WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattle farming system

  1. Zebu cattle farming in Sri Lanka: Production systems and reproductive characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebu cattle (Bos indicus) constitute 72.3% of the cattle population in Sri Lanka and consist of indigenous exotic and crosses. Indigenous Zebu cattle were primarily found in the dry and the intermediate zones with the remainder in the wet zone. In the latter two zones the indigenous Zebu have been gradually replaced by dairy-type exotic genotypes. In the dry zone Zebu cattle farming is done as a traditional village system (DTVS) and irrigated settlement system (DISS). The DTVS is the most prevalent system and 24% of small holdings within this system rear cattle. In 91.4% of these households cattle farming is either a primary or secondary occupation. Zebu cattle farming provides a modest income with meat, milk, draught and manure contribution 45%, 34%, 9% and 12%, respectively to the total income. Scarcity of grazing lands, high incidence of crop damages by cattle, an inadequate veterinary service and poor milk collecting network are having adverse effects on the sustainability of the system. The objective of the present study were to assess the distribution, production systems and reproductive patterns of cattle with special reference to indigenous Zebu cattle in traditional management systems. 39 refs, 4 figs, 7 tabs

  2. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  3. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MWe of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  4. FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M Ali, Hikmah; J. A. Syamsu1

    2014-01-01

    FACTORS AFFECTING FARMER???S ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING BEEF CATTLE WASTE ON INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS Agustina Abdullah 1*), J. A.Syamsu 1) dan Hikmah M.A 1) 1) Faculty of Animal Agriculture, Hasanuddin University. * Corresponding author : Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km.10 Tamalanrea, Makassar - 90245 South Sulawesi. Email address : ABSTRACT Integrated farming systems of beef cattle with paddy is the best strategy to improve the op...

  5. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  6. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  7. Breed diversification in southwestern Uganda: Characterization of a new cattle farming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new production system in which pastoral communities are becoming more sedentary and are keeping different genotypes (Holstein-Friesians or their crosses and pure Ankole) is emerging in South Western Uganda. In this system the Ankole, cattle are being crossed with Holstein-Friesian and the two genotypes are being kept in separate herds on the same farm. This is in response to the rapidly growing population, new land policies that favour individual land ownership high demand of livestock products in the urban centres and improved rural infrastructure. As part of a larger research program that aims at evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of the new pastoral systems, a survey was undertaken of sixteen farmers selected from 3 sub-counties in Kiruhura District in South West Uganda. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farms. The 1st set was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, and the 2nd one was administered on a monthly basis for a period of the last 12 months. On each farm visit performance traits such as milk yield (MY), heart girth measurement (HG) and Body Condition Score (BCS) of the animals were recorded. Comparative MY, BCS and body weight performance for mature cows for the different genotypes are considered here. because the crossbreds gave them more marketable milk, while the Ankole provides security in case diseases or prolonged drought affected the crossbreds. Another group (19.9%) stated that they still prefer to keep Ankole cattle besides the crosses because they are hardy, while others (13.3%) stated that they kept Ankole for beef production because they were easier to sell off for this purpose and the crosses for milk production. Another 13.3% stated that the crossbreds were kept for income through milk sales and Ankole were kept for cultural reasons. Different reasons were given for rearing the animals in separate herds: (i) to control breeding (ii) Ankole

  8. Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterisation of a new cattle farming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing land pressure due to rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies which encourage individual land ownership in Uganda, pastoralists rearing the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda have now become sedentary and less dependent on communal grazing systems. Crossbreeding of Ankole cattle with the Holstein Friesian for increased milk production is taking place at a very fast rate. A new production system in which pure bred Ankole and crosses of Ankole with Holstein Friesian are reared in separate herds on one farm has now emerged in the area. As part of a programme evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of breeding in pastoral systems, a survey of sixteen farmers selected from three sub-counties in Kiruhura District in south west Uganda was undertaken. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farmers. Set one was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, while set two was administered on a monthly basis for a period of 12 months. In addition, production data from the animals was collected monthly. Results show that crossbreeding is taking place with no defined programme, farmers still have an attachment to the Ankole cattle and that the most important challenges to the production system are insufficient pasture during the dry season and livestock diseases. The crossbreeds produce significantly more milk than the Ankole and have higher live weights. There is need to formulate appropriate breeding programmes for the farmers and to develop guidelines for suitable stocking densities. (author)

  9. Economic analysis of Red Chittagong Cattle farming system in some selected areas of Chittagong district

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, M A; M.A Kashem; J. U. Ahmed; Hossain, M.

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in 5 Upazilas under Chittagong district with a view to analyze the present socio-economic status of RCC farming practices on 100 RCC rearers (Potiya, Raujan, Chandanaish, Anowara and Satkania Upazila). The study showed that, about 39.00 percent of RCC farm owners were landless, 31.00 percent were small and marginal farmers, 17.00 percent were medium and 13.00 percent were large farmers according to their landholding sizes. The cost of rearing RCC per cattle per year ...

  10. Diversity of forage system work and adoption of intensive techniques in dairy cattle farms of Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    HOSTIOU, Nathalie; Dedieu, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia are cleared to allow livestock production. Deforestation contributes significantly to climate change and losses of biodiversity. Degradation by scrubs reduces pasture productivity after a few years, thus leading farmers to deforest new areas. For this reason, sustaining cultivated pastures is of major importance for cattle farms. Intensive pasture management techniques have been proposed to the farmers, with little success so far. Our hypothesis is that...

  11. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  12. Farm-level Economic Evaluation of Net Feed Efficiency in Australia’s Southern Beef Cattle Production System: A Multi-period Linear Programming Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2003-01-01

    Selection of beef cattle for increased net feed efficiency is a current major focus for research. At present the trait seems to be more apparent in Australia’s southern beef production system which is dominated by mixed farming enterprises. Farm-level evaluation of net feed efficiency should take account of the farming system for which it is proposed along with the dynamic nature of genetic selection. Gross margin, linear programming and multi-period linear programming approaches to evaluatio...

  13. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  14. Evolution of carbon sequestration in tropical grassland, ecological processes and farm practices in Amazonian cattle systems.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The humid tropics have seen a considerable expansion in ruminant farming since the 1970s (at present 25% of the world’s ruminant stock). This situation is often criticized for its negative environmental impacts: deforestation, loss of biodiversity, greenhouse gas (GHG) production (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide). The increase of direct emissions from the agriculture sector (17%) mostly occur in emerging countries like Brazil (IPCC, 2007). Although ruminant production systems are viewe...

  15. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  16. Molecular Characterization of CTX-M β-Lactamase and Associated Addiction Systems in Escherichia coli Circulating among Cattle, Farm Workers, and the Farm Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tamang, Migma Dorji; Nam, Hyang-Mi; Gurung, Mamata; Jang, Geum-Chan; Kim, Su-Ran; JUNG, SUK-CHAN; Park, Yong Ho; Lim, Suk-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, farm workers, and the farm environment isolated from February to September 2008 in the Republic of Korea were investigated. All 84 ESBL-producing isolates carried blaCTX-M genes that belonged to the CTX-M-1 (n = 35) or CTX-M-9 (n = 49) family. The most predominant CTX-M type identified was CTX-M-14 (n = 49), followed by CTX-M-32 (n = 26). The blaCTX-M genes were identified most commonly in E. c...

  17. Is crossbreeding of cattle beneficial for mixed farming systems in Central Java?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widi, T.S.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    From 1980s onwards, Indonesia's government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds through artificial insemination to improve the beef performance of local cattle, in response to the increasing demand for meat. Crossbreeding is promoted and implemented throughout the country, r

  18. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Francoise; Leirs, Herwig

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania....

  19. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Laha, R.; Das, M.; Goswami, A

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25%) faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found...

  1. Competitiveness levels in cattle herd farms

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    Pedro Rocha Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to identify improvement demands for farms with different levels of competitiveness in the west of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A total of 63 owners of large farms were interviewed (farms with an area greater than 900ha by applying a semi-structured questionnaire, guided by four drivers: technology (TEC, management (MAN, market relations (MR and the institutional environment (IE.It was used the Statistical Analysis System 9.2 software to perform the cluster analysis and identify farmers' characteristics. Three random clusters with different levels of competitiveness were observed: low competitiveness level (LCL, middle competitiveness level (MCL and high competitiveness level (HCL. The 29 variables (sub factors were evaluated in the cluster analysis according to level of impact on competitiveness, being classified into variables of high, medium or low impact. Stratification was carried out, ranking demands for improvements from aspects attributed by experts in relation to sub factors. The farmers with low competitiveness level (LTL had an unfavorable status for MAN, while the farmers belonging to clusters MCL and HCL have, respectively, favorable and neutral status for the same driver. The management characteristics determined the level of competitiveness of the farms surveyed

  2. extension; farmers, capacity introduction technology, integrated farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina; M. Ali, Hikmah; A Syamsu, Jasmal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research were a) to analyze farmer capacity in adopting paddy wastes and cattle manure processing and application in the development of integrated farming system based on beef cattle and paddy farming zero w aste b). to analyze the status and sustainability index of the integrated farming system adopted by farmers, and c). to formulate strategy and policy guidance in developing farmers??? capacity building in applying zero waste integrated farming system base...

  3. Factors associated with cattle cleanliness on Norwegian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, S J; Kielland, C; Ringdal, G; Skjerve, E; Nafstad, O

    2012-05-01

    Animal cleanliness in dairy herds is essential to ensure hygienic milk production, high microbial quality of carcasses, good hide quality, and animal welfare. The objective of this study was to identify on-farm factors associated with dairy cattle cleanliness. The study also examined differences in risk factors and preventive factors between contrasting herds regarding cattle cleanliness. In total, 60 dairy herds, selected from a national database, were visited by 2 trained assessors during the indoor feeding period in February and March 2009. In Norwegian abattoirs, cattle are assessed and categorized according to hide cleanliness, based on national guidelines, using a 3-category scale. Dirty animals result in deductions in payment to farmers. "Dirty" herds (n=30) were defined as those that had most deductions in payment registered due to dirty animals slaughtered in 2007 and 2008. "Clean" herds (n=30) were those that had similar farm characteristics, but slaughtered only clean animals during 2007 and 2008, and thus had no deductions in payments registered. The dairy farms were located in 4 different areas of Norway. Relevant information, such as housing, bedding, feeding, and management practices concerning cleaning animals and floors, was collected during farm visits. In addition, the cleanliness of each animal over 1 yr of age (4,991 animals) was assessed and scored on a 5-point scale, and later changed to a dichotomous variable during statistical analysis. Milk data (milk yield and somatic cell counts) were obtained from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. Factors associated with dirty animals in all 60 herds were, in ranked order, high air humidity, many dirty animals slaughtered during the previous 2 yr, lack of preslaughter management practices toward cleaning animals, animal type (heifers and bulls/steers), housing (freestalls and pens without bedding), manure consistency, and lack of efforts directed toward cleaning the animals throughout the year

  4. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  5. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25% faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found predominant (65.96 % followed by Strongyloides spp. (25.13%, Eimeria spp. (17.80%, Trichuris spp. (13.08%, Moniezia spp. (10.47% and Nematodirus spp.(2.61%. The Nematodirrus spp. was identified as Nematodirus helvetianus, a first report of its kind from cattle of North-Eastern Region of India, particularly from the state Meghalaya. The eggs per gram of faeces in case of nematode parasites were ranged between 50 to 4000 and in case of coccidian infections the range of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG was between 50 to 1400. Conclusion: Cattle maintained in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya suffers from GI parasitic infections throughout the year. It is highest during rainy season followed by cool, cold and hot season. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 109-112

  6. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

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    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  7. Conservation versus traditional cattle farming - the economic implications

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    J.W. Hearne

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of South Africa traditional subsistence farming practices entail overstocking of cattle. The resulting damage to the veld can be arrested only by providing the farmers with economic incentives to reduce stocking densities. In this paper cattle offtake strategies are investigated with a view to maximising revenue at lower stocking densities. This is achieved by developing a mathematical model which predicts the revenue generated by a given strategy. It is shown that although the model is nonlinear, a transformation can be made to enable optimisation by linear programming.

  8. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  9. Farm application of radioimmunoassay technology in dairy cattle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of progesterone concentrations in milk or blood plasma of farm animals, using radioimmunoassay technology is presented in this report. This was instituted among 103 dairy cows managed by dairy cooperatives under smallholder level in Sta. Cruz-Pagsanjan, Laguna and Sariaya, Quezon (n=103), and under communal level Pontevedra, Capiz (n=48). The authors observed that the measurement of progesterone in milk/plasma was proven useful as a diagnotic aid in dairy cattle production studies such as: (a) early pregnancy diagnosis; (b) identification of fertile and abnormally cycling/subestrus or anestrous cows, and (c) appropriate timing for breeding services especially at post-partum stage. This information is relevant where appropriate management intervention measures are indicated to improve dairy cattle production in the country. (author)

  10. Competitiveness of Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: Domestic Resources Cost Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Abdul Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1 The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54; (2 The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94; (3 The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1; (4 The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG will make the competitiveness increased; and (5 The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08 compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02. The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1, but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive. Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better.

  11. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  12. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  13. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  14. Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís; Rosado, Maria; Marques, Fernando; Cachatra, António; Pais, José; Henriques, Nuno; Gomes, Patrícia; Agostinho, Fábio; Horta, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas L Fernandes, M Rosado, F Marques, A Cachatra, J Pais, N Henriques, P Gomes, F Agostinho and P Horta The present study is based upon technical and economic data collected, in the years 2010-2011, in several farms joining the ACBM (Mertolengos Cattle Breeders) and APCRS (Serpentina Goats Breeders) associations. It considers data sets collected at four farms of each of the ab...

  15. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  16. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the foc....... Secondly, it provides a theory of functional differentiation and structural couplings that opens up for a new approach to look at sustainability by way of decoupling, recoupling and new forms of coupling....

  17. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a nondescript mixture of genotypes, and represents more than half of the total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Five distinct indigenous populations were investigated for morphological analysis, and four were included in evaluating genetic differences. Farming systems were analysed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genetic variation was assessed within and between populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers, and compared with two indigenous populations from the African region. Farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle rearing was based on traditional mixed-crop integration practices and operates under limited or no input basis. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from zero to 90% reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping. Morphometric measurements explained specific phenotypic characteristics arising from geographical isolation and selective breeding. Though varying according to the region, the compact body, narrow face, small horns and humps with shades of brown and black coat colour described the indigenous cattle phenotype in general. Genetic analysis indicated that indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka have high diversity with average number of alleles per locus ranging from 7.9 to 8.5. Average heterozygosity of different regions varied within a narrow range (0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.76 ± 0.03). Genetic distances between regions were low (0.085 and 0.066) suggesting a similar mixture of genotypes across regions. Y-specific analysis indicated a possible introgression of Taurine cattle in one of the cattle populations. (author)

  18. Evaluation of farm-level parameters derived from animal movements for use in risk-based surveillance programmes of cattle in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schärrer, Sara; Widgren, Stefan; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Lindberg, Ann; Vidondo, Beatriz; Zinsstag, Jakob; Reist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study focused on the descriptive analysis of cattle movements and farm-level parameters derived from cattle movements, which are considered to be generically suitable for risk-based surveillance systems in Switzerland for diseases where animal movements constitute an important risk pathway. METHODS: A framework was developed to select farms for surveillance based on a risk score summarizing 5 parameters. The proposed framework was validated using data from the b...

  19. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farm household consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts were purposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namely Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated by Two Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneously significant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investment with the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. The simulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service per conception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising of price of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and price of beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and 5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concluded that the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farm household consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor and price significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  20. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  1. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and inves...

  2. PROFIT ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL BEEF CATTLE FARM IN MINAHASA REGENCY, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sahrun DALIE; Erwin WANTASEN; Selvie, D. ANIS; Stevie. P. PANGEMANAN

    2016-01-01

    A traditional beef cattle farm agribusiness needs the development in farmer’s way of thinking, from production for family or market need, to production for higher profit, and this could be achieved by adapting the economic principles. The objective of this study was to find out business information for profitable business. This study was carried out on beef cattle farmers group in Kanonang III Village, Kawangkoan District, Minahasa Regency. Results showed that raising 10 beef cattles resulted...

  3. The public health implications of farming cattle in areas with high background concentrations of vanadium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Botha, C.J.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Forty-two adult Brahman-cross cattle farmed extensively in two groups, immediately adjacent to and 2 km from a vanadium processing plant respectively, were slaughtered over a 5 year period at a nearby abattoir. Cattle were being exposed to vanadium at close to no-adverse-effect levels. The dose of v

  4. Milk production on smallholder dairy cattle farms in Southern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Vo

    2011-01-01

    Dairy production is a rather new and not a traditional system in Vietnam. It is mainly based on smallholder dairy farms. The general aim of the studies in this thesis was to improve milk production on smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam and also to create a foundation that could be used in the advisory service or/and in further research for better milking management routines. Studies were done to cover the specific objectives of this thesis. The studies were designed to identify the p...

  5. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  6. Farm husbandry and badger behaviour: opportunities to manage badger to cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A I; Judge, J; Delahay, R J

    2010-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a serious disease of cattle in the UK in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. The disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a source of infection. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce bTB transmission risks. Here we review the potential routes of bTB transmission between badgers and cattle and explore the options for managing cattle and badger behaviour with a view to reducing the risks of inter-species transmission at pasture and within farm buildings. We discuss the relative merits of different cattle grazing regimes, habitat manipulations and badger latrine management in reducing the potential for badger-cattle contact at pasture. The physical exclusion of badgers from farm buildings is suggested as the simplest, and potentially most effective, method of reducing contact and opportunities for disease transmission between badgers and cattle. However, more research is required on the effectiveness, practicalities and costs of implementing such measures before specific guidance can be developed. PMID:19846226

  7. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to di

  8. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and h

  9. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  10. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126

  11. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology. PMID:24589421

  12. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  13. Fish farm monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Svetičič, Urh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor's theses is to develop a system that will enable monitoring over the basic parameters in fish farms. That is why we have made an embedded system which is composed of four sensors and the STM32F4 Discovery board. This board is then connected through Ethernet module to Raspberry Pi 2, where the database is built. All together is monitored through web interface. The paper is composed of two parts. The first part is intended for a theoretical introduction in which ...

  14. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hristov Slavča; Stanković Branislav M.; Petrujkić Tihomir

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, a...

  15. Indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka: Production systems and genetic diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production status, farming systems and genetic diversity of indigenous cattle in Sri Lanka were evaluated using six geographically distinct populations in Sri Lanka, which is a small island located below the southern tip of Indian subcontinent. The indigenous cattle population of the country is considered as a non-descript type mixture of genotypes, and represent more than the half of total cattle population of 1.2 million heads. Six distinct indigenous populations (NE, NC, So, No, TK and Th) were investigated for morphological and genetic differences. The respective farming systems were also evaluated to complete the requirement in developing conservation and utilization strategies. The sampling was carried out based on the non-existence of artificial insemination facilities to assure the target populations are indigenous. The six populations were assumed genetically isolated from each other in the absence of nomadic pattern of rearing and regular cattle migration. The farming systems were analyzed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire by single visits to each location. Single visits were practiced, as there is no variation in farming system according to the period of the year. Morphometric measurements were taken during the visit and the genetic variation was assessed within and between five populations using 15 autosomal and two Y-specific microsatellite markers. The farming system analysis revealed that indigenous cattle are reared as a traditional practice in all the regions of the country under limited or no input situations. Since the low productivity masks its real contribution to the rural livelihood, the level of utilization was confounded within the attributes of respective farming systems. The contribution of indigenous cattle to total tangible income ranged from 0% to 90% in different regions reflecting the high variation in the purpose of keeping indigenous cattle. Integration with crop, especially with paddy was the common

  16. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  17. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants...

  18. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elall, Amr M M; Mohamed, Mohamed E M; Awadallah, Maysa A I

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers) were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds) located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes). The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds): Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%), S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%), S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%), Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%), Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%), K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%), Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%), P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%), P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%), Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%), respectively). Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%), A. niger (20% vs 36.7%), A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%), Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%), P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%), P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%), Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%), Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%), Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%), Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%), Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%), Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%), Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%), Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%), Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4%) and yeast (13.3% vs 20%), respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and

  19. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  20. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  1. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  2. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  3. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  4. On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes. The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking, avoidance distance, lame-  ness and cleanliness. For each farm and each variable repeatability was computed using the Kendall coefficient of con-  cordance (W. In buffalo farms avoidance distance may be considered highly reliable (W > 0.64, whereas in dairy cat-  tle its reliability ranged from medium (W = 0.43 to 0.59 to high (W = 0.64. Behavioural recordings at milking showed  that the reliability of stepping was either medium or high for both buffaloes and cattle (W = 0.51 to 0.66 and W = 0.52  to 0.76 for buffaloes and cattle, respectively. Conversely, kicking was less reliable. In cattle farms the reliability for  cleanliness ranged from medium (W = 0.51 to high (W = 0.62 to 0.71, whereas, it was not reliable in the sole buffalo  farm where this variable was monitored. In cattle farms, the concordance for lameness score was high in two farms (W  = 0.62 and 0.66 and moderate in one farm (W = 0.43, whereas no animals displayed lameness in the fourth farm. In  all buffalo farms no animals showed lameness. For each species, the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance with one factor  (farm was performed to evaluate the effect of farm on recorded variables. For cattle, avoidance distance (P  stepping (P  nificantly different between farms. In buffaloes a significant effect of farm was observed only for avoidance distance  (P  that avoidance distance was lower in buffaloes than cattle (P  criminate among farms. Lameness and cleanliness scores were able to discriminate only cattle farms

  5. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  6. Profitability of Dairy Cattle Through Precision Livestock Farming Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, Juma K.; Dillon, Carl R.; Saghaian, Sayed H.; McAllister, Jack; Amaral-Phillips, Donna M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the profitability of different dairy management practices through precision livestock farming. Feed analysis and crop yields were simulated. Mathematical model was used for profit maximization. The results indicated that the proposed modification had a higher profit than the base plan.

  7. CONTAMINATION OF SURFACE AND GROUND WATERS BY RUNOFF WATER FROM A CATTLE FARM AT FALENTY, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.RUSSEL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of surface and ground waters by runoff waterfrom a cattle farm at Falenty, Poland. The paper presents the results of theanalysis of runoff water from a cattle farm at Falenty near Warsaw, Poland. Thewater samples came from two wells collecting the outflow, the nearest drainingditch and the nearest stream. The sampling frequency was higher in the rainperiods. The reaction, conductivity, COD, concentration of ammonia, nitrite, andnitrate nitrogen, as well as phosphates was determined. Additionally, the totalquantity of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, fungi, Proteus sp., sulphidereducing bacteria and the coliform index was also counted. Results showed anincreased level of COD and higher concentration of phosphate ions in therainwater in the area of the farmyard. Relatively high microbiological indexeswere also observed. During periods with rain, the values of the biochemicaldemand for oxygen (COD and concentration of phosphate ions exceeded thethresholds for flowing waters.

  8. Wind farm electrical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  9. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Terhi Riutta; Tomas Roslin; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels,...

  10. Understanding beef-cattle farming management strategies by identifying motivations behind farmers’ priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Cerf, Marianne; Ingrand, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and better understand management strategies that help livestock farmers adapt to changes in their production contexts, a fundamental challenge. A total of nine beef-cattle farmers were interviewed three times over 1 year to discuss 13 dimensions of livestock farming (e.g. reproduction, feeding, sales, etc.). Characterisation of management strategies rested on three main factors: (i) ranking of the dimensions according to the degree to which farmers desired to cont...

  11. Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in traditional and dairy cattle farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A; Willingham, A L

    2003-05-15

    Worm control practices and anthelmintic usage in 177 cattle farms in Iringa district in the southern highlands of Tanzania was determined through a questionnaire survey. A total of 76 traditional, 92 small-scale dairy and 9 large-scale dairy cattle farms were included in the survey. Results indicated that 87.7% traditional, 97.8% small-scale dairy and 100% large-scale farmers relied solely on the use of anthelmintics, 2.7% traditional farmers used traditional medicines while 9.6% traditional farmers had not any form of worm control practice. Worm infection was ranked the second most important constraint of productivity in cattle in the three production systems. Most farms (57.6% traditional, 35.8% small-scale dairy, 66.7% large-scale dairy) used anthelmintics with a combination of levamisole and oxyclozanide. Benzimidazoles were used only in traditional (25.4%) and small-scale dairy (32.1%) farms while nitroxynil (Trodax) was mostly used in large-scale dairy farms (33.3%). Generally, 40% of farmers treated three or four times a year and the frequency in some farms was surprisingly high for resource poor small-scale farmers. The frequency of anthelmintic treatment was mostly the same regardless of the management system. Treatments in most farms depended on availability of money and drugs and not the epidemiology of parasites. A significant proportion (46.3%, P=0.007) of farmers especially in rural areas failed to follow their pre-planned treatment schedules due to lack of money (86%) and unavailability of drugs (6.6%). Many farmers (58.9%) had used the same type of anthelmintic for four or more consecutive years and 85.3% of them would continue with the same anthelmintic. Farmers in all management systems mostly purchased anthelmintics from private veterinary drug shops and about 43% traditional and 33.3% small-scale dairy farmers mostly in rural areas obtained anthelmintics from village extension officers. Despite the fact that all farmers were aware of worm

  12. Relationships between methane emissions of dairy cattle and farm management.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanrobays, Marie-Laure; Vanlierde, Amélie; Kandel, Purna Bhadra; Froidmont, Eric; Dehareng, Frédéric; Soyeurt, Hélène; Gengler, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Livestock is considered as an important contributor to global methane emissions, predominately due to methanogenesis from ruminants. Moreover, these emissions also represent major losses of energy for dairy cows and therefore are linked to production efficiency. The on-going development of predictive equations (e.g., from milk composition) would allow to relate methane emissions to farm management (e.g., nutrition, environment) on a large scale in the Walloon Region of Belgium. Finally, by ac...

  13. Surveillance of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dairy Cattle Farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sascha D.; Ahmed, Marwa F. E.; El-Adawy, Hosny; Hotzel, Helmut; Engelmann, Ines; Weiß, Daniel; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Industrial livestock farming is a possible source of multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins. Limited information is currently available on the situation of ESBL producers in livestock farming outside of Western Europe. A surveillance study was conducted from January to May in 2014 in four dairy cattle farms in different areas of the Nile delta, Egypt. Materials and Methods: In total, 266 samples were collected from 4 dairy farms including rectal swabs from clinically healthy cattle (n = 210), and environmental samples from the stalls (n = 56). After 24 h pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water, all samples were screened for 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli using Brilliance™ ESBL agar. Suspected colonies of putatively ESBL-producing E. coli were sub-cultured and subsequently genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Susceptibility testing using the VITEK-2 system was performed. All suspect isolates were genotypically analyzed using two DNA-microarray based assays: CarbDetect AS-1 and E. coli PanType AS-2 kit (ALERE). These tests allow detection of a multitude of genes and their alleles associated with resistance toward carbapenems, cephalosporins, and other frequently used antibiotics. Serotypes were determined using the E. coli SeroGenotyping AS-1 kit (ALERE). Results: Out of 266 samples tested, 114 (42.8%) ESBL-producing E. coli were geno- and phenotypically identified. 113 of 114 phenotypically 3rd generation cephalosporin-resistant isolates harbored at least one of the ESBL resistance genes covered by the applied assays [blaCTX-M15 (n = 105), blaCTX-M9 (n = 1), blaTEM (n = 90), blaSHV (n = 1)]. Alarmingly, the carbapenemase genes blaOXA-48 (n = 5) and blaOXA-181 (n = 1) were found in isolates that also were phenotypically resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Using the array-based serogenotyping

  14. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian Dairy and Beef Cattle Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, A.; Hörmansdorfer, S.; Messelhäusser, U.; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C.; Van Mansfeld, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fec...

  15. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  16. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Eliseu [CITAB, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro, 5000 Vila Real (Portugal); Mantha, Vishveshwar [CIDESD, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto Douro (Portugal); Rouboa, Abel [CITAB-UTAD/Dept.of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, PA 19104-6391 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  17. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  18. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  19. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .

  20. Possible risk factors on Queensland dairy farms for acaricide resistance in cattle tick (Boophilus microplus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, N N; Mayer, D G; Green, P E

    2000-02-29

    A case control study was carried out within a cross-sectional survey designed to investigate the management by Queensland dairy farmers of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus. Although 199 farmers were surveyed, data on acaricide resistance were only obtained from 66 farms. Multiple models were used to predict the probability of acaricide resistance associated with 30 putative risk factors. The region of the state in which the farm was located and the frequency of acaricide application were consistently associated with acaricide resistance. The risk of resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids (Parkhurst strain) was highest in Central Queensland and increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, when spray races were used and when buffalo fly treatments with a synthetic pyrethroid were applied frequently. The probability of resistance to amitraz (Ulam strain) was highest in Central Queensland, increased when more than five applications of acaricide were made in the previous year, and decreased on farms when a hand-spray apparatus was used to apply acaricides to cattle. The probability of resistance to flumethrin (Lamington strain) was highest in the Wide Bay-Burnett region. PMID:10681025

  1. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  2. Future dairy farming systems in irrigation regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Christie K.M.; Nesseler, R.; Doyle, Peter T.; Malcolm, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The dairy industry in northern Victoria has been subject to rapid change in recent years, resulting in great diversity in the irrigated dairy farming systems in the region. Continuing analysis is needed of the various farming systems that may be viable in the future. This study examined possible development options for different farm systems to enable them to maintain financial viability. Four case studies, representative of different farm systems, were used. All four had options to combat th...

  3. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock ...

  4. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock ...

  5. Abundance of biting midge species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on cattle farms in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Chung, Joon-Yee; Kwon, Mee-Soon; Kim, Toh-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Uk

    2013-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges were collected on three cattle farms weekly using light traps overnight from May to October between 2010 and 2011 in the southern part of Korea. The seasonal and geographical abundance of Culicodes spp. were measured. A total of 16,538 biting midges were collected from 2010 to 2011, including seven species of Culicoides, four of which represented 98.42% of the collected specimens. These four species were Culicodes (C.) punctatus (n = 14,413), C. arakawae (n = 1,120), C. oxystoma (n = 427), and C. maculatus (n = 318). C. punctatus was the predominant species (87.15%). PMID:23388441

  6. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  7. Higher insertion in marketing and vulnerability of cattle farms in North Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Djamen, Patrice; Lossouarn, Jean; Havard, Michel; Hassana,; Bouba, Raymond; Tiékwa, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    Does higher commercial insertion constitutes for livestock keepers an opportunity in fostering the transformation of their farms, or a risk likely to further weaken their farms? This issue is arising in Northern Cameroon where traditional livestock farming systems are hampered by high pressure on land while high population growth and rapid urbanization stimulate the development of dairy products and beef markets. A research was carried out to identify the effects of commercial insertion on th...

  8. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than

  9. Assessment of the farm management of culling cattle: a survey of existing practices and suggestions for drafting of best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Russo Frattasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety.

  10. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination. PMID:25555228

  11. Short communication: Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity.

  12. The Pig Farm Manager for Modelling Pig Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Before setting up or changing a pig farm operation, the consequences of the farm set up must be explored and changes planned. To calculate technical and economic consequences a farm manager model for pig production systems, the Pig Farm Manager, has been developed. The Pig Farm Manager estimates the effects of various farm designs as well as farm management on production, environmental and economical parameters. The Pig Farm Manager includes simulations for sow farms and finisher pig farms. I...

  13. Exploring the multifundtional role of farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; HALBERG Niels

    2006-01-01

    Farming business is like any other business constantly challenged by the changing demands and expectations from the surroundings – farming even may be more explicitly due to the comprehensive regulation and public support through subsidies within the Europe Union. The development of sustainable farming system has been a main challenge until now, where particular focus has been put on the environmental impact and how to farm without unacceptable environmental impacts. Research and developments...

  14. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  15. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  16. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  17. The Milking Profile of Dairy Cattle Farms in Central Macedonia (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide insights of the profile of the dairy farms of Central Macedonia (Greece, in terms of their milking practices. The analysis is based on data from a random sample of 123 dairy farms, obtained by means of a survey. The employment of the Categorical Principal Component Analysis on the 14 variables initially used to describe milking practices and of the Two-Step Cluster Analysis led to the grouping of the 123 farms to three clusters. Farms of the first cluster, named “Innovative”, use state-of-the-art equipment, automatic systems and innovative milking techniques (31.1% of the sample farms. “Peasant” farms (11.4% are mainly extensive, using mainly bucket plants. The third and most abundant group, the “Modernizing” farms (54.5% are use equipment of reasonable standards and some of them are on the process of renewing it. The results of a Multinomial Logit model verify that “Innovative” farms are large and achieve high yields, while the “Modernizing” ones are smaller, producing milk of lower quality and they are owned by relatively older dairy farmers. An interesting profile is depicted for “Peasant” farms, as they achieve satisfactory economic performance, combined with adequate milk quality. The analytical framework included the reduction of analysis variables to a smaller group of “dimensions”, using the Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA, based on which farms were clustered to alternative profiles, by employing a Two-Step Cluster (TSC Analysis. Differences in elements of milk quality and in the social profile of farms and farmers were examined among alternative profiles through the estimation of Multinomial Logit Models.

  18. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  19. Management practices and use of anthelmintics on dairy cattle farms in The Netherlands: results of a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Sol, J.; Uum, van A.; Haan, de N.; Huyben, R.; Sampimon, O.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, a questionnaire about farm management and parasite control measures in calves was sent to 956 randomly chosen dairy cattle farmers in The Netherlands. Another 150 farmers in the vicinity of Deventer who had vaccinated their calves in 1995 against lungworm were approached with the s

  20. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  1. Occurrence of Theileria parva infection in cattle on a farm in the Ladysmith district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B E; Latif, A A; Oosthuizen, M C; Troskie, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2008-03-01

    Theileria parva causes widespread morbidity and mortality in cattle in endemic regions. An outbreak of theileriosis occurred on a farm near Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which is not a declared Corridor disease-infected area. A survey of Red Brangus cattle from all age groups and areas of the farm was performed. Transmission of the parasite from infected animals on the farm to susceptible animals by tick transmission and tick-stabilate injection, was attempted. The survey indicated high numbers of animals with antibody titres to T. parva but only 6 infected animals, based on real-time PCR and RLB analysis. The transmission experiments failed to transmit the parasite. The study shows the difficulty in elucidating a source of infection and determining the dynamics of new infections in a herd where multiple possible sources are present and treatment with tetracyclines has taken place. PMID:18678189

  2. Implications of livestock feeding management on soil fertility in smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delve, R.J.; Cadisch, G.; Tanner, J.C.; Thorpe, W.; Thorne, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The role of livestock in nitrogen cycling in mixed crop–livestock farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa was explored. Cattle were fed a range of diets to investigate the effects on partitioning of nitrogen between urine and faeces and on the chemical composition of the manures produced. The trade-of

  3. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  4. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gummow; J.G. Myburgh; P. N. Thompson; J.J. Van der Lugt; B.T. Spencer

    1999-01-01

    Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows...

  5. FBSNG - batch system for farm architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FBSNG is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS), which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL. FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm. FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers. It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers. The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management. FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable 'fair-share' scheduling. FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX. The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing, Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks

  6. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Psheep and goats, domestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. PMID:23149306

  7. Occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli in soils, cattle and farm environment in France (Burgundy region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlainHartmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M (extended spectrum beta-lactamase- ESBL producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France using real time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n=271 were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within 2 of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure one year before sampling.

  8. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p  0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases. PMID:25700674

  9. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PRECISION FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Harmandeep Singh; Nitika Sharma

    2013-01-01

    A decision support system for precision farming is designed to assist farmers, agricultural experts, research workers or any intellectuals with guidance in making various farming related decisions and help them to access, display and analyze data that have geographic content and meaning. The concept of precision farming is not only related with the use of technologies but it is also about the five R’s that is use of right input (nutrients, water, fertilizer, money, machinery etc.), at the rig...

  10. AN APPROACH TO FARMING AND CATTLE BREEDING PRACTICES EMERGED IN THE TYNDALL COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW BACK TO THE PAST

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Omarovich Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of histo...

  11. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kiggundu; Fred Kabi; Vaarst Mette; Sylvia Nalubwama; Charles Odhong

    2014-01-01

    Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussio...

  12. Genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeep Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala. Materials and Methods: A total number of 3005 lactation records of 1147 Frieswal cows over a period of 15 years extending from 1993 to 2007 were used to study at Military Dairy Farm, Ambala. The study period was divided into 5 period of 3 years each. The average performances of reproduction traits, effect of genetic and non-genetic factors were analyzed, and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits was undertaken. Results: The age at first calving (AFC differed significantly across the periods of calving. The AFC was lowest during the third period (1999-2001 and longest in the first period (1993-95. The effect of season and period of calving, lactation order and regression of AFC on dry period, calving interval and service period was highly significant. The effect of sire was non-significant. The heritability estimates were low for almost all the traits under study. The service period had a high genetic correlation with dry period and calving interval. The dry period also found to have a low genetic correlation with calving interval in Frieswal cows. Service period had a high phenotypic correlation with dry period and very high with a calving interval. The phenotypic correlation between the dry period and calving interval was recognized high. Conclusions: Low heritability estimate for the reproduction traits indicates that there is a very little additive genetic variance in these traits, and individual selection will not be helpful for improving them. Improvement may be brought through better feeding and management of cows by reducing the environmental variability.

  13. National Genetic Evaluation (System) of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Park, B; Choi, T; Kim, S.; Oh, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae) have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selec...

  14. CATTLE AS ASSETS: ASSESSMENT OF NON-MARKET BENEFITS FROM CATTLE IN SMALLHOLDER KENYAN CROP-LIVESTOCK SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ouma, Emily Awuor; Obare, Gideon A.; Staal, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio-economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of l...

  15. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  16. Economics of Farming Systems in Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S. P.; Gangwar, B.; Singh, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Farming systems of households in the western Uttar Pradesh have been analyzed based on the primary data collected through a sample of 197 farmers in 2004-05. The sugarcane- based farming system has been found predominant in the study area. Livestock, vegetables, cereals and sugarcane have been observed to be the main sources of farm income. The study has indicated that cross-bred breeding programme has not become popular due to low demand for milk of cross-bred cows. Credit has significant im...

  17. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D ampersand D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare

  18. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Pierik; Urban Axelsson; Emil Eriksson; Daniel Salomonsson; Pavol Bauer; Balazs Czech

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical an...

  19. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  20. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  1. Risk profiling of cattle farms as a potential tool in risk-based surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis infection among cattle in tuberculosis-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Lima, Joao; Schwabenlander, Stacey; Oakes, Michael; Thompson, Beth; Wells, Scott J

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To develop a cattle herd risk-profiling system that could potentially inform risk-based surveillance strategies for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and provide information that could be used to help direct resource allocation by a state agency for this purpose. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Records for any size movement (importation) of cattle into Minnesota from other US states during 2009 (n = 7,185) and 2011 (8,107). PROCEDURES Data from certificates of veterinary inspection were entered into a spreadsheet. Movement data were summarized at premises and county levels, and for each level, the distribution of cattle moved and number of movements were evaluated. Risk profiling (assessment and categorization of risk for disease introduction) for each import movement was performed on the basis of known risk factors. Latent class analysis was used to assign movements to risk classifications with adjustment on the basis of expert opinions from personnel knowledgeable about bovine tuberculosis; these data were used to classify premises as very high, high, medium, or low risk for disease introduction. RESULTS In each year, approximately 1,500 premises imported cattle, typically beef and feeder types, with the peak of import movements during the fall season. The risk model identified 4 risk classes for cattle movements. Approximately 500 of the estimated 27,406 (2%) cattle premises in Minnesota were in the very high or high risk groups for either year; greatest density of these premises was in the southeast and southwest regions of the state. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A risk-profiling approach was developed that can be applied in targeted surveillance efforts for bovine tuberculosis, particularly in disease-free areas. PMID:27270064

  2. Field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N

    2016-03-01

    The hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n = 65, 25, and 30, respectively). Collected samples were cultured for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria using serological techniques and PCR. The bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 50 %, at different concentrations were evaluated by the determination of total viable and coliform counts of water prior and postwater treatment. In small cattle breeders, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial isolates from surface water (56.7 %) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.7 %), Salmonella spp. (26.7 %), Streptococcus faecalis (23.3 %), Shigella flexneri (16.7 %), Proteus spp. (16.7 %), and Klebsiella pneumonae (10.0 %) at X (2) = 9, P ≤ 0.01. Prior to the use of disinfectants, the averages of total bacterial and coliform counts were the highest in surface water (3.56 × 10(7), 240.0, and 38.0 CFU/100 ml, respectively). It has been found that hydrogen peroxide 50 % at a concentration of 35 mg/l had a lethal effect (100 %) on indicator microorganisms compared with NaDCC at concentration of 2 mg/l. In conclusion, the higher bacterial contaminants in drinking water were found in surface water followed by tap water, particularly for small cattle breeders. Therefore, the usage of more hygienic water troughs with their regular treatment by hydrogen peroxide 50 % at concentration of 35 mg/l is highly recommended to control waterborne bacteria and consequently improve and maintain the animal health. PMID:26861741

  3. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation. PMID:16244077

  4. 12 CFR 1400.1 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. 1400.1 Section 1400.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.1 Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. The Farm...

  5. An investigation into an outbreak of Rift Valley fever on a cattle farm in Bela-Bela, South Africa, in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço P. Mapaco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, a suspected outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF was reported on a farm in the Bela-Bela area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Seven calves died on the affected dairy farm, where no RVF vaccination programme was practised. No apparent clinical disease was reported in the other 300 cattle (33 calves included or 200 sheep on the farm. During the outbreak, blood samples from 77.7% (233/300 of the cattle and 36.5% (73/200 of the sheep were collected on the affected farm and 55 blood samples were taken from cattle on a neighbouring farm. Eight weeks later, 78% of the cattle (234/300 and 42.5% of the sheep (85/200 were bled on the affected farm only. All sera were tested by an Immunoglobulin M (IgM-capture Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and by an indirect Immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISA. Selected IgM-positive (n = 14, IgG-positive (n = 23 and samples negative for both IgM and IgG-specific antibodies against RVF virus (n = 19 were tested using the serum neutralisation test (SNT. Sera from IgM-positive (n = 14 and negative (n = 20 animals were also tested by a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR. On the affected farm, 7% (16/233 of the cattle were IgM-positive and 13.7% (32/233 IgG-positive at the first bleed and 2% were IgM-positive at the second bleed, whilst the number of cattle positive for IgG-specific antibodies increased by 21.3% compared with the first bleed. Only 1.4% of sheep were positive for both IgM and IgG antibodies at the first collection; at the second bleed, IgM-positive cases decreased to 1.2%, whilst IgG-positive cases increased to 2.4%. Whilst no IgM-positive cattle were found on the neighbouring farm, 5.5% of cattle were IgG-positive. The SNT confirmed most of the ELISA results, whilst PCR results were all negative. Although serology results indicated virus circulation on both farms, the negative PCR results demonstrated that the animals were not viraemic at the time they were sampled. The movement of infected

  6. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  7. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  8. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuaki Sugiura; Takashi Onodera

    2008-01-01

    To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and ...

  9. Performance of growing cattle on poor-quality rangelands supplemented with farm-formulated protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusha, J; Katsande, S; Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Chiuta, T

    2015-10-01

    Farmers use different non-conventional protein supplements and different feeding strategies to aid their animals survive the dry season in Zimbabwe. The strategies can be giving supplements once a week or once every other day up to very little supplement daily. Supplements are either legume crop residues or forage legumes. However, the efficacy of the use of non-conventional protein supplements in promoting growth and at the same time lowering the age at first calving is little understood. The study tested whether supplementing with farm-formulated non-conventional feeds could reduce live weight loss during the dry season and promote live weight gain as well as early development of sexual maturity in beef cattle. In a completely randomized design, thirty dams with calves on hooves were allocated to five different treatments which were repeated during the dry season for 3 years. The 3-year study results show that weight loss can be controlled, resulting in positive growth in both the pre-weaning and post-weaning phases of growing cattle. Yearlings fed solely on natural pasture lost significant weight during the dry season as compared to supplemented groups. The period to puberty and first calving was achieved at 18 and 27 months, respectively. Using non-conventional protein supplements could thus improve livestock productivity in resource-poor farming communities. It was concluded that smallholder farmers can supplement cattle with a kilogram per day of low-cost farm-based non-conventional legume meal to improve livestock productivity in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe. PMID:25754582

  10. Spatial allocation of farming systems and farming indicators in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempen, Markus; Elbersen, Berien S.; Staritsky, Igor;

    2011-01-01

    sample farms making it possible to aggregate farm types both to natural and to lower scale administrative regions. This spatial flexibility allows providing input data to economic or bio-physical models at their desired resolution. The allocation approach is implemented as a constrained optimization......In this article an approach to spatially allocate farm information to a specific environmental context is presented. At this moment the European wide farm information is only available at a rather aggregated administrative level. The suggested allocation approach adds a spatial dimension to all...... model searching for an optimal match between farm attributes and spatial characteristics subject to consistency constraints. The objective functions are derived from a Bayesian highest posterior density framework. The allocation procedure recovers the spatial farm type distributions satisfactorilly...

  11. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PRECISION FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A decision support system for precision farming is designed to assist farmers, agricultural experts, research workers or any intellectuals with guidance in making various farming related decisions and help them to access, display and analyze data that have geographic content and meaning. The concept of precision farming is not only related with the use of technologies but it is also about the five R’s that is use of right input (nutrients, water, fertilizer, money, machinery etc., at the right time, at the right place, in the right amount and in the right manner. There is need to have accurate information and suitable decisions regarding the right inputs required for the farming practices and to initiate the step towards the precision farming. DSS calculates irrigation requirement of crops. In this paper, Maps that are shown generated with the help of ArcGIS software (ArcMap tool. The system has been developed using Hypertext Pre Processor (PHP at front end and MySQL at back end.

  12. Genetic Relationships under Different Management Systems and their Consequences for Dairy Cattle Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Fuerst-waltl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in breeding and management resulted in a considerable increase of production traits in Austrian dairy cattle. Besides, low input systems were also established. Possible genotype by environment interactions (G x E and genetic antagonisms dependent on production level might indicate the need for separate breeding programmes for dairy farms differing in management intensity. Thus, G x E and genetic correlations (ra between milk yield and selected fitness traits were estimated for Upper Austrian Fleckvieh cattle under high and low production levels. Data of the current herdbook cow population and their dams were extracted. Two data sets were selected based on the herd average of milk; extensive (≤6,000 kg herd average and intensive (≥9,000 kg herd average farms. Yield deviations were used for the analysis of yield traits, functional longevity, reproduction traits and milking speed; raw data were used for somatic cell count (SCC. For yield deviations, a model including the effects year of birth (fixed and animal (genetic, random was applied, while a model close to the routine evaluation was run for SCC. The lowest ra between extensive and intensive farms was found for protein yield (ra = 0.89 while ra values close to unity were found for all functional traits. Genetic antagonisms between milk yield and functional traits were stronger in intensive systems, however, standard errors were large. Currently, separate breeding programmes for different management intensities do not seem to be necessary.

  13. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms

    OpenAIRE

    Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...

  14. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção com bovinocultura de leite da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Economic analysis of production systems of dairy cattle farms in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nunes Portela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido junto às unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS, com o objetivo de identificar o desempenho econômico e os sistemas de produção existentes entre as mesmas. Foram coletadas as informações de 53 propriedades, sendo identificados os seguintes sistemas de produção: a leite e arroz com tração animal (TA e superfície agrícola útil (SAU média de 30ha; b leite e arroz com tração mecanizada (TM e SAU média de 54ha; c leite e hortigranjeiros com TA e SAU média de 20ha; d leite e hortigranjeiros com TM e SAU média de 50ha; e leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 40ha; f leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 308ha; g leite e bovinos de corte com TM e SAU média de 80ha; h leite estreme com TA e SAU média de 2 ha; i leite estreme com TM e SAU média de 45ha. Os sistemas A, B, C, F, H e I apresentam um desempenho econômico por unidade de trabalho homem (UTH superior ao salário mínimo regional, enquanto os sistemas D, E e G apresentam desempenho abaixo deste indicador.This work was developed in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society, the Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS. The goal was to identify the economical performance and the different systems of production used by the UPFs. The information was obtained from 53 farms, and among them the following production systems were identified: a Milk associated to rice crops, with animal traction (AT and an average of 30ha of tillable area (TA; b Milk associated to rice crops with mechanical traction (MT and TA=54ha; c Milk associated to olericulture with AT and TA= 20ha; d Milk associated to olericulture with MT and TA= 50ha; e Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 40ha; f Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 308ha; g Milk associated to beef cattle with MT and TA= 80 ha; h Milk with AT

  15. The Farm Processing System at CDF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JaroslayAntos; MarianBabik; 等

    2001-01-01

    At Fermilab's CDF farm a modular and highly scalable software and control system for processing,reprocessing,Monte Carlo generation and many other tasks has been created.The system is called FPS(Farm Processing System).This system consists of independent software components and allows modifications to suit other types of processing as well.FPS is accompanied with fully featured monitoring and control interfaces,including web statistics displays and a multiplatform Java control interface that allow easy management and control.The system also features automatic error recovery procedures with early warnings that allow smooth running.A general overview of the software desing along with a description of the features and limitations of the system and its components will be presented.Run 2 experience with the system will be giver as well.

  16. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pierik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms.

  17. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  19. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Meriam Mrad; Luigi Gallo; Giampaolo Cocca; Enrico Sturaro

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers&rsq...

  20. Feasibility of adopting aquaculture without detriment to existing farming practices: a case of Bangladesh farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M.; Rab, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Integrating agriculture aquaculture that would draw inputs from on farm sources is viewed as a viable option to improve the productivity, income and resource use efficiency of existing farms in Bangladesh. To assess the existing resource availability, use pattern and efficiency before introducing new aquaculture technology within the existing farm systems, a survey of 330 pond operating farm households was conducted in six selected unions from two thanas (subdistricts) of Bangladesh.

  1. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, PRINCIPLES, BACKGROUND AND ESSENCE OF PRECISE FARMING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lopachev, N.; Zelinskaya, A.

    2015-01-01

    Improving and successful realization of innovations are impossible without creation of the corresponding associative framework. Slow development of associative framework in the sphere of farming resulted in mixing of key concepts and notions. The most remarkable example of notions mixing is «high technology farming» precision farming farming precise systems, etc. This resulted in intensive implementation of «high technology farming» and the lack of order for creation of the advanced national ...

  2. Soil microbial biomass in organic farming system.

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de; Melo, Wanderley José de

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production systems have to combine management practices in order to sustain soil's profitability and quality. Organic farming is gaining worldwide acceptance and has been expanding at an annual rate of 20% in the last decade, accounting for over 24 million hectares worldwide. Organic practices avoid applications of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, rely on organic inputs and recycling for nutrient supply, and emphasize cropping system design and biological processes for pest ...

  3. The Milking Profile of Dairy Cattle Farms in Central Macedonia (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos; Athanasios Ragkos; Vasilios Dotas; Vasilios Skapetas; Vasilios Bambidis; Vasiliki Lagka; Zaphiris Abas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insights of the profile of the dairy farms of Central Macedonia (Greece), in terms of their milking practices. The analysis is based on data from a random sample of 123 dairy farms, obtained by means of a survey. The employment of the Categorical Principal Component Analysis on the 14 variables initially used to describe milking practices and of the Two-Step Cluster Analysis led to the grouping of the 123 farms to three clusters. Farms of the first clus...

  4. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  5. Study of Digital Management System of Milking Process on Large-Sized Dairy Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study was to supply the systemic and full milking process data to support the implementation of both dairy herd improvement (DHI) and digital feeding of dairy cattle. This study designed the relational structured database and developed a set of digital management information system on milking process of intensive dairy farm using Visual Basic 6.0, Access databases, and Crystal report combining the milking characteristics of a grown cow, such as quality and sanitation testing indexes of raw milk. The system supplies a series of convenient, intelligent input interfaces of crude datum, and can count, analyze, and graphically show milking datum based on different types and different parities of cows or herds in a specific duration, and can dynamically produce some important derived data, such as days of grown cow, daily average of milk production of grown cow, days of cow milk production, and daily average of milking cow production; and can carry out all-pervasive data mining. With the help of system analysis and software design techniques, it is possible to realize precision farming for a dairy cattle herd based on whole digital management of milking process and real-time prediction on nutrient requirements and ration of dairy cattle, as well as dairy herd improvement.

  6. Intra-Species Diversity and Panmictic Structure of Cryptosporidium parvum Populations in Cattle Farms in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Ana; Quílez, Joaquín; Monteagudo, Luis; Del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2016-01-01

    The intra-herd and intra-host genetic variability of 123 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates was investigated using a multilocus fragment typing approach with eleven variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene. Isolates were collected from intensively farmed diarrheic pre-weaned calves originating from 31 dairy farms in three adjoining regions in northern Spain (País Vasco, Cantabria and Asturias). The multilocus tool demonstrated an acceptable typeability, with 104/123 samples amplifying at all twelve loci. The ML2, TP14, GP60 and the previously un-described minisatellite at locus cgd2_3850 were the most discriminatory markers, while others may be dismissed as monomorphic (MSB) or less informative (CP47, ML1 and the novel minisatellites at loci Cgd1_3670 and Cgd6_3940). The 12-satellite typing tool provided a Hunter-Gaston index (HGDI) of 0.987 (95% CI, 0.982–0.992), and differentiated a total of 70 multilocus subtypes (MLTs). The inclusion of only the four most discriminatory markers dramatically reduced the number of MLTs (n: 44) but hardly reduced the HGDI value. A total of 54 MLTs were distinctive for individual farms, indicating that cryptosporidiosis is an endemic condition on most cattle farms. However, a high rate of mixed infections was detected, suggesting frequent meiotic recombination. Namely, multiple MLTs were seen in most farms where several specimens were analyzed (90.5%), with up to 9 MLTs being found on one farm, and individual specimens with mixed populations being reported on 11/29 farms. Bayesian Structure analysis showed that over 35% of isolates had mixed ancestry and analysis of evolutionary descent using the eBURST algorithm detected a high rate (21.4%) of MLTs appearing as singletons, indicating a high degree of genetic divergence. Linkage analysis found evidence of linkage equilibrium and an overall panmictic structure within the C. parvum population in this discrete geographical area. PMID:26848837

  7. Coupled Mooring Systems for Floating Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In this work the feasibility of an integrated catenary loose mooring system for offshore floating wind turbines is investigated. The dynamic behavior of different wind farm layouts is analyzed employing the equation of motion. It will be especially sought after potential resonance problems. The equation is solved in frequency domain, using a linearized stiffness matrix, as well as in time domain. Time-domain simulation is done by using a quasi-static model, where the catenary equa...

  8. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  9. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  10. Occurrence of Theileria parva infection in cattle on a farm in the Ladysmith district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Thompson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva causes widespread morbidity and mortality in cattle in endemic regions. An outbreak of theileriosis occurred on a farm near Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which is not a declared Corridor disease-infected area. A survey of Red Brangus cattle from all age groups and areas of the farm was performed. Transmission of the parasite from infected animals on the farm to susceptible animals by tick transmission and tick-stabilate injection, was attempted. The survey indicated high numbers of animals with antibody titres to T. parva but only 6 infected animals, based on real-time PCR and RLB analysis. The transmission experiments failed to transmit the parasite. The study shows the difficulty in elucidating a source of infection and determining the dynamics of new infections in a herd where multiple possible sources are present and treatment with tetracyclines has taken place.

  11. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  12. Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuyu, M N; Gibson, J P; Savage, D B; Duncan, A J; Mujibi, F D N; Okeyo, A M

    2016-01-01

    Body linear measurements, and specifically heart girth (HG), have been shown to be useful predictors of cattle liveweight. To test the accuracy of body linear measurements for predicting liveweight, crossbred dairy cattle of different genotypes were measured and weighed. A total of 352 mature cows and 100 heifers were weighed using an electronic weighing scale and measurements of HG, body length, height at withers were taken using an ordinary measuring tape and body condition scored (BCS) using a five-point scale. The animals were grouped according to genotype and age. Genotype classification was undertaken from farmer recall and by visual appraisal as 40-60, 61-80 or 81-100 % exotic (non-indigenous). Age classification was simply as mature cows or heifers. Liveweight of the animals ranged from 102 to 433 kg. Liveweight was strongly correlated with HG (r = 0.84) and body condition scores (r = 0.70) and moderately correlated with body length (r = 0.64) and height at withers (0.61). Regressing LW on HG measurements gave statistically significant (P age and breed group. Including BCS in the model slightly improved the model fit but not the prediction error. It was concluded that the model can be useful in making general management decisions in smallholder farms. PMID:26839756

  13. Farm Resilience in Organic and Nonorganic Cocoa Farming Systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Johanna; Schneider, Monika; Pillco Mariscal, María; Huber, Stephanie; Weidmann, Simon; Bottazzi, Patrick; Rist, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa production in Alto Beni, Bolivia, is a major source of income and is severely affected by climate change impacts and other stress factors. Resilient farming systems are, thus, important for local families. This study compares indicators for social–ecological resilience in 30 organic and 22 nonorganic cocoa farms of Alto Beni. Organic farms had a higher tree and crop diversity, higher yields and incomes, more social connectedness, and participated in more courses on cocoa cultivation. Re...

  14. Methods and on-farm devices to predict calving time in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-09-01

    In livestock farming, accurate prediction of calving time is a key factor for profitability and animal welfare. The most accurate and sensitive methods to date for prediction of calving within 24 h are the measurement of pelvic ligament relaxation and assays for circulating progesterone and oestradiol-17β. Conversely, the absence of calving within the next 12-24 h can be accurately predicted by the measurement of incremental daily decrease in vaginal temperature and by the combination of pelvic ligament relaxation and teat filling estimates. Continuous monitoring systems can detect behavioural changes occurring on the actual day of calving, some of them being accentuated in the last few hours before delivery; standing/lying transitions, tail raising, feeding time, and dry matter and water intakes differ between cows with dystocia and those with eutocia. Use of these behavioural changes has the potential to improve the management of calving. Currently, four types of devices for calving detection are on the market: inclinometers and accelerometers detecting tail raising and overactivity, abdominal belts monitoring uterine contractions, vaginal probes detecting a decrease in vaginal temperature and expulsion of the allantochorion, and devices placed in the vagina or on the vulvar lips that detect calf expulsion. The performance of these devices under field conditions and their capacity to predict dystocia require further investigation. PMID:26164528

  15. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be based...

  16. Genetic improvement of livestock for organic farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelling, D.; Groen, A.F.; Soerensen, P.; Madsen, P.; Jensen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Organic farming which experienced a constant rise over the last two decades is a system based on sustainability and on a concept tending towards functional integrity. Legislation as well as the wish to produce separately from conventional farming raise the question whether organic farming should be

  17. The Potato Tuber Disease Occurrence as Affected by Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tein, Berit; Kauer, Karin; Runno-Paurson, Eve; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Luik, Anne; Selge, Are; Loit, Evelin

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted which aimed to investigate the effect of farming systems (FS) (four conventional with increasing mineral N fertilizer amounts 0–150 kg of N ha−1) vs. two organic with catch crops (CC) and cattle manure (CC+M)) under the same five crop rotation system on the occurrence of tuber diseases such as common scab (Streptomyces spp.), silver scurf Helminthosporium solani), dry rot (Fusarium spp.), and soft rot (Pectobacterium spp.). As the average of the first rotation years 200...

  18. Energy balance of different organic biogas farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, S; Küstermann, B; Hülsbergen, K.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The ecological impact of biogas plants depends on their integration into a given farming system. Therefore only farm-specific and no general statements are possible. In this paper, two different concepts of biogas production for an organic cash crop farm have been energetically balanced using a model software. The analysis of input and efficient use of fossil energy carriers provides information on the environmental relevance of the farm operations. Apart from this, renewable energy productio...

  19. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  20. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  1. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary. PMID:27342097

  2. STRATEGY OF EMPOWERING FARMERS CAPABILITY AT INTEGRATED FARMING BEER CATTLE AND PADDY WITH ZERO WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Agustina

    2013-01-01

    The strategy which is a priority in strengthening the capacity of farmers in the introduction integrated technology on beef cattle and rice based zero waste were the simultaneous application of waste treatment technology optimally at the level of the breeder, the provision of facilities and infrastructure supporting the application of sewage treatment technology, as well as an increase in knowledge and skills of extension officers in waste treatment technology.

  3. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Bianchini; Mario Luini; Laura Borella; Antonio Parisi; Romie Jonas; Sonja Kittl; Peter Kuhnert

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resis...

  4. CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNICAL MEANS FOR PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FEED MIXTURES AT SMALL CATTLE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov V. Y.; Priporov I. E.; Sysoev D. P.

    2015-01-01

    To increase the productivity of the cattle it is demanded simultaneous distribution of all types of animal feed in the form of balanced feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Balanced feeding of animals can improve their productivity, reduce feed wastage, and include alternative components of feed mixtures in their diets, which have nourishing properties and high digestibility; make and adjust feeding rations. Researches conducted by Russian and foreign scientists, proved the prospects ...

  5. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. (ed.); Juhl, A.; Gram Hansen, K.; Biebhardt, J. (and others)

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  6. Incidence and impacts of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle farms: case of Maharastra farmers

    OpenAIRE

    MK, Sinha; NN, Thombare

    2013-01-01

    A cross sectional farm sample survey was conducted to assess the consequences of mastitis on farmer’s economy. Daily milk records of 187 animals from 28 farms were investigated by personal interview methods. Extra-resources used for the treatment and reduced revenues in terms of production were quantified and aggregated. The overall loss of mastitis from dairy animals was recorded Rs.1390.46 per lactation, in which 48.53 percent was from milk loss followed by veterinary expenses (36.57%), an...

  7. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders; Enøe, Claes

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...

  8. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  9. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since they...... have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime ofcomponents, especially in the nacelle. During the 3½ years of the project, software and hardware was......-sourced. The report contains the experiences andresults of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project....

  10. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bianchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains.

  11. Genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from cattle and pigeons in dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  12. Genotypes and Antibiotic Resistances of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Cattle and Pigeons in Dairy Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Valentina; Luini, Mario; Borella, Laura; Parisi, Antonio; Jonas, Romie; Kittl, Sonja; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined. flaB-typing revealed 22 different types with one of them being novel and was useful to further differentiate strains with an identical Sequence Type (ST) and to identify a pigeon-specific clone. Macrolide resistance was not found, while quinolone resistance was detected in 23.3% of isolates. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance was observed, but was only significant for the Clonal Complex 206. Our data confirm that pigeons do not play a role in the spread of C. jejuni among cattle and they are not responsible for milk contamination. A relevant number of bulk milk samples were contaminated by C. jejuni resistant to quinolones, representing a possible source of human resistant strains. PMID:25026083

  13. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  14. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Miguel; Otto, Barbara; Sandoval, Errol; Reinhardt, German; Boqvist, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample ...

  15. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Abdullahi N Hassan; Ali E Ali; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. Methods One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood cu...

  16. Should they stay, or should they go? Relative future risk of bovine tuberculosis for interferon-gamma test-positive cattle left on farms

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta-Marin, Angela; Gallagher, Martin; McBride, Stewart; Skuce, Robin; Menzies, Fraser; McNair, Jim; McDowell, Stanley W. J.; Byrne, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a serious infectious disease that remains an ongoing concern for cattle farming worldwide. Tuberculin skin-tests are often used to identify infected animals (reactors) during test-and-cull programs, however, due to relatively poor sensitivity, additional tests can be implemented in parallel. For example, in Northern Ireland interferon-gamma (IFN-g) testing is used in high-risk herds. However, skin-test negative animals which are pos...

  17. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  18. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  19. Integrated farming systems in Kinshasa (DRC) Diversity of agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    In Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, integrated farming of livestock and fish farming is little documented while it is an interesting way of ecological intensification systems. After identifying the density of fish ponds in the territory of the city using satellite images, about 200 farms with at least one pond and located in 2 in peri-urban and rural areas were surveyed to characterize the practical integration of the agricultural system. The preliminary results in one of the val...

  20. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Ramanzin; Luca M. Battaglini; Luciano Morbidini; Mariano Pauselli; Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting...

  1. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae...... significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological...... control strategy of simultaneous releases of S. cameroni and M. raptor is discussed. Key words: biological control, dairy cattle, dispersion, parasitism, Phygadeuon fumat...

  3. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  4. A qPCR Assay to Detect and Quantify Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC in Cattle and on Farms: A Potential Predictive Tool for STEC Culture-Positive Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Verstraete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, of various serogroups harboring the intimin gene, form a serious threat to human health. They are asymptomatically carried by cattle. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR method was developed as a molecular method to detect and quantify Shiga toxin genes stx1 and stx2 and the intimin gene eae. Subsequently, 59 fecal samples from six farms were tested using qPCR and a culture method as a reference. Three farms had contaminated animals as demonstrated by the culture method. Culture-positive farms showed moderate significantly higher stx prevalences than culture-negative farms (p = 0.05. This is the first study which showed preliminary results that qPCR can predict STEC farm contamination, with a specificity of 77% and a sensitivity of 83%, as compared with the culture method. Furthermore, the presence or quantity of stx genes in feces was not correlated to the isolation of STEC from the individual animal. Quantitative data thus did not add value to the results. Finally, the detection of both stx and eae genes within the same fecal sample or farm using qPCR was not correlated with the isolation of an eae-harboring STEC strain from the respective sample or farm using the culture method.

  5. Economic Factors Affecting Diversified Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Bowman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to a shift toward specialization and mechanization during the 20th century, there has been momentum on the part of a vocal contingent of consumers, producers, researchers, and policy makers who call for a transition toward a new model of agriculture. This model employs fewer synthetic inputs, incorporates practices which enhance biodiversity and environmental services at local, regional, and global scales, and takes into account the social implications of production practices, market dynamics, and product mixes. Within this vision, diversified farming systems (DFS have emerged as a model that incorporates functional biodiversity at multiple temporal and spatial scales to maintain ecosystem services critical to agricultural production. Our aim is to provide an economists' perspective on the factors which make diversified farming systems (DFS economically attractive, or not-so-attractive, to farmers, and to discuss the potential for and roadblocks to widespread adoption. We focus on how a range of existing and emerging factors drive profitability and adoption of DFS. We believe that, in order for DFS to thrive, a number of structural changes are needed. These include: 1 public and private investment in the development of low-cost, practical technologies that reduce the costs of production in DFS, 2 support for and coordination of evolving markets for ecosystem services and products from DFS and 3 the elimination of subsidies and crop insurance programs that perpetuate the unsustainable production of staple crops. We suggest that subsidies and funding be directed, instead, toward points 1 and 2, as well as toward incentives for consumption of nutritious food.

  6. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2015-01-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish...

  8. AN APPROACH TO FARMING AND CATTLE BREEDING PRACTICES EMERGED IN THE TYNDALL COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW BACK TO THE PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Omarovich Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of historical sources.The author did due diligence to examination of the terrace-land cultivation by the Tindal people, which was the core occupation for all highlander inhabitants of Dagestan. The Tindal people grow mainly barley, wheat, rye, oat, millet, beans; since the XIX century the local inhabitants have introduced corn and potatoes.The Tindal people paid a specific attention to the gardening. Basically, the Tindal cultivated apples, apricots, pears, plums, nuts, etc., The gardening, although having not taken a key position in the economic life of the Tindal people, had been of enormous significance for the overall business operations of the highlanders.The Tindal people mostly used to cultivate land manually. They used the following instruments of labour: mattock, plough, wooden plough with an iron ploughshare (bezzi, entirely wooden plough (Rukia.

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in Sahiwal cattle from an organized farm using ante-mortem techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Gursimran; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Mahajan, Vishal; Singh, Amarjit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and detection of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle from an organized dairy farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 animals (93 females and 28 males) of 1 year and above were studied for the prevalence of bovine TB using single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, bovine gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) enzyme immunoassay, and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Results: Out of total 121 animals, 17 (14.04%) animals were positive reactors to SICCT test while only one (0.82%) animal for γ-IFN assay. By PCR, Mycobacterium TB complex was detected in 19 (15.70%) animals out of which 4 (3.30%) animal were also positive for M. bovis. Conclusions: Diagnosis of bovine TB can be done in early stage in live animals with multiple approaches like skin test followed by a molecular technique like PCR which showed promising results. PMID:27182134

  10. Maintaining ecological soil functions - techniques in organic farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Beste, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The ecological soil functions (e.g. habitat and living space, production and utilization, ecological regulation) have to be taken into account and maintained by farming systems. Organic farming systems can provide for this by using suitable crop rotations, manure management methods and tillage techniques.

  11. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu;

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double ...

  12. Modelling profitable and sustainable farming systems in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Chudleigh, Fred; Cox, Howard W.; Chapman, Veronica J.

    2002-01-01

    Central Queensland’s dryland farming systems are subject to high levels of climatic variability, are seen as being relatively risky and also suffering falling profitability due (in part) to the rapid decline of nutrient content and physical structure of soils. This suggests that many farming practices in Central Queensland are not sustainable. A multi agency project that uses participatory on-farm research and development processes has been addressing the core issues that contribute to more s...

  13. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1%) and sweet potato vines (24.7%) were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production...

  14. Impacts of farming practice within organic farming systems on below-ground ecology and ecosystem function

    OpenAIRE

    Stockdale, E A; Phillips, L; Watson, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    Maintaining ecosystem function is a key issue for sustainable farming systems which contribute broadly to global ecosystem health. A focus simply on the diversity of belowground organisms is not sufficient and there is a need to consider the contribution of below-ground biological processes to the maintenance and enhancement of soil function and ecosystem services. A critical literature review on the impacts of land management practices on below-ground ecology and function shows that farm man...

  15. Analysis of cattle movements in Argentina, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A

    2011-02-01

    We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931

  16. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of...

  17. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (productive than the conventional small ones. However, these lower outputs were compensated by the major market value obtained from the organic products. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides reached about 60% of the total energy inputs in conventional farming; in the organic farms, however, this ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the

  18. Institutional Embeddedness in Organic Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gallioto, Francesco; Paffarini, Chiara; Musotti, Francesco; Chiorri, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to put some evidence on the influence of external factors in the farm decision making, often crucial in leading technical and commercial development and in fostering the expression of social and environmental sensitivity. This paper explores the concept of “embeddedness” focusing on the institutional domain that should affect market strategies. By studying the market orientation of 53 organic farms selected in two Italian regions (Emilia Romagna and Marches), t...

  19. Influencing Factors on Farming System Development in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The developmental situation of the farming system in Shandong Province is introduced.At present,Shandong Province is at the semi-intensive,semi-commercial and semi-sufficiency level of farming system.Eastern coast and central Shandong agricultural zones are moving in the direction of modern farming system,having formed a preliminary new pattern of the coordinated development of grain,feedstuff,economic and other crops.Influencing factors on the development of farming system in Shandong Province is analyzed,which are agricultural production condition and input level,population and food,policy measures,development of natural resources and regions,agricultural industrialization and urbanization level,and scientific and technological level.Total population will be within 100 million at the year 2020;per capita annual share of grain will be 475 kilograms;and there is great pressure on grain production.Therefore,we must change the pattern of agricultural development and accelerate the establishment of modern farming system.Agricultural machinery,water conservancy projects,and chemical fertilizer application have greatly affected the development of farming system.Improvement of production conditions has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure,increased the planting ratio of winter wheat-summer maize,and improved multiple-cropping index.Development of agricultural industrialization has promoted the transfer of rural labor force and the establishment of modern farming system;while the unbalanced development of cities has restricted the establishment of modern farming system.Therefore,the appropriate policy,scientific and rational regional distribution,and advanced science and technology can help to set up the modern farming system in Shandong Province.

  20. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  1. Simulating the Farm Production System Using the MONARC Simulation Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Wu; I.C.Legrand; 等

    2001-01-01

    The simulation program developed by the "Models of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers"(MONARC) project is a powerful and flexible tool for simulating the behavior of large scale distributed computing systems,In this study,we further validate this simulation tool in a large-scale distributed farm computing system.We also report the usage of this simulation tool to identify the bottlenecks and limitations of our farm system.

  2. DIFFERENTIATION OF SUBSISTENCE FARMING PATTERNS AMONG THE HAYA BANANA GROWERS IN NORTHWESTERN TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MARUO, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    The Haya, densely settled in the western Lake Victoria basin of Tanzania, have developed a unique banana-based farming system over centuries. The land use is characterized by intensively cared home garden called kibanja, and open grassland, lweya where cattle grazed. Cattle manure has much contributed to the farming in kibanja. Household survey revealed current farming patterns that have differentiated since the independence of Tanganyika in 1961. Lweya has become important also as major bitt...

  3. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  4. Effect of farming system changes on life cycle assessment indicators for dairy farms in the Italian Alps.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Penati; A. Sandrucci; Tamburini, A; de Boer

    2010-01-01

    In some Alpine areas dairy farming is going through a process of intensification with significant changes in farming systems. The aim of this study was to investigate environmental performance of a sample of 31 dairy farms in an Alpine area of Lombardy with different levels of intensification. A cradle to farm gate life cycle assessment was performed including the following impact categories: land use, non-renewable energy use, climate change, acidification and eutrophication. From a cluster ...

  5. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  6. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  7. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  8. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per hectare on organic farms are lower than on conventional farms, particularly in dairy farming. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of milk in organic dairy farming...

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE: THE FARM AND FOOD SYSTEM IN TRANSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Treadway, Nathaniel Starr

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the impact of new technologies on the performance of the farm and food system in the United States. A theoretical framework is outlined. Two major technological frontiers are then discussed. Microbiological breakthroughs are representative of technologies which shift the production function. Computer and communication advances help management by reducing transaction costs. These and other new technologies are discussed at each level of the farm and food system. ...

  10. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    OpenAIRE

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems (OFS, IFS, and CFS, respectively) at farm and more detailed spatial scales. This is achieved applying an integrated economic-environmental accounting framewo...

  11. Role of cattle and local feed resources on the sustainability of a coconut cattle integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    due to overgrazing by animals with out supplementation. Depletion of soil and herbage nitrogen in T3 stimulated conservation of nitrogen through recirculation within the animal. It was also estimated that each coconut palm received 141 kg of fresh dung /year in T3 and 146 kg/year in T4 along with 66.6 kg/urine /year in T3 and 69.6 kg/yr in T4. The dung and urine could totally replace nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers applied to coconuts. Also it could reduce the potassium fertilizer applied to coconut by 85% in T3 and 88% in T4 and magnesium fertilizer applied by 85% in T3 and 88% by T4. There was a marked increase (P < 0.05) in live weight gains of cattle recording 688 g/d for heifers in T4 and 349 g/d for heifers in T3. Heifers fed supplements were in oestrus significantly earlier and at a higher body weight than those fed on natural herbage only. Thus fairly evenly matched initial ages and live weights of T3 (145.5 ± 2.4) and T4 (144.2 ± 2.9) groups, respectively differed significantly in favour of T4 at first oestrus. Heifer fed supplements calved significantly earlier than the heifers fed only natural herbage. An additional benefit of the integrated system was the improvement (P < 0.05) of coconut and copra yield per palm in grazed plots over monoculture plots, especially in T4 plots with animals receiving supplements. Soil nitrogen content also increased (P < 0.05) in grazed plots (T3 - 0.964% and T4 -1.004%) plots as compared to monoculture plots (T1-0.839%, T2-0.859%) demonstrating further benefits on cattle integration. Results suggest that supplementation of tree fodder and low cost concentrate to heifer's grazed natural herbage under coconut alleviated seasonal feed shortages and improved cattle and coconut performance, which contributed to sustainability of the integrated system. Further investigations, would show the actual benefits with the passage of time. (author)

  12. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  13. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  14. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  15. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Vinther, Finn Pilgaard; Mølgaard, Jens Peter; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  16. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  17. Haemorrhagic diarrhoea and reproductive failure in Bonsmara cattle resulting from anomalous heavy metal concentrations in soils, forages and drinking water associated with geochemical anomalies of toxic elements on the farm Puntlyf, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbroek, J. H.; Meyer, J.; Myburgh, J.

    2003-05-01

    Poor livestock health conditions are associated with geochemical Pb anomalies on a farm approximately 40km east of Pretoria, South Africa. A generic risk assessment of drinking water for Bonsmara cattle obtained from three separate subterranean water sources on the farm, revealed the presence of several potentially hazardous constituents suspected for the development of adverse health effects in the herd. The two main symptoms of the herd, namely, severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea in calves and reproductive failure in cows, have been investigated. A selenium-induced copper deficiency was proposed as the main cause to the calf diarrhoea, due to complexing between high concentrations of Se, Mo, Hg and Pb in drinking water. It was also anticipated that such Cu deficiencies would lead to low systemic Se inducing hypothyroidism in the cows due to inadequate iodine activation required for thyroid hormone formation and consequently adversely affect reproduction. The anomalous Pb in borehole drinking water on the southem part of the farm, suggests a clear genetic link with the underlying geochemical Pb anomalies detected by means of an ongoing regional geochemical survey.

  18. Human Resource Management in Beef Cattle Farms at Triangulo Mineiro Region

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Mariana de Aragao; do Vale, Sonia Maria Leite Ribeiro; Mancio, Antonio Bento

    2005-01-01

    The marketing pressures for economically viable, socially fair and ecologically correct production systems have required the farmers to adopt new management practices, aiming to increase the production scale, improve the quality of the products, and reduce costs. The historical utilization of abundant, cheap and disqualified labor in the rural sector has been a barrier to the adoption of technology. This study is an attempt to describe the human resources management that have been used by bee...

  19. Economic value of management information systems in pig farming.

    OpenAIRE

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focused on developing and testing methods to determine the profitability of management information systems (MIS) in livestock farming Methods were first applied to evaluating MIS in pig farming. Economic value of MIS arises from the fact that farmers have limited time, motivation or skills to decide consistently. Therefore, positive research approaches that derive MIS benefits from actual decision making of farmers, such as survey studies and economics ex...

  20. The European regulatory system. Organic farming and production

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbois, Klaus-Peter

    2001-01-01

    The European Union is the biggest consumer market for organic produce. Consequently, its regulatory system on organic farming is of special interest, not just to Europeans dealing with organic products, but also to those who target their product to this market. Of particular interest in this context is the Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 with its numerous revisions and amendments. Responding to this interest the following piece gives an overview of the EU-Regulation on organic farming and food produ...

  1. A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Howitt, Richard E.; Klonsky, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The economic viability of alternative and more sustainable agriculture farming systems depend on the value of farm profits. These values may be estimated through short or long-run of profit maximization, but there is a difference in these methods. In short-run profit maximization the instantaneous marginal benefits are equated to the marginal costs of production. Where as in the long-run maximization of profits the capital value of soil resources are quantify in addition to the direct revenue...

  2. Comparison of alternative offshore wind farms and HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lilje, P.; Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany); Basteck, A. [Voith Turbo Wind GmbH und Co. KG, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability of offshore wind farms connected to the main power system via HVDC systems. Wind farms consisting of different ratios of directly connected synchronous machines and doubly-fed induction machines are considered. In addition, both conventional LCC- and VSC-type HVDC systems are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered for the VSC-based system, including constant frequency control and frequency regulation. The stability analysis is done by means of time-domain simulation. The maximum and minimum ratio of the two wind turbine technologies is found for each of the different HVDC systems. (orig.)

  3. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  4. Livestock intensification and use of natural resources in smallholder mixed farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Samdup, T.; Udo, H.M.J.; Viets, T.C.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Bhutan aims to intensify livestock production not only to improve livelihoods of farming households and to meet the increasing demands of livestock products, but also to sustainably use natural resources. This paper assesses the impact and trends of livestock intensification on the use of Common Property Resources (CPR), and how this affects the cattle numbers that can be maintained and the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows at the farm. Data on household, cropping and livestock activities...

  5. 12 CFR 615.5175 - Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred stock. 615.5175 Section 615.5175 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM... Capital, and Other Investments § 615.5175 Investments in Farm Credit System institution preferred...

  6. 75 FR 64728 - Cooperative Operating Philosophy-Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... which Farm Credit System (System) institutions are required to operate.\\1\\ The FCA emphasizes... Cooperative Operating Philosophy--Serving the Members of Farm Credit System Institutions AGENCY: Farm Credit... policy statement that reaffirms the FCA's support of members' participation in their Farm Credit...

  7. Economic and Environmental Concerns in Philippine Upland Coconut Farms: An Analysis of Policy, Farming Systems and Socio-Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelita M. Pabuayon

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the farming and agroforestry systems in upland coconut-based farms and the policy and socio-economic issues in the cutting of coconut trees in the Philippines. In general, there is a lack of focus on the environmental and agro-ecological aspects of coconut-based farming and agroforestry systems (CBF/AFS) R&D and program initiatives. Nevertheless, earlier works provide recommendations that include soil conservation and the planting of perennials and forest ...

  8. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    OpenAIRE

    W. Mądry; Y. Mena; B. Roszkowska-Mądra; D. Gozdowski; R. Hryniewski; Castel, J M

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study hav...

  9. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  10. RFID技术在出口活牛育肥养殖管理中的应用%Application of RFID technology in the export management of live cattle fattening farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜立岗

    2011-01-01

    科学的规模化、标准化养殖已经是现在畜牧养殖的发展方向,合理的利用科学手段对畜牧养殖进行有效的监管,已经是现代化养殖的趋势。运用射频识别(RFID)技术,通过电子标签的研制,开发配套的出口活牛育肥场电子信息管理系统,对出口活牛注册育肥场进行科学管理,规范牛只健康档案,加强活牛溯源性管理,提高监管的有效性和工作效率,从而提高出口活牛育肥场的管理水平,保障供港澳活牛的健康和食用安全,为下一步建立我国出口活牛电子监管系统做一些有益的探索。%The scientific large-scale and standardized farming has been the trends of animal husbandry. The reasonable using scientific means to animal husbandry and effective supervision is the modern culture trend. Using the of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, by the electronic label the electronic information management system on the export of live cattle is developed. The fatten field of scientific management is registered. The cattle health is standardized. The effectiveness of regulation and work efficiency are improved. Thereby the export of live cattle feedlot management level is enhaned, for Hong Kong and Macao live cattle health and food safety. As the next building the China's export of live cattle electronic monitoring system,it is to do some useful exploration.

  11. Integrated Farming System - An Holistic Approach: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunatha SB

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 115 million operational holdings in the country and about 80 % are marginal and small farmers. To fulfill the basic needs of house hold including food (cereal, pulses, oilseeds, milk, fruit, honey, meat, etc., feed, fodder, fiber, etc. warrant an attention about Integrated Farming System (IFS. Undoubtedly, majority of the farmers are doing farming since long back but their main focus was individual components but not in a integrated manner. At the ICAR and State Agricultural Universities level, lot of efforts have been made aiming at increasing the productivity of different components of farming system like crop, dairy, livestock, poultry, piggery, goat keeping, duckery, apiculture, sericulture, horticulture, mushroom cultivation etc. individually but lacking in their integration by following farming system approach. The integration is made in such a way that product of one component should be the input for other enterprises with high degree of complimentary effects on each other. The preliminary research investigations advocated the benefits of productivity improvement by 30-50% depending upon the number and kind of enterprises and their management. The information on farming system in a systematic way is presented here. The methodology is explained keeping in mind the work done so far to realize better productivity, profitability and sustainable production systems that would help to solve the fuel, feed and energy crisis, create more employment avenues, ensure regular income and encourage agricultural oriented industry.

  12. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (pfermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  13. THE PROJECTION OF A FARM SPECIALIZED IN FATTENING YOUNG ROMANIAN SPOTTED CATTLE WITH AN ANNUAL DELIVERY OF 310 TONS OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA BIANCA GHIRILĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to expose the fattening technology in continuous growing system of young cattle from Romanian Spotted breed, having as purpose the obtainment of average weight young cattle. The quantity of meat that has to be delivered annually is 310 tons at an average weight of delivery in live of 510 kg/head with the fattening period of 460 days which means we will annually deliver 608 heads of young cattle without loosing anyone in the four phases of fattening. For this purpose the capacity of fattening must be 815 heads with an index of annual occupation of 95% and of 75% on the total period of fattening. The surface necessary for the fodder production is 250 ha.

  14. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  15. Diversified Farming Systems: An Agroecological, Systems-based Alternative to Modern Industrial Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Kremen; Alastair Iles; Christopher Bacon

    2012-01-01

    This Special Issue on Diversified Farming Systems is motivated by a desire to understand how agriculture designed according to whole systems, agroecological principles can contribute to creating a more sustainable, socially just, and secure global food system. We first define Diversified Farming Systems (DFS) as farming practices and landscapes that intentionally include functional biodiversity at multiple spatial and/or temporal scales in order to maintain ecosystem services that provide cri...

  16. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  17. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  18. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  19. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment. In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  20. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  1. Increasing Income and Employment through Sustainable Farming Systems in Water Scarce Region of Uttar Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shalander; Jain, D. K.; Singh, Rajvir

    2006-01-01

    The farming systems in the water-scarce region of semiarid Uttar Pradesh have been examined. The availability of land and also of water has become the most limiting factors in farming for increasing the levels of farm income and employment. Therefore, an effort has been made to suggest sustainable farming systems through optimization of farm resources and also by putting restriction on the availability of irrigation water. It has been shown that the income and employment could be increased in...

  2. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM...

  3. Activity and relative abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on confined pig and cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H; Jespersen, J B

    1999-01-01

    A survey was conducted on 84 pig and cattle farms in Denmark between August and October 1996 and 1997. The aim was to describe the activity and relative abundance of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Ichneumonidae) that attack puparia of Musca domestica Linnaeus and Stomoxys calcitrans...... (Linnaeus). In total, seven pteromalid species were recovered: Spalangia cameroni Perkins, S. nigripes Curtis, S. subpunctata Förster, Muscidifurax raptorGirault & Sanders, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Urolepis rufipes(Ashmead) and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker), an ichneumonid Phygadeuon fumator......Gravenhorst, a diapriid Trichopria sp., and a staphylinid Aleocharasp. This is the first time that U. rufipes has been recorded in Europe. Spalangia cameroni and M. raptor were the most frequently recorded species in all regions of the country, and accounted for the main parasitism of Musca domesticaand Stomoxys...

  4. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L; J. Bech; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at hig...

  5. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    E. Widiastuti; Kustono Kustono; Adiarto Adiarto; Nurliyani Nurliyani

    2014-01-01

    People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollu...

  6. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  7. Dual origins of dairy cattle farming--evidence from a comprehensive survey of European Y-chromosomal variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, C.J.; Ginja, C.; Kantanen, J.; Perez-Pardal, L.; Tresset, A.; Stock, F.; Gama, L.T.; Penedo, M.C.; Bradley, D.G.; Lenstra, J.A.; Nijman, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, wit

  8. Fish farming in land-based closed-containment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    'An International Summit on Fish Farming in Land-Based Closed-Containment Systems' was hosted by the Conservation Fund's Freshwater Institute, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF), the Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF), and Tides Canada (TC) at the National Conservation Training Center in She...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  10. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass–Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods. (papers)

  11. Conservation of livestock genetic resources by targeted on-farm management: a case study of Hinterwälder Cattle in the Southern Black Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wanke, Diethild; Boehncke, Engelhard

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. All EU countries are obliged to conserve livestock genetic resources (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Rio, 1992). In-situ conservation is regarded as the most favourable approach. For rare and endangered livestock breeds extensive and organic farming systems seem appropriate. Council Regulation (EC) No 1804/1999 on organic farming recommends keeping indigenous breeds and strains that have adapted to local conditions....

  12. Sustainability Evaluation of Different Systems for Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Farming Based on Emergy Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guodong; DONG Shuanglin; TIAN Xiangli; GAO Qinfeng; WANG Fang

    2015-01-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is af-fected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evalu-ated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed thatA. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farm-ing system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio ofA. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming sys-tem. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable devel-opment were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current exten-sive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system.A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems ofA. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  13. Design of Information System for Milking Dairy Cattle and Detection of Mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A novel information system for detecting mastitis in dairy cattle and managing their milking processes in the milking parlor is designed. The system comprises three major subsystems—the mastitis detection device, the information display device, and the cloud database. The mastitis detection device can detect and evaluate the degree of mastitis immediately before the milking operations are carried out. The information display device shows information on the health of the dairy cattle obtained ...

  14. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  15. An analysis of cattle farmers' perceptions of drivers and barriers to on-farm control of Escherichia coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, L; Low, J C; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Matthews, L; Stott, A W

    2015-08-01

    Structural equation modelling and survey data were used to test determinants' influence on farmers' intentions towards Escherichia coli O157 on-farm control. Results suggest that farmers more likely to show willingness to spend money/time or vaccinate to control Escherichia coli O157 are those: who think farmers are most responsible for control; whose income depends more on opening farms to the public; with stronger disease control attitudes; affected by outbreaks; with better knowledge and more informed; with stronger perceptions of biosecurity measures' practicality; using a health plan; who think farmers are the main beneficiaries of control; and whose farms are dairy rather than beef. The findings might suggest that farmers may implement on-farm controls for E. coli O157 if they identify a clear hazard and if there is greater knowledge of the safety and efficacy of the proposed controls. PMID:25427776

  16. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  17. Wind Turbine Control Impact on Stability of Wind Farms Based on Real-Life Systems Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken in to consideration in the study. It is shown that wind farm components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen form the wind turbine terminals which can affect wind turbine ...

  18. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  19. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr;

    2015-01-01

    providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evalu - ated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from...... rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the...... farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This...

  20. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y F; Sun, F F; Wan, F C; Zhao, H B; Liu, X M; You, W; Cheng, H J; Liu, G F; Tan, X W; Song, E L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (psilage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  1. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  2. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jauch, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    The Ph.D. project ‘Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems’ deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional powerplants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses o...

  3. Vaccines and drugs against Neospora caninum, an important apicomplexan causing abortion in cattle and other farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hemphill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Andrew Hemphill, Joachim Müller Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland Abstract: The apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum represents an important abortion-causing parasite in cattle. The economic impact of neosporosis has led to considerable investments to develop vaccines that would prevent infection and abortion. Live-attenuated vaccines have been shown to confer some protection against N. caninum infection, but may cause problems due ...

  4. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  5. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems:Socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Latawiec, A. E.; Strassburg, B. B. N.; Valentim, J. F.; Ramos, F.; Alves-pinto, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and po...

  6. Clitoria ternatea, The Alternative Shrub Legume for Cattle and Corn Integration System in Timor Island

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Nulik

    2009-01-01

    Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize hav...

  7. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices. PMID:20172227

  8. A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang'ethe, Erastus K; Kimani, Violet N; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Lang'at, Alfred K; Kiragu, Monica W; Karanja, Nancy; Njehu, Alice N; Randolph, Thomas; Mbugua, Gabriel; Irungu, Tabitha W; Ombutu, Peninnah

    2012-09-01

    This paper characterises the dairy farming system in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Characterisation was part of a broader ecohealth project to estimate the prevalence and risk of cryptosporidiosis and develop risk mitigation strategies. In the project a trans-disciplinary team addressed epidemiological, socioeconomic, environmental and policy aspects of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis. This paper also provides background and describes sampling methods for the wider project. Three hundred dairy households were probabilistically sampled from a sampling frame of all dairy households in five of the six locations of Dagoretti, one of the eight districts of Nairobi Province. Randomly selected households identified 100 non-dairy-keeping households who also took part in the study. A household questionnaire was developed, pre-tested and administered in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. An additional study on livelihood and economic benefits of dairying took place with 100 dairy farmers randomly selected from the 300 farms (as well as 40 non-dairy neighbours as a control group), and a risk-targeted survey of environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium was conducted with 20 farmers randomly selected from the 29 farmers in the wider survey who were considered at high risk because of farming system. We found that around 1 in 80 urban households kept dairy cattle with an average of three cattle per household. Cross-breeds of exotic and local cattle predominate. Heads of dairy-keeping households were significantly less educated than the heads of non-dairy neighbours, had lived in Dagoretti for significantly longer and had significantly larger households. There was a high turnover of 10 % of the cattle population in the 3-month period of the study. Cattle were zero grazed, but productivity parameters were sub-optimal as were hygiene and husbandry practices. In conclusion, dairy keeping is a minor activity in urban Nairobi but important to households involved and their community

  9. 12 CFR 1400.2 - Board of Directors of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Board of Directors of the Farm Credit System... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.2 Board of Directors of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. The Board of Directors of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation is...

  10. 12 CFR 1400.3 - Organization of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.3 Organization of the Farm Credit System...

  11. Organic Farming as an European Innovation System

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, S.

    2013-01-01

    he paper explores how organic agriculture fits into the framework of innovation systems that is becoming more widely accepted in supporting innovation also in agriculture which is faced with many societal challenges. It explores the need to better understand the role of different types of innovation and in particular the role of knowledge and how joint learning systems for sharing different types of knowledge can be developed.

  12. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  13. On-farm welfare assessment in dairy cattle and buffaloes: evaluation of some animal-based parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe De Rosa; Corrado Pacelli; Federica Saltalamacchia; Carmela Tripaldi; Aldo Bordi; Fernando Grasso; Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of some animal related variables, which could be used in proto-  cols developed for assessing animal welfare at farm level. Recordings were performed in seven dairy farms (four for cat-  tle and three for buffaloes). The animals were observed on three occasions at three-week intervals. The variables col-  lected for each animal were the following: behaviour during milking (stepping and kicking), avoidance distance, lame-&n...

  14. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM BASED ON RAMBUTAN TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN DRY LAND

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Bachrul; Jayadi, Muhammad; Ahmad, Asmita

    2014-01-01

    South Sulawesi has a dry land area of 1.802.510 hectares, which is scattered in several districts. To create bright prospects for agriculture in dry land, the concept of integrated farming can be applied. One of the integrated farming system that can be applied in dryland is hedgrow farming systems with livestock combination. This research aims to develop an integrated farming system based on rambutan as one of the business that can increase revenue and continuity of production (productivity)...

  15. Precision Farming Tools. Global Positioning System (GPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Grisso, Robert D. (Robert Dwight), 1956-; Alley, Mark M.; Heatwole, Conrad D.

    2005-01-01

    By knowing location, farmers can look at the field as a group of small zones and determine if the field is uniform or not. Computers and geographical information systems (GIS) enable producers to record location and other information. With this information practices that may improve efficiency and increase profitability can be considered.

  16. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems. PMID:26992734

  17. Voltage Swell mitigation in Wind Farm System

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam D.P

    2014-01-01

    As the wind power penetration into the grid is increasing quickly, the influence of wind turbine on the power quality is becoming an important issue. Wind power penetration is the impact on power system stability. Power quality problems such as voltage sag and swell are some major concern. In this paper voltage swell issues is analyzed. Wind turbine connected to squirrel cage induction generator is modelled using PSCAD simulation software to analyse the said issues where STATC...

  18. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder

  19. Young fission products biological effect on the lactic cattle and young fission products translocation into farm animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ways and quantitative aspects of the passage of artificial radionuclides to the organism of farm animals are discussed, as well as data on the effect of various natural factors favouring or hindering the passage of radionuclides from fodder to animals and to the agricultural produce

  20. Rice cultivation in the farming systems of Sukumaland, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Meertens, H.C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis investigates options for sustainable rice cultivation and general agricultural development in the Mwanza and Shinyanga regions in northwestern Tanzania, often called Sukumaland due to the predominance of Wasukuma people. Generally Sukumaland has a semi-arid climate; agriculture is constrained by unreliable and low rainfall. In the past fifty years the population density has doubled in most parts. This has triggered several changes in farming systems. One important change is a redu...

  1. A systems approach for assessing sustainability in livestock farms

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, E.S.; Halberg, N.

    1997-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is widely used in agriculture. There i, however, a large variability in the interpretation of the meaning of sustainability. The broad understanding in conjunction with the complexity of livestock farming calls for a systems approach. In this paper different interpretation of sustainable agriculture id described and discussed. It is concluded that sustainable agriculture has a major normative dimension and obviously has different meanings for different groups ...

  2. Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Risku-Norja, H.; Mikkola, M.

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture for food production has come to crossroads: while conventional agriculture needs to improve environmental and social performance, organic agriculture needs to increase the production volumes and to re-establish the connctedness between producers and consumers. Through re-localising the food production there is an increasing convergence of the farming practices towards sustainable agriculture acknowledging the prospects, advantages and limitations of the different production system...

  3. Dual origins of dairy cattle farming--evidence from a comprehensive survey of European Y-chromosomal variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diversity patterns of livestock species are informative to the history of agriculture and indicate uniqueness of breeds as relevant for conservation. So far, most studies on cattle have focused on mitochondrial and autosomal DNA variation. Previous studies of Y-chromosomal variation, with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu haplogroup (Y3, as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Haplogroup data were collected for 2087 animals from 138 breeds. For 111 breeds, these were resolved further by genotyping microsatellites INRA189 (10 alleles and BM861 (2 alleles. European cattle carry exclusively taurine haplotypes, with the zebu Y-chromosomes having appreciable frequencies in Southwest Asian populations. Y1 is predominant in northern and north-western Europe, but is also observed in several Iberian breeds, as well as in Southwest Asia. A single Y1 haplotype is predominant in north-central Europe and a single Y2 haplotype in central Europe. In contrast, we found both Y1 and Y2 haplotypes in Britain, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Y-chromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea and Baltic coasts and the spotted, yellow or brown breeds from Switzerland, respectively. The present Y1-Y2 contrast in central Europe coincides with historic, linguistic, religious and cultural boundaries.

  4. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  5. On-Farm Research on the Nutritive Value of Forages and the Status of Mineral Soils, Forages and Blood Sera of Cattle in Small-Holder of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-farm survey was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of the locally grown forages, the status of minerals in soils, forages and blood serum of cows and calves fed or grazed on these forages. The survey involves 55 smallholder farms practising zero- and grazing semi zero grazing dairy production systems in Bahati and Naivasha Divisions of Nakuru District. The samples of forage and crop residues and other feeds available at the farm level were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total lash and minerals-Ca, P, Mg, Na and Cu. Soil samples were analysed for pH, organic matter, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Cu. Samples of blood serum collected from the cows and calves utilising these forages were analysed for macro-elements-Ca, P, Mg, Na and trace elements such as Cu. Growth and production performance of the animals on these farms was studied. The results indicated a wide variation in the concentration of minerals in soils on different farms. Available feeds in these farms consisted of pasture, Napier grass and crop residues such as maize stovers. Pasture grasses and other established forages were deficient in protein (-1s), Na (316-339 ppm) and Cu (65- 120ppm) indicating the importance of mineral supplementation. The effect of age of the animal was significant for Cu (P 12.5%) and low milk production (< 10 kg per day) and low fertility suggesting the importance of protein, energy and mineral supplementation on the smallholder dairy farms of Bahati and Naivasha, possibly with concentrates and legumes which are rich in protein energy and minerals

  6. DIFFERENCES IN FEEDING PRACTICES ON ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL DAIRY FARMS – DATA FROM A FARM NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Warnecke, Sylvia; Schulz, Franziska; Paulsen, Hans Marten; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Organic and conventional feeding practices of dairy cattle differ due to specific regulations that are in place for organic farming. E.g., dairy cows must have access to pasture, and soybean extract, a very common concentrate in conventional dairy feeding, may not be fed. The joint project “Climate Effects and Sustainability of Agricultural Systems – Analyses in a Network of Pilot Farms” determined feeding practices and feed qualities on a total of 44 dairy farms (22 organic and conventional,...

  7. U.S. Organic Farming Emerges in the 1990s: Adoption of Certified Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Catherine R.

    2001-01-01

    Farmers have been developing organic farming systems in the United States for decades. State and private institutions also began emerging during this period to set organic farming standards and provide third-party verification of label claims, and legislation requiring national standards was passed in the 1990s. More U.S. producers are considering organic farming systems in order to lower input costs, conserve nonrenewable resources, capture high-value markets, and boost farm income. Organic ...

  8. Soil Fertility: Organic vs. Conventional Farming Systems in Vojvodina, northern Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Manojlovic, M.; Cabilovski, R.; Kalentic, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine on-farm the influence of organic farming systems on soil fertility, in order to recommend agrotechnical practices that will contribute to increase soil fertility, thus the yield and quality of cultivated plants. The survey was conducted at 7 representative farms in the system of control and certification in Vojvodina, northern Serbia, and within them, 55 production fields with different history of farming practices. Optimal to high soil fertility found in ...

  9. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability. The......, is developed. Different GA techniques are investigated based on a real example offshore wind farm. This optimisation platform has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for offshore wind farm design and evaluation....

  10. Assessing Crop-Livestock Interaction in Mixed Farming Systems of North Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyama, J. M; Muyekho, F. N; Lusweti, N. F.; Lusweti, C. M.; Omamo, E; Wairimu, K. N.; Kariuki, Nelson; Komen, John

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted in the four counties the maize- wheat-teapotato and sugarcane-based farming system in North western Kenya to explore the variability among household characteristics and farm productivity. The aim of this work was to establish homogenous groups of crop-livestock mixed farming systems of Kenya. A two step approach was adopted for the study. The first was a rapid rural appraisal followed by a formal survey aimed at establishing farm types to facilitate detailed analysis of ...

  11. Net Benefits from Investing in Lucerne (Medicago sativa) Phase Farming Systems in the Mixed Farming Zone of Northern Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Trapnell, Lindsay N.; Ransom, Kieran P.; Hirth, Jeff R.; Naji, Riad; Clune, Tim S.R.; Crawford, Michael C.; Harris, Ron H.; Whale, James; Wilson, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    Increases in induced waterlogging and dryland salinization resulting from deep drainage to watertables have been predicted to occur across the mixed farming zone of northern Victoria. Consequently, deep-rooted perennials need to be introduced into farming systems. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) has been found to have a higher level of water extraction than annual crops and pastures. But one of the barriers to farmers adopting cropping with lucerne is that they fear their risk in production will in...

  12. The Effects of Some External Management Factors on the Nitrogen Composition of Cattle Manure on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Markewich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers in Kenya collect manure from confined cattle housing termed zero-grazing units. Zero-grazing designs may include urine collection, though the effectiveness of these designs in improving manure N content has not been established. The manure-urine mixtures produced in these units were simulated to determine urine effects on manure N composition. Manure and manure-urine mixtures were stored for 120 days during dry and rainy seasons in Kenya. Manure-urine mixtures leached 26% of their mineral N content during the dry season, but only 12% during the rainy season. After storage, manure-urine mixtures had less organic-N and fiber-N than manure alone during the dry season (<0.01, but not during the rainy season. Results suggest that the effect of cattle urine on manure N composition is greater during dry seasons than rainy. Manure should not be stored more than 30 days to minimize N loss to leaching. Farmers may take steps to reduce N loss by controlling leaching and protecting manure from rainfall.

  13. Soil Erosion of Various Farming Systems in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBIN; ZHANGTAOLIN; 等

    1996-01-01

    In order to optimise land use systems,to prevent erosion-induced degradation and to restore the degraded red soils in subtropical China,five cropping systems and four agrforestry systems were conducted in red soils with a slope of 7° from 1993 to 1995,The results showed that erosion risk period occurred from Aproil to June,and the annual runoff and and the losses of soil and nutrients with sediment were alarming for two conventional farming systems,whereas they were negligible for the farming systems with ridge tillage.Enrichment ratios of the lost soils from erosion erer more than 1.20 for all nutrients with much higher values for hydrolysable N and organic matter.Compared with the control,the alley cropping systems also distinctly decreased runoff by 30% or 50%.However,the coverage of soil surface varied with alley cropping systems for the competition of nutrients and soil water,which made a profound difference in runoff.The cropping systems of sweet potato intercropped with soybean,the alley cropping systems and the measures of mulching and ridge tillage were the alternatives for red soil reclamation so as to prevent erosion-induced degradation.

  14. Organic Farming as an Innovative Farming System Development Model toward Sustainable Agriculture in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming has been promoted and developed in Bali since 2006 by the government in collaboration with private businesses and certification bodies. This research aimed to synthesize the development of Balinese organic production as an effort toward sustainable agriculture. Data from the in-depth interview and critical review were analyzed. As of 2012, the following have been certified as organic farms: 22 groups of food crop and horticulture farms such as rice/red rice, vegetables, flower...

  15. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  16. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  17. Production of income and energy using cattle excrete. Farming projects MDL; Produciendo ingresos y energia utilizando excretas pecuarias. Proyectos MDL agropecuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernan, Mateus [AGCERT, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Mexican Farming Sector has a great potential to help solve the worldwide problems caused by greenhouse effect gases (GEI). The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument created to reduce the greenhouse effect gases (GEI) and it also is the fundament of the AgCert project -which consists in applying own financial resources to develop technological options that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases in cattle productive facilities and to use the income to economically support the producers. In this document it is described the way in which the biodigestor was installed, demonstrating that the MDL for farming projects is a tool to reduce the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. It also demonstrates that technologies and processes can be applied systematically to reduce the emissions of the GEI, bringing along environmental and economic benefits. [Spanish] El Sector Agropecuario Mexicano tiene un gran potencial para ayudar a resolver los problemas mundiales causados por los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). El protocolo de Kyoto es un instrumento creado para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y tambien es el fundamento del proyecto AgCert, el cual consiste en aplicar recursos financieros propios para desarrollar opciones tecnologicas que contribuyan a la reduccion de gases efecto invernadero en instalaciones productivas pecuarias y emplear los ingresos para apoyar economicamente a los productores. En este documento se describe la manera en que se llevo acabo la instalacion del biodigestor, demostrando que el MDL para proyectos agropecuarios es una herramienta para reducir emisiones de gases efecto invernadero, y que se pueden aplicar sistematicamente tecnologias y procesos que reduzcan las emisiones de los GEI, trayendo consigo beneficios ambientales y economico.

  18. Aggregated Control of VSC HVDC Systems and Offshore Wind Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbroucke, Stijn; Beerten, Jef; Belmans, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the aggregated active power control in a Voltage Source Converter High Voltage Direct Current(VSC HVDC) system, interconnecting one offshore wind farm and two asynchronous onshore grids. Existing control strategies have all been developed for point-to-point connections and need a revision when an operation with more than two converters is considered. This paper introduces an aggregated system control, both for a set-up with two point-to-point connections and for a multi-t...

  19. The Wind farm effect to the Distribution system

    OpenAIRE

    Koistinen, Pasi

    2010-01-01

    Main goal in this thesis that it gives view how wind production effect to distribution system. For this I have used material from Fortum and Tampere University of Technology. There is also section which tell main point of Finnish power system and wind production in Finland. Example target I selected Högsårans wind farm which contains new technology of wind energy production. Second main point is learn how distribution network operate and what things has to look for to planning distribution ...

  20. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and green

  1. Jim Leap: Farm Manager, Center for Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, Jim Leap has managed the 25-acre farm at UC Santa Cruz—designing crop systems, overseeing production, purchasing and maintaining equipment, teaching apprentices, supervising staff, coordinating field research, helping write training manuals, and educating students and visitors about the farm. In March, 2009, he was recognized with the UC Small Farm Program’s Pedro Ilic Award for Outstanding Educator. The honor is named for an influential Fresno County small-farm advisor who was an...

  2. Profiling farm systems according to their sustainable performance: the Irish livestock sector

    OpenAIRE

    Micha, Evgenia; Heanue, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable farming systems are those that are economically profitable, environmentally protective and socially efficient through time, therefor the importance of farm sustainable performance is highly acknowledged, and there are various methods for its measurement and assessment at different spatial levels. The aim of this study is to profile and classify Irish livestock farms according to their performance using farm-level data on profitability, environmental efficiency and social integrati...

  3. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...

  4. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Hassan, Abdullahi N.; Ali, Ali E.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. Methods One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates. Results Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease. Conclusions The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed. PMID:25938483

  5. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  6. [Grounds for using cattle as one of reference organisms in the system of environmental protection from radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budarkov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Taking into consideration the basic principles of environmental protection from radiation as stated in Publication 91 of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), we suggest cattle to be included into fauna reference species group. The choice is based upon cattle being a typical representative of specific ecosystems and may serve as an informative biological indicator and comparable with humans for its susceptibility to radiation effects. Cattle will receive some higher radiation doses as compared to humans due to its habitat, also earlier determined physiological and radiation constants for cattle are available. Furthermore, there are some data for the effects of radiation levels more than 10 times as higher than the natural ones upon cattle reproductive function and leucosis infection. Using cattle as one of reference organisms will not complicate considerably the systems for environmental protection against radiation as compared to the ones existing now, that will just modify and supplement them. PMID:19507686

  7. The Economic Impact of Merapi Volcano Eruption in Livestock Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Merapi volcano eruption has impact significantly to the most of surrounding farming areas, including livestock, which belongs to rural peoples as the main sources of income. Estimated loss of economic values of resources amounted to IDR 5821 billion, covering among others: salak pondok, farm animals (dairy, beef cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry and food crops (maize and rice field business. The areas mostly hit by the eruption include the districts of Boyolali, Klaten and Magelang of Central Java, and District of Sleman in DIY. Livestock sub sector of the economy in these areas suffers losses in terms of death of animals, sold and unsold animals, fodder crops, and reduced of milk production. It has been estimated that these losses have reached IDR 88,320 billion. Rehabilitation and reconstruction programs are necessary for both short and longer terms efforts to recover people livelihood which derived particularly from livestock farming.

  8. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  9. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albie Miles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs--such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control--to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  10. Development of a flexible measurement system for offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Arana, Ivan; Hjerrild, Jesper; Soerensen, Troels [DONG Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark); Bak, Claus Leth [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology; Holboell, Joachim [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The development process of a flexible measurement system for multi-point, high-speed and long-term offshore data logging is described in this paper. This covers the complete design taking into account precise synchronisation, electromagnetic compatibility, software development and sensor calibration. The presented measurement set-up was tested in a rough offshore environment. Results from measurement campaigns at Avedoere and Gunfleet Sands offshore wind farms including synchronisation precision and accuracy, electromagnetic interference of power electronic devices are briefly presented. (orig.)

  11. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Sorensen, Paul; Hansen, Anca-Daniela;

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements are...... fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection of the...

  12. How do livestock and crop sciences represent evolutions of farming systems ? A review

    OpenAIRE

    Coquil, Xavier; Dedieu, Benoit; Beguin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Farming systems have to evolve in order to face increasing uncertainty in their environment. In this review we analyse evolutions of farming systems over the long term as a double co-evolution : co-evolution of the farming system and its environment, and co-evolution of the farmer and his biotechnical system (farmer activity). We review literature from the livestock and crop sciences, and we deepen our analyse with some literature from management sciences, ergonomics, professional didactics t...

  13. Impact of Watersheds in Bringing Change in the Farming System in Bastpur of Morena District of Madhya Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kulshrestha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Bastpur micro watershed in Morena block of the Morena district of Madhya Pradesh during 2010-11.To assess the impact of watershed development programme in farming system. It could be found that the overall watershed development practices in the study area have positive and effective changes in agricultural area of bajra, and arhar , cropping productivity of gram and arhar, land use, use of land resources, water resources, and livestock due to increase in availability of water and use to improved agricultural inputs like improved seeds, recommended doges of fertilizers, required irrigation, plant protection measures,etc in the study area. It was also found positive change in agricultural land, irrigated area, area under horticultural and vegetables crops. Similarly cattle population was also increased due to sufficient availability of water and fodder in watershed area.

  14. Agricultural Restructuring Requirements by Farm Credit System District

    OpenAIRE

    Doye, Damona G.; Jolly, Robert W.; Darrel Choat

    1987-01-01

    Farm financial stress in the United States is a persistent problem that remains to be reckoned with by agricultural policymakers, agricultural lenders, and rural communities. A surge of farm income in 1986 afforded temporary relief to some operators; the long-term projections however, indicate that farm financial stress will continue to affect a sizable segment of the farm population (FAPRI Staff Report 3-86).

  15. Comparison of the Farming System and Carbon Sequestration between Conventional and Organic Rice Production in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faiz Syuaib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming provides many benefits in Indonesia: it can improve soil quality, food quality and soil carbon sequestration. This study was designed to compare soil carbon sequestration levels between conventional and organic rice farming fields in west Java, Indonesia. The results from soil analysis indicate that organic farming leads to soil with significantly higher soil carbon storage capacity than conventional farming. Organic farming can also cut some farming costs, but it requires about twice as much labor. The sharecropping system of rice farming in Indonesia is highly exploitative of workers; therefore, research should be conducted to develop a fairer organic farming system that can enhance both local and global sustainability.

  16. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  17. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J;

    2012-01-01

    conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg......Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and...... social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by comparing results of a set of sustainability indicators for nine farms using AMS with nine farms using...

  18. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...... parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is to be optimized regarding both the production cost and the system reliability....

  19. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  20. Agri-aqua farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Buendia, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems have been in existence in Thailand for centuries. This country has the most varied integrated farming operations in southeast Asia; pig, cattle, buffalo, chicken, duck, vegetable, aquatic plant, rice and orchard in combination with fish are practices. The systems most preferred by subsistence farmers are rice-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish culture. A brief outline is given of these 3 systems.

  1. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N2, so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  2. Soil carbon dynamics estimation and dependence on farming system in a temperate climate

    OpenAIRE

    Kauer, Karin; Tein, Berit; Sanches De Cima, Diego; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Loit, Evelin; Luik, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining or enhancing the stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key factor in sustaining the soil resources of the world. The objective of this research was to study the effect of different farming systems (conventional farming with mineral fertilizers and crop specific fertilization vs. organic farming with organic fertilizers (catch crops and composted manure)) under the same 5-crop rotation (red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato, barley undersown with red clover) system on the SOC sto...

  3. Nurturing Diversified Farming Systems in Industrialized Countries: How Public Policy Can Contribute

    OpenAIRE

    Alastair Iles; Robin Marsh

    2012-01-01

    If diversified farming systems (DFS) are to thrive again in the United States, policies and preferences must evolve to reward the environmental and social benefits of sustainable farming and landscape management. Compared with conventional agricultural policies, policies aiding ecological diversification are underdeveloped and fragmented. We consider several examples of obstacles to the adoption and spread of diversified farming practices in the U.S. industrialized agricultural system. These ...

  4. Importance of farming system concept in development of less favoured areas

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra

    2009-01-01

    In the paper a concept of farming system in the term of agricultural economics is presented and its usefulness to adopting the new model of rural development on less favoured areas (LFAs) is discussed. Farming system is defined as a holistic description of a farm (or a rural area unit) with respect to agricultural land use (crop and animal production), non-agricultural activities and all determinants of the diverse activities including natural conditions, socio-economic environment, infrastru...

  5. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...

  6. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  7. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  8. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  9. Reliability centered maintenance pilot system implementation 241-AP-tank farm primary ventilation system final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Hanford Site Tank Farms' mission was safe storage of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks, maintenance activities focused on time-based preventive maintenance. Tank Farms' new mission to deliver waste to a vitrification plant where the waste will be processed into a form suitable for permanent storage requires a more efficient and proactive approach to maintenance. Systems must be maintained to ensure that they are operational and available to support waste feed delivery on schedule with a minimum of unplanned outages. This report describes the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot system that was implemented in the 241-AP Tank Farm Primary Ventilation System under PI-ORP-009 of the contract between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CHG). The RCM analytical techniques focus on monitoring the condition of operating systems to predict equipment failures so that maintenance activities can be completed in time to prevent or mitigate unplanned equipment outages. This approach allows maintenance activities to be managed with minimal impact on plant operations. The pilot demonstration provided an opportunity for CHG staff-training in RCM principles and tailoring of the RCM approach to the Hanford Tank Farms' unique needs. This report details the implementation of RCM on a pilot system in Tank Farms

  10. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

    OpenAIRE

    Thi Tu, H.; SILVESTRE, F.; Wang, N; Thomé, J.-P.; Thanh Phuong, N.; Kestemont, P

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice–shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6);...

  11. Determinants and interactions of sustainability and risk management of commercial cattle farmers in Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Ingenillem, Jessica; Merz, Joachim; Baumgärtner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study the determinants and interactions of sustainability and risk management with a cross-sectional dataset on commercial cattle farming in semi-arid rangelands in Namibia. Cattle farmers in Namibia act within a coupled ecological-economic system that is subject to extensive degradation and high environmental risk. Based on survey data, we develop variables for sustainability and risk management within this context, identify their determinants and analyse relevant interactions. Our result...

  12. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin;

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  13. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (phosphorus to water at INC farms, illustrating the focus of these farms on closing the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26231773

  14. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjing Zhao; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Yuee Pan; Place, Sara E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary We describe the construction and operation of a unique system for measuring gaseous emissions that arise from the rumen and metabolism of cattle. This system allows for the collection of high quality data that can be used to improve emission inventories at the regional and national level. Additionally, the system can be used to test various emission mitigation techniques. Abstract Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for...

  15. Evolution of Farming Systems in Peninsular Malaysia : Technology Transfer and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kameoka, Takaharu; Hoki, Makoto; 亀岡, 孝治; 法貴, 誠

    1990-01-01

    ln Malaysia, the issue of farm mechanizations has become very important and the development ofagricultural mechanization has grown rapidly. In this paper, based on the field research conducted in 1986under the title of "The Conventional Farm Tools and the Evolution of Farming Systems in Southeast Asia",general background of Malaysian agriculture was firstly introduced,then information of the presentsituation of rice production mechanization and other agricultural mechanization was provided. I...

  16. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Tzay-An Shiau; Ji-Kai Chuen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA) has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 s...

  17. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  18. Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus farming system: water quality and environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacilda Thais Janson Mercante

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Frog farming, if not well managed, may cause environmental damages. The use of antibiotics, the organic discharge and the introduction of exotic species can disseminate risks such as eutrophication, changes in the water quality and organic pollution, factors that affect the human consumption. AIM: Evaluating the water quality of a bullfrog farming system, discussing their relations to production and the environment based on the current legislation. METHODS: Sampling was performed on a monthly basis from November 2006 to March 2007 during growth and fattening phases of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus. Sample sites were distributed according to the water flow: upstream from the mixing zone, affluent (supply water, bay, effluent, mixing zone and downstream from the mixing zone. In the field, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity were measured. In laboratory, nitrogen, phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations were analyzed. RESULTS: The concentration of nutrients was determiner for water quality in the bay and its effluent. According to the current legislation, the effluent exceeded the limits for total phosphorus (> 0.030 mg L-1 and total nitrogen (> 1.27 mg L-1. Other variables presented acceptable values in light of the current laws. CONCLUSION: The high values of nutrients and other factors such as conductivity and turbidity are proportional to the animal growth due to the inadequate management practices evidenced by feed conversion rate. The following management options are proposed: maintaining the flow and decreased density of animals; maintaining the flow and density storage with adequate control of the food supply.

  19. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  20. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  1. Multi-Machine Stability of a Wind Farm Embedded Power System using FACTS Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Deepa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind Energy is one of the cheapest available renewable sources of energy. Now-a-days the demand for electricity increases drastically. A number of wind farms are already in operation and more are planned or under construction due to the increasing demand of the bulk amount of the electricity. It is must to identify the interactions between the Wind Turbines and the Power System. Here the Power System consists of many generating stations which forms the Multi-Machine System. The objective of this paper is to improve the Power Quality in a Wind Farm embedded Multi-Machine Power System and to maintain stability in the system by using FACTS controllers. Generally when a fault occurs in Wind Farm embedded Multi-Machine Power System the wind farm induction generator is isolated from the power system. After removal of the fault from the power system the wind farm induction generator is connected back to the power system. The wind farm induction generator absorbs more reactive power from the grid while re-connecting back to the power system. As a result, there will be more demand for reactive power in the system. This in turn will lead to voltage dip and other undesirable effects. In this paper FACTS controllers are used to supply reactive power to the wind farm embedded power system during fault and while re-connecting the wind farm induction generator back to the power system. These FACTS controllers supply reactive power during the re-connection of the wind farm induction generator to the power system, thereby improving the voltage profile which in turn leads to the power system stability.

  2. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  3. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  4. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.   In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with...

  5. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Mehdi; Isabelle Dufrasne

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyan...

  6. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  7. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  8. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    H.G. Saiya; D.R. Katoppo

    2015-01-01

    Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type ...

  9. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  10. A Web-Based Collaborative System for Remote Monitoring and Analysis of Livestock Farm Odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Pan, L. L.; Yang, S. X.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and analysis of livestock farm environments require collection and management of large amount of data from distributed farms. There is an increasing demand for collaboration among livestock producers, environment agencies and governments. This paper presents a collaborative system for mon

  11. Resilience of Organic versus Conventional Farming Systems in Tropical Africa: The Kenyan Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Muriuki, Anne; Musyoka, Martha; Fließbach, Andreas; Forster, Dionys

    2012-01-01

    In Kenya, agriculture is largely carried out by smallholder farmers, in a mixed farming noncommercialised setting where application of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides is minimal. Agricultural production is low and constrained by declining soil fertility, pest and diseases and increasingly unpredictable weather due to global warming. This calls for more resilient farming systems.

  12. 77 FR 15026 - Privacy Act of 1974; Farm Records File (Automated) System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... entity data; Combined producer data; production and marketing data; Lease and transfer of allotments and... shares or interest in a payee entity; Appraisals, leases, and data for farm reconstitution; and For... USDA/FSA-2 System name: Farm Records File (Automated). Security classification: Unclassified....

  13. Systems of Agriculture Farming in the Uttranchal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural practices are the main stay of the people of Uttranchal. Out of the total population,more than 75% people are engaged either with the main occupation of agriculture or its allied practices,dominated by traditional subsistence cereal farming.Among them, the main crops are rice, wheat, millet,barley, all types of pulses, all types of oilseeds and almost all types of fruits. The crops, vegetables and fruits of all varieties are grown in the different climatic zones such as tropical, temperate, and cold because, the region is characterized by the different altitudinal zones elevated from 200 m to more than 8000m. As a result, different climates are found from hot tropical to sub temperate and chilly cold. Pulses varieties are grown extensively. Among vegetables,potato, onion, carrot, all types of green leaf vegetables,brinzal, pumpkin, ladyfinger, pea, gram, radish,ginger, garlic, etc, are grown widely. All fruit varieties are grown in the different altitudinal zones. The main fruits are orange, malta (a big size of orange),elephant citrus, lemon and all other types of citrus,apple, stone fruits including peach and pears, many kinds of nuts, and the fruits which are grown in the low lying areas. In spite of feasible climatic conditions,agricultural dominant society, and availability of all types of crops, the production and productivity of these crops are very low, even they are unable to meet the grain-need of the people in Uttaranchal.Agricultural crops are grown almost in all the altitudinal zones - from the low-lying areas, which are growing seasons vary according to the heights. The present paper aims to discuss the agricultural practices including cropping season, cropping pattern,land use, production of crops and ecological aspect of agricultural system in this Himalayan state and suggest some measures for developing farming system,which could lead the sustainability, in terms of meeting the food grain needs of the people on the one hand and

  14. Constraints under organic farming on French sheepmeat production: a legal and economic point of view with an emphasis on farming systems and veterinary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Marc; Laignel, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Ovine meat production in France, which is continually regressing due to economic difficulties, is based on two main production systems. The first system is located in plains in which one part of the lambs born in the spring are fed grass, and the other part of the lambs are from out of the season parturitions following hormonal treatments and are fattened in sheep houses. The second system is represented by farms in the mountains using hardy breeds which have a natural faculty for out of the season breeding and whose lambs are fattened indoors, whatever the season of birth. Amongst the sanitary problems encountered, parasitism in particular of young animals, is crucial, especially for farms on plains practising grass fattening. These farmers systematically use conventional anthelmintic treatments, in particular against Moniezia and Strongyles. With organic farming, the limited number of conventional anthelmintic treatments is a strong constraint, especially for the management of young grass-fed animals. A study of 10 organic farming farms or farms converting to organic farming (six in the mountains and four in the plains) showed that the size of these farms is inferior to that of conventional ones and have technical performances which are comparable to the average with 20 to 30% extra over-prices on lamb sales. Despite this, the gross margins per ewe in organic farming are equal to the average of those for conventional farms. This is due to the high consumption of concentrate at a high cost (50 to 100% greater than that for conventional farms). Finally, to prevent sanitary risks, certain organic farmers use important amounts of feed supplements containing phytotherapy products whose costs burden a part of the financial results of the farm. On the contrary, other organic farmers are able, by adapting breeding and grazing managements, to significantly decrease animal health costs without increasing feed supplements nor decreasing zootechnical performances. PMID

  15. Differences between organic and conventional farming systems in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Moudry, Jan; KONVALINA, PETR

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture of the Czech Republic has features of submonate and montane agriculture. More than half of the surface of the Czech Republic are less favourable areas (LFA). Active state support of farming focused on the extensive production and maintenance of the countryside and the other environmental services is the crucial point of a successful development of competitive and economical (from the point of view of the environment) production in LFA. Organic farming is carried out on the area of...

  16. Design and Development of Decision Support System for Equipping Farm Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Equipping farm machines is the key link of agricultural production process. The decision support system of equipping farm machines is able to aid managers to make scientific and effective decision. In this paper, the decision support system of equipping farm machines is designed and developed based on the related theories and the thought of prototype. The system chooses Delphi 7.0 as development language, and uses three classic equipping methods to establish system models. For the complex linear programming model, firstly it is established by M-file of Matlab, then COM components are generated; finally Delphi calls the COM components to solve. The database of the system is established and managed by SQL Server 2005. It can be seen from the result of the system application study that the system could assist users to equip farm machines more scientifically and dynamically

  17. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  18. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  19. Serological evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in cattle-breeding systems on Colombia’s high plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.

  20. Application of nitrogen generated by cattle at dairies and feedlots to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of nitrogen generated at confined cattle operations that was applied...

  1. Application of phosphorus generated by cattle at dairies and feedlots to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of phosphorus generated at confined cattle operations that was...

  2. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system are...... offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates the...

  3. NWPC'2006 - Grid integration and electrical systems on wind turbines and wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third Nordic Wind Power Conference focusing on grid integration and electrical systems of wind turbines and wind farms was arranged in Espoo, Finland. The NWPC was organised by VTT (Finland), SINTEF Energy Research (Norway), Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden) and Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark). Conference Topics: 1. System integration including impact of wind power on power system operation and stability, means and technologies for improving power system operation and impact of wind power on energy market. 2. Grid connection of wind power discussing impact on power quality, protection and network requirements. 3. Wind farm modelling and in more detail wind turbine and wind farm models for power system simulation, assessment of models vs. measurements. 4. Wind farm technologies including network infrastructure, ac and dc technologies, control systems, active and reactive power control. 5. Electrical components including new wind turbine, generator and converter designs, new components and control concepts

  4. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  5. Multi-criteria agro-environmental evaluation of low input dairy farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchin, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    A multi-criteria evaluation was carried out to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability of the two low input dairy farming systems, permanent meadows system (SH) and mixed crops-meadows system (SPCE), of the experimental farm of INRA-Mirecourt. Twelve environmental indicators from different methods (INDIGO, Peigné 2003, PLANETE) were calculated in order to evaluate the impact on abiotic resources : nitrate leaching, phosphorus losses, pesticides loss in surface and groundwater, pesticid...

  6. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  7. 12 CFR 615.5560 - Book-entry Procedure for Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Book-entry Procedure for Farm Credit System Financial Assistance Corporation Securities. 615.5560 Section 615.5560 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND...

  8. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  9. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  10. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad;

    . Data on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries...

  11. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  12. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  13. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.

  14. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1) on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, L; Kume, K.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha) is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1) of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P), Limousi...

  15. Estimation of tsetse challenge and its relationship with trypanosomosis incidence in cattle kept under pastoral production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Murilla, G; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Randolph, T F; McDermott, J

    2008-08-17

    In an on-farm trial conducted amongst the Maasai pastoralists in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya between April 2004 and August 2005 designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse repellent technology, we assessed the relationship between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence in cattle. Six villages were used in each area. Each of these villages had a sentinel cattle herd that was screened for trypanosomosis on monthly basis using buffy coat technique. Animals found infected at each sampling were treated with diminazene aceturate at 7 mg kg(-1) body weight. Treatments administered by the owners over the sampling intervals were recorded as well. Tsetse flies were trapped at the time of sampling using baited stationary traps and apparent tsetse density estimated as flies per trap per day (FTD). A fixed proportion (10%) of the flies was dissected and their infection status determined through microscopy. Blood meals were also collected from some of the flies and their sources identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tsetse challenge was obtained as a product of tsetse density, trypanosome prevalence and the proportion of blood meals obtained from cattle. This variable was transformed using logarithmic function and fitted as an independent factor in a Poisson model that had trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel cattle as the outcome of interest. The mean trypanosomosis incidence in the sentinel group of cattle was 7.2 and 10.2% in Nkuruman and Nkineji, respectively. Glossina pallidipes was the most prevalent tsetse species in Nkuruman while G. swynnertoni was prevalent in Nkineji. The proportions of tsetse that had mature infections in the respective areas were 0.6 and 4.2%. Most tsetse (28%) sampled in Nkuruman had blood meals from warthogs while most of those sampled in Nkineji (30%) had blood meals from cattle. A statistically significant association between tsetse challenge and trypanosomosis incidence was obtained only

  16. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  17. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Pacini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  18. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at differe

  19. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  20. Enhancing methane production in a farm-scale biogas production system

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparaju, Prasad

    2003-01-01

    This work highlights the application of biogas technology in a farm biogas system to generate renewable energy and to reduce environmental impacts and GHG emissions from high strength organic wastes ranging from agricultural, animal wastes and agro-industrial organic wastes. In addition, the thesis also emphasizes various measures to enhance methane production especially in a farm-scale biogas production system through co-digestion of manure and industrial organic waste/energy crops and recov...

  1. Landscape designed by farming systems: a challenge for landscape agronomists in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, M.; Mignolet, C.; Herrmann, S.; Rizzo, D.; Moonen, C.; Barberi, P.; Galli, M.; Bonari, E.; Silvestri, N.; Thenail, C.; S. Lardon; Rapey, H.; Marraccini, E.; Le Ber, F.; Meynard, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    As agronomists, we are concerned by the landscapes seen as a result of human decisions. So, landscape is for us human-made and the main driving forces of landscape design processes are farming systems. In this way, landscape is designed by the farming systems in a complex relationship with the land. Just like ecologists twenty years ago developed a trend of ecology focusing on landscape ecology, we propose to create a new trend in agronomic research: landscape agronomy.

  2. Economic Assessment of Agroforestry Systems Compared to Other Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Suckler Cow Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Simon; Hartmann, Michael; Lehmann, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is responsible for a large share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially for methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Applying a bio-economic whole-farm model, we assessed five GHG mitigation options on their economic suitability to reduce emissions from grassland-based suckler cow farms. Among the assessed options, only compensation by agroforestry systems and the choice of an adequate production system showed the potential to significantly reduce emissions. If an adequa...

  3. Renewable Energy Use in Smallholder Farming Systems: A Case Study in Tafresh Township of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Shabanali Fami; Javad Ghasemi; Rahil Malekipoor; Parinaz Rashidi; Saeede Nazari; Arezoo Mirzaee

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate use of renewable energy and materials in smallholder farming system of the Tafresh township of Iran. The population of the study consisted of 2,400 small farmers working in the smallholder farming systems of the area, in which 133 people were selected as sample using Cochran formula and simple random sampling technique. In order to gather the information, a questionnaire was developed for the study and validated by the judgment of the experts in agricul...

  4. Knowledge systems in climate change adaptation among upland farming communities in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Espaldon, Maria Victoria O.

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the importance of multiple knowledge systems on enhancing the adaptive capacity of farming communities in the Philippines. It discusses the epistemologies of knowledge that are pertinent to strengthen the resilience of small farmers and farming households, who are one of the most vulnerable groups in the event of climatic variabilities, climatic extremes and climate change. It also brings to the discussion the need for effective communication systems to disseminate the kn...

  5. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Mabel Rosa; Hizumi Lua Sarti Seó; Maila Berté Volpato; Nathalie Vieira Foz; Tatiane Carine da Silva; Jorge Luiz Barcelos Oliveira; Rosete Pescador; Juliana Bernardi Ogliari

    2014-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional fa...

  6. Analysis and modeling study of inter-farm and intra-farm wind variations with the NCAR high-resolution multi-scale WRF-RTFDDA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Warner, T.; Mahoney, B.; Parks, K.; Bigley, R.; Wan, Y.; Corbus, D.; Ela, E.

    2009-04-01

    Significant variations of wind power capacity factors (cfs) were observed for turbines across individual wind farms, where the farms span a distance of 10 - 20 km. These variations have a vital impact on power integration and loading. To study these cfs variations, we investigate the inter-farm and intra-farm wind characteristics for farms in northeastern Colorado. This is accomplished by analyzing the wind-farm data, and performing a modeling study using the NCAR Real-Time Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (RTFDDA) and forecasting system. The RTFDDA system, built around the US Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, is capable of continuously collecting and ingesting diverse synoptic and asynoptic weather observations, including WMO standard upper-air and surface reports, wind-profiler data, satellite cloud-drift winds, commercial aircraft reports, all available mesonet/wind-farm weather data, radar observations, and any special instruments that report temperature, winds and moisture. The WRF RTFDDA provides continuous 4-D weather analyses, nowcasts and short-term forecasts. In this study, the WRF-RTFDDA system is run with successive nested domains to simulate the multiscale weather and provide a detailed view of wind circulations at farms. The fine-mesh domains are run at a resolution of 1 - 3 km for spanning the overall environment of wind farms, and ~0.1 - 0.35 km for the study of intra-farm weather features. Fine scale topography (100 m) and land use (30 seconds) data are used to specify the lower boundaries of the fine-mesh domains for simulation of the local underlying forcing. It is well known that the modeling of weather at these scales is a challenge. Thus, a set of sensitivity experiments is conducted to study the impact of available state-of-the-art modeling dynamics, physics and data assimilation schemes on the model performance. The findings will be reported at the meeting.

  7. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three farming systems [large-scale closed greenhouses (LSGH), large-scale open farms (LSOF), and small-scale irrigated farms (SSIF)]. Main observations were that 85% of workers did not attain any pesticide-related training, 81% were not aware of modern alternatives for chemical pesticides, 10% used a full set of personal protective equipment, and 62% did not usually bath or shower after work. Among applicators pesticide training attendance was highest in LSGH (35%) and was lowest in SSIF (4%). None of the female re-entry farm workers had received pesticide-related training. Personal protective equipment use was twice as high among pesticide applicators as among re-entry workers (13 versus 7%), while none of the small-scale farm workers used personal protection equipment. Stockpiling and burial of empty pesticide containers and discarding empty pesticide containers in farming fields were reported in both LSOF and by 75% of the farm workers in SSIF. Considerable increment in chemical pesticide usage intensity, illegitimate usages of DDT and Endosulfan on food crops and direct import of pesticides without the formal Ethiopian registration process were also indicated. These results point out a general lack of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides in all farming systems but especially among small-scale farmers. This in combination with the increase in chemical pesticide usage in the past decade likely results in occupational and environmental health risks. Improved KAP that account for institutional difference among various farming systems and enforcement of regulatory measures including the available occupational and environmental proclamations in Ethiopia are

  8. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  9. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  10. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  11. Biological soil quality as a factor of efficient resource utilization in organic farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fliessbach, A.; Mäder, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 1978 the DOK long-term field experiment was installed at Therwil close to Basel comparing the farming systems „bio-Dynamic“, „bio-Organic“ and „(K)conventional“. In the first years of the trial, crop yield and feasibility of organic farming were investigated. Soils were analysed with respect to long-term effects on fertility and were evaluated in the view of farming effects on the environment. Today the interrelation of diversity and efficiency and the quality of organic products is the re...

  12. Cattle production in agroforestry systems. An analysis on the role of intensification and dependence of subsidies

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, A.J.; Gaspar, P.; Mesias, F.J.; Rosas, J.P.; Escribano, M.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive livestock production systems have faced socio-economic factors (such as the loss of profitability and competitiveness) that have led to modifications in their management and structure. The main changes have been the abandonment of grazing, the increase in the use of external feed, the abandonment of farms, and the intensification of the systems. The dehesa is the consequence of human intervention in the natural Mediterranean forest. Due to this, the conservation of this ecosystem...

  13. Design of a Fuzzy Expert Based System for Diagnosis of Cattle Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Catherine Agbonifo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is the core of computing research that makes machine to mimic the intelligence of a man. Intelligent means less of user interaction and automated adaptation to changing environment. When compared to other primitive techniques used in the past, AI has been highly efficient in knowledge acquisition in diverse areas of application. In the light of this, the paper focuses on intelligent technique of determining the possible diseases that affect the life of cattle. Hence, fuzzy expert technique is proposed for the diagnosis of the Antrax, Babesiosis, Blackleg and Epizootic Hemorrrhapic diseases. The result generated by the system was sufficient to demonstrate its performance.

  14. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  16. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  17. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FARM DATA SYSTEM IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namig SHALBUZOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarce information on production costs and farms profitability, in line with the lack of adequate institutional arrangements between the institutions collecting, processing and analyzing information are serious obstacles to the preparation of relevant analyses. The establishment of FDMS will address these problems and allow to collect, process and analyze information on small and medium farms level, which produce more than 90 percent of agricultural products in Azerbaijan Republic. Establishment process of FDMS is analysed and recommendations for improvement are put forward in this article. This can also be in interest of Republic of Moldova which has signed the association agreement with EU and is going to enter this organisation in future. Because, establishment of FADN is one of the most important terms obligatory for EU member states.

  18. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks

  19. Nuances and nuisances : crop production intensification options for smallholder farming systems of southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rusinamhodzi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: crop production, intensification, extensification, farming systems, tradeoff analysis, maize, legume, manure, fertiliser, southern Africa Soil fertility decline and erratic rainfall are major constraints to crop productivity on smallholder farms in southern Africa. Crop production intensification along with efficient use of chemical fertiliser is required to produce more food per unit area of land, while rebuilding soil fertility. The objective of this thesis was to identify approp...

  20. Biometry traits and geometric morphometrics in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from different farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Tibaldi; Maria Messina; Ivana Balenovic; Francesca Tulli

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the farming system on biometry traits and dressing out yield were inves- tigated in market-size European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) cultured extensively or intensively in sea cages or land-based basins. Fish external appearences and shapes were studies with geometric morphometrics in order to assess the potential of combined methodologies in the assessment of finfish quality. Both standard biometry and geometric morphometrics were able to discriminate between sea bass farme...

  1. U.S. ORGANIC FARMING IN 2000-2001: ADOPTION OF CERTIFIED SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Catherine R.; Kremen, Amy

    2003-01-01

    U.S. farmland managed under organic farming systems expanded rapidly throughout the 1990s, and that pace has continued as farmers strive to meet consumer demand in both local and national markets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented national organic standards on organic production and processing in October 2002, following more than a decade of development, and the new uniform standards are expected to facilitate further growth in the organic farm sector. USDA's organic stand...

  2. Integration of aquaculture and agriculture: a route to sustainable farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lightfoot, C. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    The integration of agriculture and aquaculture as a means of intensifying resource use and improving the productivity of many current farming practices in Southeast Asian and African countries is discussed. A brief account is given of work undertaken by ICLARM in Malawi and India regarding the improved use of marginal lands to integrate crops, vegetables, trees, livestock and fish, outlining also the various problems involved in the extension of such integrated fish farming systems.

  3. Planting teak, Tectona grandis L.f., in smallholder farming systems in Southern Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Aoudji, Augustin K.N.; Adégbidi, Anselme; Ganglo, Jean C; Lebailly, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This article used the farming system framework to characterise smallholder plantings of teak, Tectona grandis L.f., in southern Benin. The intention of this study was to show the policy line best suited to capturing the potential of smallholder forestry. The specific question addressed was as follows: how do smallholder farmers manage to integrate tree growing on their farms? Empirical assessments were based on a sample of 221 farmers selected through a cluster sampling procedure in five muni...

  4. Possible Impacts of Climate Change on Mediterranean Irrigated Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dono, Gabriele; Cortignani, Raffaele; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Roggero, PierPaolo; Giraldo, Luca; Severini, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, climate change (CC) affects multiple weather variables at different stages of crop cycles. CC may influence the mean level or affect the distribution of events (e.g., rainfall, temperature). This work evaluates the economic impact of CC-related changes in multiple climatic components, and the resulting uncertainty. For this purpose, a three-stage discrete stochastic programming model is used to represents farm sector of an irrigated area of Italy and to examine the...

  5. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  6. Intensification of cattle ranching production systems: socioeconomic and environmental synergies and risks in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latawiec, A E; Strassburg, B B N; Valentim, J F; Ramos, F; Alves-Pinto, H N

    2014-08-01

    Intensification of Brazilian cattle ranching systems has attracted both national and international attention due to its direct relation with Amazon deforestation on the one hand and increasing demand of the global population for meat on the other. Since Brazilian cattle ranching is predominantly pasture-based, we particularly focus on pasture management. We summarize the most recurrent opportunities and risks associated with pasture intensification that are brought up within scientific and political dialogues, and discuss them within the Brazilian context. We argue that sustainable intensification of pasturelands in Brazil is a viable way to increase agricultural output while simultaneously sparing land for nature. Since environmental degradation is often associated with low-yield extensive systems in Brazil, it is possible to obtain higher yields, while reversing degradation, by adopting practices like rotational grazing, incorporation of legumes and integrated crop-livestock-forestry systems. Technical assistance is however essential, particularly for small- and medium-scale farmers. Sound complementary policies and good governance must accompany these measures so that a 'rebound effect' does not lead to increased deforestation and other adverse social and environmental impacts. It is also important that animal welfare is not compromised. Although the discussion is presented with respect to Brazil, some aspects are relevant to other developing countries. PMID:26263189

  7. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system. PMID:27357039

  8. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  9. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  10. Effects of organic versus conventional farming on different chemical soil parameters in Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez de Cima, Diego; Reintam, Endla; Luik, Anne

    2013-01-01

    A five-year experiment results, have shown that fertilizer amendments are needed for preserving the nutrient balance in the soil. A combination of cattle and green manure, crop rotation and other organic farming practices, with chemical fertilizer amendments could suppose a sustainable solution for maintaining a correct nutrient balance in the soil in long term, better than both farming systems, conventional and organic, by separate.

  11. Economic impacts of East Coast Fever immunization on smallholder farms, Kenya: a simulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangito, Hezron O.; Richardson, James W.; Mundy, Darrell S.; Mukhebi, Adrian W.; Zimmel, Peter; Namken, Jerry

    1996-01-01

    A whole farm simulation model, Technology Impact Evaluation System (TIES), was used to assess ex-ante financial and economic impacts of immunization of dairy cattle against East Coast Fever (ECF) by the infection and treatment method (ITM) on smallholder farms from two sites in Kenya. Four alternative strategies of immunization in combination with different levels of acaricide use were compared with the current acaricide-based method of control. The economic impacts were estimated using simul...

  12. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web–based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  13. Aggregated Modelling for Wind Farms for Power System Transient Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is consistently attracting great research effort and actively developed in many countries. As a result, the penetration level of wind power in the power grid is increasing as well as the size of wind farms. A large-scale wind farm may consist of hundreds of wind turbines and its total...... installed capacity could be at a level of 1000MW or even more. Consequently, the large-scale wind farm could seriously impact the operation and control of the grid. To represent a large-scale wind farm, aggregated modelling takes advantage of fast computation and simplified implementation compared to...... detailed modelling that models every wind turbines individually and the interconnections among them. In this paper, three aggregated modelling techniques, namely, multi-machine equivalent aggregation, full aggregation and semi-aggregation are presented for power system transient stability studies based on...

  14. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire was...... administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured for...... isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms...

  15. Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2012-09-01

    The principal objective of this study was to analyze the plausibility of health data recorded through on-farm recording systems throughout the United States. Substantial progress has been made in the genetic improvement of production traits while health and fitness traits of dairy cattle have declined. Health traits are generally expensive and difficult to measure, but health event data collected from on-farm computer management systems may provide an effective and low-cost source of health information. To validate editing methods, incidence rates of on-farm recorded health event data were compared with incidence rates reported in the literature. Putative relationships among common health events were examined using logistic regression for each of 3 timeframes: 0 to 60, 61 to 90, and 91 to 150 d in milk. Health events occurring on average before the health event of interest were included in each model as predictors when significant. Calculated incidence rates ranged from 1.37% for respiratory problems to 12.32% for mastitis. Most health events reported had incidence rates lower than the average incidence rate found in the literature. This may partially represent underreporting by dairy farmers who record disease events only when a treatment or other intervention is required. Path diagrams developed using odds ratios calculated from logistic regression models for each of 13 common health events allowed putative relationships to be examined. The greatest odds ratios were estimated to be the influence of ketosis on displaced abomasum (15.5) and the influence of retained placenta on metritis (8.37), and were consistent with earlier reports. The results of this analysis provide evidence for the plausibility of on-farm recorded health information. PMID:22916949

  16. Validation and recovery rates of an indirect calorimetry headbox system used to measure heat production of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A headbox system was constructed at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to determine heat production from dairy cattle using indirect calorimetry. The system was designed for use in a tie-stall barn to allow the animal to be comfortable and was mounted on wheels to transport between animals between s...

  17. Arteriosclerosis in Seven Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...

  18. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  19. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  20. Web-enabled Decision Support System on Most Probable Producing Ability and a Searchable Database on Herd Strength for Livestock Farm Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Sharma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An estimate of the producing ability of cattle, known as Most Probable Producing Ability (MPPA is an important measure, which provides an estimate of future productivity of a dairy animal as the basis of the past productivity (in term of repeatability of the trait and the number of records. At present, no tool seems to be available for computing MPPA online. In this paper, a Web enabled decision support system is proposed for online computation of MPPA using Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, and ASP.NET 2.0 technology with C#.NETsoftware engineering tools. The same technology is used for developing a searchable database on herd strength management. This software is useful for farm managers in screening of dairy livestock animals for culling and selection of superior animals, which can be used for breeding programs with genetically superior proven sires toproduce next crop of young bulls for progeny testing.

  1. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  2. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  3. NEOSPORA CANINUM INFECTIONS IN CATTLE IN INDIA SEROPREVALENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CATTLE AND WATER BUFFAOES IN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...

  4. Dynamical Patterns of Cattle Trade Movements

    CERN Document Server

    Bajardi, Paolo; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria; 10.1371/journal.pone.0019869

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displ...

  5. Population ecology and functioning of Enchytraeidae in some arable farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The population ecology of Enchytraeidae, and their functioning, were studied in some arable farming systems and in laboratory experiments. The systems studied consisted of a 'conventional' (high input of energy and matter) and several 'integrated' (reduced input of energy and matter) systems. Emphas

  6. Agricultural Technology Adoption and Land Productivity: Evidence from the Rice-Prawn Gher Farming System in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Barmon, Basanta Kumar; Kondo, Takumi; Osanami, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    Rice-prawn gher (RPG) farming system is an indigenous agricultural technology solely developed by farmers since mid 1980s. The present study aims to estimate the land productivity of modern varieties (MV) paddy production under RPG and (year-round modern varieties) YRMV paddy farming systems in the southwest Bangladesh. The RPG farming system has significant impacts on inputs used in MV boro paddy production. The findings of the study indicate that more chemical fertilizers were used in per h...

  7. Strategy Formulation of Empowering Farmers Capability at Integrated Farming of Beef Cattle and Paddy Base on Zero Waste: Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Abdullah; Ali, Hikmah M.; Syamsu, Jasmal A.

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to formulate a strategy for strengthening the farmers in the adoption of technology for the development of integrated beef cattle with paddy. Research was conducted in Pinrang South Sulawesi province for seven months. Primary Data obtained by using questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion. In this study also was involved expert respondents. Flow implementation strategy formulation is done using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) techniques. The results showed that ...

  8. Optimization of Electrical System for a Large DC Offshore Wind Farm by Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization platform based on Genetic Algorithm, where the main components of the electrical system of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the topology of the electrical system is to be optimized for a minimum cost and high...... reliability. A method to encode and decode an electrical system is studied. The reliability evaluation for a given network is also investigated. Genetic Algorithm is implemented to find the optimum network design for a large DC wind farm. It is concluded that different topologies may cause very different cost...

  9. [Nitrogen flow in farming-feeding system and its environmental impact in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-peng; Chen, Ji-ning

    2007-10-01

    By applying nitrogen flow model for farming-feeding system (NFM-FFS) which integrates soil full nitrogen balance model with inventory analysis for agricultural pollution, nitrogen flow in China farming-feeding systems and its environmental impact are analyzed. In 2003, although surface nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen deficit in agricultural soil system in China is estimated to be 623.9 x 10(4) t, and 13.7 kg/hm2 averagely, which implies that soils in China farming-feeding systems are at the risk of nitrogen content decline and potential soil degradation as a whole. With a intense nutrient input in arable land and no extra fertilizer input in grassland in China, there is a nitrogen surplus of 1761.9 x 10(4) t, averagely 142.8 kg/hm2, while grassland has a deficit of 2,385.7 x 10(4) t, averagely 90.7 kg/hm2. As a result, existing negative impact of cropping activities on water environment as well as grassland degradation may be effectively abated by balancing nitrogen input between arable land and grassland. Total nitrogen loss from China farming-feeding system is 2,266 x 10(4) t, including 495.8 x 10(4) t exported into surface water by drainage and surface runoff, and 102.4 x 10(4) t into groundwater by leaching. Lost nitrogen is to be deposited in rivers, lakes and marine system, and is less likely to return to farming-feeding system. Fertilizer should be the priority of rural pollution control and management because of its dominant contribution to nitrogen exported into water environment from farming-feeding system. PMID:18269003

  10. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  11. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  12. Lessons Learned from the Canadian Cattle Industry: National Animal Identification and The Mad Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Daryl Strohbehn; Daniel D. Loy; Reginald J. Clause

    2003-01-01

    Canada implemented a national cattle identification system, led and developed by the industry. Initially a voluntary program beginning in July 2001, it became mandatory in July 2002 and achieved 92-95 percent compliance by that fall. The costs to develop and initiate the system were low; animals are tagged before leaving the farm of origin and the tags are read when the animal dies or is exported. The national identification system did not protect Canadian cattle from a sole case of bovine sp...

  13. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  14. Importance of farming system concept in development of less favoured areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Roszkowska-Mądra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a concept of farming system in the term of agricultural economics is presented and its usefulness to adopting the new model of rural development on less favoured areas (LFAs is discussed. Farming system is defined as a holistic description of a farm (or a rural area unit with respect to agricultural land use (crop and animal production, non-agricultural activities and all determinants of the diverse activities including natural conditions, socio-economic environment, infrastructure and institutions. Evaluation of diversity in farming systems existing on LFAs and their typology is a basis to discuss and arrange most efficient pathways of LFA development and promoting them at the local level. Such an approach to supporting and promoting development of LFAs, being the most sensitive for agricultural and rural policy among rural areas, is specially useful and effective for implementation of concepts, theories and paradigms like sustainable rural development, endogenic development as well as agricultural multifunctionality and diversification of farm activities.

  15. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  16. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  17. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus;

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  18. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  19. Effect of inoculum addition modes and leachate recirculation on anaerobic digestion of solid cattle manure in an accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Mashad, H.M.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Zeeman, G.; Bot, G.P.A.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of both leachate recirculation (at 40 and 50 °C) and the mode of inoculum addition (at 50 °C) on the performance of a non-mixed accumulation (i.e. fed batch) system treating solid cattle wastes was investigated, using laboratory scale reactors at a filling time of 60 days. A relatively hi

  20. System biology approach to detect and assign biological functions and regulator genes to feed efficiency traits in Nellore cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandre, Pâmela; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel; Eler, Joanir; Kadarmideen, Haja; Fukumasu, Heidge

    The objective of this study was to use a system biology approach to identify biological mechanisms involved on feed efficiency in Nellore cattle and its possible regulator genes. Two modules of co-expressed and highly inter-connected genes correlated to feed efficiency were identified as well as ...

  1. Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2013-07-01

    The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. PMID:23684015

  2. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  3. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  4. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  5. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus, Simeon I B; Alabi, Peter I; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Dale, Emma J; Stack, Judy A

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127) were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Overall, 24 (8.6%) and 16 (5.7%) of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% - 12.6%) and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% - 10.5%) than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% - 4.7%). Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043) and breed (Djali; p = 0.038) were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234), production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208) or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359) was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd. PMID:23905207

  6. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  7. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Dale

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  8. Comparative Analysis and Tendencies in the Development of the Cattle Market in the Conditions of the Quota System in the EU Countries and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Georgiev

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of recreating of the basic herds of the farm animals and the improvement of their breedconstitution, which has already begun in Bulgaria, is a prerequisite for the providing of more, and of betterquality, meat and milk for the needs of the domestic market, as well as for making the sector morecompetitive on the international markets. The purpose of the research concerned comparative analysis andtendencies in the development of the cattle market in the conditions of the quota system in the EU countriesand Bulgaria.One of the reasons for the decrease of the quantity of exported cattle and veal meat is that there isshortage of resources in the manufacturing industry, which to a great extent limits the export with thepurpose of satisfying the needs of the inner market.This quota will give Bulgaria the chance to export for the EU 2000 t. with zero customs tax.Although Bulgaria cannot make use of this opportunity for the moment, as there is not approved factory forproduction of meat to be exported to EU, we think that it as a good opportunity. It could be stimulating or thecompanies to take a step in this direction.The calculations show that after the countries of Central and Eastern Europe join the EU, theproduction of meat in the EU will increase by 20%. This however, will not lead to flooding of the marketbecause an increase of the income of the joining countries is expected, with a resulting increase ofconsumption. On the other hand, an increase of the export of meat and meat products is expected for thetraditional markets in Russia.The advantages of the quota system which is being introduced in Bulgaria, as part of the agrarianpolicy of the EU, directed at preventing of overproduction at the market, can be structured as follows:Providing guaranteed prices for the cattle products; Imposing financial sanctioned at exceeding theproduction quota; Opportunity for introducing two-stage quotas – a high price for the production for the

  9. FACTORS LIVESTOCK AND MILKING ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA COASTAL SEMI-ARID

    OpenAIRE

    Y. M’Sadak; L. Mighri; R. HAJ MBAREK; Kraiem, K

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Sahel of Tunisia (Monastir region) on a sample covering 40 cattle herd’s type above ground. We deduced the mastitis risk factors during the survey during visits for breeding and milking as well as from morphological and hygienic cow’s assessments. The data’s descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC), the significant effect factors (P <0.05) ar...

  10. Effects of stocking rates on gastrointestinal nematode infection levels in a goat/cattle rotational stocking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Maurice

    2013-11-15

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) are increasingly resistant to anthelmintic drugs worldwide, so integrated control methods are more and more needed for the sustainability of small ruminant farming. Such methods rely on knowledge in epidemiology, physiology, and genetics. Ecological studies have highlighted the effect of host density on parasite populations, and in the humid tropics, rotational grazing systems were designed according to the survival of GIN free-living stages. This study aimed to assess the effects of mixed stocking and host stocking rate on host GIN infection level. Four groups of 15-17 Creole male kids were raised on irrigated pasture from weaning (about 3 months) until the age of 7 months, at four partial stocking rates (pSR): 100% (control), 75% (G75), 50% (G50), and 25% (G25) of the total stocking rate of the pasture. The last three groups were associated with weaned Creole heifers to obtain the same overall stocking rate as the control. Animals grazed in a 'leader' goat and 'follower' cattle design: the G25, G50, and G75 paddocks were split into six plots; each plot was grazed by goats for 1 week and by heifers the following week. The pasture then rested for 4 weeks before the animals were returned for a new grazing sequence. Five control plots were grazed rotationally for 1 week, and rested for 4 weeks. This design was repeated three times a year for a total of 10 repetitions. Average faecal egg counts (FEC) decreased according to a power function of the pSR: FEC=1829pSR(3.7). The observed death rate decreased significantly with the pSR (27.6%, 16.4%, 11.9%, and 12.2%). The kids grew faster in G25 (51 g d(-1)) than in G50 (43 g d(-1)) and G75 or control (32 g d(-1), p<0.05). Heifers were not significantly infected with GIN and grew normally (about 0.48 kg d(-1)). Reducing the pSR by associating a non-host species in a rotational stocking system may be a very promising component of integrated GIN control, at least for the humid tropics. PMID

  11. Comparative analysis of main on-farm irrigation systems in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Pedro L.; Silva, Luis Leopoldo; Serralheiro, Ricardo P.

    1999-01-01

    Traditional irrigation systems still cover a large area of irrigated lands in Portugal. The needs for competitiveness leads to the gradual abandon of traditional systems, resulting in social and economic impacts. Pressurised on-farm irrigation systems provide labour savings but imply important investments. Surface irrigation does not require expensive equipment and is low energy and low labour consuming, if modern systems are implemented. Flexible-pipe, gated-pipe, surge- flow ...

  12. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  13. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  14. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  15. Parameters affecting the environmental impact of a range of dairy farming systems in Denmark, Germany and Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerci, Matteo; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Bava, L.;

    2013-01-01

    The environmental impact of 12 dairy farms in Denmark, Germany and Italy was evaluated using an LCA approach and the most important parameters influencing their environmental sustainability were identified. The farms represent different production methods (organic vs. conventional), summer feeding...... intensive Italian farming system with very similar environmental impact values. However, a sensitivity analysis showed that when emissions relating to direct land use change of soybean production were included in the assessment, the GWP changed considerably for the conventional farms due to the inclusion of...... systems (confinement vs. pasture) and annual production levels (6275–10,964 kg ECM cow−1). There was large variability in stocking rates (1.1–11.0 LU ha−1) among farms, which has a major impact on the production per unit area of farmland, on feed self-sufficiency and on farm surplus of nitrogen. The...

  16. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  17. Optimal site selection for wind farms - the role for Geographical Information Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the issues faced by developers in identifying suitable sites for wind farms. The selection criteria can be broadly classified into those which minimise environmental impact, including visual intrusion; maximise the resource potential; and minimise the development costs; or a compromise solution which considers all of these issues. Given a set of weighted inclusion and exclusion criteria, a geographical information system (GIS) can easily model this information to determine the optimal wind farm sites. The paper illustrates a flexible approach to achieving this goal, which is driven by the specific requirements of any user. (author)

  18. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system[Flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hansen, A.; Janosi, L.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm consists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous power quality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher wind speeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation at higher wind speeds is suggested. (au)

  19. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It t

  20. Explaining investments in sustainable land management: The role of various income sources in the smallholder farming systems of western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Tanui, Joseph; Groeneveld, Rolf; Klomp, Jeroen; Mowo, Jeremiahs; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2013-01-01

    Smallholder farms in the humid highlands of East Africa are undergoing changes that question the notion of the rural space. Characterized by land degradation, increasing population pressure, intensive farming and continuous cropping in small plots, smallholder farmers have increasingly embraced additional forms of nonfarm income generation activities. The observed changes put to question parameters used in the analysis of smallholder farming systems in the region. In this paper, we endeavour ...

  1. PRODUCTIVITY OF INTERCROPPING MAIZE (Zea mays L.) AND PUMPKINS (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) UNDER CONVENTIONAL VS. CONSERVATION FARMING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    DOLIJANOVIĆ, Željko; MOMIROVIĆ, Nebojša; OLJAČA, Snežana; SIMIĆ, Milena; OLJAČA, Mićo; JANOŠEVIĆ, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The evaluation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) and maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping productivity, under different farming systems: conventional farming vs. conservation farming was carried out on the chernozem type of soil at Zemun Polje, Serbia. Results obtained by the bivariate analysis of variance showed significant differences between different proportions of components in intercropped maize and pumpkins. Regarding the land equivalent ratio (LER), two rows of pumpkins and tw...

  2. Relation between soil organic matter and yield levels of nonlegume crops in organic and conventional farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Christopher; Fließbach, Andreas; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Schulz, Franz; Wiesinger, Klaus; Reinicke, Frank; Koch, Wernfried; Pallutt, Bernhard; Dittman, Bärbel; Zimmer, Jörg; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen; Leithold, Günter

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between yield levels of nonleguminous crops and soil organic matter (SOM) under the specific conditions of organic and conventional farming, respectively, and to identify implications for SOM management in arable farming considering the farming system (organic vs. conventional). For that purpose, correlations between yield levels of nonlegume crops and actual SOM level (Corg, Nt, Chwe, Nhwe) as well as SOM-level development were examined i...

  3. Evaluation of the environmental, economic, and social performance of soybean farming systems in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Moreira, Adonis; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean production has a crucial role in the development of Brazilian agriculture and recently became the most important commodity in Brazilian agribusiness. Various soybean farming systems exist, which are claimed to differ in terms of sustainability performance. In this regard, evaluation of en

  4. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

     “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde” Isaurinda Baptista Summary Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both people

  5. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix a

  6. 12 CFR 1402.10 - Official records of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RELEASING INFORMATION Availability of Records of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.10... reasonably be expected to endanger the life or physical safety of any individual; and (8) Records of or...) This section does not authorize withholding of information or limit the availability of records to...

  7. Relationship between udder health and hygiene on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on far

  8. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  9. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Bonareri Oruru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers’ needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility.

  10. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  11. Visual landscape assessment of wind farms using a geographical information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geographical Information Systems have great potential for assessing the impact of possible wind farm sites, including visibility analysis and landscape assessment. This paper will describe the techniques for making this a possibility, as well as for selecting optimal sites for minimising a visual intrusion and development costs. A prototype GIS has been developed which illustrates some of these principles. (Author)

  12. PRECISION FARMING TECHNOLOGIES FOR WEED CONTROL IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS EVALUATION AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate two precision farming technologies for weed control in the Mississippi Delta Management systems Evaluation Area (MDMSEA). A sensor-controlled hooded sprayer that utilized spectral reflectance type sensors to detect and spray only where weeds were present was evalu...

  13. Modern Agricultural Digital Management Network Information System of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Wei Dong; Yang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    To meet the need of agriculture management modernization of Heilongjiang reclamation area, further boost large-scale integration level of modern agriculture production and boost management level of agriculture production.On Red Farm, we have established the digital management network information system with the remote sensor technology, GIS technology, GPS technology, database technology, network technology, agriculture intelligent technology, multimedia technology, information auto acquired ...

  14. Modelling Carbon Cycles as Basis of an Emission Inventory in Farms – The Example of an Organic Farming System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuestermann, Bjoern; Huelsbergen, Kurt-Juergen

    2005-01-01

    In organic farms, the internal carbon fluxes are of great importance. They are connected with soil fertility (humus contents, biological activity, soil structure) and the yield potential; some C pools (C fixation in humus) and C fluxes (CO2 and CH4 emissions) may affect the environment. The approach used in the described model software allows to quantify management related and site dependant C fluxes and also the resulting emissions as starting point for an inventory of emissions from farms. ...

  15. Molecular and parasitological study of cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in ilam, west of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic infections in human and animals. This study was designed for survey on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in farms of Ilam, west of Iran, using parasitology method and genotyping by Nested PCR-RFLP.Fecal samples of 217 cattle were collected fresh and directly from the rectum of cattle. All of the samples were examined by microscopic observation after staining with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN. Genomic DNA extracted by using EURx DNA kit. A Nested PCR-RFLP protocol amplifying 825 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene conducted to differentiate species and genotyping of the isolates using SspI and VspI as restriction enzymes.The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle using both methods is 3.68%. Most of the positive cattle were calves under six months. Species diagnosis carried out by digesting the secondary PCR product with SspI that C. parvum generated 3 visible bands of 448, 247 and 106 bp and digested by VspI restriction enzyme generated 2 visible bands of 628 and 104bp. In this investigation all of the positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum.C. parvum (bovine genotype detected in all positive cattle samples in Ilam, west of Iran. The results of the present study can help for public health care systems to prevention and management of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and the assessment of cattle cryptosporidiosis as a reservoir for the human infection.

  16. Feeding Systems Followed in Broiler Farms Adjacent To Dhaka City and its Impact on Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mufazzal Hossain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey investigated the feeding systems of broiler farms and its impact on productivity. A total of 100 farmers were selected randomly from four villages taking 25 from each village under Savar Upazila of Dhaka. In the study area average population of broilers was 1945 with a standard deviation of 627.28. The highest proportion (38% of the farmers were medium producer (1000-2500 broilers while 35% of them were small producers (up to 1000 broilers and 27% were large producers (above 2500 broilers. Majority of the farmers (29% used broiler chicks of BRAC farm, but early marketing age and over all economic production was found with broilers of Kazi Poultry Farm (27%. The highest FCR was also found in birds of Kazi Farm (2.03:1, whereas the birds from Aftab Poultry Farm achieved 2.09:1. In the investigation area most of the farms used Kazi Poultry Feed (22%, Aftab Poultry Feed (19% and Usha Poultry Feed (13%. The mostly used Kazi Poultry Feed contained 90.30, .43 and 89.90% DM and 20.66, .62 and 20.71% CP, respectively for the starter, grower and finisher diets. Only one farmer of this survey area used homemade feed. The farmers stored broiler feeds in normal rooms. Most of the farmers (61% stored their feed only for 3-4 days. The highest proportion (79% of the farmers used crumble or pellet diet, whereas only 21% farmers used mash diet. Better FCR (20.3:1 was found when farmers used crumble or pellet diet but poor result (2.21:1 was found with mash diet. It was also found that ad libitum feeding was not economic, but most profitable system was to provide feed twice a day.

  17. Farming Practices Correctness Indicator for Family Farms in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the state of affairs in farming practices in the sector of commercial farms in Polish Agriculture. Analysis of farming practices and farmers opinions on their appropriateness was based on the results of the survey in the sample of 721 farms from different regions of the country. Farming practices related to crop production, animal husbandry, farm management and environment were measured against the ideal model drawn from the Integrated Farming System guideli...

  18. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Castoldi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  19. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  20. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  1. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  2. Diversity of Bacterial Biofilm Communities on Sprinklers from Dairy Farm Cooling Systems in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Nahum Y; Pasternak, Zohar; Factor, Gilad; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    On dairy farms in hot climates worldwide, cows suffer from heat stress, which is alleviated by the use of water cooling systems. Sprinklers and showerheads are known to support the development of microbial biofilms, which can be a source of infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microbial biofilms in dairy cooling systems, and to analyze their population compositions using culture-independent technique, 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biofilm samples were collected on eight dairy farms from 40 sprinklers and the microbial constituents were identified by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 9,374 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was obtained from all samples. The mean richness of the samples was 465 ± 268 OTUs which were classified into 26 different phyla; 76% of the reads belonged to only three phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Although the most prevalent OTUs (Paracoccus, Methyloversatilis, Brevundimonas, Porphyrobacter, Gp4, Mycobacterium, Hyphomicrobium, Corynebacterium and Clostridium) were shared by all farms, each farm formed a unique microbial pattern. Some known potential human and livestock pathogens were found to be closely related to the OTUs found in this study. This work demonstrates the presence of biofilm in dairy cooling systems which may potentially serve as a live source for microbial pathogens. PMID:26407190

  3. FACTORS LIVESTOCK AND MILKING ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA COASTAL SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Sahel of Tunisia (Monastir region on a sample covering 40 cattle herd’s type above ground. We deduced the mastitis risk factors during the survey during visits for breeding and milking as well as from morphological and hygienic cow’s assessments. The data’s descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC, the significant effect factors (P <0.05 are: free stall, milking machine cleaning with only water, the poor condition of the piping, not elimination of the first milk jets and bad cleanliness of udders and the back legs of cows, whereas the herd cell count (HCC, the significant factors (P <0.05 are: cleaning the milking machine with water only, the frequency pulse (FP is too high or low.

  4. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  5. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  6. Risk Beyond Farmers’ Control: Grain-Sheep Mixed Farming Systems under Rainfall and Commodity Price Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Wimalasuriya, Rukman

    1999-01-01

    Variability of rainfall and commodity prices are important off-farm factors influencing the profitability of dryland farming. Since neither of the above factors can be predicted, lessons from the past can be a preparation for the future. Analysing farm profit over ten years is suggested as a way to understand the risks inherent in farming. Financial sustainability of a farm business depends mainly on the net growth of farm equity over the years which can be achieved even with fluctuating farm...

  7. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  8. Infection through the farm gate

    OpenAIRE

    Nöremark, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of movements of livestock, on-farm biosecurity and disease awareness among farmers in Sweden; factors which can affect the spread of contagious livestock diseases. The structure of the cattle and pig movements were analysed using data obtained from the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Most movements were within 100 km, however, there were also long distance movements up to 1200 km for cattle and 1000 km for pigs. This supports an initial total standstill in case o...

  9. A large seroprevalence survey of brucellosis in cattle herds under diverse production systems in northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Hassan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried out to investigate the status of brucellosis in cattle under various management systems in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, northern Nigeria. Using multi-stage sampling, serum samples of 4,745 cattle from 271 herds were tested using the Rose-Bengal plate-agglutination test (RBPT and positives were confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA. Results Prevalence estimates were calculated by adjusting for sampling weights and where possible for test sensitivity and specificity. Thirty-seven percent of all animals were RBPT positive, and after confirmation with c-ELISA the overall animal-level prevalence, adjusted for sampling weights, was 26.3% (95% CI, 22.1%-31.0%. Of the herds sampled, 210 (77.5%; 95% CI, 68.6%-84.5% had at least one animal positive to both tests; this did not differ significantly between states (P = 0.538. Mean within-herd seroprevalence in positive herds was 30.2% (95% CI, 25.3%-35.1% and ranged from 3.1% to 85.7%. Overall animal-level seroprevalences of 29.2% (95% CI, 22.5%-36.9% n = 1,827, 23.3% (95% CI, 18.9%-28.3% n = 1,870 and 26.7% (95% CI, 18.8%-36.7% n = 1,048 were observed in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states, respectively (P = 0.496. A significantly higher seroprevalence was found in males (38.2%; 95% CI, 31.7%-45.2% than in females (24.7%; 95% CI, 20.4%-29.5% (P P P 7 years. Seroprevalence also varied between management systems (P  Conclusion This is the first large study to assess the prevalence of bovine brucellosis over a wide geographic area of northern Nigeria, in a variety of management systems and using accurate tests. The seroprevalence of brucellosis was high, and higher than results of previous studies in northern Nigeria. The pastoral management systems of the traditional Fulanis may be encouraging the dissemination of the disease. Public enlightenment of the farmers about the disease, vaccination and appropriate national

  10. Optimal integration of wind farms to isolated wind-Diesel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind farms installed on isolated systems are subject to significant restrictions, affecting their expected energy yield and, hence, the feasibility of investments. As wind power penetrations increase in isolated power systems, it is very important to understand how variations in wind plant outputs affect the operation of the isolated system on a day to day basis and what the associated added costs are. In this paper, a wind-Diesel coordination generation scheduling (WCGS) software is developed for appropriate assessment of the added cost to cover the unpredictable wind generator output variations. The developed WCGS software is also a useful tool for the system planner to predict the energy cost and the fuel saving from the expected new wind-Diesel systems. Several technique constraints are applied to determine the optimal proportion of wind generator capacity that can be integrated into the existing system. A simple benefit cost ratio (BCR) is used in this study to evaluate the investment effectiveness of the installation of wind farms for an isolated hybrid system. Numerical experiments are included to understand the wind generator output variations in system operating cost analysis and to assess the impact and economic benefits of the installation of wind farms

  11. Nitrate leaching and energy efficiency of stockless arable systems compared with mixed farming and a non-organic system on fertile soils in Northern Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Loges, Ralf; Kelm, Michael; Taube, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies based on either small-scale plot experiments or modelling approaches, indicate a lower risk of nitrate leaching and a higher energy efficiency in organic than in conventional farming systems. Because there is still a lack of data measured at the farm scale, which also take farm type and farming practices into account, a comparison between an N-intensive non-organic, two organic all-arable crop rotations and a typical rotation of a mixed organic farm was carried out over a thr...

  12. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  13. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  14. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  15. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Jonas; Schneider, Horacio; Gomes, Fátima; Carneiro, Jeferson; Santos, Simôni; Rodrigues, Luis R; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2013-01-01

    The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country. PMID:24141412

  16. Yield of sweet potato fertilized with cattle manure and biofertilizer Produção da batata-doce adubada com esterco bovino e biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Ademar P. Oliveira; Santos, João F.; Lourival F. Cavalcante; Walter E Pereira; Maria do Carmo CA Santos; Arnaldo Nonato P. de Oliveira; Natália V Silva

    2010-01-01

    In Northeastern Brazil, the sweet potato is cultivated in small farms, in a family farming systems, constituting themselves an alternative way for the generation of food, employment and income. This study aimed to assess the effect of cattle manure levels and biofertilizer concentrations on the sweet potato cultivar White Queen productivity. The experiment was carried out from March to September 2007 at the EMEPA Experimental Station in Lagoa Seca, Brazil. The experimental design was randomiz...

  17. Prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Mannan; Siddique, M.P; Uddin, M.Z; M. M. Parvez

    2009-01-01

    The present study was performed in the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Meghna, Comilla during the period from September 2006 to February 2007 to observe the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla. A total of 253 skin diseased cattle head were examined in this study where 109 were males and 144 were females. The prevalence of FMD was 24.51% at Meghna upazila. The effect of age, sex, breed, season and farming system on the incidence rate of the disease wa...

  18. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  19. Maize crop residue uses and trade-offs on smallholder crop-livestock farms in Zimbabwe: Economic implications of intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Wijk, van M.T.; Corbeels, M.; Rufino, M.C.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions to use crop residues as soil cover for conservation agriculture create trade-offs for farmers who own cattle in crop-livestock systems. Trade-offs among soil C, crop and animal and crop productivity were analysed using the NUANCES-FARMSIM (FArm-scale Resource Management SIMulator) dynamic

  20. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.