in human, mouse and cattle.We analysed 41 genes and we found: 88 SNPs in mouse, 29 synonymous and 59 non synonymous; 279 SNPs in humans, 121 synonymous and 158 non synonymous, 78 of which validated; 147 putative SNPs in cattle, 62 synonymous and 75 non synonymous, 10 of which validated. To identify the more interesting coding regions, we collected in these species information on pigmentation traits or on pathologies associated to different mutation. In goat, molecular information were available only on 7 genes and no SNP is reported, moreover poor information exists on association between mutations and different coat colour. Starting from the information collected in mouse, human and cattle, we obtained PCR products in goat for 61 exons in 36 genes. The PCR products were sequenced and checked for homology with the target sequences. Sequences on 8 animals from 4 breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Blonde of Adamello, Orobica characterised by different coat colour phenotypes have been compared, revealing 25 SNPs (11 synonymous, 14 non synonymous in 21 genes.

  10. Genome analysis of orf virus isolates from goats in the Fujian Province of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xuelin; Zeng, Xiancheng; Li, Wei; Hao, Wenbo; Li, Ming; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Yifan; Rock, Daniel L; Luo, Shuhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-01-01

    Orf virus (ORFV), a species of the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae, causes non-systemic, highly contagious, and eruptive disease in sheep, goat, and other wild and domestic ruminants. Our previous work shows orf to be ubiquitous in the Fujian Province of China, a region where there is considerable heterogeneity among ORFVs. In this study, we sequenced full genomes of four Fujian goat ORFV strains (OV-GO, OV-YX, OV-NP, and OV-SJ1). The four strains were 132-139 kb in length, with each containing 124-132 genes and about 64% G+C content. The most notable differences between the four strains were found near the genome termini. OV-NP lacked seven and OV-SJ1 lacked three genes near the right terminus when compared against other ORFVs. We also investigated the skin-virulence of the four Fujian ORFVs in goats. The ORFVs with gene deletions showed low virulence while the ORFVs without gene deletions showed high virulence in goats suggesting gene deletion possibly leads to attenuation of ORFVs. Gene 134 was disrupted in OV-NP genome due to the lack of initial code. The phylogenetic tree based on complete Parapoxviruse genomes showed that sheep originated and goat originated ORFVs formed distinctly separate branches with 100% bootstrap. Based on the single gene phylogenetic tree of 132 genes of ORFVs, 47 genes can be easily distinguished as having originated from sheep or goats. In order to further reveal genetic variation presented in goat ORFVs and sheep ORFVs, we analyzed the deduced amino acid sequences of gene 008, multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of gene 008 from the genome of five goat ORFVs and four sheep ORFVs revealed 33 unique amino acids differentiating it as having sheep or goats as host. The availability of genomic sequences of four Fujian goat ORFVs aids in our understanding of the diversity of orf virus isolates in this region and can assist in distinguishing between orf strains that originate in sheep and goats. PMID:26557108

  11. Evaluación de dos pruebas de inmunoblot con antígeno hidatídico de caprino y ovino para el diagnóstico de equinococosis humana Evaluation of two immunoblot tests with goat and sheep hydatid antigen for human echinococcosis diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar el valor diagnóstico del antígeno hidatídico de caprino y de ovino en la prueba de inmunoblot para echinococosis quística, se usó 135 sueros, de los cuales 70 procedían de pacientes con hidatidosis confirmada por el hallazgo de protoescólices y membrana en el estudio anatomopatológico con la pieza quirúrgica; 45 a pacientes con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 a personas aparentemente sanas. La sensibilidad, la especificidad, el valor predictivo positivo y negativo de la prueba de inmunoblot, con antígeno hidatídico de caprino fue de 92,8%, 100%, 100% y 92,8%, respectivamente; mientras que de ovino fueron 91,4%, 95,3%, 95,5% y 91,1 %, respectivamente. El índice kappa fue de 0,93 para el antígeno caprino y de 0,86 con el ovino en relación con el estudio anatomopatológico. Se recomienda el uso de ambos antígenos para el diagnóstico serológico de la equinococosis quística humana.To estimate the diagnosis value of goat and ovine antigen for echinococcosis immunoblot test, 135 serums were used, of which 70 were coming from patients with hydatid disease confirmed by the finding of proto scolex and membrane in the pathology study of surgical piece, 45 from patients with other parasitic diseases and 20 apparently healthy people. The sensitivity, the specificity, positive and negative predictive value of immunoblot test, with hidatyd antigen of goat was of 92.8%, 100%, 100%, 92.8%, respectively, than for ovine antigen was 91.4%, 95.3%, 95.5%, 91.1%, respectively. Kappa index was 0.93 for goat antigen and 0.86 with sheep in relation to the pathological study. We recommended the use of both antigens for the serologic diagnosis of human echinococcosis.

  12. Cross-sectional study of brucellosis in Jordan: Prevalence, risk factors and spatial distribution in small ruminants and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musallam, I I; Abo-Shehada, M; Omar, M; Guitian, J

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is considered endemic in many Middle Eastern countries including Jordan. To determine the frequency, risk factors and spatial distribution of ruminant brucellosis in Jordan, a nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted. Small ruminant flocks (n=333) and cattle herds (n=204) were randomly selected, and their disease status was ascertained by testing individual serum samples using the Rose Bengal Test and a competitive ELISA (sheep and goats) and milk samples using an indirect ELISA (cattle). Information on putative risk factors was collected using standardized questionnaires. A logistic model with a binomial outcome was built to identify risk factors for being seropositive. The estimated true seroprevalence values were 18.1% (95% CI: 11-25.3) (cattle-only herds), 22.2% (95% CI: 16.5-28.8) (sheep flocks), 45.4% (95% CI: 30.3-61.6) (goat herds), 70.4% (95% CI: 55.5-84.9) (mixed sheep-goat flocks), 34.3% (95% CI: 28.4, 40.4) (all small ruminant flocks) and 38.5% (95% CI: 24.3-51.8) (mixed herds of cattle and small ruminants). Only 1.5% of small ruminant flocks were vaccinated. The seroprevalence was higher in northern areas, where livestock density is also higher. The logistic model fitted the data well and had a very high predictive ability. In the small ruminant model, five variables were significantly associated with a higher odds of seropositivity: lending/borrowing rams (OR=8.9, 95% CI: 3.0-26.1), feeding aborted material to dogs (OR=8.0, 95% CI: 3.5-18.1) the presence of goats (OR=6.9, 95% CI: 3.1-15.4), introducing new animals to the flock (OR=5.8, 95% CI: 2.5-13.6), and a large flock size (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6). Conversely, separating newly introduced animals (OR=0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.47), separating animals that had aborted (OR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.08-0.46) and using disinfectants to clean pens (OR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.16-0.83) were significantly associated with a lower odds of being seropositive. The main risk factor for cattle herds being

  13. 40 CFR 180.649 - Saflufenacil; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...]benzamide, in or on the commodities. Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.01 Cattle, liver 0.80 Cattle, meat 0.01 Cattle, meat byproducts, except liver 0.02 Goat, fat 0.01 Goat, liver 0.80 Goat, meat 0.01..., except liver 0.02 Milk 0.01 Sheep, fat 0.01 Sheep, liver 0.80 Sheep, meat 0.01 Sheep, meat...

  14. 40 CFR 180.181 - Chlorpropham; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.20 Cattle, kidney 0.30 Cattle, meat 0.06 Cattle, meat byproducts except kidney 0.06 Goat, fat 0.20 Goat, kidney 0.30 Goat, meat... byproducts except kidney 0.06 Milk 0.30 Sheep, fat 0.20 Sheep, kidney 0.30 Sheep, meat 0.06 Sheep,...

  15. Schmallenberg virus experimental infection of sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Bréard, Emmanuel;

    2013-01-01

    Since late 2011, a novel orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV), has been implicated in many cases of severely malformed bovine and ovine offspring in Europe. In adult cattle, SBV is known to cause a mild transient disease; clinical signs include short febrile episodes, decreased milk...... production and diarrhoea for a few days. However, the knowledge about clinical signs and pathogenesis in adult sheep is limited.In the present study, adult sheep of European domestic breeds were inoculated with SBV either as cell culture grown virus or as virus with no history of passage in cell cultures...... 3–5 days by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 13 out of 30 inoculated sheep became RNAemic, with the highest viral load in animals inoculated with virus from low cell culture passaged or the animal passaged material. Contact animals remained negative throughout the study. One RNAemic sheep showed...

  16. 75 FR 43031 - National Sheep Industry Improvement Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill). This rule establishes the NSIIC and a Board of... rule does not have sufficient Federalism implications to warrant the preparation of a Federalism... of sheep or goats in the United States, two would have expertise in finance and management, and...

  17. Developmental Outcome and Related Abnormalities in Goats: Comparison Between Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer- and In Vivo-Derived Concepti During Pregnancy Through Term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leonardo Tondello; Neto, Saul Gaudêncio; Tavares, Kaio César Simiano; Calderón, Carlos Enrique Méndez; Aguiar, Luis Henrique; Lazzarotto, Cícera Regina; Ongaratto, Felipe Ledur; Rodrigues, Victor Hugo Vieira; Carneiro, Igor de Sá; Rossetto, Rafael; Almeida, Anderson Pinto; Fernandes, César Carneiro Linhares; Rondina, Davide; Dias, Ana Christina Oliveira; Chies, Jocelei Maria; Polejaeva, Irina A; Rodrigues, José Luiz; Forell, Fabiana; Bertolini, Luciana Relly; Bertolini, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is characterized by low efficiency and the occurrence of developmental abnormalities, which are rather poorly studied phenomena in goats. This study aimed at comparing overall SCNT efficiency in goats by using in vitro-matured (IVM) or in vivo-matured oocytes and fibroblast donor cells (mock transfected, transgenic, or wild type), also characterizing symptoms of the Abnormal Offspring Syndrome (AOS) in development, comparing results with pregnancies produced by artificial insemination (AI) and in vivo-derived (IVD) embryos. The SCNT group had lower pregnancy rate (18.3%, 11/60), total number of concepti (20.0%, 12/60), term births (3.3%, 2/60), and live births (1.7%, 1/60) than both the IVD (77.8%, 7/9; 155.5%, 14/9; 122.2%, 11/9; 88.8%, 8/9) and the AI (71.4%, 10/14; 121.4%, 17/14; 100%, 14/14; 78.5%, 11/14) groups, respectively (p < 0.05). No SCNT pregnancies reached term using IVM oocytes, but in vivo-matured oocytes resulted in two term transgenic cloned kids. The proportion fetal membrane (FM) weight/birth weight reflected an increase in FM size and cotyledonary enlargement in clones, for disproportionally bigger newborns in relation to cotyledonary numbers. Overall, goat cloning showed losses and abnormality patterns similar to the AOS in cloned cattle and sheep, which have not been previously well recognized in goats. PMID:27362734

  18. Deficiências e desequilíbrios de microelementos em bovinos e ovinos em algumas regiões do Brasil Microelement deficiencies and imbalances in cattle and sheep in some regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila da Silva Moraes

    1999-01-01

    indicando deficiência foram verificados no município de Seropédica (Rio de Janeiro. Valores baixos de manganês foram encontrados no nordeste de Minas Gerais e em bovinos afetados pela "doença do peito inchado". Valores altos de manganês foram obtidos nos municípios de Cacequí, Itaquí e Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul. Valores baixos de selênio foram verificados em amostras coletadas em Mato Grosso do Sul nos municípios de Corumbá e Aquidauana. Valores elevados de selênio foram obtidos no município de Boa Vista (Roraima. Os valores de ferro obtidos em grande parte das amostras de todos os Estados são elevados, sobretudo naquelas com baixos valores de cobre; nos animais afetados pelo "ronca" e pela "doença do peito inchado", os valores de ferro são particularmente altos. Valores baixos de ferro foram constatados em bovinos afetados pela hematúria enzoótica.Further results are given of studies on mineral deficiencies in cattle and sheep carried out by the authors over the last 25 years, and which began in the early fifties. The studies consisted in obtaining case histories of diseases possibly caused by mineral deficiencies, in field observations and clinical examinations of cattle and sheep affected by these diseases, in the performance of postmortem examinations with collection of material for histopathological examinations and chemical analyses of liver samples for copper, cobalt, zinc, mangnese, selenium and iron. In order to include also subclinical mineral deficiencies, which do not cause characteristic manifestations, liver samples of animals that succumbed to other diseases, mainly plant poisoning, were collected for chemical analyses. For interpretation the anlytical data were evaluated always together with the case history and the clinic-pathological picture of the animals. Copper deficiency was diagnosed in the counties of Barra do Bugres (Mato Grosso, Parintins (Amazonas and Carolina (Maranhão, in northeastern Minas Gerais, in the southern part of

  19. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  1. Nematódeos de ruminantes em pastagem com diferentes sistemas de pastejo com ovinos e bovinos Ruminant nematodes in pasture under different grazing systems with sheep and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Emília Figueiredo de Araújo Torres

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de pastejo, com ovinos e bovinos, sobre a quantidade de larvas no estágio L3 de nematódeos de ruminantes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial com quatro sistemas de pastejo e quatro períodos de rotação de pastagem. A duração do experimento foi de 91 dias, com sistema rotacionado (7 dias de ocupação e 21 de descanso, em 8 ha de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. Foram avaliados os sistemas de pastejo: alternado, simultâneo e isolado, com ovinos e com bovinos. Foram utilizados 20 bovinos (mestiços, 30 cordeiros e 15 ovelhas adultas (raça Santa Inês. As amostras do capim, para recuperação e identificação dos nematódeos, foram realizadas semanalmente no pré e pós-pastejo dos piquetes. Na média geral de todos os manejos, a ordem decrescente de número de larvas foi: Haemonchus spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides spp. e Cooperia spp. Correlações médias foram encontradas entre as quantidades de larvas L3 no pré e pós-pastejo. Com o aumento do número de rotações, houve aumento no grau de contaminação da pastagem pelas larvas, independentemente do sistema adotado. O sistema de pastejo simultâneo foi o que apresentou maior controle da carga parasitária de Haemonchus spp. na pastagem de capim-tanzânia.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different grazing management systems on the parasitic nematode load (L3 larvae in ruminants. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial arrangement with four grazing systems and four rotations. The experimental period was 91 days, in a rotational system (7 days of occupation and 21 of days rest, in 8-ha pasture cultivated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia. The different management systems evaluated were: alternate, simultaneous and isolate whit cattle and sheep. Twenty mixed breed cattle, 30 lambs and 15 ewes

  2. Goat's milk: characteristics and possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Ida Drgalić

    2002-01-01

    Goat's milk today gets more and more attention. In comparison with other types of milk, the production of goat's milk increases the most. Although, the basic composition of goat's and cow's milk is very similar, goat's milk has an important dietetic and therapeutic advantages. In spite of that goat's milk is less explored. In this paper all main components of goat's milk and the somatic cells number are compared with cow's milk. Special emphasis is given on taste and therapeutic value of goat...

  3. An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadio Rita

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goat (Capra hircus represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. Results We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat, with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs: on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome. These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P Conclusions We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the

  4. Classical scrapie prions are associated with peripheral blood monocytes and T-lymphocytes from naturally infected sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that affects sheep and goats. As detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay, previous studies suggested scrapie prions in the blood of sheep might be associated with B lymphocytes but not with monocytes or T lymphocytes. The association of sc...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Strain NM2010, Which Was Isolated from a Sheep in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hui; HUANG Hai-bi; CHENG Chen; WANG Ren-chao; ZHENG Jia-qi; HAO Yong-qing; ZHANG Wen-guang

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, a kind of mycoplasma bacteria, commonly infects the respiratory tract causing respiratory disease in sheep and goats worldwide. Here, the complete genome sequence of M. ovipneumoniae strain NM2010 isolated from a sheep in China was reported for the ifrst time.

  6. Technological suitability of sheep milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual world sheep milk production is estimated at the level of 8.2 million tons and constitutes 1.5% of the total milk production obtained from various species of mammals. Majority of this milk is used to manufacture cheeses and fermented beverages. These products are commonly considered as regional articles and are protected by legal regulations which guarantee their taste and aroma typical for a given region and which they owe to traditional production technologies. In Poland, sheep are reared, primarily, in mountainous areas (Podhale, Bieszczady but also in Wielkopolska and Podlasie. The sheep population in Poland is estimated at 223 000 animals but milk is obtained only from a small number of animals and its annual production is assessed at the level of 1000 t. The nutritional value of sheep milk is higher in comparison with goat or cow milk. Sheep milk protein is characterised by a high biological value comparable with the biological value of the whole chicken egg. In addition, products manufactured from sheep milk possess high nutritive value. Due to its rich chemical composition, sheep milk provides an excellent raw material for processing into maturing soft and hard cheeses (75-80% of protein is casein, for fermented beverages, both natural and with different tastes, as well as butter, ghee and ice-cream. High proportion of dry matter (up to 18% found in sheep milk does not require application of any thickeners in production of fermented beverages. That is why these beverages are fully natural and free of additives.

  7. 77 FR 75859 - Pyraflufen-Ethyl; Extension of Time-Limited Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... was sufficient to establish tolerances for cattle, goat, horse, and sheep meat byproducts and milk...- ethyl temporary tolerances for cattle, goat, horse and sheep meat byproducts, and milk are ``safe'' and... time-limited tolerances for residues of pyraflufen-ethyl in or on cattle, meat byproducts; goat,...

  8. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm

    OpenAIRE

    BOND, K. A.; Vincent, G.; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L.; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R.; Lim, K.; Athan, E.; O. Harris; MACFARLANE-BERRY, L.; Segal, Y.; FIRESTONE, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7–27]; acti...

  9. THE PREVALENCE OF WORMY SINUSITIS IN GOATS FROM THE WEST SIDE OF OUR COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA MOł

    2013-01-01

    On the February-October period of year 2007 were been examined 84 sheep heads and 51 goats heads, from mixed flocks of private breeders from Timis and Caras- Severin districts. Sheep were from łurcana breed, goats from White of Banat breed and both categories of animals were 2-7 years aged. The necropsy of heads aimed the Oestrus ovis larvae discovery, from all three stages of development, in nasal ways and sinuses. The obtained results confirmed another time that the Oestrus ovis prevalence ...

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Lenferink, A.; Schneeberger, P.; Aangenend, H.; Vellema, P.; Hautvast, J.L.; Duynhoven, Y. Van

    2012-01-01

    Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on th

  11. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  12. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  13. Strain characterization of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elissondo, M C; Dopchiz, M C; Zanini, F; Pérez, H; Brasesco, M; Denegri, G

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the strain of protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development. The in vitro development of these samples was compared to samples of sheep origin determined previously by genetic analyses as common sheep strain (G1). There were similarities between sheep and cattle samples not only in the time of microcysts formation, but also in the development process. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. In the sheep samples, microcysts were observed between 19 and 20 days. In the cattle samples, microcysts appeared between 20 and 23 days. The coincidence between the development times and physiological characteristics found in the present study may indicate that the parasites from cattle and sheep were of the same strain.

  14. Strain characterization of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissondo M.C.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the strain of protoscoleces of E. granulosus of cattle origin using the in vitro vesicular development. The in vitro development of these samples was compared to samples of sheep origin determined previously by genetic analyses as common sheep strain (G1. There were similarities between sheep and cattle samples not only in the time of microcysts formation, but also in the development process. Vesiculated protoscoleces and protoscoleces with posterior bladders appeared during the first week of incubation. After 14 days of culture, a laminated layer appeared like a fine membrane in one of the extremes of the protoscoleces. In the sheep samples, microcysts were observed between 19 and 20 days. In the cattle samples, microcysts appeared between 20 and 23 days. The coincidence between the development times and physiological characteristics found in the present study may indicate that the parasites from cattle and sheep were of the same strain.

  15. 21 CFR 500.55 - Exemption from certain drug-labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 300 milligrams per dosage unit. Epinephrine injection. 1:1,000. For cats, dogs, cattle, goats, horses... cats, dogs, cattle, goats, horses, pigs, and sheep. Thyroid. For oral use in dogs, not in excess of...

  16. 40 CFR 180.459 - Triasulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... million Barley, grain 0.02 Barley, straw 2.0 Cattle, fat 0.1 Cattle, kidney 0.5 Cattle, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.1 Cattle, meat 0.1 Goat, fat 0.1 Goat, kidney 0.5 Goat, meat byproducts, except kidney 0..., meat 0.1 Milk 0.02 Sheep, fat 0.1 Sheep, kidney 0.5 Sheep, meat byproducts, except kidney 0.1...

  17. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  18. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  20. Molecular investigation of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia intestinalis isolates in humans, dogs and cats, sheep, goats and cattle in Araçatuba (São Paulo State, Brazil by the analysis of ß-giardin gene fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenir Alves Macedo de Godoy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the period from July 2009 to October 2010, fecal samples from 61 animals and 154 humans from the municipality of Aracatuba (São Paulo State, Brazil were studied. Fecal samples from animals were collected in the Municipal Animal Shelter and the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Estadual Paulista. Human fecal specimens were collected in playschools in the outskirts of the city by the private network of clinical analysis laboratories of the municipal. Diagnosis was done by optical microscopy using the Faust and Hoffmann, Pons and Janer techniques. The genotypes of Giardia intestinalis were characterized by PCR-RFLP and confirmed by sequencing the ß-giardin gene. Human specimens were positive in 25.3% (39/154 of the cases with 26.8% (36/134 of the specimens from children and 15% (3/20 from adults being positive. The frequency of G. intestinalis among the animals was 23.0% (14/61. A total of 32 isolates of G. intestinalis obtained from human feces and six from dogs and cats were characteristic of the A genotype (AI and AII/AIII. The results of this study in respect to frequency of giardiasis are similar to reported in most studies in Brazil. The prevalence observed in animal populations conforms to worldwide infection rates. G. intestinalis genotypes considered zoonotic were detected in both pets and humans from the city of Aractuba, suggesting a possible zoonotic transmission of the parasite in the northwestern region of São Paulo State. The absence of these genotypes in farm animals may imply that they are not involved in the chain of transmission to humans in this region.

  1. Regulations of Quarantine Inspection-Slaughtering Cattle, Sheep and Goats(Adapted)%《牛羊屠宰检疫规范》(节选)--江苏省地方标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1基本条件 1.1屠宰场 1.1.1屠宰场的设置应符合GB12649(肉类加工厂卫生规范)、GB/T17237-1998(畜类屠宰加工通用技术条件)、NY5028(畜禽产品加工用水质)的规定.

  2. DETECTION OF Helicobacter pylori IN GASTRIC MUCOSA OF SHEEP: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rella; C. Tamborrino; G. V. Celano; Normanno, G; Alberti, F.; A. Dambrosio; N.C. Quaglia

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an organism widespread in humans and sometimes responsible for serious illnesses. It has been hypothesized the existence of animal reservoirs, and that the infection route by H. pylori involves multiple pathways including food-borne transmission as the microorganism has been detected from sheep, goat and cow milk. This work reports the preliminary results of a survey conducted in order to investigate the presence of H. pylori in gastric mucosa of sheep slaughtered in Ap...

  3. Analysis of wolves and sheep. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, J.; Papcun, G.; Zlokarnik, I.; Nix, D.

    1997-08-01

    In evaluating speaker verification systems, asymmetries have been observed in the ease with which people are able to break into other people`s voice locks. People who are good at breaking into voice locks are called wolves, and people whose locks are easy to break into are called sheep. (Goats are people that have a difficult time opening their own voice locks.) Analyses of speaker verification algorithms could be used to understand wolf/sheep asymmetries. Using the notion of a ``speaker space``, it is demonstrated that such asymmetries could arise even though the similarity of voice 1 to voice 2 is the same as the inverse similarity. This explains partially the wolf/sheep asymmetries, although there may be other factors. The speaker space can be computed from interspeaker similarity data using multidimensional scaling, and such speaker space can be used to given a good approximation of the interspeaker similarities. The derived speaker space can be used to predict which of the enrolled speakers are likely to be wolves and which are likely to be sheep. However, a speaker must first enroll in the speaker key system and then be compared to each of the other speakers; a good estimate of a person`s speaker space position could be obtained using only a speech sample.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Echinococcus granulosus from goat isolates in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Jalousian, Fatemeh

    2012-08-01

    Hydatidosis is considered to be an important economic and human public health problem in Iran, where a variety of animals act as intermediate hosts. There is limited information about the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats. In this study, 20 isolates of E. granulosus obtained from goats were characterised by mitochondrial DNA sequencing and morphology of the metacestode. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 sequences were evaluated, and the sequence analysis indicated two genotypes within the isolates. 17 samples were identified as G1 strain, and 3 isolates were identified as G6 strain. The results of the morphological studies support the findings of the molecular studies. Two types of rostellar hooks were observed in the goat isolates, in agreement with the strain identification. Type 1 hooks were morphologically similar to those of the common sheep strains, whereas the dimensions of the hooks in type 2 were similar to those normally found in the camel strain. The morphological results suggest that Echinococcus of goat origin is phenotypically similar to either the sheep (G1) or the camel (G6) strains. Further, these results suggest that the transmission of the G1 genotype between sheep and goats seems to be the predominant mode of transmission, but further work is required to verify this.

  5. Sheep production as a Senecio spp. control tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Mota Bandarra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Since poisoning by Senecio spp. is one of the main causes of cattle death in southern Brazil, control of these plants is a priority for the local livestock production. After the pasture has been mowed, grazing by 16 sheep was efficient for controlling Senecio brasiliensis and Senecio madagascariensis populations in a 5.5-hectare area that had long been severely infested with these species. A total of 28,629 plants among S. brasiliensis (flower-of-souls, 10,122 and S.madagascariensis (fireweed, 18,507 were almost completely eliminated in a two-year period. The number of sheep was kept at 3.0 stock units/ha, but a variable number of cattle were temporarily stocked according to pasture availability. The major sanitary practice applied to the sheep was anthelmintic administration. Liver biopsies taken from sheep and cattle before and after experimental period didn't reveal any change associable with seneciosis. The performance levels of the sheep were comparable to those observed in flocks managed under traditional extensive grazing systems in southern Brazil.

  6. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  7. Genetic relationships among twelve Chinese indigenous goat populations based on microsatellite analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shi-Jun

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twelve Chinese indigenous goat populations were genotyped for twenty-six microsatellite markers recommended by the EU Sheep and Goat Biodiversity Project. A total of 452 goats were tested. Seventeen of the 26 microsatellite markers used in this analysis had four or more alleles. The mean expected heterozygosity and the mean observed heterozygosity for the population varied from 0.611 to 0.784 and 0.602 to 0.783 respectively. The mean FST (0.105 demonstrated that about 89.5% of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation within each population. A phylogenetic tree based on the Nei (1978 standard genetic distance displayed a remarkable degree of consistency with their different geographical origins and their presumed migration throughout China. The correspondence analysis did not only distinguish population groups, but also confirmed the above results, classifying the important populations contributing to diversity. Additionally, some specific alleles were shown to be important in the construction of the population structure. The study analyzed the recent origins of these populations and contributed to the knowledge and genetic characterization of Chinese indigenous goat populations. In addition, the seventeen microsatellites recommended by the EU Sheep and Goat Biodiversity Project proved to be useful for the biodiversity studies in goat breeds.

  8. Variation in the prion protein sequence in Dutch goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windig, J J; Hoving, R A H; Priem, J; Bossers, A; van Keulen, L J M; Langeveld, J P M

    2016-10-01

    Scrapie is a neurodegenerative disease occurring in goats and sheep. Several haplotypes of the prion protein increase resistance to scrapie infection and may be used in selective breeding to help eradicate scrapie. In this study, frequencies of the allelic variants of the PrP gene are determined for six goat breeds in the Netherlands. Overall frequencies in Dutch goats were determined from 768 brain tissue samples in 2005, 766 in 2008 and 300 in 2012, derived from random sampling for the national scrapie surveillance without knowledge of the breed. Breed specific frequencies were determined in the winter 2013/2014 by sampling 300 breeding animals from the main breeders of the different breeds. Detailed analysis of the scrapie-resistant K222 haplotype was carried out in 2014 for 220 Dutch Toggenburger goats and in 2015 for 942 goats from the Saanen derived White Goat breed. Nine haplotypes were identified in the Dutch breeds. Frequencies for non-wild type haplotypes were generally low. Exception was the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger (29%) and the S146 haplotype in the Nubian and Boer breeds (respectively 7 and 31%). The frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Toggenburger was higher than for any other breed reported in literature, while for the White Goat breed it was with 3.1% similar to frequencies of other Saanen or Saanen derived breeds. Further evidence was found for the existence of two M142 haplotypes, M142 /S240 and M142 /P240 . Breeds vary in haplotype frequencies but frequencies of resistant genotypes are generally low and consequently selective breeding for scrapie resistance can only be slow but will benefit from animals identified in this study. The unexpectedly high frequency of the K222 haplotype in the Dutch Toggenburger underlines the need for conservation of rare breeds in order to conserve genetic diversity rare or absent in other breeds. PMID:26991480

  9. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation. PMID:27157333

  10. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  11. 75 FR 56914 - Removal of the List of Ports of Embarkation and Export Inspection Facilities from the Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... others (import/ export agents and brokers). Affected entities could include beef cattle ranching and farming operations, dairy cattle and milk production operations, hog and pig farming operations, sheep and goat farming operations, and cattle feedlots. The Small Business Administration has...

  12. 40 CFR 180.566 - Fenpyroximate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or on the following commodities: Commodity Parts per million Cattle, fat 0.03 Cattle, meat 0.03 Cattle, meat byproducts, except kidney and liver 0.03 Goat, fat 0.03 Goat, meat 0.03 Goat, meat... kidney and liver 0.03 Milk 0.015 Sheep, fat 0.03 Sheep, meat 0.03 Sheep, meat byproducts, except...

  13. Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Brucella melitensis-Specific Antibodies in Goat Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, N. D.; Tabatabai, L B; Elzer, P. H.; Hagius, S D; Martin, B M; Hoffman, L J

    2005-01-01

    Brucella melitensis is the cause of brucellosis in sheep and goats, which often results in abortion. Few cases of B. melitensis infection in goats have occurred in the United States over the last 25 years. However, vigilance must be maintained, as it is for the bovine milk industry, to ensure that brucellosis is not introduced into the U.S. goat population. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for the detection...

  14. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  15. Boerka Goat: A Meat Type Goat of Boer X Kacang Crossbred

    OpenAIRE

    Simon P Ginting; Fera Mahmilia

    2008-01-01

    The world goat population has for three main types, namely meat goats, dairy goats and fiber goats. In Indonesia, goat meat is produced mainly the Kacang goat, a small-size type with low growth rate, but prolific. The development of new goat breed with larger mature weight and greater growth rate is important to promote and increase the goat meat production and consumption as well. The acceleration of meat goat production in Indonesia need to be stimulated due to the large pot...

  16. Detection of prions in the faeces of sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Linda A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Classical scrapie is a naturally transmitted prion disease of sheep and goats. Contaminated environments may contribute to the spread of disease and evidence from animal models has implicated urine, blood, saliva, placenta and faeces as possible sources of the infection. Here we sought to determine whether sheep naturally infected with classical scrapie shed prions in their faeces. We used serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA along with two extraction methods to examine faeces from sheep during both the clinical and preclinical phases of the disease and showed amplification of PrPSc in 7 of 15 and 14 of 14 sheep respectively. However PrPSc was not amplified from the faeces of 25 sheep not exposed to scrapie. These data represent the first demonstration of prion shedding in faeces from a naturally infected host and thus a likely source of prion contamination in the environment.

  17. 40 CFR 180.405 - Chlorsulfuron; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per million Cattle, fat 0.3 Cattle, meat 0.3 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.3 Goat, fat 0.3 Goat, meat 0.3... byproducts 0.3 Horse, fat 0.3 Horse, meat 0.3 Horse, meat byproducts 0.3 Milk 0.1 Sheep, fat 0.3 Sheep,...

  18. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  19. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  20. Morphohistological and surgical anatomy of the sinus interdigitalis in Egyptian native breeds of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Awaad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to characterize the gross and microscopic structures of the interdigital sinus in Egyptian native breeds of sheep and goats (Baladi sheep and goats to aid in conducting farther studies on such sinus and its surgical importance. The study was carried out on the distal fore and hind limb specimens (below the fetlock joint obtained from healthy mature ten Baladi sheep and ten Baladi goats of both sexes. For sheep, thirty specimens were subjected to gross anatomical investigation and the other ten specimens were used for histological examination. While, the forty goats fore and hind feet specimens were examined grossly. The results obtained revealed the presence of a well-developed interdigital sinus in Baladi sheep, but there was no evidence for the existence of this unique structure in all examined specimens of Baladi goats. Such sinus appeared grossly as a pipe-like, composed of two parts; body (corpus and neck (column which opened in the skin of the interdigital area with an external orifice. The body consisted of three distinct parts in the forefeet and a single part in the hind feet. Histologically, the wall in body and neck regions of the interdigital sinus composed of three distinct layers; epidermis, dermis and a fibrous capsule. Many sebaceous glands, hair follicles and sweat glands in addition to the glandular apocrine gland were distributed within the dermis. The secretory adenomers of the interdigital sinus arranged in different lobules and lined with cuboidal cells with bleb-like projections. It reacted positively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS, Sudan black and Sudan III stains, on the other hand it negatively reacted with Alcian blue stain (AB.

  1. Genetic resistance to infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S C

    2015-12-14

    This paper considers genetic resistance to infectious disease in sheep, with appropriate comparison with goats, and explores how such variation may be used to assist in disease control. Many studies have attempted to quantify the extent to which host animals differ genetically in their resistance to infection or in the disease side-effects of infection, using either recorded animal pedigrees or information from genetic markers to quantify the genetic variation. Across all livestock species, whenever studies are sufficiently well powered, then genetic variation in disease resistance is usually seen and such evidence is presented here for three infections or diseases of importance to sheep, namely mastitis, foot rot and scrapie. A further class of diseases of importance in most small ruminant production systems, gastrointestinal nematode infections, is outside the scope of this review. Existence of genetic variation implies the opportunity, at least in principle, to select animals for increased resistance, with such selection ideally used as part of an integrated control strategy. For each of the diseases under consideration, evidence for genetic variation is presented, the role of selection as an aid to disease control is outlined and possible side effects of selection in terms of effects in performance, effects on resistance to other diseases and potential parasite/pathogen coevolution risks are considered. In all cases, the conclusion is drawn that selection should work and it should be beneficial, with the main challenge being to define cost effective selection protocols that are attractive to sheep farmers. PMID:26260859

  2. Researches Concerning Body Development of Carpatina Purebreds and Boer Crossed Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vicovan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Researches were carried out at the Institute of Research and Development for Sheep and Goat Breeding from Palas - Constanta, situated in Eastern Romania. A comparative study was implemented concerning body development of four adult goat genotypes, as follows: Carpatina purebreds (n=25 and 74 crossbred goats, with different gene inputs from the South African Boer breed, F1 Boer x Carpatina, R1 Boer x (Boer x Carpatina and R1 Carpatina x (Carpatina x Boer. In order to evaluate the body development of the adult goats from the four genotypes, several body measurements were taken, following aspects such as the animal's height and body length, width and circumference measurements, with the purpose to calculate indices which to define the hindquarter's muscling indexes. Results have shown that between the Carpatina goats and those with 25% input genes from the Boer breed, the differences regarding the body weight and muscling indexes were not significant (p>0.05. F1 Boer x Carpatina crossbreeds had the body width and the hindquarters muscling indexes significantly higher (p≤0.001 in both does and bucks, when compared to Carpatina. R1 goats having 75% input genes from the Boer breed had significantly higher (p≤0.001 body measurements when concerning the hindquarters muscling indexes, compared to Carpatina purebreds. Results suggest that Boer back-crossing the indigenous Carpatina has the potential to increase both quantity and quality of the goat meat production.

  3. 40 CFR 180.319 - Interim tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lettuce, leaf; pea; safflower, seed; spinach; and beet, sugar, roots and beet, sugar, tops 0.5 Egg; cattle, fat; cattle meat; cattle, meat byproducts; goat, fat; goat, meat; goat, meat byproducts; hog, fat; hog, meat; hog, meat byproducts; horse, fat; horse, meat; horse, meat byproducts; milk; sheep, fat;...

  4. DNA polymorphism at the casein loci in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Pieragostini, E; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    By using seven endonucleases and four bovine cDNA probes specific for alpha S1-, alpha S2-, beta-, and kappa-casein genes, nine restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been found in the sheep orthologous DNA regions. In contrast to the low level of variation observed at the protein level, these DNA polymorphisms determine a high level of heterozygosity and, therefore, represent useful tools for genetic analyses since they can also be obtained without the need for gene expression. In fact, informative matings suggest that in sheep, as in cattle, the four loci are linked.

  5. The use of legume and herb forage species to create high performance pastures for sheep and cattle grazing systems Uso de leguminosas e forrageiras herbáceas para criar pastos de alto desempenho para sistema de pastejo de ovinos e bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter David Kemp

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and cattle farmers need pastoral systems that are more productive and environmentally sustainable. The role that high feeding value herb and legume forage species can play in the farms of the future is highlighted. It is shown that species such as chicory (Cichorium intybus, plantain (Plantago lanceolata, red clover (Trifolium pratense and white clover (T.repens can provide live weight gains in lambs that are 70% greater than those from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne based pastures. A case for replicated experiments that examine the value of whole technology packages based on herb and legume species, rather than component research, is made.Produtores de ovinos e bovinos necessitam de sistemas pastoris mais produtivos e ambientalmente sustentáveis. As espécies forrageiras herbáceas e leguminosas de alto valor nutricional podem ter um papel destacado no futuro desses produtores. Foi demonstrado que espécies tais como a chicória (Cichorium intybus, plantago (Plantago lanceolata, trevo vermelho (Trifolium pratense e trevo-branco (T. repens podem fornecer um ganho de peso 70% maior em carneiros quando comparado com pastagens de azevém (Lolium perenne. Mais que um componente de pesquisa, este é um caso para repetidos experimentos que examinem o valor de todos os pacotes tecnológicos baseados em espécies herbáceas e leguminosas.

  6. Caprine prion genen polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, W.; Ryan, K.; Stewart, P.; Parnham, D.; Xicohtencatl, R.; Fernandez, N.; Saunders, G.; Windl, O.; Gonzalez, L.; Bossers, A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade

  7. The catalogCleaner: Separating the Sheep from the Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S. C.; Schweitzer, R.; Koyuk, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) is NOAA's effort to successfully integrate data and information with partners in the national US-Global Earth Observation System (US-GEO) and the international Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). As part of the GEO-IDE, the Unified Access Framework (UAF) is working to build momentum towards the goal of increased data integration and interoperability. The UAF project is moving towards this goal with an approach that includes leveraging well known and widely used standards and focusing initially on well understood data types, such as gridded data from climate models. This phased approach serves to engage data providers and users and also has a high probability of demonstrable successes. The UAF project shares the widely held conviction that the use of data standards is a key ingredient necessary to achieve interoperability. Many community-based consensus standards fail, though, due to poor compliance. Compliance problems emerge for many reasons: because the standards evolve through versions, because documentation is ambiguous or because individual data providers find the standard inadequate as-is to meet their special needs. In addition, minimalist use of standards will lead to a compliant service, but one which is of low quality. For example, serving five hundred individual files from a single climate model might be compliant, but enhancing the service so that those files are all aggregated together into one virtual dataset and available through a single access URL provides a much more useful service. The UAF project began showcasing the advantages of providing compliant data by manually building a master catalog generated from hand-picked THREDDS servers. With an understanding that educating data managers to provide standards compliant data and metadata can take years, the UAF project wanted to continue increasing the volume of data served through the master catalog as much as possible. However, it quickly became obvious, through the sheer volume of data servers available, that the manual process of building a master catalog was not scalable. Thus, the idea for the catalogCleaner tool was born. The goal of this tool is to automatically crawl a remote OPeNDAP or THREDDS server, and from the information in the server build a "clean" catalog of data that will be: a) served through uniform access services; b) have CF compliant metadata; c) directly link the data to common visualization tools thereby allowing users to immediately begin exploring actual data. In addition, the UAF-generated clean catalog can then be used to drive data discovery tools such as Geoportal, GI-CAT, etc. This presentation will further explore the motivation of creating this tool, the implementation of this tool, as well as the myriad of challenges and difficulties there were encountered along the way.

  8. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  9. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  10. Treatment of multiple resistant field strain of Ostertagia spp. in Cashmere and Angora goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Várady, M; Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1994-05-01

    A multiple resistant field strain of gastro-intestinal nematodes was detected in Cashmere and Angora goats imported from New Zealand. Different treatments with three types of broad spectrum anthelmintics (albendazole, levamisole/tetramisole and ivermectin) at various dose rates are described. Satisfactory effect in Angora goats was not achieved until all three anthelmintics were administered simultaneously at twice the normal sheep dose. Post mortem worm counts and identification revealed that the resistant population consisted of 89% Ostertagia circumcincta, 6% Ostertagia ostertagi and 5% Ostertagia trifurcata. However, egg hatch assay carried out seven months later detected the presence of resistant nematodes again.

  11. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen Inger L; Ehrlenbruch Rebecca; Bøe Knut E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 l...

  12. Morphological identification of parasitic nematode infective larvae of small ruminants and cattle: A practical lab guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Mayhew

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a new concept was introduced for simplifying identification of larvae of the common nematodes of cattle, sheep and goats that comprises estimates of the lengths of the sheath tail extensions of infective third-stage larvae (L3 of each genus and/or species to that of Trichostrongylus spp., instead of having to be dependent only on measurements in micrometre. For example, if the mean length of the sheath tail extension (the extension of the sheath caudad, beyond the caudal tip of the larva of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Trichostrongylus axei is assumed to be ‘X’, then that ofHaemonchus contortus is 2.0–2.7 ‘X’ – a difference that is not difficult to estimate. An additional new approach suggested now, particularly for L3 of species and/or genera difficult to differentiate (such as Chabertia ovina and Oesophagostomum columbianum, is to estimate the proportion of the larval sheath tail extension comprising a terminal thin, whip-like filament. For the experienced person, it is seldom necessary to measure more than one or two sheath tail extensions of L3 in a mixed culture, because the identity of most of the remaining L3 can thereafter be estimated in relation to those measured, without having to take further measurements. The aim of this article was to present the novel approach in the form of a working guide for routine use in the laboratory. To facilitate identification, figures and a separate organogram for each of small ruminants and cattle have been added to illustrate the distinguishing features of the common L3.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean black goat (Capra hircus aegagrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is a chronic incurable infection of intestinal tract of animals. The study took place in 2012, on 491 Korean black goats, older than 2 years, from goat herds located in Southern region, Korea. The animals were sampled and tested for paratuberculosis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microbiological culture were used to investigate MAP infection. Among the 491 goats from 100 herds screened, 4 (0.8% and 3 (0.6% goats were defined positive for MAP by ELISA and faecal culture, respectively. Isolated colonies were confirmed as MAP by IS900-PCR, and genotyped by IS1311 PCR-REA assays. The results revealed MAP infection at a low prevalence rate with "cattle type" and "bison type" genotypes.

  14. 7 CFR 65.150 - Goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.150 Goat. Goat means meat produced from goats. ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goat. 65.150 Section 65.150 Agriculture Regulations...

  15. Driving with a Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素菊

    2006-01-01

    <正>A highway patrol officer was sitting in his car beside the road one day when he noticed a man driving with a goat in the back seat of his car.Turning on the lights,he pulled out,sped up, and pulled the man over.

  16. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  17. Parturition difficulties in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grommers, F. J.; Elving, L.; Eldik, P. van

    1985-01-01

    The incidence of difficult parturition was recorded in Texel Sheep lambs (224), Milk Sheep lambs (273) and various crossbreeds (1043) in ten spring lambing seasons. at lambing time the ewes were under 24-hour observation. Difficult parturition is defined as necessity for obstetrical assistance as a

  18. Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kush Shrivastava

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class II DRB1 gene polymorphism in Rohilkhandi goat using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequencing techniques. Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from 127 Rohilkhandi goats maintained at sheep and goat farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. A 284 bp fragment of exon 2 of DRB1 gene was amplified and digested using BsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Population genetic parameters were calculated using Popgene v 1.32 and SAS 9.0. The genotypes were then sequenced using Sanger dideoxy chain termination method and were compared with related breeds/species using MEGA 6.0 and Megalign (DNASTAR software. Results: TaqI locus showed three and BsaI locus showed two genotypes. Both the loci were found to be in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE, however, population genetic parameters suggest that heterozygosity is still maintained in the population at both loci. Percent diversity and divergence matrix, as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MHC Class II DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goats was found to be in close cluster with Garole and Scottish blackface sheep breeds as compared to other goat breeds included in the sequence comparison. Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP patterns showed population to be in HWE and absence of one genotype at one locus (BsaI, both the loci showed excess of one or the other homozygote genotype, however, effective number of alleles showed that allelic diversity is present in the population. Sequence comparison of DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goat with other sheep and goat breed assigned Rohilkhandi goat in divergence with Jamanupari and Angora goats.

  19. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics compared to recommended withdrawal periods for cows

    OpenAIRE

    J. Karzis; E.F. Donkin; I.M. Petzer

    2007-01-01

    Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH]), Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use in cattle. Three trials were carried out in two different herds. The withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in eight relatively lo...

  20. 40 CFR 180.236 - Triphenyltin hydroxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 Cattle, fat 0.2 Cattle, kidney 2.0 Cattle, liver 4.0 Cattle, meat 0.5 Goat, fat 0.2 Goat, kidney 2... Horse, kidney 2.0 Horse, liver 4.0 Horse, meat 0.5 Milk 0.06 Pecan 0.05 Potato 0.05 Sheep, fat 0.2...

  1. Identification of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in Saanen goats in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viral pathogens of livestock and causes substantial economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. BVDV is not necessarily species specific and is known to infect domesticated and wild ruminants. In the present study, BVDV infection was identified in two Saanen goats from one farm, and two different viral subtypes were found, BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a. Each isolate was closely related to cattle isolates identified in the Republic of Korea. The two sequences obtained in this study were not consistent with border disease virus (BDV). The incidence of BVDV in this farm apparently occurred in the absence of contact with cattle and may be associated with grazing. This study demonstrates that BVDV infection may be possible to transmit among goats without exposure to cattle. Therefore, this result indicates that Saanen goats may act as natural reservoirs for BVDV. This is the first report of BVDV-1a infection in a Saanen goat. PMID:26992733

  2. Sheep poisoning by Panicum dichotomiflorum in northeastern Brazil Intoxicação por Panicum dicotomiflorum em ovinos na região nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of Panicum, including P. dichotomiflorum,have been reported as a cause of photosensitization in sheep, horses, cattle and goats. An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization occurred in 3 flocks of hair sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. Eighty one out of 365 sheep were affected and 39 died. The main affected animals were nursing lambs and sheep younger than one year old. Donkeys, goats and cattle grazing in the same pasture were not affected. Clinical signs were edema of the head, followed by dermatitis, mainly in the face, ears, and croup, ocular discharge, corneal opacity with blindness, and redness of the coronary band and hoof. At necropsy of one affected lamb the liver was yellowish. Upon histologic examination scattered necrotic hepatocytes were observed in the liver and focal areas of necrosis of myocytes appeared in the heart. Samples of P. dicotomiflorum were analyzed by TLC and those containing saponins were isolated by HPLC using RP-C18 column and eluted with a mixture of MeOH and H2O. The isolated compounds were submitted to ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Reactions were positive to furostanol saponins with the same Rf of the standard protodioscin (0.21 and methylprotodioscin (0.32. The spectroscopic results indicated a mixture of (25R- and (25S-protodioscin isomers in a proportion of 3:1, and methylprotodioscin.Diferentes espécies de Panicum, incluindo P. dichotomiflorum,causam fotossensibilização em ovinos, eqüinos, bovinos e caprinos. Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena ocorreu em 3 rebanhos de ovinos no município de Casa Nova, Bahia. Oitenta e um de 365 ovinos adoeceram e 39 morreram. Cordeiros lactentes e ovinos de menos de um ano foram mais afetados. Jumentos, cabras e bovinos que permaneciam nas mesmas pastagens não foram afetados. Clinicamente observou-se edema da face, seguido por dermatite, principalmente da face, orelhas e garupa, corrimento ocular, opacidade da córnea com cegueira

  3. Congenital Goitre in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema, A. Shakoor and A. H. Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One full-term, dead foetus was successfully removed from a 5-year old, crossbred black and white goat. The goat was stall-fed with green fodder and it delivered two dead foetuses in the previous pregnancy. The foetus had a large swelling in the cranio-ventral neck region. Upon cutting skin, the swelling revealed extremely enlarged thyroid gland having two asymmetrical lobes with the right lobe was 8.10 x 15.0 cm and the left 5.5 x 8.6 cm in size. The skin was devoid of hair, pale-white and thickened with myxedema. Histologically, the enlarged thyroid consisted of colloid goitre and the lungs were oedematous. This case of congenital goitre was unusual and differed from the reported cases in two aspects viz 1 the two lobes were enlarged but unequal and 2 histologically goitre was colloid instead of usual hyperplastic type.

  4. Experimental infection of cattle with ovine Dichelobacter nodosus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Jørgensen, Hannah Joan; Jensen, Tim Kåre;

    2015-01-01

    be transferred to the interdigital skin of cattle under experimental conditions. Further, we wanted to observe the impact of such infection on bovine foot health, and test the effect of topical chlortetracycline (Cyclo spray(®): Eurovet) on the infection. Six heifers were included in the study. After an initial......Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative agent of ovine footrot, and there are strong indications that the bacterium can be transferred to cattle grazing on the same pasture as sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate if benign and virulent D. nodosus strains isolated from sheep can......, the study supports the hypothesis that infections with virulent D. nodosus in cattle are associated with interdigital dermatitis. No conclusion regarding the treatment of D. nodosus infection with chlortetracycline was possible....

  5. NEW STRATEGIES OF ORGANIZING THE TECHNOLOGIC FLOW WITHIN THE SHEEP AND GOATS’ FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA ZOIA ZAMFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of increasing the total milk production and milked production, the superposition of sheep and goats’ milking over the servicing period and over the first two months of gestation. This fact influenced the milk sheep population – Palas an increase of the total average of milk with 14.58%, confronted by the sheep weaned before the servicing and by a milked production greater with 4.61%. The total average of milk production of sheep belonging to Palas Merino breed was 18.8% greater to the sheep within the gestation period and which were milked than the production of the sheep which were weaned before the servicing period, the average production of milked milk being 48.53%. The total average of milk production of the goats belonging to Carpatina breed was 30.,4% and 24.0 % greater to the goats within the gestation period and which were milked confronted by the production of the weaned goats before the servicing period and the average production of milked milk was 58.7% and 51.6% greater. In order to increase the milk production as merchandise the modification of suckling lambs and kids growing technology took place and also the early weaning of lambs and kids. The lambs belonging to Palas Merino breed were weaned at the average age of 44 days and having the weight of 14.78 ± 0.25 kg males and 14.34 ± 0.27 kg females; the lambs belonging to milk production Palas population were weaned at the average age of 38 days and having the weight of 12.05 ± 0.22 kg males and 11.16 ± 0.51 kg females ;the lambs belonging to Palas population were weaned at the average age of 42 days; the kids belonging to Carpatina breed were weaned at the age of 48 days .

  6. Characterization of Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome: sequencing, de novo assembly, functional annotation and comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liaoning cashmere goat is a famous goat breed for cashmere wool. In order to increase the transcriptome data and accelerate genetic improvement for this breed, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to generate the first expressed sequence tag dataset for the Liaoning cashmere goat, using next-generation sequencing technology. RESULTS: Transcriptome sequencing of Liaoning cashmere goat on a Roche 454 platform yielded 804,601 high-quality reads. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a non-redundant set of 117,854 unigenes, comprising 13,194 isotigs and 104,660 singletons. Based on similarity searches with known proteins, 17,356 unigenes were assigned to 6,700 GO categories, and the terms were summarized into three main GO categories and 59 sub-categories. 3,548 and 46,778 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the KEGG and COG databases, respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 42,254 unigenes were aligned to 17,532 different sequences in NCBI non-redundant nucleotide databases. 97,236 (82.51% unigenes were mapped to the 30 goat chromosomes. 35,551 (30.17% unigenes were matched to 11,438 reported goat protein-coding genes. The remaining non-matched unigenes were further compared with cattle and human reference genes, 67 putative new goat genes were discovered. Additionally, 2,781 potential simple sequence repeats were initially identified from all unigenes. CONCLUSION: The transcriptome of Liaoning cashmere goat was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the Liaoning cashmere goat transcriptome. The potential simple sequence repeats provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses.

  7. Detection of Cattle-derived and Sheep-derived Component in Fresh Meat by T-RFLP Method%T-RFLP快速鉴定生鲜肉中牛羊成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金辉; 李宝明; 尉婷媛; 周占琴; 武会娟

    2011-01-01

    试验旨在建立快速检测生鲜肉中牛、羊成分的定性分析方法.通过T-RFLP法,上游引物的5'端用6-FAM进行荧光标记,下游引物5'端用ROX进行荧光标记,PCR结束后选择限制性内切酶Hinf Ⅰ、Bln Ⅰ进行酶切消化,在测序仪上通过毛细管电泳即可检测荧光标记的两个末端的限制性片段.利用不同物种产生的不同峰谱达到对物种快速定性的目的.该法能够对生鲜肉中牛、羊肉进行定性鉴定分析,不同物种产生不同峰谱,限制性内切酶Hinf Ⅰ酶切牛肉样品所产生的限制性末端片段长度为46和373 bp,限制性内切酶Bln Ⅰ酶切羊肉样品所产生的限制性末端片段长度为203和515 bp.%To establish the qualitative analysis ways of fast testing the components of fresh sand mutton, taking strong measures against adulterations in the fresh meet. Using the T-RFLP method, the forward PCR primer was labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein amino hexy(6-FAM) fluorescent dye and reverse PCR primer was labeled with ROX fluorescent dye after digestion by restriction enzyme Hinf Ⅰ and Bln Ⅰ . The restricition fragment were analysed by capillary electrophoresis using an antomated DNA sequencer. We can realize species identification through their different peak. Qualitative species identifying in the fresh beef and mutton were successfully identified by this rapid molecular technique. The PCR products of beef DNA which were digested with Hinf Ⅰ demonstrated 46 and 373 bp, meanwhile 203 and 515 bp for goat DNA which were digested with Bln Ⅰ .

  8. Investigation of transferrin polymorphism in Garole sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devesh K; Taraphder, Subhash; Sahoo, Ajit K; Dhara, K C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetics of polymorph systems of Transferrin in Garole sheep breed. The present study was conducted on 95 adult Garole sheep comprising 52 ewes and 43 rams, maintained at Sheep and Goat Breeding Farm of West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, West Bengal, during the period from April-September, 2009. The polymorphism of transferrin was determined through SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique. It was found that the transferrin type was controlled by five codominant alleles (TfA, TfB, TfC TfD and TfE) in Garole sheep. These five alleles, because of co-dominant nature of inheritance, determined the occurrence of nine transferrin genotypes in the analyzed flock. Four (TfAA, TfBB, TfCC and TfDD) of these were homozygous and the remaining five (TfAD, TfBC, TfBD, TfCD and TfDE) heterozygous. It was found that the TfDD genotype (0.263) was predominant while TfDE genotype (0.042) was least common in the analyzed flock. Frequencies of other genotypes were as: TfCD(0.242), TfBD(0.126), TfCC(0.084), TfBB(0.074), TfAA(0.063), TfAD and TfBC (0.053 for each genotype ) in whole population. From the result it was found that in whole population combined, the heterozygotic genotypic frequency (0.516) was more than that of homozygotic genotypic frequency (0.484). Considerable variations were recognized in the frequencies of transferrin alleles. In the whole population frequencies of transferrin alleles were found to be TfA = 0.089, TfB = 0.163, TfC = 0.232, TfD = 0.495 and TfE = 0.021. Transferrin system has shown an absence of genetic equilibrium among the analyzed herd (chi2 value = 51.31). In conclusion, there were polymorphism in Transferrin types and the presence of differences among the frequencies of the five alleles by categories could be a source of genetic variation in Garole sheep. PMID:20349135

  9. 7 CFR 760.1103 - Eligible livestock and producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, equine, poultry, elk, reindeer, sheep, goats, swine, or...) Goats; (8) Sheep; (9) Equine; (10) Reindeer; (11) Elk; (12) Poultry; and (13) Deer. (d) Ineligible... participant's normal business operation, as determined by FSA; (2) Emus; (3) Yaks; (4) Ostriches; (5)...

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Methods for increasing ruminant production from available feed resources in Indonesia - nutrition-reproduction interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains summarized data on the effects of urea-molasses block (UMB) food supplements in dairy and beef cattle, sheep and goats in Java. In addition to improvements in growth and milk production, UMB supplements cause a significant enhancement of ovulation rate and hence fecundity in sheep and goats. Similar data for dairy cattle are not yet available. 5 tabs

  11. Zeus, Aesculapius, Amalthea and the proteome of goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2015-10-14

    The goat whey proteome has been explored in depth via capture with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs) at three different pH values. A total of 452 unique species have been tabulated, a proteome discovery so far unmatched in any single other investigation of milk from any mammalian species. This massive discovery is probably related to: i) the extraordinary load of proteins onto the CPLL beads (i.e. 2 g for each different pH captures) vs. barely 100 μL of beads; ii) the high resolution/high mass accuracy of mass spectral data; and iii) the use of two complementary tools, Mascot and PEAKS, each one contributing to a set of unique protein IDs. Due to the relative paucity of available protein annotations for goat, only 10% of the identified proteins belong to the capra, whereas 52% are specific of sheep and 37% are homologous to that of bovine milk. This work reports the largest description so far of the goat milk proteome, which has been compared with cow's milk proteome and would thus help to understand the importance of low-abundance proteins with respect to the unique biological properties of this nutrient. PMID:26193489

  12. Influence of Nutrition in Milk Production of Sheep and Lambs in Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Roşu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The sheeps breeding is an old and traditional activity in Romania country. Depending on the number of sheeps and goats, Romania ranks in the fourth among E.U. countries. The research was conducted on three groups of sheeps, from same breed. All groups sheeps were feeding with the same amount of food, but the ratio structure was different, in the following scheme conformities: group I - has been used a fibrous ratio; group II – has been used a juicy ratio; group III – has been used a concentrate ratio. Also, in all the groups was recorded the milk production and the weight of lambs in the first month of the life. Based on research conducted, the fallowing conclusions were drawn: The highest milk production was produced by sheeps in group I and group II; The weight of lambs in the first month of life was also influenced by the mother sheeps ratio structure; The largest increase growth was made of lambs coming from a group III, and the smallest increase was made of lambs coming a group II. As a general conclusion, the best results are obtained when the mother sheeps are fed with concentrate ratio type and fibrous ratio type.

  13. Modeling risk of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sells, Sarah N.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Nowak, J. Joshua; Lukacs, Paul M.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Gude, Justin A.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia epizootics are a major challenge for management of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) affecting persistence of herds, satisfaction of stakeholders, and allocations of resources by management agencies. Risk factors associated with the disease are poorly understood, making pneumonia epizootics hard to predict; such epizootics are thus managed reactively rather than proactively. We developed a model for herds in Montana that identifies risk factors and addresses biological questions about risk. Using Bayesian logistic regression with repeated measures, we found that private land, weed control using domestic sheep or goats, pneumonia history, and herd density were positively associated with risk of pneumonia epizootics in 43 herds that experienced 22 epizootics out of 637 herd-years from 1979–2013. We defined an area of high risk for pathogen exposure as the area of each herd distribution plus a 14.5-km buffer from that boundary. Within this area, the odds of a pneumonia epizootic increased by >1.5 times per additional unit of private land (unit is the standardized % of private land where global  = 25.58% and SD = 14.53%). Odds were >3.3 times greater if domestic sheep or goats were used for weed control in a herd's area of high risk. If a herd or its neighbors within the area of high risk had a history of a pneumonia epizootic, odds of a subsequent pneumonia epizootic were >10 times greater. Risk greatly increased when herds were at high density, with nearly 15 times greater odds of a pneumonia epizootic compared to when herds were at low density. Odds of a pneumonia epizootic also appeared to decrease following increased spring precipitation (odds = 0.41 per unit increase, global  = 100.18% and SD = 26.97%). Risk was not associated with number of federal sheep and goat allotments, proximity to nearest herds of bighorn sheep, ratio of rams to ewes, percentage of average winter precipitation, or whether herds were of native versus mixed

  14. Nitrogen supply in cattle coupled with appropriate supply of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum, a precursor to metabolisable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Ernst; Schuba, Jan; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this study was to calculate the amount of nitrogen (N) that cattle feed must contain in order to utilise the potential supply of utilisable crude protein at the duodenum provided by their energy intake without incurring a negative N balance, that is, without having to break down body protein. For this purpose, the literature was screened for measurements of net degradation and renal excretion of urea as well as N balances (N intake, faecal N and urinary N) in ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) fed diets with varying N concentrations. Irreversible loss of N from the body urea pool increased with increasing N intake, but net degradation of urea as a proportion of irreversible loss decreased concurrently. Faecal N appeared not to be influenced by N intake and exceeded 11 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) only in 7% of the data sets available. Urinary non-urea-N rarely exceeded 4 g/kg DMI and appeared independent of N intake. Urinary urea-N showed a clear dependence of N intake, and it is concluded that 1 g N/kg DMI is sufficient for compensating inevitable N losses in the form of urinary urea. In conclusion, ruminant rations should contain the following N concentrations (per kg DM) to account for obligatory losses: 11 g for compensating losses as faecal N, 4 g for compensating losses as urinary non-urea-N and 1 g for compensating inevitable losses as urinary urea-N. The derived recommendations should be helpful for limiting N excretion where this is desirable for ecological reasons. PMID:27216556

  15. Sheep persistently infected with Border disease readily transmit virus to calves seronegative to BVD virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Reichle, S F; Reichert, C; Hässig, M; Stalder, H P; Bachofen, C; Peterhans, E

    2014-01-10

    Bovine viral diarrhea- and Border disease viruses of sheep belong to the highly diverse genus pestivirus of the Flaviviridae. Ruminant pestiviruses may infect a wide range of domestic and wild cloven-hooved mammals (artiodactyla). Due to its economic importance, programs to eradicate bovine viral diarrhea are a high priority in the cattle industry. By contrast, Border disease is not a target of eradication, although the Border disease virus is known to be capable of also infecting cattle. In this work, we compared single dose experimental inoculation of calves with Border disease virus with co-mingling of calves with sheep persistently infected with this virus. As indicated by seroconversion, infection was achieved only in one out of seven calves with a dose of Border disease virus that was previously shown to be successful in calves inoculated with BVD virus. By contrast, all calves kept together with persistently infected sheep readily became infected with Border disease virus. The ease of viral transmission from sheep to cattle and the antigenic similarity of bovine and ovine pestiviruses may become a problem for demonstrating freedom of BVD by serology in the cattle population. PMID:24315041

  16. Detection of subclinical peste des petits ruminants virus infection in experimental cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, A; Saravanan, P; V. Balamurugan; Bhanuprakash, V.; G. Venkatesan; Sarkar, J.; Rajak, K. K.; Ahuja, A.; Yadav, V; Sudhakar, S. B.; Parida, S.; Singh, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of cattle in the epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) as subclinical carriers. Cattle were exposed experimentally to PPR virus (PPRV) infection or placed in contact with PPR infected goats. Clinical samples including heparinized/EDTA blood, plasma, peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMCs) and clotted blood (for serum) were collected periodically from 21 days post infection (dpi) to 397 dpi (21, 45, 50, 57, 65,...

  17. The impact of infection with Schmallenberg virus on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Damien; O'Neill, Ronan; Sammin, Donal; Clegg, Tracy A; More, Simon J

    2015-12-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease emerged in Europe in 2011, with the virus initially identified in Germany, and the first confirmed case of SBV infection in Ireland diagnosed in a dairy calf in October 2012. SBV was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR in 49 cattle herds and 39 sheep flocks. While these studies provide a good representation of the spatial distribution of SBV in Ireland, they do not quantify the impact of SBV on productivity. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact of SBV on weaning rate in Irish sheep flocks, based on data reported by Irish sheep farmers, and to evaluate weaning rate in sheep flocks as an indicator to be used in emerging disease surveillance systems. A questionnaire on productivity and management practices in sheep flocks was developed to gather data from sheep farmers. Valid responses from 267 sheep farmers were received. Negative binomial regression indicated that flocks with a confirmed SBV diagnosis had a weaning rate 0.9 times that of flocks free of SBV. The 10% reduction in weaning rates as a result of SBV is a justifiable concern for farmers and should be considered in formulating flock breeding policy. This study shows the value of a production database as an indicator of an emerging disease and the economic impact of that disease in Irish sheep flocks. PMID:26547824

  18. Bacteria in goat meat: Biological danger

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović S.; Pavlović I.; Žujović M.; Tomić Z.; Memiši N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world, especially in China, India, Pаkistаn and Nigeria goat meat represents an important foodstuff in nutrition of people. Goat meat is being increasingly consumed in Serbia owing to its distinctive taste and desirable chemical composition. As many other types of meat, goat meat can be the source of pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can find their way into meat of healthy goats or goats with no clinical symptoms premortally (infection) or postmortally (...

  19. Effects of arterial infusions of adrenalin and acetylcholine on luteal secretion of progesterone and oxytocin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R G; Payne, J H

    1998-07-15

    The effects of close intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine and adrenalin on ovarian secretion of progesterone and oxytocin were examined on Day 10 of the estrous cycle in goats (estrus = Day 0). Acetylcholine (15 micrograms/min) was without effect, but adrenalin (10 micrograms/min) significantly (P < 0.001) raised both progesterone and oxytocin concentrations in ovarian vein plasma. These results show that luteal hormone secretion is enhanced in the goat by beta-adrenergic stimulation and suggest that, as in the sheep and cow, there may be neuroendocrine involvement in the regulation of caprine luteal function. PMID:10734492

  20. A study of growth traits in goat breeds of northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan has 49.14 million goats. Goats are kept for milk and meat production and contribute significantly to the income of the rural farmers. Dairy goats are kept by the farmers belonging to poor socio-economic class of the society, mostly landless. Goat production is almost evenly distributed among all regions of Pakistan. The vast majority of small ruminant flock owners are small-scale farmers, sometimes landless. Mixed flocks are common, although separate flocks of sheep or goats can also be seen. The Northern Areas of Pakistan provide many chances for goat raising on pastures and goats are the main stay of the poorest segments of rural society. The data on goat breeds of Northern Areas is still lacking. The present study was planned to provide baseline information of growth traits of goat breeds of Northern Areas. Six goat breeds, found in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, Pameri, Gojali, Balti (pashmina bearing), Dareli, Jerakheil and Koh-e- Ghizer w ere studied for growth traits like birth weight, weaning weight, adult weight, body length, heart girth and height. The mean birth (males: 2.81 ± 0.111 females: 2.36 ± 0.777 kilograms), weaning (males: 13.14 ± females: 11.11 ± 0.779 kilograms) and adult (males: 70.79 C females: 46.11 ± 0.786 kilograms) weight was highest in Dareli followed by Jerakheil, Koh-e-Ghizer, Pameri, Balti and Gojali. Among the various breeds studied Jerakheil displayed higher body length (males: 85.93 ± 0.875 females: 75.48 ± 0.975 cm) followed by Daeli, Koh-e-Ghizer, Gojali, Pameri and Balti. Dareli was found the tallest breed (males: 85.41± 0.424 females: 74.13 ± 0.750 centimetres) and Pameri the shortest (males: 70.36 ± 0.710 females: 57.91 ± 0.342 centimetres). The mean heart girth was also highest in Dareli (males: 95.67 ± 2.00 females: 86.89 ± 0.475 centimetres) and lowest in Pameri (males: 70.42 ± 0.498 females: 65.32 ± 0.603 centimetres). The differences between sexes and breeds were significant for all the

  1. Generation of five human lactoferrin transgenic cloned goats using fibroblast cells and their methylation status of putative differential methylation regions of IGF2R and H19 imprinted genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT is a promising technique to produce transgenic cloned mammalian, including transgenic goats which may produce Human Lactoferrin (hLF. However, success percentage of SCNT is low, because of gestational and neonatal failure of transgenic embryos. According to the studies on cattle and mice, DNA methylation of some imprinted genes, which plays a vital role in the reprogramming of embryo in NT maybe an underlying mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fibroblast cells were derived from the ear of a two-month-old goat. The vector expressing hLF was constructed and transfected into fibroblasts. G418 selection, EGFP expression, PCR, and cell cycle distribution were applied sequentially to select transgenic cells clones. After NT and embryo transfer, five transgenic cloned goats were obtained from 240 cloned transgenic embryos. These transgenic goats were identified by 8 microsatellites genotyping and southern blot. Of the five transgenic goats, 3 were lived after birth, while 2 were dead during gestation. We compared differential methylation regions (DMR pattern of two paternally imprinted genes (H19 and IGF2R of the ear tissues from the lived transgenic goats, dead transgenic goats, and control goats from natural reproduction. Hyper-methylation pattern appeared in cloned aborted goats, while methylation status was relatively normal in cloned lived goats compared with normal goats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we generated five hLF transgenic cloned goats by SCNT. This is the first time the DNA methylation of lived and dead transgenic cloned goats was compared. The results demonstrated that the methylation status of DMRs of H19 and IGF2R were different in lived and dead transgenic goats and therefore this may be potentially used to assess the reprogramming status of transgenic cloned goats. Understanding the pattern of gene imprinting may be useful to improve cloning techniques in future.

  2. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  3. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control. PMID:26493615

  4. Analytical strategy for the detection of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carmen Beltrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics to treat mastitis and other infectious diseases in dairy sheep and goats is a widespread practice nowadays that can, when not properly applied, result in the contamination of the milk supply. Spanish legislation establishes the control of the presence of antibiotic residues in sheep and goat’s milk using screening methods that detect, at least, beta-lactam drugs. Microbial inhibitor tests using Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis and specific receptor-binding assays are most widely employed for this purpose. The detection rates of screening tests routinely used in Spain have been calculated considering the frequency of use of veterinary drugs commonly applied in ovine and caprine livestock to treat and prevent mastitis as well as the test sensitivity toward these substances at safety levels. In general, the use of a single test allows detecting 62.8-82.4% of the antibiotics employed. For sheep milk, the total detection range achieved with microbial tests was significantly higher than that reached with rapid receptor tests. However, no significant differences between the two types of methods were found when goat’s milk was analysed. In both types of milk, the simultaneous use of two screening tests with a different analytical basis increases the total detection range significantly, reaching values ≥ 90% in some cases (81.5-90.1% for sheep and 84.7-92.6% for goats. However, the periodical use of screening tests able to detect quinolones, macrolides or aminoglycosides would be recommended to carry out more efficient screening and ensure the safety of milk and dairy products from sheep and goats.

  5. 40 CFR 180.316 - Pyrazon; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., garden, tops 7.0 Beet, sugar, molasses 1.5 Beet, sugar, roots 0.2 Beet, sugar, tops 3.0 Cattle, fat 0.10 Cattle, liver 0.15 Cattle, meat 0.10 Cattle, meat byproducts, except liver 0.10 Goat, fat 0.10 Goat... Horse, meat 0.10 Horse, meat byproducts, except liver 0.10 Milk 0.02 Sheep, fat 0.10 Sheep, liver...

  6. Can SHEEP prevent wildfires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires have been shown to exhibit power law frequency-magnitude statistics with non-cumulative slope, or scaling exponent, b between approximately 1.3 slopes, smaller b values) in some regions. Ironically, aggressive wildfire suppression may be one of the most pernicious culprits. In order to study this problem, we present an agent based variation to the venerable Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model. In addition to conventional fires, we introduce a number of simulated herbivorous endemic and environmental process (SHEEP) agents to the lattice. SHEEP fracture and trim large clusters to produce steeper frequency-size distributions of fuel clusters and model fires. We discuss the role of cluster shape, or fractal dimension, in the model, and we propose several interpretations of the SHEEP agent. Of particular interest, we discuss the effects of fire suppression as well as wildlife and livestock populations with respect to wildfire hazard.

  7. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  8. Changes in the Butyrivibrio group of the rumen in lactating sheep fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil with or without marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Carrera, Tamara; Toral, Pablo G.; Hervás, Gonzalo; Frutos, Pilar; Belenguer, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Póster presentado en el 14th International Seminar of the FAO-CIHEAM Sub-Network on Sheep and Goat Nutrition: Feeding and management strategies to improve livestock productivity, welfare and product quality under climate change, p. S3-P-02. 15-18 de mayo de 2012. Túnez (Túnez).

  9. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27508236

  10. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1].

  11. The sero-monitoring of peste des petits ruminants antibodies in small ruminants and in cattle population with low prevalences of antibodies to rinderpest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010 sera samples from 68 non protected herds were tested against peste de petits ruminants virus antibodies (PPRVA) using CAMDA/OIE PPR ELISA kit, provided by EMVT/CIRAD. 91 samples (4.5%) were positive and the differences between provinces are statistically significant. The thermostable rinderpest vaccine produces in LANAVET was tested on field conditions. 109 cattles from SABGA zootechnical and veterinary center in the North-West province were vaccinated using thermostable rinderpest vaccine. 94 sera samples collected before and after vaccination were tested against RPVA using IAEA/FAO rinderpest vaccine. 94 sera samples collected before and after vaccination were tested against RPVA using IAEA/FAO rinderpest ELISA kit: 84 animals (89.3%) were positive. 813 sera samples collected from small ruminants in soudano-sahelian sub-population distributed into 43 herds were tested against PPRVA using CAMDA/OIE PPR ELISA kit (CIRAD/EMVT production). 181 sera were positive (22% prevalence), with 46% sheep and 14% goats. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Estimating the digestibility of Sahelian roughages from faecal crude protein concentration of cattle and small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlecht, E; Susenbeth, A

    2006-10-01

    Studies on diet selection and feed intake of ruminants in extensive grazing systems often require the use of simple approaches to determine the organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the ingested feed. Therefore, we evaluated the validity of the one-factorial exponential regression established by Lukas et al. [Journal of Animal Science 83 (2005) 1332], which estimates OMD from the faecal crude protein (FCP) concentration. The equation was applied to two sets of data obtained with free grazing and pen-fed cattle, sheep and goats ingesting low and high amounts of green and dry vegetation of Sahelian pastures as well as millet leaves and cowpea hay. Data analysis showed that the livestock species did not influence the precision of estimation of OMD from FCP. For the linear regression between measured and estimated OMD (%) across n = 431 individual observations, a regression coefficient of r2 = 0.65 and a residual standard deviation (RSD) of 5.87 were obtained. The precision of estimation was influenced by the data set (p = 0.033), the type of feed (p slope of the established exponential function to the present data resulted in a compression of the curve; while r2 remained unchanged, the RSD of the regression between measured and estimated OMD was reduced, when compared with the results obtained from the equation of Lukas et al. (2005). Estimating OMD from treatment means of FCP greatly improved the correlation between measured and estimated OMD for both the established function and the newly fit equation. However, if anti-nutritional dietary factors increase the concentration of faecal nitrogen from feed or endogenous origin, the approach might considerably overestimate diet digestibility. PMID:16958793

  13. Handmade cloned transgenic sheep rich in omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Technology of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT has been adapted worldwide to generate transgenic animals, although the traditional procedure relies largely on instrumental micromanipulation. In this study, we used the modified handmade cloning (HMC established in cattle and pig to produce transgenic sheep with elevated levels of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids. Codon-optimized nematode mfat-1 was inserted into a eukaryotic expression vector and was transferred into the genome of primary ovine fibroblast cells from a male Chinese merino sheep. Reverse transcriptase PCR, gas chromatography, and chromosome analyses were performed to select nuclear donor cells capable of converting omega-6 (n-6 into n-3 fatty acids. Blastocysts developed after 7 days of in vitro culture were surgically transplanted into the uterus of female ovine recipients of a local sheep breed in Xinjiang. For the HMC, approximately 8.9% (n  =925 of reconstructed embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. Four recipients became pregnant after 53 blastocysts were transplanted into 29 naturally cycling females, and a total of 3 live transgenic lambs were produced. Detailed analyses on one of the transgenic lambs revealed a single integration of the modified nematode mfat-1 gene at sheep chromosome 5. The transgenic sheep expressed functional n-3 fatty acid desaturase, accompanied by more than 2-folds reduction of n-6/n-3 ratio in the muscle (p<0.01 and other major organs/tissues (p<0.05. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transgenic sheep produced by the HMC. Compared to the traditional SCNT method, HMC showed an equivalent efficiency but proved cheaper and easier in operation.

  14. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  15. In vivo efficacy of chicory silage against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Desrues, Oliver; Williams, A; S. Thamsborg; Enemark, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Infections with parasitic nematodes are a persistent risk for grazing cattle, which is met with widespread use of synthetic anthelmintics. However, heavy reliance on these drugs may lead to selection of drug-resistant nematodes. Integrated control strategies, including anti-parasitic crops, are needed. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) can have an impact against sheep nematodes, but this has not been investigated in cattle. Our study aimed to assess the effect of chicory on infections with abomasal...

  16. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in clinically healthy German sheep flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilbert Angela

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current epidemiological data on the situation of Coxiella (C. burnetii infections in sheep are missing, making risk assessment and the implementation of counteractive measures difficult. Using the German state of Thuringia as a model example, the estimated sero-, and antigen prevalence of C. burnetii (10% and 25%, respectively was assessed at flock level in 39/252 randomly selected clinically healthy sheep flocks with more than 100 ewes and unknown abortion rate. Results The CHECKIT™ Q-fever Test Kit identified 11 (28% antibody positive herds, whereas real-time PCR revealed the presence of C. burnetii DNA in 2 (5% of the flocks. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis of 9 isolates obtained from one flock revealed identical profiles. All isolates contained the plasmid QpH1. Conclusions The results demonstrate that C. burnetii is present in clinically inconspicuous sheep flocks and sporadic flare-ups do occur as the notifications to the German animal disease reporting system show. Although C. burnetii infections are not a primary veterinary concern due to the lack of significant clinical impact on animal health (with the exception of goats, the eminent zoonotic risk for humans should not be underestimated. Therefore, strategies combining the interests of public and veterinary public health should include monitoring of flocks, the identification and culling of shedders as well as the administration of protective vaccines.

  17. Sensitive and specific detection of classical scrapie prions in the brains of goats by real-time quaking-induced conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Caughey, Byron; Graça, Telmo; Zhuang, Dongyue; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Schneider, David A

    2016-03-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) is a rapid, specific and highly sensitive prion seeding activity detection assay that uses recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen) to detect subinfectious levels of the abnormal isoforms of the prion protein (PrPSc). Although RT-QuIC has been successfully used to detect PrPSc in various tissues from humans and animals, including sheep, tissues from goats infected with classical scrapie have not yet been tested. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to (1) evaluate whether prion seeding activity could be detected in the brain tissues of goats with scrapie using RT-QuIC, (2) optimize reaction conditions to improve scrapie detection in goats, and (3) compare the performance of RT-QuIC for the detection of PrPSc with the more commonly used ELISA and Western blot assays. We further optimized RT-QuIC conditions for sensitive and specific detection of goat scrapie seeding activity in brain tissue from clinical animals. When used with 200  mM sodium chloride, both full-length sheep rPrPSen substrates (PrP genotypes A136R154Q171 and V136R154Q171) provided good discrimination between scrapie-infected and normal goat brain samples at 10(- )3 dilution within 15  h. Our findings indicate that RT-QuIC was at least 10,000-fold more sensitive than ELISA and Western blot assays for the detection of scrapie seeding activity in goat brain samples. In addition to PRNP WT samples, positive RT-QuIC reactions were also observed with three PRNP polymorphic goat brain samples (G/S127, I/M142 and H/R143) tested. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that RT-QuIC sensitively detects prion seeding activity in classical scrapie-infected goat brain samples. PMID:26653410

  18. Protection of Cattle against Rinderpest by Vaccination with Wild-Type but Not Attenuated Strains of Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara; Hodgson, Sophia; Logan, Nicola; Willett, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although rinderpest virus (RPV) has been eradicated in the wild, efforts are still continuing to restrict the extent to which live virus is distributed in facilities around the world and to prepare for any reappearance of the disease, whether through deliberate or accidental release. In an effort to find an alternative vaccine which could be used in place of the traditional live attenuated RPV strains, we have determined whether cattle can be protected from rinderpest by inoculation with vaccine strains of the related morbillivirus, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). Cattle were vaccinated with wild-type PPRV or either of two established PPRV vaccine strains, Nigeria/75/1 or Sungri/96. All animals developed antibody and T cell immune responses to the inoculated PPRV. However, only the animals given wild-type PPRV were protected from RPV challenge. Animals given PPRV/Sungri/96 were only partially protected, and animals given PPRV/Nigeria/75/1 showed no protection against RPV challenge. While sera from animals vaccinated with the vaccine strain of RPV showed cross-neutralizing ability against PPRV, none of the sera from animals vaccinated with any strain of PPRV was able to neutralize RPV although sera from animals inoculated with wild-type PPRV were able to neutralize RPV-pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus. IMPORTANCE Rinderpest virus has been eradicated, and it is only the second virus for which this is so. Significant efforts are still required to ensure preparedness for a possible escape of RPV from a laboratory or its deliberate release. Since RPV vaccine protects sheep and goats from PPRV, it is important to determine if the reverse is true as this would provide a non-RPV vaccine for dealing with suspected RPV outbreaks. This is probably the last in vivo study with live RPV that will be approved. PMID:26984722

  19. Pruritus is a common feature in sheep infected with the BSE agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Martin

    2008-04-01

    be independent of breed, affected genotype, dose, route of inoculation and whether BSE was passed into sheep from cattle or from other sheep, suggesting that the clinical phenotype of BSE is influenced by the TSE strain more than by other factors. The clinical phenotype of BSE in the genotypes and breed studied was indistinguishable from that described for classical scrapie cases.

  20. Salmonella in Sheep in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson E

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 several outbreaks of food poisoning in humans occurred in Iceland, that were traced to salmonella contamination of singed sheep heads. This prompted us to study the prevalence of salmonella infection in sheep and to trace where and how infection might have occurred. Faecal, intestinal contents and tonsillar samples were collected in the spring and autumn from sheep on 50 farms in the southwestern part of the country, where salmonellosis had been detected and from 5 farms in the northwestern part of the country. All faecal samples from the southwest were negative, whereas samples from 3 farms obtained in the autumn in the northwest were positive. Tonsillae taken in the autumn were positive in sheep from 3 farms in the southwest and 2 in the northwest. Our results show that salmonella infection is rare in Icelandic sheep but healthy carriers may harbour the bacteria in tonsillae. Salmonella was not detected in drainage from slaughterhouses nor in singed sheep heads.

  1. A comparative study of the fatty acid profiles in commercial sheep cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar, C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to characterize the FA profile of sheep cheese marketed in Chile. Fifty-eight cheeses were collected from supermarkets of 5 different Chilean cities including 34 sheep cheeses, 7 from goat’s milk, 11 from cow’s milk, 4 from a mixture of sheep, goat and cow’s milk and 2 from a mixture of sheep and cow’s milk. Compared to the cow and goat cheese (3.4 and 2.5 g·100g−1, the sheep cheese (3.8 g·100g−1 contained higher contents of C18:1t. The saturated and polyunsatured FA contents were greater in goat cheese than in sheep and cow cheese. The n6/n3 ratio was greater in goat (6.1 cheese than in sheep and cow cheese (3.8 and 5.2. The atherogenicity index was unaffected by cheese type, however, the thrombogenic index was lower in sheep cheese (2.8 than in goat and cow cheese (3.1 and 2.9. The n6/n3 ratio and thrombogenic index were lower in Chilean sheep cheese than in those imported from Europe. The fatty acid profile of cheese can be used to differentiate animal species from which the cheese is made and to some extent the geographical origin that may give some insight as to animal feed and production management.Este estudio fue llevado a cabo para caracterizar el perfil de AG de quesos de oveja que se comercializan en Chile. Cincuenta y ocho quesos fueron recogidos de supermercados de 5 ciudades de Chile de los cuales 34 fueron de oveja, 7 de cabra, 11 de vaca, 4 de mezcla de leche de oveja, cabra y vaca y 2 de mezcla de leche de oveja y vaca. Comparado con quesos de vaca y cabra (3.4 y 2.5 g·100g−1, los quesos de oveja (3.8 g·100g−1 presentaron mayor contenido de C18:1t. Los AG saturados y poliinsaturados tuvieron concentraciones más altas en los quesos de cabra que en los quesos de oveja y vaca. La relación n6/n3 fue más alta en quesos de cabra (6.1 que en quesos de oveja y vaca (3.8 y 5.2. El índice aterogénico no fue afectado por el tipo de queso, sin embargo, el índice trombogénico fue

  2. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  3. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  4. The 'Toolbox' of strategies for managing Haemonchus contortus in goats: What's in and what's out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, P E; Murray, P J; Hoy, J M; Hohenhaus, M; Kotze, A

    2016-04-15

    A dynamic and innovative approach to managing the blood-consuming nematode Haemonchus contortus in goats is critical to crack dependence on veterinary anthelmintics. H. contortus management strategies have been the subject of intense research for decades, and must be selected to create a tailored, individualized program for goat farms. Through the selection and combination of strategies from the Toolbox, an effective management program for H. contortus can be designed according to the unique conditions of each particular farm. This Toolbox investigates strategies including vaccines, bioactive forages, pasture/grazing management, behavioural management, natural immunity, FAMACHA, Refugia and strategic drenching, mineral/vitamin supplementation, copper Oxide Wire Particles (COWPs), breeding and selection/selecting resistant and resilient individuals, biological control and anthelmintic drugs. Barbervax(®), the ground-breaking Haemonchus vaccine developed and currently commercially available on a pilot scale for sheep, is prime for trialling in goats and would be an invaluable inclusion to this Toolbox. The specialised behaviours of goats, specifically their preferences to browse a variety of plants and accompanying physiological adaptations to the consumption of secondary compounds contained in browse, have long been unappreciated and thus overlooked as a valuable, sustainable strategy for Haemonchus management. These strategies are discussed in this review as to their value for inclusion into the 'Toolbox' currently, and the future implications of ongoing research for goat producers. Combining and manipulating strategies such as browsing behaviour, pasture management, bioactive forages and identifying and treating individual animals for haemonchosis, in addition to continuous evaluation of strategy effectiveness, is conducted using a model farm scenario. Selecting strategies from the Toolbox, with regard to their current availability, feasibility, economical cost

  5. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production......Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping....... Farmers allocated more land (Pproduction compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues...

  6. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterisation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Ahmed O; Goyal, Sagar M; Chander, Yogesh; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Tamam, Sabry M; Madbouly, Hanafy M

    2013-06-01

    Nine fetuses and neonates from sheep and goats in Egypt were screened for pestiviruses using immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two goat kids with typical border disease (BD) were positive for pestivirus infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using polyclonal anti-BDV serum but not when four different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used. On inoculation in MDBK cells, a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was isolated from one of the two kids. PCR amplification followed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region confirmed it as BVDV subtype 1b. Although the circulating virus in Egypt is considered to be BVDV 1a, this report confirms the existence of BVDV 1b in addition to BVDV 1a. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt and is probably the second report worldwide of a goat kid showing central nervous signs associated with border disease. PMID:23661394

  8. Resource Protection and Utilization of Daiyunshan Goat%戴云山羊的资源保护和开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文杨; 刘远; 张晓佩; 高承芳; 董晓宁

    2012-01-01

    戴云山羊是福建省优良的地方品种,由于近年来忽视了选育保种工作,群体数量逐渐减少,有濒临灭绝的危险.通过建立戴云山羊品种保护区,建立保种群和选育核心群,培育戴云山羊肉用新品系,加强高新技术在保种工作中的应用,组织开展商品肉羊生产,提高肉羊开发利用水平,树立戴云山黑羊品牌等措施进行戴云山羊的资源保护和开发利用.%Daiyunshan goat is a superior local breed in Fujian province. Because of the neglect of the breeding and conservation in recent years, the population is shrinking and threatened with extinction. Therefore, feasible measures are badly needed to protect the species. These measures include establishing the conservation area of Daiyunshan goat, selecting breeding population and key breeding population, developing the new variety of Daiyunshan goat, utilizing high technology in breeding, organizing the mutton sheep production, improving the development and utilization of mutton sheep and establishing Daiyunshan black goat brand. Through these measures, it is expected to effectively protect Daiyunshan goat resources and guarantee the development and utilization of the species.

  9. Technological suitability of goat milk for processing

    OpenAIRE

    Romualda Danków; Jan Pikul

    2011-01-01

    The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximately 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million) constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goat milk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goat milk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland i...

  10. Morphological traits and type of dairy goats registered in Brazil from 1976 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Andrade Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from 2439 goats of the Saanen, Alpine, Anglo Nubian and Toggenburg breeds recorded from 1976 to 2009 by the Association of Goats and Sheep Breeders of Minas Gerais were used in principal component analysis. After consistency of data, six morphological variables (thorax perimeter, body length, withers height, height, width and length of the rump and 12 variables related to breed standard score and fitness (breed characteristic, head, palette and topline, feet and legs, dairy type, body capacity, udder, rear and front ligament, udder texture, teat and final score were analyzed. Based on the magnitude of the eigenvalue (lower than 0.7, eleven variables considered redundant were discarded, resulting in reduced costs of technician labor to evaluate the animals. Maintenance of records on height, length, rump width, breed characteristic, dairy type, front ligament and udder texture is recommended.

  11. Condensed tannins act against cattle nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novobilský, Adam; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    The use of natural plant anthelmintics was suggested as a possible alternative control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in ruminants. Direct anthelmintic effects of tannin-containing plants have already been shown in sheep and goat GIN. These anthelmintic properties are mainly associated...... with condensed tannins. In the present study, we evaluated possible in vitro effects of three tannin-containing plants against bovine GIN. Effects of Onobrychis viciifolia, Lotus pedunculatus and Lotus corniculatus condensed tannin (CT) extracts on Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi were determined...... concentration for 50% inhibition), was the most effective against both nematodes, followed by O. viciifolia and L. corniculatus. The effect of CT extracts upon larval feeding behaviour correlates with CT content and procyanidin/prodelphidin ratio. Larval exsheathment of C. oncophora and O. ostertagi L3 larvae...

  12. Clinical fascioliasis in domestic goats in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, C W; Foreyt, W J; Fetcher, A; Foreyt, K M

    1982-06-15

    Fascioliasis (Fasciola hepatica infection) was diagnosed in a herd of domestic goats in Montana. Twenty-eight goats died after a month-long clinical course of anorexia, weight loss, depression, lethargy, and decreased milk production. Clinical laboratory findings included anemia, low hemoglobin content, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, eosinophilia, and high hepatic enzyme activity. The livers of affected goats had extensive parenchymal necrosis, fibrosis, and biliary hyperplasia. Albendazole oral suspension (20 mg/kg) was used to treat 45 of the remaining goats twice, 30 days apart; 15 goats were untreated controls. Egg counts for the untreated group averaged 171 fluke eggs per gram of feces, which compared with less than 1 epg per gram for the treated group. Fifteen percent of the treated goats died, whereas 73% of the untreated goats died. On the basis of necropsy findings, albendazole treatment was regarded as greater than 99% effective against adult F hepatica. PMID:7096186

  13. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  14. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  15. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of cDNA encoding cattle Smad4 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui ZHANG; Shangzhong XU; Xue GAO; Hongyan REN; Jinbao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The cDNA of cattle Smad4 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, 3' RACE and 5' RACE and got a 3503-bp full-long cDNA sequence. The cloned cattle Smad4 cDNA sequence had been send to GenBank and got an accession number: DQ494856. Cattle Smad4 gene consists of 12 exons and codes 553 amino acids. Cattle Smad4 cDNA shares 99%, 96%, 95%, 91% and 91% similarity in nucleic acid sequences, and 99%, 98%, 98%, 99% and 98% sim-ilarity in amino acid sequences with sheep, pig, human, rat and mouse, respectively. Smad4 cDNA was found in the testes, pancreas, liver, small intestine, ovary, lymph, car-diac muscle, skeleton muscle and thymus gland, which indicated that Smad4 was broadly expressed in cattle.

  16. Rapid and discriminatory diagnosis of scrapie and BSE in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zijderveld Fred G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis based on prion detection in lymph nodes of sheep and goats can improve active surveillance for scrapie and, if it were circulating, for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. With sizes that allow repetitive testing and a location that is easily accessible at slaughter, retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN are considered suitable organs for testing. Western blotting (WB of brain homogenates is, in principle, a technique well suited to both detect and discriminate between scrapie and BSE. In this report, WB is developed for rapid diagnosis in RLN and to study biochemical characteristics of PrPres. Results Optimal PrPres detection in RLN by WB was achieved by proper tissue processing, antibody choice and inclusion of a step for PrPresconcentration. The analyses were performed on three different sheep sources. Firstly, in a study with preclinical scrapie cases, WB of RLN from infected sheep of VRQ/VRQ genotype – VRQ represents, respectively, polymorphic PrP amino acids 136, 154, and 171 – allowed a diagnosis 14 mo earlier compared to WB of brain stem. Secondly, samples collected from sheep with confirmed scrapie in the course of passive and active surveillance programmes in the period 2002–2003 yielded positive results depending on genotype: all sheep with genotypes ARH/VRQ, VRQ/VRQ, and ARQ/VRQ scored positive for PrPres, but ARQ/ARQ and ARR/VRQ were not all positive. Thirdly, in an experimental BSE study, detection of PrPres in all 11 ARQ/ARQ sheep, including 7 preclinical cases, was possible. In all instances, WB and IHC were almost as sensitive. Moreover, BSE infection could be discriminated from scrapie infection by faster electrophoretic migration of the PrPres bands. Using dual antibody staining with selected monoclonal antibodies like 12B2 and L42, these differences in migration could be employed for an unequivocal differentiation between BSE and scrapie. With respect to glycosylation of PrPres, BSE cases

  17. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Promoter Isolated from Multiple Tissues from a Sheep with Multisystemic Lentivirus-Associated Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium, all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease; the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed.

  18. A polytropic caprine arthritis encephalitis virus promoter isolated from multiple tissues from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian

    2013-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively, these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals concurrently demonstrating lentivirus-associated lesions in tissues of lung, mammary gland, joint synovium and the central nervous system are either very rare or have not been reported. Here we describe a novel CAEV promoter isolated from a sheep with multisystemic lentivirus-associated inflammatory disease including interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, polyarthritis and leukomyelitis. A single, novel SRLV promoter was cloned and sequenced from five different anatomical locations (brain stem, spinal cord, lung, mammary gland and carpal joint synovium), all of which demonstrated lesions characteristic of lentivirus associated inflammation. This SRLV promoter isolate was found to be closely related to CAEV promoters isolated from goats in northern California and other parts of the world. The promoter was denoted CAEV-ovine-MS (multisystemic disease); the stability of the transcription factor binding sites within the U3 promoter sequence are discussed. PMID:23955501

  19. Deficiências e desequilíbrios minerais em bovinos e ovinos ¾ revisão dos estudos realizados no Brasil de 1987 a 1998 Mineral deficiencies and imbalances in cattle and sheep ¾ a review of Brazilian studies made between 1987 and 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1999-04-01

    etiologia ainda não foi estabelecida, vulgarmente conhecidas como "ronca" e "doença do peito inchado", ambas de evolução crônica, afetando bovinos adultos. Na enfermidade conhecida como "ronca", os valores hepáticos de cobre são muito baixos e os de ferrro extremamente altos; deve-se considerar a hipótese de que os níveis hepáticos de ferro estão muito elevados em decorrência da sua não-utilização em função da deficiência de cobre. Na "doença do peito inchado", os valores hepáticos de manganês e de cobalto são baixos e os de ferro são muito elevados; é possível que as alterações nos níveis hepáticos de ferro sejam apenas o reflexo do acúmulo de sangue no fígado, uma vez que essa enfermidade é caracterizada por insuficiência cardíaca crônica que cursa com acentuada congestão hepática. Ainda deve ser destacada, no Rio Grande do Sul, a ocorrência de "morte súbita" em bovinos, cujos valores hepáticos para cobre foram muito baixos; nenhuma planta tóxica pode ser responsabilizada por essas ocorrências. Nesta mesma área, a hipomielinogênese congênita em bovinos foi diagnosticada. A ocorrência das deficiências minerais diagnosticadas durante o período correspondente a esta revisão foram lançadas em um mapa, com as respectivas referências bibliográficas.This review follows on from two previous ones on the subject covering the periods from 1943 to 1976 and 1976 to 1987. They are all based on the chemical analyses of liver or other animal tissues or fluids and/or experimentation, complemented or not by analyses of pasture and soil samples. They do not include studies based only on chemical analyses of plant and soil samples. Regarding macroelements, noteworthy are the studies on phosphorus deficiency, the most important mineral deficiency shown previusly. Copper and cobalt deficiencies were the most frequent microelement deficiencies. There were several reports on copper poisoning in sheep. Subclinical deficiency of zinc was

  20. Effect of Polyherbal Formulations on Ruminal digestion in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rumen ecology plays vital role in the digestion, absorption and assimilation of ingesta in cattle. Digestive disorders in cattle directly affects the economics of dairy farm due to impact on production, hence the present study was planned to evaluate efficacy of herbal rumen ecology modulator AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax on rumen liquor profile in goats. Total healthy twenty-one female goats were selected and divided randomly into three equal groups. Group (T1 was untreated control while, group T2 & T3 were supplemented with herbal Rumen modulator (AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax (M/s Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, HP @ 1.5 kg/ tone of feed and 1 kg/ tone of feed for 45 days respectively. Physical, biochemical examination of rumen liquor and growth parameters were evaluated. Among physical properties colour, consistency and odour recorded on 0 day observed which was observed to be greenish brown with watery consistency while odour was slightly amonical, which changes to greenish brown with viscous consistency and aromatic odour in T2 and T3 group within 7th day post treatment. Biochemical examination of rumen liquor reveals significantly decreased pH, TTA, TVFA and lactic acid in control group which were significantly increased in T2 and T3 groups in post treatment period as compared to control. Growth parameters viz. body weight gain, feed consumption and FCR were also improved as compared to untreated control. From overall observation indicated that animal treated with AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax therapies showed better results on physical, biochemical examination of rumen liquor and improvement in performance parameters indicates normalization of rumen microflora. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 230-233