WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattle farming system

  1. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  2. NEW RESEARCHES REGARDING THE FEEDING SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR HOLSTEIN-FRISIAN CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the organization and development of production activity, which has like result economical efficiency into a cattle farm, the application of viable breeding technologies it’s the best way to obtain positives results.The feeding system of Holstein-Frisian cattle, applied in the Dambovita farms it’s a model can be extended and applied in all the cattle farms, in the same climate and soil conditions, even if the farm dimensions and working organization are different.At the studied farms the cattle don’t paste; the arable land it’s used for perennial and annual fodder culture, that assure the necessary in green forage during the summer and raw material for fibroses and silo-forage preparing. At these farms it isn’t a practice to feed the cattle only with green fodder in the summer period (for milk production but with a balanced quantity of dry substances represented by fibrouses, industrial succulent and wet corn, near by green fodder.One of the reason that assure a big quantity of milk of Holstein-Frisian cattle it is represented by different feeding, depending on milk quantity and physical estate of each cow.An essential condition for a profitable activity of cattle farms is the presence of arable land to assure, at least, the production of base forage, respectively green and succulent forage, silo corn and hay; without this surfaces can’t speak about efficient breeding of cattle in a farm or agricultural exploitation.

  3. Analysis of small-scale biogas utilization systems on Ontario cattle farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Andrew J.; Kirk, Donald W.; Graydon, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The production of biogas through the anaerobic digestion of cattle manure and its subsequent use in the generation of electricity on larger farms in Ontario is currently economically attractive. This is a result of the Ontario Feed-In Tariff (FIT) program, which provides incentivized rates for the production of electricity from biogas. Although larger farms can take advantage of the higher rates for electricity, there are substantially more smaller farms for which individually designed and engineered biogas systems would be prohibitively expensive. By employing the concept of modular biogas plants, this analysis evaluates the economics of small-scale biogas utilization systems. Dairy farms with at least 33 animals and beef farms with at least 78 animals can operate economically attractive biogas systems. This analysis shows that approximately 9000 additional Ontario cattle farms would be able to take advantage of the FIT program, which would add 120 MW e of renewable energy capacity to the Ontario electrical grid. (author)

  4. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

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    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  5. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

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    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  6. Dairy cattle; Farming system; Animal feeding; Milk; Productivity; Work organization; Role of women; India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alary

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To satisfy Indian consumers’ rising demand for milk products, Indian breeders will have to boost their production rapidly, especially through improved feeding practices. Many experts point out that currently used crop by-products will not be sufficient to meet increasing feed requirements from cow and buffalo herds and that it will be necessary to turn to grains such as wheat and maize. But other experts think that grain will not be enough and that the increasing animal consumption of grain will affect human consumption, unless India decides on massive grain imports, putting pressure on the world grain market. The present survey carried out in two districts of Haryana showed that grain was not an essential feed for cattle and buffaloes, and that improving cotton and mustard by-products, and green fodder had great potential. A second finding was that wealthier farmers tended to underuse the genetic potential of milk cows and buffaloes. Moreover, biotechnical management of the herd, in particular the feeding system, was closely related to the socioeconomic management of the family farming system; family strategies aimed at ensuring sufficient milk production for the family in larger farms and to provide a regular income in smaller ones. This paper also stressed out the need to design, implement, and monitor development programs that integrate sociocultural and, especially, gender issues, to facilitate technological innovation with respect to forage storage.

  7. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  8. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  9. Farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems in dairy cattle: From concepts to operational simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Saeys, Wouter; Van Meensel, Jef; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Vangeyte, Jurgen; Lauwers, Ludwig

    2018-01-01

    Although prototypes of automatic lameness detection systems for dairy cattle exist, information about their economic value is lacking. In this paper, a conceptual and operational framework for simulating the farm-specific economic value of automatic lameness detection systems was developed and tested on 4 system types: walkover pressure plates, walkover pressure mats, camera systems, and accelerometers. The conceptual framework maps essential factors that determine economic value (e.g., lameness prevalence, incidence and duration, lameness costs, detection performance, and their relationships). The operational simulation model links treatment costs and avoided losses with detection results and farm-specific information, such as herd size and lameness status. Results show that detection performance, herd size, discount rate, and system lifespan have a large influence on economic value. In addition, lameness prevalence influences the economic value, stressing the importance of an adequate prior estimation of the on-farm prevalence. The simulations provide first estimates for the upper limits for purchase prices of automatic detection systems. The framework allowed for identification of knowledge gaps obstructing more accurate economic value estimation. These include insights in cost reductions due to early detection and treatment, and links between specific lameness causes and their related losses. Because this model provides insight in the trade-offs between automatic detection systems' performance and investment price, it is a valuable tool to guide future research and developments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrition cattle for a given farm

    OpenAIRE

    PRŮŠA, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    The nutrition of dairy cattle in relation to milk production forms an integral part of bigger businesses with livestock farming. This Bachelor thesis introduces a division of dairy cattle to categories according to the milk production and the number of days during the dry period at the same time. Furthermore, the nutrients needed for the milk production are mentioned. For individual nutrients, there are the standards of individual fodder and needs of the dairy cows in relation to their weight...

  11. Impressions of cattle farming in the landscape of Uruguay

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    Leonardo Gómez Sena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of cattle farming has influenced and modeled the social and economic organization of Uruguay along history and has culturally acquired several expressions, including decisive evidence in the historical organization of its territory and the conformation of its rural landscape. The historic marks of cattle farming are key to understand the logics of land use planning and the natural-culturalconstruction of the Uruguayan landscape and have exerted great influence on the country’s internal policy organization, the division of land, the organization of roads and trails, its toponymy, etc. From the modifications of flora and fauna caused by the first introduction of cattle in the country, the conformation of the rural landscape of our territory has been linked to cattle farming, especially to the economic unit represented by the “estancia ganadera” (cattle farm. Its historic evolution delineated processes for land occupancy, holding and exploitation which lasted very long periods and with the so called “modernization of cattle farming” established the way and typology of rural architecture as well as forestry treatment and equipment which defined the predominant profile of rural areas in the country. The estate systems related to the industrialization of meat, which resulted from the productive situation of the country in the 70’s are also as significant, although their territorial dimension is much less. These industrial remains (unequally preserved, recognized and restored require to be approached as cultural landscapes and demand the set up of their links with the territory and the productive chain. This approach focuses on recognizing and activating the most significant elements of this cultural heritage, integrating its management to cattle farming today and to sustainable strategies of local and regional productive development.

  12. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is crossbreeding of cattle beneficial for mixed farming systems in Central Java?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widi, T.S.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    From 1980s onwards, Indonesia's government has been implementing crossbreeding with European beef breeds through artificial insemination to improve the beef performance of local cattle, in response to the increasing demand for meat. Crossbreeding is promoted and implemented throughout the country,

  14. A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    or saving money in a form that is easily converted to cash when needed. .... five percent of the respondents worked in industry (mainly mining), 15% were ... Income from non-farm sources enables these farmers to meet the cost of hired labour.

  15. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms we....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.......The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely...

  16. Climate change-related risks and adaptation strategies as perceived in dairy cattle farming systems in Tunisia

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    Hajer Amamou

    Full Text Available The perception of risks due to climate change by farmers and the measures they take to address those risks are of paramount importance in policy-making if the implementations of targeted adaptation and mitigation strategies are to be economically and environmentally sustainable. This study focused on Tunisian dairy farmers’ perceptions of the risks and the actions taken to cope with changes attributable to climate change. Using a bottom-up approach, 566 surveys were carried out randomly among dairy farmers throughout Tunisia. A total of 70 diagnostic variables relating to farm characteristics, resources, management, performances and profit, in addition to climate change risk perception and adaptation strategies, were identified and analyzed. Using multivariate statistical analysis, four dairy farming groups were identified. The largest proportions of farmers belonged to the two above-ground dairy systems: without utilized agricultural areas; and with non-dairy utilized agricultural areas (Clusters 1 and 2. A minority of farmers belonged to medium-sized and large farms that specialized in milk production (Clusters 3 and 4 and has access to sufficient land, water and capital resources. In all the clusters, almost all the farmers perceived that the greatest impact of climate change would be on cow performance and forage production. The attitudes of the farmers towards adaptation to climate change are associated with farm typology. They focused mainly on increasing water capacity for livestock and crop production and improving livestock and housing conditions. The knowledge obtained from this study could be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders in efforts to develop policies for farm management practices that address climate change and can be adapted to the country’s diverse farming systems. Keywords: Dairy farming system, Typology, Adaptation, Climate change

  17. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

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    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  18. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  19. Competitiveness levels in cattle herd farms

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    Pedro Rocha Marques

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to identify improvement demands for farms with different levels of competitiveness in the west of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. A total of 63 owners of large farms were interviewed (farms with an area greater than 900ha by applying a semi-structured questionnaire, guided by four drivers: technology (TEC, management (MAN, market relations (MR and the institutional environment (IE.It was used the Statistical Analysis System 9.2 software to perform the cluster analysis and identify farmers' characteristics. Three random clusters with different levels of competitiveness were observed: low competitiveness level (LCL, middle competitiveness level (MCL and high competitiveness level (HCL. The 29 variables (sub factors were evaluated in the cluster analysis according to level of impact on competitiveness, being classified into variables of high, medium or low impact. Stratification was carried out, ranking demands for improvements from aspects attributed by experts in relation to sub factors. The farmers with low competitiveness level (LTL had an unfavorable status for MAN, while the farmers belonging to clusters MCL and HCL have, respectively, favorable and neutral status for the same driver. The management characteristics determined the level of competitiveness of the farms surveyed

  20. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  1. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  2. Dynamics of banana-based farming systems in Bukoba district, Tanzania: changes in land use, cropping and cattle keeping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.; Ridder, de N.; Masuki, K.F.; Giller, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of land use, cropping patterns and cattle keeping were assessed for the period 1961–1999 in Kyamtwara division, Bukoba district, Tanzania. The assessment was based on interpreting aerial photographs, surveys and a review of historical statistical data. The area of

  3. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

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    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  4. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    OpenAIRE

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der, H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and Kibichoi, Kenya (intensive). Three baseline scenarios represent present-day cattle management; five improved scenarios use the same dairy breeds but have improved nutrition, using younger grass, mor...

  5. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  6. Conservation versus traditional cattle farming - the economic implications

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    J.W. Hearne

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of South Africa traditional subsistence farming practices entail overstocking of cattle. The resulting damage to the veld can be arrested only by providing the farmers with economic incentives to reduce stocking densities. In this paper cattle offtake strategies are investigated with a view to maximising revenue at lower stocking densities. This is achieved by developing a mathematical model which predicts the revenue generated by a given strategy. It is shown that although the model is nonlinear, a transformation can be made to enable optimisation by linear programming.

  7. Cystic echinococcosis in cattle dairy farms: spatial distribution and epidemiological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Bosco, Antonio; Pipia, Anna Paola; Tamponi, Claudia; Musella, Vincenzo; Costanzo, Nicola; Testoni, Francesco; Montisci, Antonio; Mocci, Giovanni; Longhi, Alessandro; Tilocca, Laura; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Varcasia, Antonio

    2017-05-29

    A study monitoring cystic echinococcosis (CE) in adult dairy cattle from intensive livestock farms located in the municipality of Arborea (Sardinia, Italy) was carried out between 2012 and 2015. A retrospective study of veterinary reporting forms of post-mortem inspections in 10 different Italian slaughterhouses was also performed. In addition, data on viability and molecular characterisation of hydatid cysts removed from parasitised organs in cattle was carried out. A geographical information system (GIS) with data layers of the study area and the geo-referenced points of 160 cattle farms was constructed. CE was found in 21.9% (35/160) of the surveyed farms. The retrospective study revealed that 0.05% (13/23,656) of adult slaughtered animals (over one year of age) from Arborea had tested positive to CE. The results stratified per year showed the following CE prevalences: 0.09% (5/5673) in 2012; 0.02% (1/5682) in 2013; 0.08% (5/6261) in 2014; and 0.03% (2/6040) in 2015 (χ2 with 3 degrees of freedom=3.81; P=0.282). The E. granulosus sensu stricto (formerly called G1 or sheep strain) was detected in all cysts subjected to molecular analysis. The GIS analysis showed that CE is fairly resilient in the Arborea territory where most of cattle farms are located, while a small cluster of cases was found located in the southeastern part of Arborea, close to districts where sheep farms are situated. The present survey reports the presence of CE in Sardinian dairy cattle intensive farms and suggests that the parasitic pressure of CE in the island continues to be very strong.

  8. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Topcu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses. The results of the study highlighted that while there were linear positive relationships among liquid assets of farms value, concentrate feed and fodder intake of dairy cattle, milk sale price, forage crop support, additional feeding and their types at pasture and milk yields per dairy cattle at the dairy farms; there were inverse relationships among hay intake of dairy cattle, lactation period, pasture planning, culture breed cattle support and those. The farmers could increase the successes of the dairy farms by increasing the technical and economic effectiveness under the integrated management pattern approaches at those with culture breed cattle.

  9. Potential for transmission of infections in networks of cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Volkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this analysis is to evaluate how generic properties of networks of livestock farms connected by movements of cattle impact on the potential for spread of infectious diseases. We focus on endemic diseases with long infectious periods in affected cattle, such as bovine tuberculosis. Livestock farm networks provide a rare example of large but fully specified directed contact networks, allowing investigations into how properties of such networks impact the potential for spread of infections within them. Here we quantify the latter in terms of the basic reproduction number, R0, and partition the contributions to R0 from first order moments (mean contact rates and second order moments (variances and covariances of contact rates of the farm contact matrices. We find that the second order properties make a substantial contribution to the magnitude of R0, similarly to that reported for other populations. Importantly, however, we find that the magnitude of these effects depends on exactly how the contacts between farms are defined or weighted. We note that the second order properties of a directed contact network may vary through time even with little change in the mean contact rates or in overall connectedness of the network. Keywords: Basic reproduction number, Infectious disease, Heterogeneity, 20–80 rule, Contact network, Bovine tuberculosis

  10. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  11. On-farm impact of cattle slurry manure management on biological soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dairy cattle slurry management on soil biota, soil respiration and nitrogen (N) mineralization were evaluated in a farm trial across 12 farms and a field experiment on 2 farms located in a dairy farming area in the north of the Netherlands. The slurry management consisted of slit

  12. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  13. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  14. Dairy farm demographics and management factors that played a role in the re-emergence of brucellosis on dairy cattle farms in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Gummow, B

    2017-08-01

    Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test. Descriptive statistical methods were used to describe the demographic data while univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between the selected risk factors and the presence of brucellosis on the farms at the time of the outbreak. The demographics of Fijian dairy farms are presented in the article and the biosecurity implications of those farming systems are discussed. Two risk factors were strongly associated with farms having brucellosis, and these were history of reactor cattle to brucellosis and or bovine tuberculosis on the farm (OR = 29, P ≤ 0.01) and farms that practised sharing of water sources for cattle within and with outside farms (OR = 39, P ≤ 0.01). Possible reasons why these were risk factors are also discussed. The potential risks for human health was also high as the use of personal protective equipment was low (15%). A high proportion of farmers (62%) could not recognise brucellosis thus contributing to the low frequency of disease reports (44%) made. The article also highlights other important risk factors which could be attributed to farming practices in the region and which could contribute to public health risks and the re-emergence of diseases.

  15. Creating a model to detect dairy cattle farms with poor welfare using a national database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality(®) protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (ptree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  17. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  18. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...... sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority...... of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher...

  19. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kiggundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9% while average age of respondents was 42.5 years. Farmers allocated more land (P<0.05 to organic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues as major dairy cattle feed resources while only 19% reported using elephant grass. Banana peels (25.1% and sweet potato vines (24.7% were the most important crop residues fed to cattle. Farmers reported high cost of concentrates and scarcity of feeds as their biggest challenges in dairy cattle production. Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9% of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore, concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long term strategy to address feed challenges for organic livestock farmers.

  20. Online information system for data collection of cattle quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, E.; Arifudin, R.; Putra, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    Innovation and development of the science and technology which proclaimed by the government through Ristekdikti need to be supported. On the other hand, the Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries began introducing the Cattle Card system that contains the identity of each farm animal. Therefore, UNNES especially the Department of Computer Science of FMIPA UNNES, need to give positive contribution in the field of Science and Technology to support the manual system of Cattle Card, through the preparation of prototype of the online information system of data collection of cattle in Semarang regency. The main problem is how to monitor the data of cattle quality through online information system in Semarang regency? The purpose of this research is to produce the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle quality in Semarang regency. Main activities: (1) Prepare the flowchart of an online system for data collection of cattle quality. (2) Collecting data to obtain data on identity descriptions of each cattle, owners, mutation records, and health records of livestock cattle. (3) Creation of the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle quality in Semarang Regency. The results, (1) had been produced the prototype of an online information system for data collection of cattle in the region of Semarang regency. (2) Socialization of the online information system for cattle quality data collection and exploring input from various related stakeholders. (3) There had been a limited trial of prototypes of the system in Pabelan district in the working area of the Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries of Semarang regency and succeeded well.

  1. Risk Management in Smallholder Cattle Farming: A Hypothetical Insurance Approach in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Otieno, David Jakinda; Oluoch-Kosura, Willis; Karugia, Joseph Thuo; Drucker, Adam G.; Rege, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Smallholder cattle farming is an important livelihood strategy in most developing countries like Kenya. However, tropical diseases in Africa often wipe out these valuable assets. This paper focuses on mitigation of cattle disease risks through a hypothetical insurance scheme. The study is based on data from a survey conducted on a purposive sample of 300 smallholder cattle farmers in Kakamega and Siaya districts of Western Kenya. Descriptive measures and a regression model were used in the an...

  2. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book

  3. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    strategies used by farmers to overcome dry season feed shortages on 64 smallholder certified organic pineapple farms. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and two focus group discussions. Majority of households were headed by males (62.9%) while average age of respondents was 42.5 years....... Farmers allocated more land (Pgoats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues....... Of the respondents, 51.4% conserved feed for their cattle as fodder banks. As a coping strategy to feed shortages, majority (42.9%) of farmer scavenged for feed resources from both organic certified and nonorganic neighbouring farms which is contrary to organic livestock farming standards. It was, therefore...

  4. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  5. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : II Feeds and feeding practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marjuki,; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A survey on feeding practices was conducted with thirty-one cattle farmers belonging to three categories: households without land and no income from agricultural labour (Class 100;10 farms), households without land but deriving considerable income from agricultural labour (Class 101;10 farms), and

  6. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to

  7. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  8. First confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in a cattle farm in Henan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Zhang, Yan; Yan, Yaqun; Dong, Haiju; Jian, Fuchun; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen

    2018-01-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) impose a significant constraint to livestock production world widely. In this paper, we presented a case of TBD in a cattle farm in Henan, China. 35 blood samples (7 samples sent by veterinarian, 28 samples gathered by our colleagues) were collected from ill, surviving and asymptomatic cattle and microscopic observation and PCR assays were conducted to characterize the pathogens. Genus Ixodes feeding on these cattle were collected and identified. Theileria annulata-like and Anaplasma marginale-like pathogens were observed in the blood smears stained with Giemsa staining under microscope. Furthermore, 5 out of 7 cattle blood samples were found to be positive for T. annulata by PCR. In the 28 blood specimens, three were positive for T. annulata, while A. marginale DNA was detected in nine blood DNA samples. Besides, 56 ticks feeding on cattle were collected from this farm and were all identified as Rhipisephalus microplus, meanwhile, 10 of them were found to be positive for A. marginale. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the msp4 gene sequences of A. marginale obtained in this study showed that the isolate from cattle (KX840009) fell in the same clade with that of R. microplus (KX904527), sharing 100% similarity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of outbreak of theileriosis/anaplasmosis in cattle farms in Henan, China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  10. The Determinants Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatmiko Wahyudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Even though biogas technology has been introduced in Indonesia since 1990’s and having the potential, the rate of biogas adoption in Indonesia runs slowly. It is important to understand factors encouraging or discouraging potential adopters to build biogas plant. The development of livestock sector especially cattle farming in Indonesia can be seen as the opportunity to increase the rate of biogas adoption. This study investigated the factors affecting households of cattle farmer to adopt or not to adopt biogas technology. A cross-sectional research survey was carried out by using structured questionnaires as the primary tool to collect data from both biogas adopters and non biogas adopters in Pati regency, Indonesia. Socioeconomic characteristic of potential biogas adopters plays an important role to ensure the adoption of biogas technology sustainable. Socioeconomic characteristic regarding having high social status determines individual to adopt biogas relatively earlier than other members of a social system. Having high income and education enables traditional farmers to finance biogas plant by their own money or access aid from the government or other agencies. Among other attributes of innovation, relative advantage of installing biogas plant is the most determinant attribute to speed the rate of biogas adoption. Having biogas plant was perceived as better option and generated more benefits compared to previous technology or method. Article History: Received May 17th 2017; Received in revised form August 5th  2017; Accepted Sept 6th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Wahyudi, J. (2017 The Determinant Factors of Biogas Technology Adoption in Cattle Farming: Evidences from Pati, Indonesia, 6(3, 235-240. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.235-240

  11. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    ) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...

  12. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare......Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... type, aspects of the housing system, farm characteristics, and management routines. The average herd size was 3.15 in Kiambu and 3.91 in Kajiado, with all the cows’ zero-grazed. Seventy five percent of the cubicles were small (less than 2.50m2). Many of the farmers sprayed their animals weekly (47...

  13. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  14. Indigenous Bali cattle is most suitable for sustainable small farming in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martojo, H

    2012-01-01

    Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Financial feasibility analysis, small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: 1 analyze the responses of farmers on small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 2 analyze the feasibility of small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 3 analyze the estimated increase of beef cattle production in Gorontalo District. The research method that used is survey method. The data analysis used in this research are descriptive analysis, feasibility analysis, and forecasting analysis. The result of this research showed: 1 The development of beef cattle business is an industry in the field of agribusiness with no limited. Beef cattle farmers said this business could give a huge profits. It can be seen from people welfare that increased, this business does not require a large cost from the technical point of view (cost of facilities and infrastructure, 2 Based on financial analysis aspect of beef cattle livestock is feasible to develop. 3 The result of forecasting analysis can be seen that there will be increased production for the Year 2017-2019 at all intervals except at 1-2cows. Keyword: Financial Feasibility, Beef Cattle, Agribusiness

  17. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to document and preserve valuable indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. Data were collected from thirty (30) cattle farms from three locations: Gbindi (16 farms), Sackelereh (7 farms), and Flamansa (7 farms) in ...

  18. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  19. Effects of running time of a cattle-cooling system on core body temperature of cows on dairy farms in an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2010-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm to describe the effects of a reduction in Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) system operating time on core body temperature (CBT) of primiparous and multiparous cows. In the first experiment, KK systems were operated for 18, 21, or 24 h/d while CBT of 63 multiparous Holstein dairy cows was monitored. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0000 h and 0300 h for the 18-h and 21-h treatments, respectively. Animals were housed in 9 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. In the second experiment, 21 multiparous and 21 primiparous cows were housed in 6 pens and assigned randomly to treatment sequences (KK operated for 21 or 24 h/d) in a switchback design. All treatments started at 0600 h, and KK systems were turned off at 0300 h for the 21-h treatments. In experiment 1, cows in the 24-h treatment had a lower mean CBT than cows in the 18- and 21-h treatments (38.97, 39.08, and 39.03±0.04°C, respectively). The significant treatment by time interaction showed that the greatest treatment effects occurred at 0600 h; treatment means at this time were 39.43, 39.37, and 38.88±0.18°C for 18-, 21-, and 24-h treatments, respectively. These results demonstrate that a reduction in KK system running time of ≥3 h/d will increase CBT. In experiment 2, a significant parity by treatment interaction was found. Multiparous cows on the 24-h treatment had lower mean CBT than cows on the 21-h treatment (39.23 and 39.45±0.17°C, respectively), but treatment had no effect on mean CBT of primiparous cows (39.50 and 39.63±0.20°C for 21- and 24-h treatments, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was observed, with the greatest treatment effects occurring at 0500 h; treatment means at this time were 39.57, 39.23, 39.89, and 39.04±0.24°C for 21-h primiparous, 24-h primiparous, 21-h multiparous, and 24-h multiparous cows

  20. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, NN

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research were : 1) to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2) to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3) to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4) to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performe...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF AGRIBUSINESS SUBSYSTEM ON BEEF CATTLE FATTENING FARMS PROFIT IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rianto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed : (i to know the subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning in beef cattle fattening; (ii to count the profit of beef cattle farming; (iii to analyze the effect of agribusiness subsystem implementation and agribusiness planning to beef cattle fattening profit. This study was carried out using survey method and the elementary units were feedlot farmers. The sample was determined by Purposive Quota Sampling Method on 112 respondents spread across five regencies, namely Blora, Rembang, Grobogan, Wonogiri, and Boyolali. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The data analysis used quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics method, which include scoring, financial, and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that : (i the implementation of agribusiness subsystem (including preproduction subsystem, marketing, and agribusiness support services and agribusiness planning were not so good category, while the cattle farming subsystem was moderate category; (ii the average of farming scale in each feedlot farmer was 2.95 head of cattle with the profit rate was IDR 1,044,719 per fattening period during 6.68 months (equivalent to IDR 156,395 per month; (iii agribusiness subsystem and agribusiness planning had significant impact on feedlot farmer profit simultaneously, but preproduction subsystem and the agribusiness support services subsystem partially had a significant impact on feedlot farmer profit.

  2. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  3. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  4. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W David Walter

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  5. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  6. Determinants Affecting on Smallholder Madura Cattle Farming at Pamekasan Regency, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, H. D.; Yakin, A.; Seruni, A. P.

    2018-02-01

    Study was case study at Pamekasan Regency of Madura Island, East Java, Indonesia. The research aimed to examine income of smallholder beef cattle farming and its influencing factors. The research used 30 members of the Pancong Jaya group farmer that obtained by purposive sampling method. Research regarded descriptive analysis using economic formulation and multiple regression technique. Results found that R2 Adjusted obtained 73.70% and F-calculation (12.625) indicated significant (Pexperience in raising cattle and their education revealed a positive and high significant (Ppurchasing breeding stock appeared a negative and significant (P experience in handling cattle strongly influenced on increasing income. However, the contrast view come from farmers’ age, the number of family members, and purchasing feeder cattle in which these seemed to reduce farmers’ income.

  7. Heavy metals and other elements in serum of cattle from organic and conventional farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Pilarczyk, Bogumiła; Bąkowska, Małgorzata; Pilarczyk, Renata; Wójcik, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, lead, iron, zinc, copper, chromium, nickel, aluminium and arsenium were analysed in blood serum of cattle from organic (n=20) and conventional (n=21) farms. The elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using an Optima 2000 DV instrument (Perkin Elmer Inc.). Animals from the organic farm were characterised by significantly lower (Panimals from the conventional farm. The concentration of Cd was similar in animals from both organic and conventional farms. The concentration of toxic elements in cattle from organic and conventional farms studied was very low. The trace essential elements were generally within the adequate ranges except Zn and Cu, which were deficient. In organically reared animals, also serum Fe content was below the critical level for diagnosing iron deficiency. Pb was significantly correlated with Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu and Ni. A significant positive correlation between the concentration of Cd and Zn, Cu and Ni concentrations was only observed in cows from the organic farm. The present results suggest that organically raised animals are less exposed to harmful environmental influences such as the environmental pollution with heavy metals. On the other hand, these animals are at a greater risk of mineral deficiency compared to animals kept on conventional farms.

  8. Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis pathogens at the Magadu Dairy Farm, Sokoine University of Agriculture. A total of 19 milk samples were collected and cultured on blood agar and MacConkey agar followed by identification of bacteria colonies and cells using standard laboratory techniques.

  9. Analysis of Goat Farming on Integrated Farming System in Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NN Hidayat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research were : 1 to find out the income generated from goat farming and its contribution to farmer income in several farming combination, 2 to find out the economic efficiency in goat farming with paddy and fish production, 3 to determine factors affecting level of production and income in different farming system, partially and aggregately, and 4 to determine the best combination of farming which generated maximum income. Household farmer survey method was performed to conduct this research. Farming model chosen in this research was partial and average aggregate. Cobb-Douglas function were chosen to predict functional relationship. Result stated from this research were : 1 goat farming has a significant contribution in integrated farming system, 2 integrated farming (goat and paddy, goat and fish, and goat, fish and paddy in Banyumas district was economically efficient. 3 partially, factor affecting production level in goat farming was number of goat owned (P<0.01, factor affecting paddy production were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, TSP application (P<0.05 and man power (P<0.10. Furthermore, factor affecting fish farming were feed, breed and number of land owned (P<0.01; 4 aggregately, factor affecting integrated farming I were urea application and number of land owned (P<0.01, feed and number of land owned (P<0.01, number of goat owned (P<0.10 integrated farming II, where as in integrated farming III were number of paddy land area and breed (P<0.01 also number of goat owned (P<0.10; 5 integrated farming III (goat, paddy and fish farming gave the highest profit, which gave Rp 6.219.283,81 with relatively high efficiency. Therefore, goat farming could be an alternative solution to be developed in integrated farming and could be combined with other farming activities such as paddy and fish farming. (Animal Production 9(2: 105-110 (2007 Key Words : Goat, income, economic efficiency, survey, contribution

  10. Internal Innovation and Informational Dynamics within Small and Medium Beef Cattle Farm Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The internal knowledge capabilities of small and medium beef cattle farm enterprises are examined using information economics to gain an understanding of how these organisations approach innovation. Enterprises are viewed as being embedded in the wider industry and are subject to both external and internal influences. However the discussion here is focused on internal activities in order to consider how enterprise specific knowledge is constructed allowing innovation to occur. Innovation is a...

  11. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    ) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...... on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing...... on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test...

  12. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological......Indoor releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Muscidifurax raptor Girauelt & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted in five organic dairy cattle farms to evaluate the overall effect on parasitism and efficiency at different pupal depths of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae...... control strategy of simultaneous releases of S. cameroni and M. raptor is discussed. Key words: biological control, dairy cattle, dispersion, parasitism, Phygadeuon fumat...

  13. Prospective application of farm cattle manure for bioenergy production in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Eliseu; Mantha, Vishveshwar; Rouboa, Abel

    2011-01-01

    Biogas is a promising renewable fuel, which can be produced from a variety of organic raw materials and used for various energetic purposes, such as heat, combined heat and power or as a vehicle fuel. Biogas systems implementation are, therefore, subjected to several support measures but also to several constraints, related with policy measures on energy, waste treatment and agriculture. In this work, different policies and policy instruments, as well as other factors, which influence a potential expansion of Portuguese biogas systems are identified and evaluated. The result of this analysis shows that the use of the cattle manure for biogas production is still far from its potential. The main reason is the reduced dimension of the Portuguese farms, which makes biogas production unfeasible. Various options are suggested to increase or improve biogas production such as co-digestion, centralized plants and modular plants. Horizontal digesters are the most suitable for the typical Portuguese plant size and have the advantage of being also suitable for co-digestion due to the very good mixing conditions. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion due to a more robustness, stability and lower energy consumption should be the choice. The recent increase in the feed-in tariffs for the electricity production based on anaerobic digestion biogas is seen as a political push to this sector. (author)

  14. Contribution of local beef cattle production on farmer’s income in the dryland farming of Kupang Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.; Hasnudi; Suyadi

    2018-02-01

    Study on contribution of local beef cattle enterprise on income of dryland farmers in Kupang Regency was conducted from September to December 2016. The study aimed to: (1) determine composition of farm household income in the dry land area of Kupang Regency, Indonesia, (2) analyze contribution of income from local beef cattle enterprise to farm household income. A survey was done on 56 beef cattle farmers who were purposively selected as respondents. All respondents were interviewed using structured questioners with focus on farm household activities and their income. The results showed that total net income of farm household was Rp 14,854,550 per year, out of this Rp3,246,550 to Rp 5,404,750 equals to 21.85 to 36.38% was from local beef cattle enterprise. To enhance the role of beef cattle enterprise, the owner should improve cattle husbandry management through providing good quality and quantity of feed continuously, as well as empowering livestock extension workers to deliver proper information and technology on beef cattle husbandry to the farmer.

  15. Control of VTEC O157 and Campylobacter jejuni/coli on cattle farms : Effective interventions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J

    2009-01-01

    Verocytotoxogenic E. coli O157 (VTEC O157) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli are zoonotic pathogens of public health importance, which are commonly carried and shed by cattle. Control at farm level needed isto limit shedding and contamination of the environment and the human food chain. On- farm risk

  16. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  17. Livestock Farming Systems in the Northern Tablelands of NSW: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Griffith, Garry R.; Davies, Lloyd

    2003-01-01

    The Northern Tablelands region of New South Wales covers an area of approximately 3.12 million hectares including 2.11 million hectares occupied by some 2300 agricultural establishments producing agricultural commodities valued at more than $220 million. Sheep and wool production and cattle production are the dominant agricultural enterprises. In this Report, a whole-farm model of a representative livestock farming system in the Northern Tablelands is developed. Whole-farm economic models of ...

  18. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  19. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  20. The optimation of farmers families' revenue the integration of Pasundan cattle and paddy farming in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tawaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the revenue optimization of farmer family with ratio of the most ideal farm scale in the integration of Pasundan cattle and paddy farm, and to analyze the most leveraging production factor towards the family revenue. The respondents were 94 farmers who had integrated farming between cattle and paddy. This research used survey method in four regions purposively based on Pasundan cattle centre. Data were analyzed with linear programming and production function of Cobb Douglass. The results were: (1 max Z = -(4,584,841x1+1574260 (x2+x3 + (6,000,000jx1+4000000 (j x2 +j x3 ; this function consist of constraints: labour, transfer products between cattle and paddy farm, transfer fertilizer, capital of paddy farming in planting season-I and season-II. (2 Yintegration = 15,721,319.75 – 72.541 land – 1.317 fertilizer + 4.667 seeds + 487765.94 farminglabour + 6339170.199 cattlevalue – 935.559 feed + 162618.999 cattlelabour. There were some conclusions: First, the integration of Pasundan cattle and paddy farming produced the optimum family revenue/year, with ratio of 6.02 animal unit and 0.5 ha of paddy farming; Second, the production factor of agricultural land, labour, seeds, feed and capital (cattle were explained (R2=87.66% toward the integration revenue; Third, the variable which has the contribution to leverage the revenue was the capital of cattle (81.52%.

  1. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  2. On-Farm Mitigation of Transmission of Tuberculosis from White-Tailed Deer to Cattle: Literature Review and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. David Walter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Animal Industry Division of the Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD has been challenged with assisting farmers with modifying farm practices to reduce potential for exposure to Mycobacterium bovis from wildlife to cattle. The MDARD recommendations for on-farm risk mitigation practices were developed from experiences in the US, UK and Ireland and a review of the scientific literature. The objectives of our study were to review the present state of knowledge on M. bovis excretion, transmission, and survival in the environment and the interactions of wildlife and cattle with the intention of determining if the current recommendations by MDARD on farm practices are adequate and to identify additional changes to farm practices that may help to mitigate the risk of transmission. This review will provide agencies with a comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on mitigation of disease transmission between wildlife and cattle and to identify lacunae in published research.

  3. Microclimatic temperatures of Danish cattle farms: a better understanding of the variation in transmission potential of Schmallenberg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung

    virus [inter quantile range (IQR)] of all the cattle farms during spring, summer, and autumn for 17 years period were 16 [13-17], 15 [13-16] and 40 [38-42] days respectively, when using microclimatic temperatures. These estimated EIP values were much shorter compared to EIP estimated using DMI...... temperatures for the same periods of spring (29 [27-30]), summer (21 [19-24]), and autumn (56 [55-58]) days respectively. For the summer period, we observed a large area where farms with shorter EIP for Schmallenberg virus were grouped together, comprising southern Funen and associated islands, Lolland....... The objective of this study was to quantify the variation of EIP of Schmallenberg virus among Danish cattle farms and identify possible spatial patterns of the EIPs. Methods: We quantified 21 different land cover classes within a 500 meter radius of all cattle farms in Denmark (N=22092) using CORINE land cover...

  4. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. David; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  5. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Anggraeni

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999 KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  6. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  7. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  8. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships and acaricidal effects of Beauveria bassiana obtained from cattle farm soils against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustin; Alonso Díaz, Miguel Angel; Alonso Morales, Rogelio Alejandro; Lezama-Gutierrez, Roberto; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio

    2018-03-16

    The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R. microplus ("Media Joya" resistant strain or "CLAR" susceptible strain to chemical acaricides) using the adult immersion test. The BbV03 strain produced an 86.7% and a 60% of mortality on resistant and susceptible ticks on day 20, respectively; whereas the mortality scored with the BbV04 strain was 66.7% and 53.5% on resistant and susceptible ticks at the same day, respectively. The BbV03 and BbV04 strains reduced egg-laying on both R. microplus populations. There were not statistical differences in the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana strains, between the R. microplus susceptible or resistant populations (P > 0.05). The BbV03 strain was the most virulent against R. microplus with a LC50 of 2 x 107 and a LC99 of 7 x 108 conidia/ml. We found that the 6 B. bassiana isolated were clustered into the same clade with other previously reported B. bassiana strains (from GenBank); however, they were separated into 3 different sub-clades. This study shows that some B. bassiana strains might be a promising coadjuvant alternative for biological tick control, including those that are resistant to chemical acaricides. Beauveria bassiana is present in the pastures of tropic cattle farms and there are genetic variations between members of the bassiana specie that are living in this ecosystem. This last showed that B. bassiana might play an important roll in the natural control of R. microplus at paddocks of cattle farms.

  10. Cattle productivity on smallholder farms in the Western Highlands of Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njoya, A.; Mbanya, N.J.; Nguemdjom, A.; Kamga, P.; Ndi, C.; Kameni, A.; Nfi, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the traditional cattle production systems in the Western Highlands of Cameroon was carried out between August 1994 and September 1997. Fifty two cows selected from 14 farms in 4 locations were monitored monthly. Data were collected on calf and dam weight, dam's body condition, milk offtake and forage quality. Reproductive performance was monitored by measuring progesterone levels in milk sampled weekly. Crude protein content of grazed pastures rose from 12.5% in July to 14.5% in October and declined steadily to reach 4.5% in February. With such a decline in forage quality during the dry season, cows are unable to obtain their nutrient needs, thus productivity was low. Body condition score declined from medium (5.6) at calving to upper low (4.5) 4 months after the initiation of milk offtake. Body weight of cows decreased by nearly 14% during the same period. The interval between calving to first progesterone rise, calving to conception, and inter-calving intervals were 172 ± 116, 185 ± 106 and 448 ± 86 days, respectively. Milk offtake averaged 1.29 ± 0.44 kg/cow/day for a lactation length of 10.5 months. A significant effect of season was detected in milk offtake (P <0.001), body condition score (P <0.05), body weight of cows (P <0.05), intervals from calving to first progesterone rise (P <0.05), calving to conception (P <0.05) and inter-calving interval (P <0.01). Supplementary feeding during the dry season and early lactation to cover the nutrient requirements of the cows in the traditional production system of Western Highlands of Cameroon is recommended and forms the purpose of the second part of this study which is now underway. (author)

  11. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  12. Assessment of the Farm Management of Culling Cattle: A Survey of Existing Practices and Suggestions for Drafting of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattasi, Alessandro Russo; Cesano, Lorenzo; Botta, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES) and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination) will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety. PMID:27800327

  13. Assessment of the farm management of culling cattle: a survey of existing practices and suggestions for drafting of best practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Russo Frattasi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety.

  14. Prototyping and farm system modelling - Partners on the road towards more sustainable farm systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, B.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Leeuwis, C.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    Farm system modelling and prototyping are two research methods proposed to enhance the process of developing sustainable farm systems. Farm system models provide means to formalize, expand and refine expert knowledge and to integrate this with scientific agro-ecological knowledge at the farm level.

  15. Impact of the intensity of milk production on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions in Portuguese cattle farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.; Trindade, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the relationship between the intensity of milk production for a wide range of Portuguese commercial cattle farms and NH3 and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management and enteric fermentation. A survey was carried out at 1471 commercial dairy cattle farms (Holstein-Friesian) and the NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions at each stage of manure management were estimated as well as CH4 losses from enteric fermentation. Gaseous emissions were estimated by a mass flow approach and following the recommendations of IPCC guidelines. The manure management and enteric fermentation in a typical Portuguese cattle farm contributes with 7.5±0.15 g N/L milk produced as NH3 and 1.2±0.22 kg CO2 equivalent per litre of milk as GHG. Increasing milk production will significantly reduce NH3 and GHG emissions per litre of milk produced. It can be concluded that a win-win strategy for reducing NH3 and GHG emissions from dairy cattle farms will be the increase of milk production on these farms. This goal can be achieved by implementing animal breeding programs and improving feed efficiency in order to increase productivity. (Author)

  16. E. coli O157 on Scottish cattle farms: Evidence of local spread and persistence using repeat cross-sectional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 is a virulent zoonotic strain of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. In Scotland (1998-2008) the annual reported rate of human infection is 4.4 per 100,000 population which is consistently higher than other regions of the UK and abroad. Cattle are the primary reservoir. Thus understanding infection dynamics in cattle is paramount to reducing human infections. A large database was created for farms sampled in two cross-sectional surveys carried out in Scotland (1998 - 2004). A statistical model was generated to identify risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Specific hypotheses were tested regarding the presence of E. coli O157 on local farms and the farms previous status. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles were further examined to ascertain whether local spread or persistence of strains could be inferred. Results The presence of an E. coli O157 positive local farm (average distance: 5.96km) in the Highlands, North East and South West, farm size and the number of cattle moved onto the farm 8 weeks prior to sampling were significant risk factors for the presence of E. coli O157 on farms. Previous status of a farm was not a significant predictor of current status (p = 0.398). Farms within the same sampling cluster were significantly more likely to be the same PFGE type (p Scottish E. coli O157 paves the way for future research into the mechanisms of transmission which should help with the design of control measures to reduce E. coli O157 from livestock-related sources. PMID:24766709

  17. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  19. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  20. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  1. The Milking Profile of Dairy Cattle Farms in Central Macedonia (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mitsopoulos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide insights of the profile of the dairy farms of Central Macedonia (Greece, in terms of their milking practices. The analysis is based on data from a random sample of 123 dairy farms, obtained by means of a survey. The employment of the Categorical Principal Component Analysis on the 14 variables initially used to describe milking practices and of the Two-Step Cluster Analysis led to the grouping of the 123 farms to three clusters. Farms of the first cluster, named “Innovative”, use state-of-the-art equipment, automatic systems and innovative milking techniques (31.1% of the sample farms. “Peasant” farms (11.4% are mainly extensive, using mainly bucket plants. The third and most abundant group, the “Modernizing” farms (54.5% are use equipment of reasonable standards and some of them are on the process of renewing it. The results of a Multinomial Logit model verify that “Innovative” farms are large and achieve high yields, while the “Modernizing” ones are smaller, producing milk of lower quality and they are owned by relatively older dairy farmers. An interesting profile is depicted for “Peasant” farms, as they achieve satisfactory economic performance, combined with adequate milk quality. The analytical framework included the reduction of analysis variables to a smaller group of “dimensions”, using the Categorical Principal Component Analysis (CatPCA, based on which farms were clustered to alternative profiles, by employing a Two-Step Cluster (TSC Analysis. Differences in elements of milk quality and in the social profile of farms and farmers were examined among alternative profiles through the estimation of Multinomial Logit Models.

  2. How do farm models compare when estimating greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Nicholas John; Özkan, Şeyda; de Haan, M

    2018-01-01

    The European Union Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) will require a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030 compared with 2005 from the sectors not included in the European Emissions Trading Scheme, including agriculture. This will require the estimation of current and future...... from four farm-scale models (DairyWise, FarmAC, HolosNor and SFARMMOD) were calculated for eight dairy farming scenarios within a factorial design consisting of two climates (cool/dry and warm/wet)×two soil types (sandy and clayey)×two feeding systems (grass only and grass/maize). The milk yield per...

  3. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and...

  4. Animal movement network analysis as a tool to map farms serving as contamination source in cattle cysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Aragão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine cysticercosis is a problem distributed worldwide that result in economic losses mainly due to the condemnation of infected carcasses. One of the difficulties in applying control measures is the identification of the source of infection, especially because cattle are typically acquired from multiple farms. Here, we tested the utility of an animal movement network constructed with data from a farm that acquires cattle from several other different farms to map the major contributors of cysticercosis propagation. Additionally, based on the results of the network analysis, we deployed a sanitary management and drug treatment scheme to decrease cysticercosis’ occurrence in the farm. Six farms that had commercial trades were identified by the animal movement network and characterized as the main contributors to the occurrence of cysticercosis in the studied farm. The identification of farms with a putative risk of Taenia saginata infection using the animal movement network along with the proper sanitary management and drug treatment resulted in a gradual decrease in cysticercosis prevalence, from 25% in 2010 to 3.7% in 2011 and 1.8% in 2012. These results suggest that the animal movement network can contribute towards controlling bovine cysticercosis, thus minimizing economic losses and preventing human taeniasis.

  5. Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-12-01

    During composting, the composition of microbial communities is subject to constant change owing to interactions with fluctuating physicochemical parameters. This study explored the changes in bacterial and fungal communities during cattle farm waste composting and aimed to identify and prioritize the contributing physicochemical factors. Microbial community compositions were determined by high-throughput sequencing. While the predominant phyla in the bacterial and fungal communities were largely consistent during the composting, differences in relative abundances were observed. Bacterial and fungal community diversity and relative abundance varied significantly, and inversely, over time. Relationships between physicochemical factors and microbial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The variation in bacterial community composition was significantly related to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and pile temperature and moisture (p composts. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  7. Cattle production on small holder farms in East Java, Indonesia : I. Household and farming characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winarto, P.S.; Leegwater, P.H.; Zemmelink, G.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2000-01-01

    A general household survey was carried out in the village of Sonoageng in East Java, Indonesia with the aim to assess their socio-economic status, and the crop and livestock production system prevailing in the area. Of the households interviewed (164), 52re landless, 35␘wn land or have a combination

  8. Participatory diagnosis and prioritization of constraints to cattle production in some smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatikobo, P; Choga, T; Ncube, C; Mutambara, J

    2013-05-01

    A participatory epidemiological study was conducted to identify and prioritize constraints to livestock health and production on smallholder farms in Sanyati and Gokwe districts of Zimbabwe. Questionnaires were administered to 294 randomly selected livestock owners across the two districts. Livestock diseases (29% of the respondents), high cost of drugs (18.21%), weak veterinary extension (15.18%), inadequate grazing (13.60%), inadequate water (13.54%), and livestock thefts (10.44%) were the major livestock health and production constraints identified. The number of diseases reported varied (Pdomestic chicken, donkeys, and guinea fowls, respectively. Seven (19.4%) of the 36 diseases including rabies and foot and mouth disease were those listed by the OIE. Thirty-four percent of the respondents rated bovine dermatophilosis as the most important livestock disease. Respondents rated, in descending order, other diseases including tick borne diseases (21%); a previously unreported disease, "Magwiriri" or "Ganda renzou" in vernacular (14%); mastitis (11%); parafilariosis (11%); and blackleg (9%). Cattle skin samples from "Magwiriri" cases had Besnoitia besnoiti parasites. Overall, this study revealed factors and diseases that limit livestock production in Zimbabwe and are of global concern; in addition, the study showed that the skin diseases, bovine dermatophilosis and besnoitiosis, have recently emerged and appear to be spreading, likely a consequence of ectoparasite control demise in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe over the last 15 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae em sistemas de produção de leite da microrregião fisiográfica fluminense do grande Rio - Rio de Janeiro Control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy de Castro Borba Santos Júnior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os métodos de controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus realizados em três fazendas representativas dos sistemas de produção de leite da Microrregião Fisiográfica Fluminense do Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, levando-se em consideração o manejo das fazendas, o grau de sangue Bos taurus e Bos indicus dos rebanhos, os fatores climáticos e a prevalência estacional do carrapato. Para efeito de avaliação, foi utilizada a contagem periódica de fêmeas ingurgitadas medindo entre 4,5 e 8mm, no antímero direito de 20% das vacas em lactação de cada fazenda, durante um ano. A diferença no manejo das pastagens, a composição genética dos rebanhos e as condições climáticas influenciaram a prevalência estacional de B. microplus. A maior lotação animal por hectare, o elevado "stand" vegetativo das pastagens e o maior grau de sangue B. taurus contribuíram para as maiores infestações de carrapatos nas fazendas. O controle de B. microplus realizado pelos proprietários teve importância secundária em relação as outras atitudes de manejo dos rebanhos. Ficou evidenciado o uso excessivo e ineficiente de produtos químicos para o controle de B. microplus nas fazendas. Para implantação de medidas de controle estratégico do B. Microplus, fazem-se necessários esforços para a transferência e adoção dos resultados de pesquisas disponíveis aos produtores rurais.The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. The experiment was carried out on three farms of the dairy production systems of the Fluminense Physiographic Microregion of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm, in 20% of the lactating cows of each farm

  10. Perception of the importance of human-animal interactions on cattle flow and worker safety on Minnesota dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Cherry, C; Bender, J B

    2014-07-01

    Proper cattle-handling techniques (stockmanship) are important to ensure calm animals and a safe work environment for dairy workers on farm. The objectives of this study were to (1) assess Minnesota dairy herd owners' attitudes toward stockmanship, its perceived importance for cow comfort and worker health, and the establishment of calm cattle movement; and (2) identify current resources and methods of stockmanship training on Minnesota dairy farms. A stratified-random sample of Minnesota dairy farmers were contacted via mail to participate in a 28-question survey. One hundred eight bovine dairy producers participated. Most commonly, respondents learned their cattle handling skills from family members (42.6%) and 29.9% of producers had participated in previous stockmanship training. Producers thought that the skill of the human handler was the most important factor in establishing good cattle flow. Cattle-handling techniques was the third most common topic for new-employee orientation after training in milking parlor protocols and milking parlor disinfection. Time limitations and language barrier were considered serious challenges for worker training. Work-related injuries were responsible for lost work days in the previous year in 13.3% of dairy herds and 73.3% of those injuries occurred while working with cattle. Producers perceived that cattle-related injuries were predominantly the handler's fault: either because of not paying enough attention to the animal or due to poor cattle handling skills. Facility design was considered the least important for the occurrence of worker injuries. Although no causal inference can be made, herds that had workers who had previously participated in stockmanship training had a 810 ± 378 kg (mean ± standard error of the mean) higher rolling herd average than those that did not, even after adjusting for herd size and bulk tank somatic cell count. However, 50% of respondents were not interested in attending future stockmanship

  11. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Halasa, Tariq; Rattenborg, Erik; Boes, Jaap; Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-11-09

    The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group) during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011-2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Control of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark should target heifers and

  12. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Takeuchi-Storm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. Methods This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013 using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011–2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Results Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Conclusions

  13. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated. The res......Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated....... The results show 0.80 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in JE herd, while 0.96 kg CO2eq/kg ECM in HF herd. The main differences were due to the level of dry matter intake, milk yield and fertility traits. Indeed, JE herd showed a lower milk yield than HF herd, a lower DMI and better fertility, determining less production...

  14. Sensitivity of Different Cattle Breeds to the Infestation of Cattle Ticks Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Natural Pastures of Opkara Farm, Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Eric Yessinou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on the Opkara (Benin cattle farm on 64 cattle of four different breeds (16 individuals per breed from June to December 2016. During this study, three tick species were found in different numbers, Amblyomma variegatum (732, Rhipicephalus microplus (8079, and Hyalomma spp. (208, with parasitic intensity of 11.90, 126.23, and 3.25, respectively. The interracial comparison of the tick infestation between the cattle showed a significant difference (P<0.001. However, Girolando was more infested than all the cattle breeds. Infestation of A. variegatum, R. microplus, and Hyalomma spp. on the Girolando was, respectively, 19.43 ± 2.71, 171.25 ± 23.50, and 7.12 ± 0.63, but the Borgou were less infested. Borgou breed females were more infested by A. variegatum (4.41 ± 1.14 than females Girolando (4.20 ± 0.90. The Crossbred and Azawak females were less infested (P<0.01. The mean of A. variegatum on Borgou, Azawak, Crossbred, and Girolando calves was 1.29 ± 0.35, 0.66 ± 0.26, 1.37 ± 0.37, and 2.25 ± 0.48 (P<0.01, respectively. The results of this study can be exploited to include genetic and nongenetic approaches to tick control.

  15. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

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    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  16. Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine

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    Marcella Mori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis.

  17. Genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala

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    Jagdeep Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the genetic analysis of reproductive performance of Frieswal cattle at Military Farm, Ambala. Materials and Methods: A total number of 3005 lactation records of 1147 Frieswal cows over a period of 15 years extending from 1993 to 2007 were used to study at Military Dairy Farm, Ambala. The study period was divided into 5 period of 3 years each. The average performances of reproduction traits, effect of genetic and non-genetic factors were analyzed, and estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters of reproduction traits was undertaken. Results: The age at first calving (AFC differed significantly across the periods of calving. The AFC was lowest during the third period (1999-2001 and longest in the first period (1993-95. The effect of season and period of calving, lactation order and regression of AFC on dry period, calving interval and service period was highly significant. The effect of sire was non-significant. The heritability estimates were low for almost all the traits under study. The service period had a high genetic correlation with dry period and calving interval. The dry period also found to have a low genetic correlation with calving interval in Frieswal cows. Service period had a high phenotypic correlation with dry period and very high with a calving interval. The phenotypic correlation between the dry period and calving interval was recognized high. Conclusions: Low heritability estimate for the reproduction traits indicates that there is a very little additive genetic variance in these traits, and individual selection will not be helpful for improving them. Improvement may be brought through better feeding and management of cows by reducing the environmental variability.

  18. Exploring the multifunctional role of farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Noe, Egon; Halberg, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Public expectations of farming practices are changing from a demand for environmentally "sustainable farming practices" to farming making an "enhanced contribution to the development of the rural areas", the so-called multifunctionality. Based on our research model of including farmers...... in the development of eco-friendly farming systems, we propose that the achievement of these changed expectations could be facilitated through an appropriate research and development initiative in several European regions. Key elements in such a project sould include: (i) the establishment of platforms for dialogue...... makers and administrators, grassroots movements and research staff. It is expected that such a coordinated research initiative can revitalize the contribution of farming to rural development and yield important insight to be used by the individual farmer in coping with future challenges....

  19. BOVINE NEOSPOROSIS IN CATTLE FARMS FROM THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE STATE OF VERACRUZ, MEXICO

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    Tomás Montiel-Peña

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Neospora caninum and its DNA in blood samples from bovine females from the northern region of the state of Veracruz, Mexico. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 13 municipalities, with a sample size of 821 animals. Blood and serum samples were analyzed through ELISA and PCR, respectively. Overall prevalence was 20.8 %; the highest specific prevalences were obtained in breeding cows (27.4 %, crossbred cows (20.9 %, second-calving cows (23.2 %, three year-old cows (20.6 % and cows with abortion history (20 %. The risk factors associated with seropositivity were dairy cattle (OR = 1.9; IC95 %: 1.1-3.4 and dog presence in the farms (OR = 5.3; IC95 %: 1.3-22.3. The presence of N. caninum DNA was demonstrated in 4 out of 12 blood samples tested, which evidenced the existence of active infection. In conclusion, there were risk factors associated with bovine neosporosis, which proved the existence of active infection by N. caninum in cows from the state of Veracruz, Mexico.

  20. Brazilian Citizens’ Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems

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    Maria C. Yunes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their “social license to operate”; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat. Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle, 82% (poultry, 81% (laying hens, and 60% (swine. A large majority (79% stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The

  1. Brazilian Citizens' Opinions and Attitudes about Farm Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Maria C; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Hötzel, Maria J

    2017-09-28

    The inclusion of societal input is needed for food animal production industries to retain their "social license to operate"; failure to engage with the public on this topic risks the long-term sustainability of these industries. The primary aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of Brazilians citizens not associated with livestock production towards farm animal production. A related secondary aim was to identify the specific beliefs and attitudes towards systems that are associated with restriction of movement. Each participant was shown pictures representing two of five possible major food animal industries (laying hens, beef cattle, pregnant sows, lactating sows, and poultry meat). Participants were presented a six pages survey that included demographic questions plus two sets of two pictures and a series of questions pertaining to the pictures. Each set of pictures represented a particular industry where one picture represented a housing type that is associated with behavioural restrictions and the other picture represented a system that allowed for a greater degree of movement. Participants were asked their perceptions on the prevalence of each system in Brazil, then their preference of one picture vs. the other, and the reasons justifying their preference. Immediately following, the participant repeated the same exercise with the second set of two pictures representing another industry followed by the same series of questions as described above. Quantitative data were analysed with mixed effects logistic regression, and qualitative responses were coded into themes. The proportion of participants that believed animals are reared in confinement varied by animal production type: 23% (beef cattle), 82% (poultry), 81% (laying hens), and 60% (swine). A large majority (79%) stated that farm animals are not well-treated in Brazil. Overall, participants preferred systems that were not associated with behavioural restriction. The preference for free

  2. Improving the productivity of imported dairy cattle on small-holder farms in Morocco through supplementation with fish silage blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerouali, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify problems that lower the productivity of imported dairy cattle in Morocco. For this purpose, a comprehensive survey was carried out on 8 small-holder farms over a period of two years. Analysis of the data collected indicated that in most of the herds reproductive performance was adequate (calving intervals ranging from 338 ± 11 to 420 ± 31 and services to conception ranging from 1.14 ± 0.13 to 1.91 ± 0.3), but the animals had difficulty in meeting the nutrient requirements for milk production. Although some farmers provided supplements to their animals they were either expensive or not available at the required time. One possible way of alleviating the problem was the introduction of a fish by-product into the dairy cattle ration. Two experiments were conducted, one at the Institute experimental farm and the other at a private farm selected for the survey. In both experiments, fish silage blocks were incorporated into the ration of dairy cattle in replacement of an equal amount of the most commonly used supplements. The introduction of fish silage blocks in the ration did not affect their intake or body condition. In addition, the yield and quality of the milk were maintained. This substitution allowed the farmer to utilize by-products from the fish industry which are readily available and less costly than most conventional supplementary feeds. It is concluded, that the proposed utilization of fish silage blocks will reduce the production costs and improve the economic efficiency of the small-holder farms. (author)

  3. 76 FR 34985 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board Meeting AGENCY: Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the regular meeting of the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation Board (Board). Date and Time: The meeting of the...

  4. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) from feral cats on a dairy farm with Map-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mitchell V; Stoffregen, William C; Carpenter, Jeremy G; Stabel, Judith R

    2005-07-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The role of nonruminant, nondomestic animals in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis in cattle is unclear. To examine nonruminant, nondomestic animals for the presence of Map, 25 feral cats, nine mice (species unknown), eight rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), six raccoons (Procyon lotor), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were collected from a mid-western dairy with known Map-infected cattle. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the mesenteric lymph node from seven of 25 (28%) feral cats. Ileum was culture-positive for three of these seven cats, and an isolation of Map was also made from the ileum of one of nine (11%) mice. Tissue samples from other species were negative as determined by Map culture; microscopic lesions consistent with paratuberculosis were not seen in any animal. Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis of isolates from cats and dairy cattle suggest interspecies transmission. The means by which interspecies transmission occurred may be through ingestion of Map-contaminated feces or waste milk or through ingestion of Map-infected prey. Shedding of Map from infected cats was not evaluated. The epidemiologic role of Map-infected feral cats on dairy farms requires further investigation.

  5. Characterization of some chemical components, in the soil of different agro- ecosystems of cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Noval-Artiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of some chemical components was characterized, in soils of an agro- ecosystem of a cattle farm with different reliefs, one located in the plains and another in a hilly area. The statistical descriptive variables were calculated for organic matter, pH, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn; by means of a t- Student test for independent samples, the variables were compared among the rainy and dry seasons. In the agro-ecosystem of the plains the 24.5, 75.4, 20.7, 41.5, 33.9 and 56.6 % of the samples were below the critical limit for organic matter, P2O5, K2O, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. In the hilly region the concentrations of the organic matter and the mentioned chemical elements were deficient in a 25, 80, 42.5, 7.5 and 25 %, and 2.5 % in the samples of Fe. They were significant levels of Cu for the rainy season, while in the Mn was significant in the dry season for the agro-ecosystem of the plains, while in the hilly region there were small significant values in the Cu, Fe and Mn in the dry season, on the contrary of the P2O5 that showed small values during the rainy season. It concludes that independent in the agro-ecosystems that there were deficiencies in a percent of the soil samples, equally significant variation existed in the levels of the minerals in conjunction with the season.

  6. Farm management systems and the Future Internet era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaloxylos, A.; Eigenmann, R.; Teye, F.; Wolfert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart/precision farming systems are expected to play an important role in improving farming activities. During the past years, sophisticated farm management systems have emerged to replace outdated complex and monolithic farm systems and software tools. The latest trend is to enable these management

  7. 12 CFR 1400.1 - Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. 1400.1 Section 1400.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Organization and Functions § 1400.1 Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation. The Farm Credit...

  8. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, J.; Axelsson, U.; Eriksson, E.; Salomonsson, D.; Bauer, P.; Czech, B.

    2010-01-01

    EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options

  9. SUSTAINABLE FARMS: INTEGRATION OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Muñoz-Espinosa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate use of agrochemicals and technologies in farming systems can cause an accelerated deterioration of agricultural and soil pollution. Thus, agriculture and livestock are becoming an environmental problem in the world, which implies the need to assess the efficiency of agricultural production systems related to sustainability. The traditional peasant system is apparently unsustainable, while farm with an integral production approach have better opportunities for development over time as they tend to sustainability. This type of farms incorporate productive alternatives that improve as a whole, the system and the livelihood of the peasants. The trends towards sustainability of farms are mainly due to a better land use. As well as, implementing systems adapted to each soil and production type to ensure profitability and persistence, achieving the highest possible agricultural productivity. The urgency to produce food for a growing population is almost a paradigm that reinforces the imperative for maximum yield per unit area, and creates a vision of the rural world aimed at increasing profit at the expense of the attributes and core values of livelihood in rural areas. It can be concluded that the integrated farming articulate various subsystems, which working together could allow higher sustainability of agricultural production practices, environmentally friendly, safeguarding the food sovereignty of the population and improving the quality of life of farmers

  10. Cattle traceability system in Japan for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available To promote consumer confidence in the safety of beef and to ensure the proper implementation of eradication measures against bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, the Cattle Traceability Law was approved by the Diet in June 2003 and a cattle traceability system has been in operation in Japan since December 2003. The system enables tracing the cohort and offspring animals of a BSE case within 24 h of its detection. The traceability database system also provides distributors, restaurants and consumers with information on the cattle from which the beef that they sell, serve and consume originate.

  11. Farm Typology in the Berambadi Watershed (India: Farming Systems Are Determined by Farm Size and Access to Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ production decisions and agricultural practices directly and indirectly influence the quantity and quality of natural resources, some being depleted common resources such as groundwater. Representing farming systems while accounting for their flexibility is needed to evaluate targeted, regional water management policies. Farmers’ decisions regarding investing in irrigation and adopting cropping systems are inherently dynamic and must adapt to changes in climate and agronomic, economic and social, and institutional, conditions. To represent this diversity, we developed a typology of Indian farmers from a survey of 684 farms in Berambadi, an agricultural watershed in southern India (state of Karnataka. The survey provided information on farm structure, the cropping system and farm practices, water management for irrigation, and economic performances of the farm. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis (Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering were used to analyze relationships between observed factors and establish the farm typology. We identified three main types of farms: (1 large diversified and productivist farms; (2 small and marginal rainfed farms, and (3 small irrigated marketing farms. This typology represents the heterogeneity of farms in the Berambadi watershed.

  12. Cattle slurry on grassland - application methods and nitrogen use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalor, S.T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle slurry represents a significant resource on grassland-based farming systems. The objective of this thesis was to investigate and devise cattle slurry application methods and strategies that can be implemented on grassland farms to improve the efficiency with which nitrogen (N) in

  13. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  14. Farm management information systems: A case study on a German multifunctional farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husemann Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and easy to use Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS are of fundamental importance for a successful operational farm management. However, still today many farmers do not use FMISs for various reasons, like lack of knowledge and the complexity of many available FMISs. In particular for small to medium-sized farms and for multifunctional farms appropriate FMISs hardly exist. This paper aims on the deduction of a concrete FMIS from a general FMIS. The concrete FMIS has to focus on the needs of medium-sized and multifunctional farms. This means that the farmer has to be empowered to allocate the scarce resources of the farm. Therefore, we picked a German farm from the state North Rhine Westphalia as a case-study to apply a system analysis. The case study farm helps to identify and to analyze relevant material and information flows, production processes, and their interconnections and synergies.

  15. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção com bovinocultura de leite da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Economic analysis of production systems of dairy cattle farms in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nunes Portela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido junto às unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS, com o objetivo de identificar o desempenho econômico e os sistemas de produção existentes entre as mesmas. Foram coletadas as informações de 53 propriedades, sendo identificados os seguintes sistemas de produção: a leite e arroz com tração animal (TA e superfície agrícola útil (SAU média de 30ha; b leite e arroz com tração mecanizada (TM e SAU média de 54ha; c leite e hortigranjeiros com TA e SAU média de 20ha; d leite e hortigranjeiros com TM e SAU média de 50ha; e leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 40ha; f leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 308ha; g leite e bovinos de corte com TM e SAU média de 80ha; h leite estreme com TA e SAU média de 2 ha; i leite estreme com TM e SAU média de 45ha. Os sistemas A, B, C, F, H e I apresentam um desempenho econômico por unidade de trabalho homem (UTH superior ao salário mínimo regional, enquanto os sistemas D, E e G apresentam desempenho abaixo deste indicador.This work was developed in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society, the Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS. The goal was to identify the economical performance and the different systems of production used by the UPFs. The information was obtained from 53 farms, and among them the following production systems were identified: a Milk associated to rice crops, with animal traction (AT and an average of 30ha of tillable area (TA; b Milk associated to rice crops with mechanical traction (MT and TA=54ha; c Milk associated to olericulture with AT and TA= 20ha; d Milk associated to olericulture with MT and TA= 50ha; e Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 40ha; f Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 308ha; g Milk associated to beef cattle with MT and TA= 80 ha; h Milk with AT

  16. Yield gaps in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Vieira da Silva, Joao; Reidsma, Pytrik; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Arable farming systems in the Netherlands are characterized by crop rotations in which potato, sugar beet, spring onion, winter wheat and spring barley are the most important crops. The objectives of this study were to decompose crop yield gaps within such rotations into efficiency, resource and

  17. A Wind Farm Electrical Systems Evaluation with EeFarm-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pierik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available EeFarm-II is used to evaluate 13 different electrical systems for a 200 MW wind farm with a 100 km connection to shore. The evaluation is based on component manufacturer data of 2009. AC systems are compared to systems with DC connections inside the wind farm and DC connection to shore. Two options have the best performance for this wind farm size and distance: the AC system and the system with a DC connection to shore. EeFarm-II is a user friendly computer program for wind farm electrical and economic evaluation. It has been built as a Simulink Library in the graphical interface of Matlab-Simulink. EeFarm-II contains models of wind turbines, generators, transformers, AC cables, inductors, nodes, splitters, PWM converters, thyristor converters, DC cables, choppers and statcoms.

  18. CleverFarm - A superSCADA system for wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, A.; Hansen, K.G.; Giebhardt, J.

    2004-01-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farmoperators to prioritise their efforts, since the...

  19. Improvement of zebu cattle productivity in the Sahel region: Feed supplementation on smallholder farms in peri-urban Dakar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawadogo, G.J.; Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Yameogo, N.; Manirarora, J.N.; Toukour, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were conducted in the peri-urban area of Dakar to collect baseline information on feeding, milk production, reproduction, body weight and body condition (Phase I), and to examine the influence of supplementation with local by-products on productive and reproductive parameters of indigenous cattle in traditional smallholder farms (Phase II). Baseline data collected from smallholder farms between 1994 and 1996 indicated delayed first calving, long calving intervals, decreasing body condition score (BCS) and body weight and low milk yields as major problems associated with cattle productivity in the region. Fertility was related to forage availability; animals showed high fertility after the rainy season and low fertility during the dry season. Supplementation during the critical period of the dry season using agro-industrial by-products (brewer's grains, molasses, groundnut cake, oyster shell and salt) had beneficial effects on productivity. Supplementation reduced loss in body weight and body condition, maintained milk yield and growth rate of the calves during the dry season and reduced length of 'days open' and the calving interval. (author)

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  1. The impact of biogas production on the circularity of nitrogen flows around a dairy farm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Dijkema, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Dairy farms require a significant amount of nitrogen to enter the production system via cattle fodder, which in intensive farming can be traced back to artificial fertilizers. As a by-product of dairy farms, cattle manure contains undigested nitrogen that allows the farmers to reuse it for their

  2. Risks, resources and reason: understanding smallholder decisions around farming system interventions in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens M. Grünbühel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new cattle management practices by Indonesian smallholders occurs less as a ‘technology transfer’ in the classical sense but rather as a series of conscious decisions by farming households weighing risks and resources as well as matching innovations to livelihood strategies. This paper uncovers the context of decisions and communication of innovations by way of social networks. The research looks at two geographically distinct cases where new cattle management practices have been introduced. We apply the lens of a common sense framework initially introduced by Clifford Geertz. Smallholder decisions are analysed within a socio-cultural context and a particular set of resources, risks and livelihood objectives. We show that the respective value placed on land, cattle and food security is central to adoption of new cattle management techniques. Far from accepting everything novel, smallholders are selective and willing to make changes to their farming system if they do not conflict with livelihood strategies. Innovations are communicated through a range of existing social networks and are either matched to existing livelihood strategies or perceived as stepping-stones out of agriculture.

  3. A longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle of a Dutch dairy farm and in the farm environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Frankena, K.; Giessen, van de A.W.; Zwaluw, van der W.K.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    From July 1999 till November 2000, a longitudinal study was conducted on a dairy farm in The Netherlands to study within herd prevalence and types of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup O157 over time, and determine environmental reservoirs and possible transmission routes.

  4. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  5. Spatial Clustering of Escherichia coli with Reduced Susceptibility to Cefotaxime and Ciprofloxacin among Dairy Cattle Farms Relative to European Starling Night Roosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2017-05-01

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) have been implicated in the dispersal of zoonotic enteric pathogens. However, their role in disseminating antimicrobial-resistant organisms through their home range has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to determine whether starling night roosts served as foci for spreading organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials among dairy cattle farms. Bovine faecal pats were collected from 150 dairy farms in Ohio. Each farm was visited twice (in summer and fall) between 2007 and 2009. A total of 1490 samples (10 samples/farm over two visits) were tested for Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin. Using a spatial scan statistic, focal scans were conducted to determine whether clusters of farms with a high prevalence of organisms with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin surrounded starling night roosts. Faecal pats 13.42% and 13.56% of samples carried Escherichia coli with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Statistically significant (P Escherichia coli showing reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin were identified around these night roosts. This finding suggests that the risk of carriage of organisms with reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in cattle closer to starling night roosts was higher compared to cattle located on farms further from these sites. Starlings might have an important role in spreading antimicrobial-resistant E. coli to livestock environments, thus posing a threat to animal and public health. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. BVD-2 outbreak leads to high losses in cattle farms in Western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Gethmann

    2015-09-01

    The competent veterinary authorities imposed trade restrictions on affected farms. All persons who had been in contact with affected animals were advised to increase biosecurity measures (e.g. using farm-owned or disposable protective clothing. In some farms, affected animals were vaccinated against BVD to reduce clinical signs as an “emergency measure”. These measures stopped the further spread of the disease.

  7. Establishment rate of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Doesschate, S J; Pomroy, W E; Tapia-Escárate, D; Scott, I; Wilson, P R

    2017-08-30

    Red deer can be infected with some gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle but it is unknown to what extent. An indoor study was conducted to determine the establishment rate of cattle GIN in young deer. Five young calves and 5 young red deer were used. They were effectively treated with anthelmintics when housed and then infected 2 weeks later. After four weeks they were killed for total worm counts. Establishment rates were assessed comparing worm counts to the infective dose which were identified morphologically, and to the relative establishment rate of different species. The establishment rates (%) in cattle and deer respectively were H. contortus (8.0, 18.7, p=0.18), Ostertagia ostertagi (30.8, 0.7, p98%) of Trichostrongylus spp. were Trichostrongylus axei in both hosts and there were no differences between hosts for this species (p=0.11). In cattle >98% of Cooperia were Cooperia oncophora and the mean burden was much higher than in deer (pcattle (pcattle-origin GIN can establish in red deer. In particular, the establishment of H. contortus and T. axei could allow sufficient burdens to build up to be clinically significant. Importantly, almost no cattle Ostertagia species or small intestinal species established in deer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B.D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and

  9. Impacts of biochar on the environmental risk of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile genetic elements during anaerobic digestion of cattle farm wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Qian, Xun; Tuo, Xiaxia

    2018-05-01

    Biochar has positive effects on nitrogen conservation during anaerobic digestion, but its impacts on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are unclear. Therefore, the effect of biochar (0, 5, 20, and 50 g/L) on the environmental risk of ARGs during cattle manure wastewater anaerobic digestion were investigated. The results showed that 5 g/L biochar reduced the relative abundances (RAs) of 5/13 ARGs while 20 g/L biochar significantly reduced the total RAs of ARGs in the digestion products, where the RA of ISCR1 was 0.89 log lower than the control. Biochar mainly affected the distribution of ARGs by influencing the RAs of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and the influence of 20 g/L biochar was greater than that of 5 g/L. Mobile genetic elements also influenced the ARG profiles, especially intI2 and ISCR1. The addition of 20 g/L biochar to cattle farm wastewater anaerobic digestion systems could reduce the environmental risk of ARGs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  11. Evolution of livestock farming systems and landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pulina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifty years, the rural landscape of vast areas, historically modelled by livestock farming, has experienced radical changes. The marginalisation of traditional farming systems resulted in a shift towards intensive systems in the more favourable areas, and in the abandoning of farming in the less favourable areas. Consequences of these trends are numerous: intensification and abandoning concurred in determining the disappearance of traditional architectural styles and in disrupting the historical links between local landscape, way of farming, and variety of products; intensification of farming caused local excesses of nutrients releases and/or land degradation; abandoning has permitted an extensive natural reforestation, which in turn has greatly modified the aesthetic value and biodiversity richness of landscape. Research for a sustainable “livestock farming landscape” will need the ability to integrate a systemic and geographic description of the interactions of farming systems with landscape quality and biodiversity with the definition of consequent technologies and farm management options.

  12. Economic consequences of investing in sensor systems on dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of investment in sensor systems on productivity change, using farm accounting data. Farm accounting data for the years 2008–2013 was available for 217 Dutch dairy farms. In addition, information was available on the adoption of sensor systems

  13. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  14. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (Pcomposting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey for trypanosoma species in cattle from three farms in Iddo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-01-28

    Jan 28, 2014 ... Gudali and 200 White Fulani), using standard field and laboratory techniques. 15 cattle representing an infection prevalence of .... taken and cut at the buffer coat level to release the contents on a clean grease-free .... connected with its molecular biology which may have played a role in conferring it with ...

  16. Determinants for Treatments in Relation to Udder Health in Danish Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    Regular cow level registrations in the Danish Cattle Database include registrations about e.g. milk yield, SCC and calvings, but also about diseases and antibiotic treatments of cows. These data could potentially be a useful source of information for the development of herd-specific udder health...

  17. National Genetic Evaluation (System of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selected through performance and progeny tests. National Hanwoo genetic evaluations are implemented with yearling weight (YW, carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS. Yearling weights and MS are used for selecting young bulls, and EMA, BF, and MS are used for selecting proven bulls. One individual per testing room was used for performance tests, and five individuals per room for progeny tests. Individuals tested were not allowed to graze pasture, but there was enough space for them to move around in the testing room. Feeds including roughages and minerals were fed ad libitum, and concentrates were provided at the rate of about 1.8% of individual weight. Overall means of the traits were 352.8±38.56 kg, 335.09±44.61 kg, 77.85±8.838 cm2, 8.6±3.7 mm and 3.293±1.648 for YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS. Heritabilities estimated in this study were 0.30, 0.30, 0.42, 0.50 and 0.63 in YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS, respectively, which are similar to results from previous research. Yearling weight was 315.54 kg in 1998, and had increased to 355.06 kg in 2011, resulting in about 40 kg of improvement over 13 yrs. YW and CW have improved remarkably over the past 15 yrs. Breeding values between 1996 and 2000 decreased or did not change much, but have moved in a desirable direction since 2001. These improvements correspond with the substantial increase in use of animal models since the late 1990s in Korea. Hanwoo testing programs have

  18. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  19. CASE REPORT: CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PRODUCTION SYSTEM OF BEEF CATTLE, DEVELOPED BY BRAZILIANS IN THE REGION OF CHACO BOLIVIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to describe the characteristic of the beef cattle production system in Bolivia. From a scholarship that happened in a Brazilian company who provide management in livestock, during this time it was possible know a little bit about the characteristic on Bolivia livestock. In oriental region from Bolivia the Boviplan Consultoria Agropecuaria Ltda., Brazilian company with head office in Piracicaba-SP, built an office, to offer a bigger technical support for customer that have farm in Bolivia. This region is inside on biome of Bolivian Chaco that is characterized by soil extremely fertile and cheap land. These factora help to explain the favorable scenario of beef cattle found on farms that are managed by Boviplan in Bolivia.

  20. Farm to abattoir conditions, animal factors and their subsequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and beef quality — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Zifikile Njisane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current review seeks to highlight the concerns that have been raised on pre-slaughter stress, contributing factors and its consequent effects on cattle behavioural responses and the quality of beef; inter-linking the activities involved from birth to slaughter. Such information is crucial in light of the consumer concerns on overall animal welfare, quality of meat and food security. Slaughter animals are exposed to different conditions during production and transportation to abattoirs on a daily basis. However; the majority of studies that have been done previously singled out different environments in the meat production chain, while conclusions have been made that the welfare of slaughter animals and the quality of meat harvested from them is dependent on the whole chain. Behaviour is a critical component used to evaluate the animals’ wellbeing and it has been reported to have an effect on product quality. Apart from the influence of on-farm, transportation and abattoir conditions, the genetic background of the animal also affects how it perceives and responds to certain encounters. Stress activates the animals’ hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, triggering release of various stress hormones such as catecholamines and cortisol, thus glycogen depletion prior slaughter, elevated ultimate pH and poor muscle-meat conversion. Pre-slaughter stress sometimes results to cattle attaining bruises, resulting to the affected parts of the carcass being trimmed and condemned for human consumption, downgrading of the carcass and thus profit losses.

  1. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median...

  2. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2013-01-01

    . The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

  3. Agro-ecological system analysis (AESA) and farm plannning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Nalunga, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Organic agriculture is based on knowledge, insight and whole farm approaches. The farming system must work for each farmer family. Crop rotation cycles must be based on planning ahead, sometimes more than 2 years, so that different elements of the farm can work together. Intercropping must be bas...

  4. Microclimatic temperatures at Danish cattle farms, 2000-2016: quantifying the temporal and spatial variation in the transmission potential of Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Najmul; Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Sørensen, Jens Havskov; Bødker, Rene

    2018-03-05

    Microclimatic temperatures provide better estimates of vector-borne disease transmission parameters than standard meteorological temperatures, as the microclimate represent the actual temperatures to which the vectors are exposed. The objectives of this study were to quantify farm-level geographic variations and temporal patterns in the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of Schmallenberg virus transmitted by Culicoides in Denmark through generation of microclimatic temperatures surrounding all Danish cattle farms. We calculated the hourly microclimatic temperatures at potential vector-resting sites within a 500 m radius of 22,004 Danish cattle farms for the months April to November from 2000 to 2016. We then modeled the daily EIP of Schmallenberg virus at each farm, assuming vectors choose resting sites either randomly or based on temperatures (warmest or coolest available) every hour. The results of the model output are presented as 17-year averages. The difference between the warmest and coolest microhabitats at the same farm was on average 3.7 °C (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.0 °C to 7.8 °C). The mean EIP of Schmallenberg virus (5th and 95th percentiles) for all cattle farms during spring, summer, and autumn was: 23 (18-33), 14 (12-18) and 51 (48-55) days, respectively, assuming Culicoides select resting sites randomly. These estimated EIP values were considerably shorter than those estimated using standard meteorological temperatures obtained from a numerical weather prediction model for the same periods: 43 (39-52), 21 (17-24) and 57 (55-58) days, respectively. When assuming that vectors actively select the coolest resting sites at a farm, the EIP was 2.3 (range: 1.1 to 4.1) times longer compared to that of the warmest sites at the same farm. We estimated a wide range of EIP in different microclimatic habitats surrounding Danish cattle farms, stressing the importance of identifying the specific resting sites of vectors when modeling vector-borne disease

  5. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, L.M.; Mourão, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. ► Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. ► Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. ► Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. ► The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m 3 h −1 and 1 m 3 h −1 and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62–64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520–660 g kg −1 dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P 4 + and increased concentrations of NO 3 - in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772–856 g kg −1 ) and plant nutrients. The

  6. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  7. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solhee Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certification systems for rice farming, including organic farming, non-pesticide farming, and low-pesticide farming. For this study, we constructed a life cycle inventory (LCI of rice farming systems including conventional, low-pesticide, non-pesticide, and organic farming systems in South Korea. Finally, we compared international farming systems in South Korea, the U.S., and the EU. The rice farming systems with eco-labeling certifications have reduced the environmental impacts. The environmental impacts of rice farming by country were highest in the U.S. (100.0, followed by the EU (53.7, and Korea’s conventional (48.6, low-pesticide (35.8, non-pesticide (28.9, and organic (16.7 farming practices. These results may be useful in proliferating and improving the methodology to evaluate eco-labeling and carbon labeling systems.

  8. CleverFarm - A SuperSCADA system for wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G [ed.; Juhl, A; Gram Hansen, K; Biebhardt, J [and others

    2004-08-01

    The CleverFarm project started out to build an integrated monitoring system for wind farms, where all information would be available and could be used across the wind farm for maintenance and component health assessments. This would enable wind farm operators to prioritise their efforts, since they have a good view of the farm status from home. A large emphasis was placed on the integration of condition monitoring approaches in the central system, enabling estimates of the remaining lifetime of components, especially in the nacelle. During the 3,5 years of the project, software and hardware was developed and installed in two wind farms in Denmark and Germany. The connected hardware included two different condition monitoring systems based on vibration sensors from Gram&Juhl and ISET, plus a camera system developed by Overspeed. Additionally, short-term predictions of the wind farm output were delivered by DMI and Risoes Prediktor system throughout the period of the project. All these diverse information sources are integrated through a web interface based on Java Server Pages. The software was developed in Java, and is delivered as so-called CleverBeans. The main part of the software is open-sourced. The report contains the experiences and results of a one-year experimental period. This report is a slightly edited version of the final publishable report to the EU Commission as part of the requirements of the CleverFarm project.

  9. Patterns of Cattle Farm Visitation by White-Tailed Deer in Relation to Risk of Disease Transmission in a Previously Infected Area with Bovine Tuberculosis in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Lima, J; Carstensen, M; Cornicelli, L; Forester, J D; Wells, S J

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to characterize spatial patterns of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) movement related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) transmission risk to cattle in north-western Minnesota. Twenty-one adult deer (16 females and 5 males) were captured during winter (January-March) 2011 in areas adjacent to where an outbreak (2005-2009) of bTB occurred in deer and cattle. Deer were fitted with GPS collars programmed to collect deer location information every 90 min over a 15-month period. The exact locations of cattle, cattle feeding areas, and stored forage that were available to collared deer were assessed seasonally. In total, 47% (n = 9) of collared deer survived to the end of the study. Causes of mortality included wolves (n = 6), hunters (n = 1) and unknown (n = 2); additionally, 2 deer were censored due to collar malfunctions. Our results indicated that 5 deer (25%) had home ranges that included 6 cattle farms (20%). Most (77%) of the deer visits occurred in areas where cattle were present, with most visits (60%) from 00:00 to 06:00. March to May revealed the most farm visitations by deer (37%). This study provided baseline information regarding cattle-deer interactions critical to transmission of bTB in this region and suggested that risk mitigation practices should be implemented to separate wildlife and domestic livestock when feasible. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis and blood metabolites in fattening of male Bali cattle fed ration with different protein levels in smallholder farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Tahuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research was aimed to determine nitrogen balance, microbial protein synthesis, and blood metabolites of male Bali cattle fattening fed ration with different protein level in smallholder farms North Central Timor, Province of East Timor Tenggara, Indonesia. The cattle used were 18 heads aged 2 to 2.5 years with initial body weight of 229.86±12.46 kg. The cattle were randomly divided into three treatment groups. The T0 group was given feed the same as traditional fattening cattle practices by farmers,T1 group fed ration containing 12% crude protein (CP and 72% total digestible nutrients (TDN, andT2 group fedration containing 15% CP and 72%TDN. Cattle were fed individually for 90 days and drinkingwater ad libitum. The data were analyzedby analysis of variance.Results of research indicated the nitrogen balance, and blood urea nitrogen between T1 and T2 were relatively similar, but those were higher (P<0.05 than T0 . In contrast, microbial proteins synthesis, and blood glucose at 0, 4, and 6 hours before and after feeding were relatively similar between the groups. Blood glucose of T2 at 2 hours after intake were higher (P <0.05 than T0, but was not different with T1 . It can be concluded, that the fattening maleBali cattle fed ration containing 12% CP and 72% TDNimprovedthe nitrogen balance and blood metabolites, butit was no positive effect on the microbial proteins and N synthesis.

  11. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  12. Monitoring reproductive performance of cross-bred dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, S.; Jainudeen, M.R.; Azizuddin, K.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cross-bred cattle in Malaysia, as monitored by milk progesterone radioimmunoassay and rectal palpation. Infertility was identified as the major problem faced by the smallholder farmers. The results show that there is a strong and significant association between suckling and delayed post-partum ovarian activity. The longer calving intervals in smallholder dairy herds compared with those in institutional herds are due to inactive ovaries rather than failure to detect oestrus. The use of a progesterone releasing intravaginal device (PRID) for treatment of anoestrus resulted in 93% of cows cycling, with a conception rate of 46% to insemination at the induced oestrus. Cows that suckled their calves had significantly longer calving intervals. The mean body score for cattle on smallholder herds was 3.8 -+ 1.1, and fertile cows had significantly higher scores than infertile cows. There was strong evidence to suggest that increased body scores corresponded to shorter intervals between calving and resumption of sexual activity, calving and conception, and successive calvings. (author). 12 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Microclimatic temperatures at Danish cattle farms, 2000–2016: quantifying the temporal and spatial variation in the transmission potential of Schmallenberg virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung

    2018-01-01

    Microclimatic temperatures provide better estimates of vector-borne disease transmission parameters than standard meteorological temperatures, as the microclimate represent the actual temperatures to which the vectors are exposed. The objectives of this study were to quantify farm-level geographic......-resting sites within a 500 m radius of 22,004 Danish cattle farms for the months April to November from 2000 to 2016. We then modeled the daily EIP of Schmallenberg virus at each farm, assuming vectors choose resting sites either randomly or based on temperatures (warmest or coolest available) every hour....... The results of the model output are presented as 17-year averages. Results: The difference between the warmest and coolest microhabitats at the same farm was on average 3.7 °C (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.0 °C to 7.8 °C). The mean EIP of Schmallenberg virus (5th and 95th percentiles) for all cattle farms...

  14. Environmental stressors influencing hormones and systems physiology in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Environmental stressors undoubtedly influence organismal biology, specifically the endocrine system that, in turn, impact cattle at the systems physiology level. Despite the significant advances in understanding the genetic determinants of the ideal dairy or beef cow, there is a grave lack of understanding of the systems physiology and effects of the environmental stressors that interfere with the endocrine system. This is a major problem because the lack of such knowledge is preventing advances in understanding gene-environment interactions and developing science-based solutions to these challenges. In this review, we synthesize the current knowledge on the nature of the major environmental stressors, such as climate (heat, cold, wind, and humidity), nutrition (feeds, feeding systems, and endocrine disruptors) and management (housing density and conditions, transportation, weaning practices). We summarize the impact of each one of these factors on cattle at the systems level, and provide solutions for the challenges. PMID:24996419

  15. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other......Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  16. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with Crohn’s disease in humans. Pasteurization effectively reduces the MAP load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the MAP concentration, which...... depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. Considerable variation of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) and individual cow’s milk (IM) is reported, but factors associated with MAP occurrence in milk at farm level have not been described. This study systematically reviewed published...... studies aiming at estimating the occurrence of MAP in on-farm BTM and IM by meta-analysis. A total of 692 articles were identified through electronic databases and initially screened using title and abstract. The quality of the 61 potentially relevant articles was assessed using full text and 31 articles...

  17. Systems physiology in dairy cattle: nutritional genomics and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor, Juan J; Bionaz, Massimo; Drackley, James K

    2013-01-01

    Microarray development changed the way biologists approach the holistic study of cells and tissues. In dairy cattle biosciences, the application of omics technology, from spotted microarrays to next-generation sequencing and proteomics, has grown steadily during the past 10 years. Omics has found application in fields such as dairy cattle nutritional physiology, reproduction, and immunology. Generating biologically meaningful data from omics studies relies on bioinformatics tools. Both are key components of the systems physiology toolbox, which allows study of the interactions between a condition (e.g., nutrition, physiological state) with tissue gene/protein expression and the associated changes in biological functions. The nature of physiologic and metabolic adaptations in dairy cattle at any stage of the life cycle is multifaceted, involves multiple tissues, and is dynamic, e.g., the transition from late-pregnancy to lactation. Application of integrative systems physiology in periparturient dairy cattle has already advanced knowledge of the simultaneous functional adaptations in liver, adipose, and mammary tissue.

  18. The farming system component of European agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Erling

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes are the outcome of combined natural and human factors over time. This paper explores the scope of perceiving the agricultural landscapes of the European Union (EU) as distinct patterns of farming systems and landscape elements in homogeneous biophysical and administrative...... landscapes evolve from the praxis of the farmers and takes into account the scale, intensity and specialisation of the agricultural production. From farming system design point of view, the approach can be used to integrate the landscape in the design process. From a policy point of view, the approach offers...... endowments. The focus is on the farming systems component of the agricultural landscapes by applying a typology to the sample farms of the Farm Accountancy Data Network and scaling up the results to the landscape level for the territory of the EU. The farming system approach emphasises that agricultural...

  19. Current status of cattle production system in Nyagatare District-Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazimpaka, Eugene; Mbuza, Francis; Michael, Tukei; Gatari, Eugene N; Bukenya, E M; James, Okwee-Acai

    2017-12-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53.9%) had only primary education. Most respondents (52.6%) were in the age bracket of 41-50 years and were mainly (48.3%) located within 3 km from trading centers. The farm size averaged 6.5 ± 0.8 ha and most farms (64.7%) were fenced except in Rukomo Sector (50%) where zero grazing prevailed. Natural pastures (savanna grass land) were the main feed resource; tethering (9%) and communal grazing had diminished. Napier grass was the main planted forage (93.2%), followed by Chloris guyana (3.1%) and Brachiara (1.2%). Leguminous forages were rarely (2.5%) reported. Vita-mineral and salt block supplements, hay, and crop residues were the predominant supplementary feed stuffs used except in Karangazi and Rwemiyaga Sectors where only vita-mineral block predominated. However, maize and rice brans were reported to be the main feed stuffs used in supplementary feeding of lactating cows. Most farmers (89.7%) reported shortage of water as most of the farmers trekked their cattle to the nearest valley dams (59.2%), rivers (21.1%), and a few 6% had water on farms. Indigenous cattle were predominant (67.03%) followed by cross-breeds (28.37%) and exotics (4.6%) while all farmers kept small ruminants. Natural breeding predominated (74.9%) and most farms (60.6%) had animal houses most of which were temporary (52.8%). The reported mean age at first calving (AFC) was highest (40.2

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Bawa, E.K.; Dawuda, P.M.; Oyedipe, E.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.; Bales, J.O.; Sekoni, V.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  1. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Electrical system studies for the grid connection of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, K.; Hanson, J.; Hopp, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    2007-01-01

    Wind power is gaining momentum in the world's energy balance. Several issues have to be addressed whenever power-generating devices are connected to the grid. The paper describes studies needed to evaluate the influence of wind farms on the connected transmission system and how faults in the system impact on induction generators in a wind farm. Some generalized results of studies for an offshore wind farm in the North Sea and a Bulgarian wind farm show how studies can influence the layout of the internal network and the electrical equipment. (authors)

  3. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migose, S A; Bebe, B O; de Boer, I J M; Oosting, S J

    2018-03-28

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions with eight groups of stakeholders were held to collect narratives and data about market quality, production factors, farm performance and functions of dairy cattle. We applied thematic content analysis to qualitative information by clustering narratives according to predefined themes and used ANOVA to analyse farm data. In UL, markets were functional, with predominantly informal market chains, with a high milk price (US $ 45.1/100 kg). Inputs were available in UL markets, but prices were high for inputs such as concentrates, fodder, replacement stock and hired labour. Moreover, availability of grazing land and the high opportunity costs for family labour were limiting dairy activities. In UL, milk production per cow (6.9 kg/cow/day) and per farm (20.1 kg/farm/day) were relatively low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by scarcity of inputs and production factors. In rural locations (MRL and ERL), markets were functional with relatively low prices (average US $ 32.8/100 kg) for milk in both formal and informal market chains. Here, concentrates were relatively cheap but also of low quality. Fodder, replacement stock and labour were more available in rural locations than in UL. In rural locations, milk production per cow (average 7.2 kg/cow/day) and per farm (average 18.5 kg/farm/day) were low, and we concluded that farm development was constrained by low quality of concentrates and low price of milk. In all locations, production for

  4. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  5. Assessing heat load in drylot dairy cattle: Refining on-farm sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresoldi, Grazyne; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2016-11-01

    Identifying dairy cattle experiencing heat stress and adopting appropriate mitigation strategies can improve welfare and profitability. However, little is known about how cattle use heat abatement resources (shade, sprayed water) on drylot dairies. It is also unclear how often we need to observe animals to measure high heat load, or the relevance of specific aspects of this response, particularly in terms of panting. Our objectives were to describe and determine sampling intervals to measure cattle use of heat abatement resources, respiration rate (RR) and panting characteristics (drooling, open mouth, protruding tongue), and to evaluate the relationship between the latter 2. High-producing cows were chosen from 4 drylots (8 cows/dairy, n=32) and observed for at least 5.9h (1000 to 1800h, excluding milking) when air temperature, humidity, and the combined index averaged 33°C, 30%, and 79, respectively. Use of heat abatement resources was recorded continuously; RR and the presence and absence of each panting characteristic were recorded every 5min. From the observed values, estimates using the specified sub-sampling intervals were calculated for heat abatement resource use (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120min), and for RR and panting (10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120min). Estimates and observed values were compared using linear regression. Sampling intervals were considered accurate if they met 3 criteria: R 2 ≥0.9, intercept=0, and slope=1. The relationship between RR and each panting characteristic was analyzed using mixed models. Cows used shade (at corral or over feed bunk) and feed bunk area (where water was sprayed) for about 90 and 50% of the observed time, respectively, and used areas with no cooling for 2min at a time, on average. Cows exhibited drooling (34±4% of observations) more often than open mouth and protruding tongue (11±3 and 8±3% of observations, respectively). Respiration rate varied depending on the presence of panting (with vs

  6. A decision support system for strategic planning on pig farms

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Ge B.C.; Timmer, G. Th.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Eidman, V.R.; Vos, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported on a decision support system (DSS) for strategic planning on pig farms. The DSS was based . on a stochastic simulation model of investment decisions (ISM). ISM described a farm with one loan and one building using 23 variables. The simulation model calculated the results of a strategic plan for an individual pig farm over a time horizon of a maximum of 20 years for a given scenario. For six distinct replacement strategies, regression metamodels were specified to describe t...

  7. Evaluation of Selenium and Molybdenum in soils and grasses of two cattle farms of Puerto Salgar (Cundinamarca) and its possible effects on livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Claudia; Cabrera, D; Mejia, L; Rojas, A

    1999-01-01

    The problem of selenium and seleniferous soils and its effects on animal and human population are quite well known in Colombia since Colonial times. Its doesn't happen the same with Mo and molibdenosis, an element and disease which effects are so serious or worst than those of Se, which in this investigation we assume caused by the same cretaceous sediments (Villeta Group) which traditionally has been recognized only responsible of the formation of seleniferous soils and toxic vegetation. To prove the foregoing hypothesis and as a contribution to the knowledge of the origin and effects of Mo problem in Colombia, the soil and grasses of two cattle farms of Puerto Salgar (Cundinamarca, Colombia): La Gloria and Candilejas, both located in the border of two streams recognized as carriers of seleniferous sediments coming from Villeta Formation were analyzed. The water and sediments of three recognized seleniferous streams of the area were also analyzed. In all samples Se and Mo total content were determined. As a general conclusion Se and Mo content in soils and grasses in both cattle farms could induce variable degree of intoxication on animal and human population. In La Gloria's farm Se content in soil was 11 ppm in sites close to the river's border (0-60 mt) and decrease to 2.17 ppm in farthermost sites (268 mt). In Candilejas's farm Se decreases from 5.6 ppm in closer sites to the river's border (0-130 mt) to 2.63 ppm in farther sites (296 mt). In La Gloria's farm Mo decreases from an average of 3.40 to 4.55 ppm in the closer sites, to 1 ppm in those farther. In Candilejas's farm Mo decreases from 4.64 ppm in sites near the river's border to 0.15 ppm in farther sites. In both farms Se content in Angleton grass (Dichantum aristatum) samples was 0.8 ppm, Mo instead fluctuates around 9 ppm in those samples taken next to the river's border and decreases to an average of 3 ppm in samples taken farther from border. Average content of Se and Mo in all three stream

  8. Comparative analysis of four commercial on-farm culture methods to identify bacteria associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jair C; Gomes, Marilia S; Bonsaglia, Erika C R; Canisso, Igor F; Garrett, Edgar F; Stewart, Jamie L; Zhou, Ziyao; Lima, Fabio S

    2018-01-01

    Several multiple-media culture systems have become commercially available for on-farm identification of mastitis-associated pathogens. However, the accuracy of these systems has not been thoroughly and independently validated against microbiological evaluations performed by referral laboratories. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of commercially available culture plates (Accumast, Minnesota Easy System, SSGN and SSGNC Quad plates) to identify pathogens associated with clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Milk samples from the affected quarter with clinical mastitis were aerobically cultured with the on-farm culture systems and by two additional reference laboratories. Agreeing results from both standard laboratories were denoted as the reference standard (RS). Accuracy (Ac), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) of on-farm plates were determined based on the RS culture of 211 milk samples. All four plate-systems correctly identified ≥ 84.9% of milk samples with no bacterial growth. Accumast had greater values for all overall predictive factors (Ac, Se, Sp, PPV and NPV) and a substantial agreement (k = 0.79) with RS. The inter-rater agreements of Minnesota, SSGN, and SSGNC with RS were moderate (0.45 ≤ k ≤ 0.55). The effectiveness to categorize bacterial colonies at the genus and species was numerically different amongst the commercial plates. Our findings suggest that Accumast was the most accurate on-farm culture system for identification of mastitis-associated pathogens of the four systems included in the analysis.

  9. Web Based Cattle Disease Expert System Diagnosis with forward Chaining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamsuri, Ahmad; Syafitri, Wenni; Sadar, Muhamad

    2017-12-01

    Cattle is one of the livestock who have high economic potential, whether for livestock, cattle seed, or even for food stock. Everything that comes from Cattle is a treasure for example the Milk, the Meat, and Cattle-hide. The factor that cause Cattles to die is the spread of disease that could crock up the Cattle’s health. So that the Expert system is needed to utilize and analye the Cattle’s disease so it could detect the disease without going to the veterinarian. Forward chaining method is one of the correct method in this expert system wherein began with Symptoms to determine the illness. From this matter, we built a web based expert system application on Cattles disease to ease the disease detection and showing the brief information about the Cattles itself.

  10. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  11. Manual for prototyping integrated and ecological arable farming systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, P.

    1999-01-01

    A manual for prototyping Integrated and Ecological Arable Farming Systems (I/EAFS) in interaction with pilot farms is presented. It concerns a comprehensive and consistent approach of 5 steps. Step 1 is establishing a hierarchy of objectives considering the shortcomings of current farming systems in

  12. Ecologically sound management: aspects of modern sustainable deer farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A J; Drew, K R

    1998-01-01

    Modern deer farming systems have become increasingly intensive allowing strategic feeding for production and genetic improvement programmes. Meeting feeding standards that account for changing nutritional demands related to seasonality and reproductive state is critical. As the industry matures there is a growing awareness of the balance between retaining natural behaviour in producing breeding stock on larger extensive holdings and intensification systems for performance in young stock. Stocking rates are critical determinants of success as land use and capability needs are matched with an increasing stratification of stock type and purpose. Food product safety and welfare considerations of farmed deer are being driven by consumer demands. Farm quality assurance and codes of practice are developing to ensure that deer farming meets and exceeds international expectations of land use and deer welfare in modern deer farming systems.

  13. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Janosi, L.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm con- sists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous powerquality measurements on the 10 kV terminals...

  14. Reliability of sampling strategies for measuring dairy cattle welfare on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Os, Jennifer M C; Winckler, Christoph; Trieb, Julia; Matarazzo, Soraia V; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Champagne, John D; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2018-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate how the proportion of high-producing lactating cows sampled on each farm and the selection method affect prevalence estimates for animal-based measures. We assessed the entire high-producing pen (days in milk size calculations from the Welfare Quality Protocol; and (4) selecting the first, middle, or final third of cows exiting the milking parlor. Estimates were compared with true values using regression analysis and were considered accurate if they met 3 criteria: the coefficient of determination was ≥0.9 and the slope and intercept did not differ significantly from 1 and 0, respectively. All estimates met the slope and intercept criteria, whereas the coefficient of determination increased when more cows were sampled. All estimates were accurate for neck alterations, ocular discharge (22.2 ± 27.4%), and carpal joint hair loss (14.1 ± 17.4%). Selecting a third of the milking order or using the Welfare Quality sample size calculations failed to accurately estimate all measures simultaneously. However, all estimates were accurate when selecting at least 2 of every 3 cows locked at the feed bunk. Using restraint position at the feed bunk did not differ systematically from computer-selecting the same proportion of cows randomly, and the former may be a simpler approach for welfare assessments. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overall Optimization for Offshore Wind Farm Electrical System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Peng; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), an optimization platform for offshore wind farm electrical system (OWFES) is proposed in this paper, where the main components of an offshore wind farm and key technical constraints are considered as input parameters. The offshore wind farm electrical...... system is optimized in accordance with initial investment by considering three aspects: the number and siting of offshore substations (OS), the cable connection layout of both collection system (CS) and transmission system (TS) as well as the selection of electrical components in terms of voltage level...... that save 3.01% total cost compared with the industrial layout, and can be a useful tool for OWFES design and evaluation....

  16. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  17. Effects of switching between production systems in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alvarez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing intensification of dairy farming in Europe has sparked an interest in studying the economic consequences of this process. However, empirically classifying farms as extensive or intensive is not a straightforward task. In recent papers, Latent Class Models (LCM have been used to avoid an ad-hoc split of the sample into intensive and extensive dairy farms. A limitation of current specifications of LCM is that they do not allow farms to switch between different productive systems over time. This feature of the model is at odds with the process of intensification of the European dairy industry in recent decades. We allow for changes of production system over time by estimating a single LCM model but splitting the original panel into two periods, and find that the probability of using the intensive technology increases over time. Our estimation proposal opens up the possibility of studying the effects of intensification not only across farms but also over time.

  18. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998 Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa. Proceedings of the final research co-ordination meeting of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture through co-ordinated research projects (CRP) supports studies aimed at improving livestock productivity in developing countries through the application of nuclear and related techniques. These studies have focused on animal nutrition, animal reproduction and more recently on animal nutrition/reproduction interactions with emphasis on smallholder farming systems. The primary aim of this CRP was to identify approaches for improving the productivity of dairy cattle maintained on smallholder farms in peri-urban areas. Central to the approach was to first obtain baseline information on productivity and reproductive efficiency and thereby identify nutritional and management constraints. Subsequently, corrective measures were developed and tested, keeping in mind the need for maximising the efficiency of current production systems and sustaining the nutrient supply through practical and economically feasible feed supplementation strategies developed using locally available feed resources. In addition the project envisaged contributing to enhancing the level of expertise within the national animal production research institutes in the region, to encourage close contact and interaction between scientists and institutions in Africa and to promote scientific information exchange on a regional basis. Through the project substantial progress was made in understanding the relationship between nutrient supply and productive and reproductive functions in dairy cattle on smallholder farming systems. Most of the participating countries were able to develop and test cost-effective feed supplementation strategies which improved both milk production and/or reproductive efficiency. The present publication contains the reports from participants of the project presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting held in Vienna from 7 to 11 September 1998

  20. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  1. Assessment of Farming Systems for Sustainability of Farming Activities in the Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moumenihelali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the fundamental issues in the agricultural sector in Iran is the absence of optimal water and soil resources utilization and lack of new agricultural science and technology adoption through major prevailing transformations in agricultural land exploitation system. The studies conducted in the history of agricultural development in Iran cast light on the fact that the farming system’s role in the agricultural development in Iran is of great importance. And water and soil resources utilization has been one of the fundamental issues of agriculture which has enjoyed major consideration after the implementation of land restructuring. The agriculture farming systems are referred to as the focus of all activities related to sustainable agricultural development in Iran and it is believed that the shift and transition from traditional agriculture to modern and profitable agriculture through appropriate, improved and newly developed agricultural establishments are the major activities which can increase productivity and improve the overall performance of the agricultural sector and thus contribute to sustainable development more than any other factor. Hence, such significance will be more evident when the small and scattered farmlands in many cases have imposed some limitations in the application of agricultural techniques and machinery, equipping and developing the infrastructure and efficient use of resources with appropriate performance forcing agricultural policymakersto be always looking for ways to deal with it. Therefore, identifying the relative advantage of any farming system specified for each area and region in the country seems important. Accordingly, the Mazandaran province is regarded as one of the production hubs in producing crops such as rice, wheat and canola in the country playing a major role in supplying food. With a detailed analysis of research literature, the economic, ecological, social, technical and policy

  2. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of organic farming systems on species diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksono, Amin Setyo

    2017-11-01

    Organic farming systems have been well known to support the diversity of a wide range of taxa, including microorganisms, arable flora, invertebrates, birds, and mammals, which benefit from organic management leading to increases in abundance and/or species richness. The objective of this paper is to review the effect of organic farming on species diversity reported in several articles and compare this with the current study in Gondanglegi, Malang. A review of several studies showed that organic farming systems have been reported to increase species diversity, including that of mammals, birds, arthropods, vascular plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The researchers about arthropod groups consisted of carabid beetles, butterflies, wasps, predators, and bees. Agricultural landscape, habitat type, farming system, landscape composition and connectivity all contribute to explaining species biodiversity and richness. Moreover, based on current and relevant studies, the results showed that the application of refugia blocks has increased arthropod diversity and composition.

  5. Smallholder tree farming systems for livelihood enhancement and carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshetko, James Michael

    Smallholder agroforestry (tree farming) systems are prominent components of ‘trees outside the forest’. The hypothesis of this thesis is that smallholder tree-farming systems are viable agricultural and natural resources management systems that contribute significantly to global environmental goals...... and local economic objectives. The thesis supports the hypothesis by reviewing global and Asian trends of deforestation, human population growth, and demand for forest and tree products. The potential of smallholders’ treebased systems to expand regional forest resources, produce forest products...... development of smallholder systems, how genetic diversity of smallholder systems supports adaptation to climate change, and the capacity of smallholder systems to simultaneously produce marketable timber and agricultural crops....

  6. Identifikasi Gangguan Reproduksi Sapi Betina di Peternakan Rakyat (IDENTIFICATION OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN FEMALE CATTLE AT LOCAL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiyono Sutiyono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the female reproductive disorders in cattle reared by local farmers in the Distric of Kaliori, Rembang Regency, Central Java Province. A total of 94 cattle were used, in which had minimal one of each incisors had been replaced. The study used survey methods, and data were collected by interviewing with ranchers, rectal palpation, identification of the incisors, and body condition score of the cattle. In the implementation of the study, cattle were taken to a place determined by the chairman of the group of farmers (field or home page. The parameters of study were unheard of oestrus or not, the amount of artificial insemination, the number of incisors changed, body condition score of each cattle, the feed given, and their maintenance. The data were analyzed using statistical descriptive analysis on the mode, range, and percentage. The results showed that of the 94 cattle, which have disorders of reproductive activity as much as 80. Samples with impaired reproductive activity were divided into three groups. The first group was the old heifers that had no oestrus 25.00%, the second group was cattle that were more than three times applied artificial insemination and had not been pregnant 45.00%, and the third group was cattle that more than three months after the last giving birth had no oestrus 30.00%. The other reproductive disorders that occured in individual of the cattle was inactive ovaries (follicle undeveloped 2.50%, 6.25% ovary hypofunction, ovarian cystic 1.25%, endometritis 2.50% and 2.50% abnormal uterus. In conclusion, the largest reproductive disorders in cattle caused by nutritional factors that provided by the farmers, and small disturbances due to some diseases and abnormal reproductive organs.

  7. Summary of the co-ordinated research project on development of feed supplementation strategies for improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Livestock are an important and integral part of most farming systems in Africa. Recent nutritional research has demonstrated the possibility of substantial increases in the productivity of milk-producing animals fed poor quality roughages through small alterations to the feed base. In some cases, improvements have been demonstrated at the farm level: milk yield has increased, body condition of the animals has improved and age at puberty and the interval between calvings have been reduced. These advances have been brought about by the addition of critical nutrients to the diet, e.g. nitrogen or minerals for the rumen micro-organisms or rumen non-degradable protein or all of these. The introduction of improved feeding practices such as strategic supplementation using locally available feed resources (e.g. tree legume leaves, brewers waste, fish waste, multinutrient blocks, etc.) will not only enhance milk production but will also introduce a sustainable fanning practice that will ensure a continuous supply of milk and milk products to local populations. To introduce effective supplementation there is a need to identify the nutrient or combination of nutrients that are the limiting factors for achieving optimum rumen fermentative digestion of the basal diet or the efficiency of utilization of the major products of digestion. In many of the dairying systems operating in Africa this is far from easy, mainly because of the difficulties encountered in effectively measuring feed intake and selection and the efficiency with which the nutrients absorbed are used for productive purposes. In order to circumvent these difficulties it may be possible to measure biochemical indicators in the cows themselves that provide an assessment of nutrient status. The specific objectives of the co-ordinated research project (CRP) were to: - btain baseline information on production and reproductive parameters using a comprehensive survey, progesterone radioimmunoassay and clinical

  8. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    M. ŠOCH; JANA ŠŤASTNÁ; V. PÁLKA; B VOSTOUPAL; P. NOVÁK; J. BROUČEK; B. ČERMÁK

    2009-01-01

    The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a sma...

  9. Targeting cattle-borne zoonoses and cattle pathogens using a novel trypanosomatid-based delivery system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Adam Mott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.

  10. Energy balance in olive oil farms: comparison of organic and conventional farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Meco, Ramón; Moreno, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The viability of an agricultural production system not only depends on the crop yields, but especially on the efficient use of available resources. However, the current agricultural systems depend heavily on non-renewable energy consumption in the form of fertilizers, fossil fuels, pesticides and machinery. In developed countries, the economic profitability of different productive systems is dependent on the granting of subsidies of diverse origin that affect both production factors (or inputs) and the final product (or output). Leaving such external aids, energy balance analysis reveals the real and most efficient form of management for each agroclimatic region, and is also directly related to the economic activity and the environmental state. In this work we compare the energy balance resulting from organic and conventional olive oil farms under the semi-arid conditions of Central Spain. The results indicate that the mean energy supplied to the organic farms was sensitively lower (about 30%) in comparison with the conventional management, and these differences were more pronounced for the biggest farms (> 15 ha). Mean energy outputs were about 20% lower in the organic system, although organic small farms (ratio scarcely reached 25%. Human labor item only represented a very small amount of the total energy input in both cases (less than 1%). As conclusions, both management systems were efficient from an energy point of view. The value of the organic production should be focused on the environmental benefits it provides, which are not usually considered in the conventional management on not valuing the damage it produces to the environment. Organic farming would improve the energy efficiency in these environmental conditions, offering a sustainable production with minimal inputs.

  11. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  12. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  13. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  14. Haemorrhagic diarrhoea and reproductive failure in Bonsmara cattle resulting from anomalous heavy metal concentrations in soils, forages and drinking water associated with geochemical anomalies of toxic elements on the farm Puntlyf, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbroek, J. H.; Meyer, J.; Myburgh, J.

    2003-05-01

    Poor livestock health conditions are associated with geochemical Pb anomalies on a farm approximately 40km east of Pretoria, South Africa. A generic risk assessment of drinking water for Bonsmara cattle obtained from three separate subterranean water sources on the farm, revealed the presence of several potentially hazardous constituents suspected for the development of adverse health effects in the herd. The two main symptoms of the herd, namely, severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea in calves and reproductive failure in cows, have been investigated. A selenium-induced copper deficiency was proposed as the main cause to the calf diarrhoea, due to complexing between high concentrations of Se, Mo, Hg and Pb in drinking water. It was also anticipated that such Cu deficiencies would lead to low systemic Se inducing hypothyroidism in the cows due to inadequate iodine activation required for thyroid hormone formation and consequently adversely affect reproduction. The anomalous Pb in borehole drinking water on the southem part of the farm, suggests a clear genetic link with the underlying geochemical Pb anomalies detected by means of an ongoing regional geochemical survey.

  15. Comparison of alternative offshore wind farms and HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Lilje, P.; Poeller, M. [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany); Basteck, A. [Voith Turbo Wind GmbH und Co. KG, Crailsheim (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigates the stability of offshore wind farms connected to the main power system via HVDC systems. Wind farms consisting of different ratios of directly connected synchronous machines and doubly-fed induction machines are considered. In addition, both conventional LCC- and VSC-type HVDC systems are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered. Furthermore, different control strategies are considered for the VSC-based system, including constant frequency control and frequency regulation. The stability analysis is done by means of time-domain simulation. The maximum and minimum ratio of the two wind turbine technologies is found for each of the different HVDC systems. (orig.)

  16. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of emission reducing measures for cattle farms; Effectiviteit van emissiereducerende maatregelen rondom veehouderijbedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraai, A.; Bleeker, A. [ECN, Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    The results of a survey on the cost effectiveness of measures with the goal to reduce emissions of fine dust from livestock production are presented. All these measures have their advantages and disadvantages. This report mainly focuses on the reduction of particulate matter. Other environmental problems in agriculture, e.g. ammonia and odour, can also be tackled with these measures. Different measures are compared for cost effectiveness in Euro per kg PM10 reduction and also the reduction percentage. Oil sprinkling and electrostatic filter systems appear as cost effective and the air quality in the air as well as in the stable is improved. These techniques can be combined with end-of-pipe techniques, e.g. air scrubbers, or even better, combined scrubbers to reduce other emissions as ammonia and odour. Many techniques are still in a research phase; therefore estimations are made most of the times. More measuring has to be carried to improve the accuracy of the reduction percentages. Besides, practical feasibility and animal welfare have to be taken into account with every measure taken. [Dutch] In deze rapportage is de kosteneffectiviteit van maatregelen in kaart gebracht, die als doel hebben de fijnstofemissies vanuit de landbouw te reduceren. In deze rapportage is vooral gezocht naar maatregelen om fijn stof te reduceren. De andere milieuproblemen in de landbouw als ammoniak en geur zouden hiermee eveneens gereduceerd kunnen worden. Uit de analyse is gebleken dat alle voermaatregelen kostbaar zijn terwijl de reductie niet erg groot is, deze opties zijn daardoor minder kosteneffectief. Olie vernevelen en het toepassen van een elektrostatisch filter lijken effectieve en niet te kostbare maatregelen, waarbij ook de luchtkwaliteit in de stal wordt verbeterd. Deze technieken zouden gecombineerd kunnen worden met de luchtwassers of gecombineerde wassers om meerdere luchtverontreinigingscomponenten te reduceren. Vegetatie aanplanten rondom boerderijen is een optie die

  18. Potential Development of Bioindustry in Cattle and Oil Palm Integration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated system between cattle and oil palm plantation has a great potency for development of bioindustry, either in the form of animal feed or organic fertilizer bioindustry. Bioindustry of cattle feed is developed from biomass of plantations, such as stem and leaves of palm, palm kernel and solid. Bioindustry of organic fertilizer is developed from cattle manure. The targets of development of bioindustry are palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan regions, covering 9.25 million hectares. It is estimated to be able to produce biomass quantity as much as 54.60 million tons per year which can be used as fodder for 12.13 million animal unit (AU of beef cattle, whereas currently there are only 3.06 million AU cattle in Sumatera and Kalimantan, so the opportunities for the addition of cattle in both islands are 9.07 million AU. The existing beef cattle population of 3.06 million AU has the potency to produce 6.1 million tons of organic fertilizer can be used to fertilize 3.0 million hectares, therefore the rest of 6.25 million hectares remain unfertilised. The prospect of bioindustries on integration system of cattle with oil palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan is very potential to meet the needs of organic fertilizer for plants and to utilize oil palm biomass for cattle feed.

  19. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  20. Transient stability risk assessment of power systems incorporating wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Lu; Fang, Jiakun; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    fed induction generator has been established. Wind penetration variation and multiple stochastic factors of power systems have been considered. The process of transient stability risk assessment based on the Monte Carlo method has been described and a comprehensive risk indicator has been proposed......Large-scale wind farm integration has brought several aspects of challenges to the transient stability of power systems. This paper focuses on the research of the transient stability of power systems incorporating with wind farms by utilizing risk assessment methods. The detailed model of double....... An investigation has been conducted into an improved 10-generator 39-bus system with a wind farm incorporated to verify the validity and feasibility of the risk assessment method proposed....

  1. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  2. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive

  3. Dairy production in some selected integrated farms in Sokoto State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of eight integrated farms in four local government areas of Sokoto state in north-western Nigeria revealed the following about dairy production on such farms:breed of cattle kept, Sokoto Gudali, Friesian, and Sahiwal; average dairy herd size,69.4 head; husbandry system was largely semi-intensive; milking was ...

  4. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  5. The Monitor System for the LHCb on-line farm

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; Galli, D; Gregori, D; Marconi, U; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb on-line farm Monitor System is to keep under control all the working indicators which are relevant for the farm operation, and to set the appropriate alarms whenever an error or a critical condition comes up. Since the most stressing tasks of the farm are the data transfer and processing, relevant indicators includes the CPU and the memory load of the system, the network interface and the TCP/IP stack parameters, the rates of the interrupts raised by the network interface card and the detailed status of the running processes. The monitoring of computers’ physical conditions (temperatures, fan speeds and motherboard voltages) are the subject of a separate technical note, since they are accessed in a different way, by using the IPMI protocol.

  6. The impact of the local dairy cattle farm toward the river water quality in Gunungpati Subdistrict Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People’s awareness on the living environment nowadays is not yet comes up to the dairy-farmer community. In fact, the dairy-farm subsector contributes load pollution in the form of waste. The waste that is produced by a dairy-farm can be in the form of solid waste and liquid waste. There is still no cultivation effort toward the wastes in a traditional dairy-farmyet, thus most of the wastes are disposed to the closest river, so that in the surrounding dairy farm area is frequently found pollution toward the water quality. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of environment pollution that is caused by local dairy farm in Gunungpati Sub-district, especially toward the river water and residents’ well. The result of this study in Nangkasawit Village before and after the dairy farm was build was still under the quality standard for the third rate water quality. In Plalangan Village, the water quality was also under the quality standard, except for COD concentration. In the Sumurejo Village there was an upturn tendency on the observation value, but the water quality was under the quality standard, except for Fe concentration. Based on the Biodiversity Index before and after the dairy farm was established in Nangkasawit, Plalangan, and Sumurejo were 2.22, 1.49, 2.11, 1.90, 1.78, and 1.88, respectively. It means that Nangkasawit showed no pollution before the dairy farm was established, while there was a medium pollution after the dairy farm establishment.  In Plalangan, the water was clear, but it was light polluted after the dairy farm was established. In Sumurejo, before and after the dairy farm establishment the water was light category pollution.

  7. Cattle mortality due to poisoning in Spain: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arroyo, R.; Míguez, M.P.; Hevia, M.L.; Quiles, A.

    2015-07-01

    The lack of nationwide public databases on poisoning in cattle makes it difficult to investigate this issue. Hence, we conducted an epidemiological study using the data on cattle poisoning provided by an insurance company (2000-2005), to determine the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain and to assess the influence of the following variables: type of farming, age, sex, time of year, year and region. We observed a mortality rate of 23.25 per 100,000 animals in Spain with a higher rate in beef than dairy cattle (32.14 vs. 4.51 per 100,000 animals). There were also differences in the mortality rate between breeding cattle and future breeders, affecting dairy and beef cattle in a different way. In dairy cattle, we found differences between the years analysed. In beef cattle, the time of year with highest risk of poisoning was the last quarter (19.45 per 100,000 animals), while the lowest mortality rate was observed in the first quarter (1.33 per 100,000). There were pronounced differences between regions in beef cattle, differences being non-significant in dairy cattle. Lastly, in beef cattle, no differences were found between sexes. In summary, the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain is low, and the risk of poisoning is determined by the farming system, animals’ stage of development, time of year and region. (Author)

  8. Collection methods, data compilation, and lessons learned from a study of stream geomorphology associated with riparian cattle grazing along the Fever River, University of Wisconsin- Platteville Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2004–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Marie C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2018-03-09

    Stream geomorphic characteristics were monitored along a 0.8-mile reach of the Fever River in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin from 2004 to 2011 where cattle grazed in paddocks along the riverbank at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville’s Pioneer Farm. The study reach encompassed seven paddocks that covered a total of 30 acres on both sides of the river. Monitoring data included channel crosssection surveys, eroding bank measurements and photograph points, erosion-pin measurements, longitudinal profile surveys, measurements of the volume of soft sediment in the channel, and repeated time-lapse photographs. Characteristics were summarized into subreaches by use of a geographic information system. From 2004 to 2007, baseline monitoring was done to identify geomorphic conditions prior to evaluating the effects of management alternatives for riparian grazing. Subsequent to the full-scale baseline monitoring, additional data were collected from 2007 to 2011. Samples of eroding bank and in-channel soft sediment were collected and analyzed for dry bulk density in 2008 for use in a sediment budget. One of the pastures was excluded from cattle grazing in the fall of 2007; in 2009 channel cross sections, longitudinal profiles, erosion-pin measurements, photographs, and a soft sediment survey were again collected along the full 0.8-mile reach for a comparison to baseline monitoring data. Channel cross sections were surveyed a final time in 2011. Lessons learned from bank monitoring with erosion pins were most numerous and included the need for consistent tracking of each pin and whether there was deposition or erosion, timing of measurements and bank conditions during measurements (frozen, postflood), and awareness of pins loosening in place. Repeated freezing and thawing of banks and consequential mass wasting and jointing enhance fluvial erosion. Monitoring equipment in the paddocks was kept flush to the ground or located high on posts to avoid injuring the

  9. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  10. Development of a generic wind farm SCADA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a 'Generic Wind Farm Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System' for the wind energy industry. A SCADA is a computer-based system that allows local and remote control of basic wind turbine functions and collects data from the wind farm that can be used to analyse and report on the operational performance. As wind farm size, complexity and remoteness of location increase an industry standard SCADA is vitally important to allow effective operation, monitoring, control and reporting. Turbine manufacturers offer a number of existing systems but these do not always fully meet the needs of wind farm operators and owners. Operators and owners who are involved with more than one turbine supplier end up with a number of incompatible systems. This causes operational difficulties and makes it hard to compared performance data from different turbines. This project aims to address these issues and develop a system that will communicate with all turbine types and calculate and store performance data in a consistent way. (Author)

  11. 12 CFR 614.4590 - Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... differences in credit risk and administrative costs to the Farm Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable treatment of OFIs and Farm Credit System associations. 614.4590 Section 614.4590 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT...

  12. Farming Systems of the African Savanna: A Continent in Crisis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Farmers in the parts of Africa where population growth is near, or has exceeded, the carrying capacity of the land at current technological levels face a serious crisis. This crisis is the result of the breakdown of traditional farming systems. The consequences are environmental deterioration on a massive scale, widespread ...

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  14. Economic Feasibility of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Pangasius Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.A.N.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Le, T.C.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Bosma, R.H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the economic feasibility of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) in pangasius farming in Vietnam. The study uses a capital budgeting approach and accounts for uncertainty in key parameters. Stochastic simulation is used to simulate the economic performance of medium and

  15. Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests.

  16. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyakharchuk, T A; Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I; Soja, A J

    2014-01-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass–Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods. (papers)

  17. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycobacterium from commercially available pasteurized milk and raw milk samples collected from two infected cattle farms in Alborz Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohsen; Mosavari, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different methods for detecting MAP in milk and milk products. We analyzed the commonly used methods such as culture and molecular biology for identification of MAP. For this study, 50 milk samples from cows with suspected Johne's disease located in two dairy farms and 10 commercially available pasteurized milk and cheese samples from the market in Karaj city, Iran were selected. Following Ziehl-Neelsen staining of milk samples, direct microscopic detection of MAP was performed. All milk samples were centrifuged, and the concentrated samples were decontaminated using hexadecyl pyridinium chloride. The decontaminated milk suspensions were washed three times by centrifuging, and the collected filtrates were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium enriched by Mycobactin J. Finally, identification and confirmation of isolates to MAP was performed using IS900-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). According to the obtained results by culture and PCR methods, none of the pasteurized milk and cheese samples showed the presence of MAP. However, 10% of the tested raw milk samples collected from suspected cattle showed the presence of MAP by both culture and PCR methods. Culture and PCR methods are reliable for identification of MAP from milk samples. Copyright © 2016.

  18. Extent of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among animals of dairy and beef cattle and deer farms in South Korea determined by variable-number tandem repeats typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Sungmo; Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae-Myoung; Jung, Suk-Chan; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2015-04-17

    Identifying sources of Mycobacterium bovis transmission would be essential for establishing effective control programs of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a major zoonosis threatening human health worldwide. As an effort to determine the extent of M. bovis transmission among dairy and beef cattle and deer populations, a mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU)-variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method was employed for analysis of 131 M. bovis isolates from 59 Holstein dairy cattle, 39 Korean beef cattle, and 33 deer. Of 31 MIRU-VNTR markers, 15 showed allelic diversity. The most discriminatory locus for M. bovis isolates was VNTR 3336 (h=0.59) followed by QUB 26, MIRU 31, VNTR 2401, and VNTR 3171 which showed high discriminatory power (h=0.43). The combined VNTR loci had an allelic diversity of 0.83. On the basis of the VNTR profiles of 30 VNTR loci, 24 genotypes were identified, and two genotypes were highly prevalent among all M. bovis isolates (33.6% and 19.1%, respectively), thus indicating that more than 50% of the isolates shared common molecular characteristics. Six additional genotypes were common in 2 of the 3 animal species, suggesting a wide interspecies transmission of M. bovis. This study thus demonstrates that MIRU-VNTR typing is useful in differentiation of M. bovis isolates and that M. bovis transmission occurs frequently among farmed animal species, highlighting the importance of bovine TB control programs in different animal species which are often raised in the same villages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A moral Operating System of livestock farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Societal views about livestock production systems in Europe are changing dramatically in a negative direction. Based on the tradition of pragmatism in applied philosophy I develop a Moral Operating System of animal production systems in cooperating a plurality of ethical views. This moral operating

  20. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...... of the areas where synergy between classic model organism proteomics and farm animal proteomics is rapidly emerging. Focus will be on introducing the special biological traits that play an important role in food production, and on how proteomics may help optimize farm animal production...

  1. Weed species diversity in organic and integrated farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jastrzębska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytosociological data were collected in 1994–1996 in plots (relevés at the Research Station for Organic Farming and Conservation Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Popielno included in a large-area experiment conducted according to the concept and method proposed by Prof. S. Nawrocki. In a four-field crop rotation (root crops – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses – red clover/grass mixture – winter triticale, each field was divided into two management units, organic and integrated. Data were collected in relevés by the Braun-Blanquet method, each year at the peak of the growing season. Weed abundance (% cover in cultivated fields and the number of weed species (species richness in crops were determined, which provided a basis for calculating the Shannon-Wiener indices of species diversity and evenness, and the Rényi profiles. The qualitative (species and quantitative structure of weed communities was compared using the Sørensen index. A total of 115 weed taxa (species, subspecies and varieties were identified in the examined agro-phytocenoses. Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Thlaspi arvense and Stellaria media were the most abundant. Weed infestation was slightly higher in the organic farming system than in the integrated system. Organic farming contributed to higher weed species diversity in root crops, red clover/grass mixtures and winter triticale. Weed species richness was reduced in red clover/grass stands, while root crops and – to a lesser degree – spring barley undersown with red clover and grasses decreased weed species diversity. The species composition and in particular the quantitative structure of weeds were affected by crop species and cultivation regime rather than by the farming system. Weed communities of crops grown under organic and integrated farming systems were more similar with regard to species composition

  2. Stimulating transitions towards sustainable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, B.; Barbier, M.; Cerf, M.; Grin, J.

    2012-01-01

    How can the dynamics of the agro-food sector in the long run be addressed? We argue that sustainable agro-food systems cannot be developed through a simple improvement of existing systems, but will require a transition. Therefore, we focus on how transitions to sustainability could be initiated and

  3. Effect of farming system on colour components of wheat noodles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lacko-Bartosova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colour of noodles is definitely a key element of a consumer's buying decisions. It can be influenced by many factors. Conditions, under which is winter wheat grown, can be considered as one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate colour of noodles that were prepared from winter wheat grown in ecological and integrated arable farming systems, after different forecrops with two levels of fertilization (fertilized and unfertilized during the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Winter wheat noodles were prepared from white flour and wholegrain flour and its colour was evaluated using the spectro-colorimeter. Colour was measured by three coordinates: lightness L*, red/ green value a* and yellow/ blue value b*. Wholegrain noodles had lower L* value, so they were darker than white flour noodles, with higher redness and higher yellowness. Colour of white flour noodles and wholegrain noodles was significantly influenced by crop nutrition (fertilized and unfertilized variants, farming system and meteorological conditions during experimental years. Wholegrain noodles from ecological system were darker, with lower lightness and higher redness compared to noodles from integrated system. White flour noodles from ecological system were also darker compared to noodles from integrated system. Fertilization decreased lightness of white flour noodles, on the contrary, fertilization increased the lightness and decreased the redness of wholegrain noodles. In non-fertilized treatment, ecological wheat noodles were darker, with higher redness and yellowness than noodles prepared from winter wheat grown in integrated arable farming system.

  4. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  5. Improving the productivity of dairy cattle on smallholder farms in Mzuzu milk shed area in Malawi: Constraints and possible interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumwenda, M.S.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in the Mzuzu milk shed area in Northern Malawi, to identify major constraints to dairy cattle production systems prevailing in the area (Phase I) and develop a sustainable feed supplementation intervention (Phase II) based on tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban for increasing milk production. Phase I of the study revealed that the major constraint to increasing productivity was poor nutrition related to the fluctuating supply of quality and quantity of feed. Body weights of cows averaged 301 ± 81.3 kg and ranged from 189 to 550 kg whereas the body condition score (BCS, on 1-9 scale) averaged 5.73 ± 1.35 and ranged from 2.00 to 9.00. Average milk production was 6.1 ± 5 kg/d and ranged from 1.5 to 19.0 kg/d. Post-partum reproductive status varied considerably. Cows consumed 10.6 ± 6.2 kg/day of roughage and 2.96 ± 1.45 kg/day of concentrates. The quality of the feeds was moderate. Roughages contained 1.56 ± 0.12% N while concentrates contained 1.88 ± 0.04% N. Poor reproductive management and prevalence of internal parasites were also identified as constraints. The intervention (Phase II) based on supplementation with tree legume leaves of Sesbania sesban significantly (P <0.05) improved the performance of dairy cows. Cows supplemented with tree legume leaves showed significantly higher body weights (368 ± 65.5 vs 348.7 ± 59.2 kg) and BCS (6.3 ± 0.9 vs 5.3 ± 1) compared to their counterparts receiving a supplement according to the present management practice. Daily milk yields of cows on the experimental diet averaged 8.6 ± 3.2 kg whereas those on control diet averaged 5.4 ± 1.7 kg. Significant differences in milk yields between the two groups of cows could have been due to higher dry matter intake from the supplementary diet. Cows on experimental diet consumed 3.5 ± 1.2 kg of supplementary feed as compared to 2.2 ± 0.7 kg by cows on the control diet. (author)

  6. THE INFORMATIONAL SYSTEM FOR RESOURSES ADMINISTRATION IN FISH FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ZUGRAVU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The informational system for aquaculture activities provide a financial planning and analysis tool.The software can also be of assistance to land-based farmers who want to more thoroughly utilizetheir water resources by developing small-scale fish farm systems to provide supplementary income.Informational model has been enhanced to produce a comprehensive software package foraquaculture feasibility modeling, financial planning, sales and harvesting planning and managementinformation tools.

  7. Short communication: survey of fresh cow management practices of dairy cattle on small and large commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuwieser, W; Iwersen, M; Gossellin, J; Drillich, M

    2010-03-01

    The objective was to conduct a survey of current fresh cow management practices that have an effect on health and diseases postpartum considering different herd sizes of commercial dairy farms. A mail survey regarding aspects of the fresh cow program including general management issues, calving, diseases, and veterinary service was conducted utilizing a convenience sample. A total of 429 survey forms were returned (12.0% response rate) and could be used for final analysis. Only 21.6% of the farms had a designated fresh cow pen. Almost every farm executed some type of fresh cow examination. Only 18.5% of farm managers documented the observations. Most of the dairy managers used more or less subjective criteria such as general appearance (97.0%) and appetite (69.7%). Only a minority of the responding dairy managers monitored their fresh cows using objective (fever 33.6%) or semiquantitative measures (subclinical ketosis 2.8%; body condition score 36.4%). On most farms, the veterinarian visited the herd only if needed (72.6%). Most cases of retained fetal membranes were treated by manual removal (72.3%) and antibiotic pills (89.5%). Several challenges and opportunities were identified to improve cow management practices.

  8. Assessing the sustainable development and intensification potential of beef cattle production in Sumbawa, Indonesia, using a system dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlanuddin; Henderson, Benjamin; Dizyee, Kanar; Hermansyah; Ash, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of beef cattle production in dryland areas of East Indonesia has the potential to substantially raise the incomes of smallholder farmers that dominate the sector. In this study we assess the potential for intensifying beef production on Sumbawa Island, by introducing a household feedlot production system (2-20 animals) based on the Leucaena leucocephala (leucanea) tree legume as an improved source of feed. We used a system dynamics approach to model the entire value chain, accounting for herd dynamics, demand dynamics and seasonality. Our findings complement the growing body of biophysical evidence about the potential success of this intervention, by simulating improvements in the annual profitability for beef farmers in the project area of up to 415% by 2023. Increases in farm profit were shown to depend near equally on the higher productivity of the leucaena feeding system and an associated price premium, demonstrating the importance of supporting improved agricultural production with better marketing practices. The intervention was also shown to generate positive or neutral benefits for the main post-farm value chain actors. Importantly, it also reduced the GHG emission intensity of outputs from the beef herd by 16% by 2020. We explored number of scale-out pathways, including a relatively moderate pace of autonomous adoption for our main analysis, resulting in the accumulation of 3,444 hectares of leucaena 20-years after the initial project phase, which could sustain the fattening of 37,124 male cattle per year. More ambitious rates of scale-out were found to be possible without exceeding the animal and land resources of the island.

  9. Syndromic surveillance system based on near real-time cattle mortality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, G; Ciaravino, V; Ascaso, S; Flores, V; Romero, L; Simón, F

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner. This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC. Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths. Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year. Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information. The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection

  10. Farming Systems of the African Savanna

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is impossible to thank all those farmers, researchers, and others who have ..... Farmers using this method aim to maintain or even increase the OM content of the soil by ... (Some types of fertilizer may damage the seed or young plants if placed in ..... The structure of a system is defined by the quantitative and qualitative ...

  11. Gentamicin- and Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Cattle Farms in Israel: Risk Factors for Carriage and the Effect of Microbiological Methodology on the Measured Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amos; Sturlesi, Na'ama; Fallach, Noga; Zilberman-Barzilai, Deniz; Hussein, Omar; Blum, Shlomo E; Klement, Eyal; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2017-07-01

    Our objectives were to establish a methodology for surveillance of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and gentamicin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPRE and GNRE, respectively) in cattle and to study the prevalence and risk factors for carriage of these bacteria in a national survey. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections of 40 farms of all production types. The number of CPRE- and GNRE-positive cows was highest in quarantine stations and fattening farms and was lowest in pasture farms (p 25 months) and highest in calves (<4 months) (p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, other variables that were significant risk factors for CPRE and GNRE carriage included fewer troughs, crowding, lack of manure cleaning, and recent arrival of new calves. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was given almost exclusively to calves and was associated with a higher prevalence of carriers (p < 0.001). Compared to the use of nonselective media (MacConkey agar alone), the use of selective media (MacConkey agar with 10 μg/ml of ciprofloxacin or 5 μg/ml of gentamicin) increased the sensitivity of screening for CPRE and GNRE by 6.6- and 13.5-fold, respectively. CPRE and GNRE were identified in 609 (49.7%) and 840 (68.5%) samples, respectively. This study provides novel data regarding both the epidemiology of CPRE and GNRE carriage in livestock and the microbiological methodology for their surveillance.

  12. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  13. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  14. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike

    The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit...... expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural....

  15. Climate change adaptability of cropping and farming systems for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justes, Eric; Rossing, Walter; Vermue, Anthony

    systems to CC through a gradient of adaptation strategies. Methods: The adaptation strategies are evaluated at cropping and farming systems as well as regional levels for nine “Adaptation Pilots” along a North-South climate gradient in the EU. Three categories of strategies are evaluated: i) Resistance...... and foster learning in participatory co-design workshops. Results and expectations: The expected results of the Climate-CAFE on-going project will produce an overview of potential CC adaptation measures for selected sites across the EU, along with mutual learning experiences for improved understanding......Introduction: Prospective studies showed that the European agriculture will be impacted by climate change (CC) with different effects depending on the geographic region. The ERA-Net+ project Climate-CAFE (call of FACCE-JPI) aims to improve the “adaptive capacity” of arable and forage based farming...

  16. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  17. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    , with limited breed panels, identified two Bos taurus (taurine) haplogroups (Y1 and Y2; both composed of several haplotypes) and one Bos indicus (indicine/zebu) haplogroup (Y3), as well as a strong phylogeographic structuring of paternal lineages. Methodology and Principal Findings: Haplogroup data were......, the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea...

  18. An overview of farming system typology methodologies and its use in the study of pasture-based farming system: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madry, W.; Mena, Y.; Roszkowska, B.; Gozdowski, D.; Hryniewski, R.; Castel, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of the paper is to do a critic study of the use of typology methodologies within pasture-based farming systems (PBFS), especially those situated in less favoured areas, showing in each case the more relevant variables or indicators determining the farming system classification. Another objective is to do an overview of the most used farming system typology methodologies in general. First some considerations about the concept of farming system and approaches to its study have been done. Next, the farming system typology methodologies have been showed in general to different farming systems, but addressed preferably to PBFS. The different tools integrated in these methodologies have been considered: sampling methods, sources of data, variables or indicators obtained from available data and techniques of analysis (statistical or not). Methods for farming system classification have been presented (expert methods, analytical methods or a combination of both types). Among the statistical methods, the multivariate analysis has been overall treated, including the principal component analysis and the cluster analysis. Finally, the use of farming system typology methodologies on different pasture-based farming systems has been presented. The most important aspects considered are following: the main objective of the typology, the main animal species, the employed methods of classification and the main variables involved in this classification. (Author) 56 refs.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University .... guidelines using gross and stereomicroscopic examination. .... with the risk and differences in the farm management systems, prevalence of ... tick genera combinations infested animals with diversified tick genera in Ha-.

  20. Optimal management of on-farm resources in small-scale dairy systems of Central Mexico: model development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Martínez-García, Carlos Galdino; Mould, Fergus L; Dorward, Peter; Rehman, Tahir; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo Armando

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the available on-farm resources of five case studies typified as small-scale dairy systems in central Mexico. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear programming model was developed and applied to two case studies. The optimal plan suggested the following: (1) instruction and utilization of maize silage, (2) alfalfa hay making that added US$140/ha/cut to the total net income, (3) allocation of land to cultivated pastures in a ratio of 27:41(cultivated pastures/maize crop) rather than at the current 14:69, and dairy cattle should graze 12 h/day, (4) to avoid grazing of communal pastures because this activity represented an opportunity cost of family labor that reduced the farm net income, and (5) that the highest farm net income was obtained when liquid milk and yogurt sales were included in the optimal plan. In the context of small-scale dairy systems of central Mexico, the optimal plan would need to be implemented gradually to enable farmers to develop required skills and to change management strategies from reliance on forage and purchased concentrate to pasture-based and conserved forage systems.

  1. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  2. Net-energy analysis of integrated food and bioenergy systems exemplified by a model of a self-sufficinet system of dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system......Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable...... of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evalu - ated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from...

  3. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  4. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Passel, Steven; Meul, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  5. Genetic traits of relevance to sustainability of smallholder sheep farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molotsi, Annelin; Dube, Bekezela; Oosting, Simon; Marandure, Tawanda; Mapiye, Cletos; Cloete, Schalk; Dzama, Kennedy

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable livestock production is important to ensure continuous availability of resources for future generations. Most smallholder livestock farming systems in developing countries have been perceived to be environmentally, socially and economically unsustainable. Farming with livestock that is

  6. On-Farm Research on the Nutritive Value of Forages and the Status of Mineral Soils, Forages and Blood Sera of Cattle in Small-Holder of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.W.; Lokwaleput, I.; Mitaru, B.N; Taminga, S

    1999-01-01

    An on-farm survey was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of the locally grown forages, the status of minerals in soils, forages and blood serum of cows and calves fed or grazed on these forages. The survey involves 55 smallholder farms practising zero- and grazing semi zero grazing dairy production systems in Bahati and Naivasha Divisions of Nakuru District. The samples of forage and crop residues and other feeds available at the farm level were analysed for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), total lash and minerals-Ca, P, Mg, Na and Cu. Soil samples were analysed for pH, organic matter, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Cu. Samples of blood serum collected from the cows and calves utilising these forages were analysed for macro-elements-Ca, P, Mg, Na and trace elements such as Cu. Growth and production performance of the animals on these farms was studied. The results indicated a wide variation in the concentration of minerals in soils on different farms. Available feeds in these farms consisted of pasture, Napier grass and crop residues such as maize stovers. Pasture grasses and other established forages were deficient in protein ( - 1s), Na (316-339 ppm) and Cu (65- 120ppm) indicating the importance of mineral supplementation. The effect of age of the animal was significant for Cu (P 12.5%) and low milk production (< 10 kg per day) and low fertility suggesting the importance of protein, energy and mineral supplementation on the smallholder dairy farms of Bahati and Naivasha, possibly with concentrates and legumes which are rich in protein energy and minerals

  7. Land legislation and its impact on the development of cattle farms in the Antioquian Magdalena Medio from 1920 to 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Colombian agricultural sector, predominantly rural country, has combined two models: one led by rural entrepreneurs and one that has been promoted by the rural economy. The two have survived to the debate on agricultural policy that sought the legalization and use of land, access to credit and productive development in general. This historical reflection with support regional sources, a policy associate for the legalization of public lands in relation to business development in rural sector: Livestock in Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia in the first half of the twentieth century. The farm and rural production unit is understood as rural company and the landowner as an entrepreneur. In the end, it is presented the magnitude of farms in the region and period studied. This product of the doctoral thesis “Rural enterprises in Antioquia: the case of livestock in the Eastern and Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia, 1920-1960.

  8. Review: Behavioral signs of estrus and the potential of fully automated systems for detection of estrus in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, S; Hoy, S

    2018-02-01

    Efficient detection of estrus is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance in dairy cattle. In this context, comprehensive knowledge of estrus-related behaviors is fundamental to achieve optimal estrus detection rates. This review was designed to identify the characteristics of behavioral estrus as a necessary basis for developing strategies and technologies to improve the reproductive management on dairy farms. The focus is on secondary symptoms of estrus (mounting, activity, aggressive and agonistic behaviors) which seem more indicative than standing behavior. The consequences of management, housing conditions and cow- and environmental-related factors impacting expression and detection of estrus as well as their relative importance are described in order to increase efficiency and accuracy of estrus detection. As traditional estrus detection via visual observation is time-consuming and ineffective, there has been a considerable advancement of detection aids during the last 10 years. By now, a number of fully automated technologies including pressure sensing systems, activity meters, video cameras, recordings of vocalization as well as measurements of body temperature and milk progesterone concentration are available. These systems differ in many aspects regarding sustainability and efficiency as keys to their adoption for farm use. As being most practical for estrus detection a high priority - according to the current research - is given to the detection based on sensor-supported activity monitoring, especially accelerometer systems. Due to differences in individual intensity and duration of estrus multivariate analysis can support herd managers in determining the onset of estrus. Actually, there is increasing interest in investigating the potential of combining data of activity monitoring and information of several other methods, which may lead to the best results concerning sensitivity and specificity of detection. Future improvements will

  9. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  10. Comparison of landscape features in organic and conventional farming systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelt, van J.D.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Hendriks, K.

    1998-01-01

    Four organic (biodynamic) farms coupled with conventional farms from their neighbourhood in The Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, and 3 organic farms and 4 conventional farms from the West Friesean region in The Netherlands were evaluated to compare their impact on landscape diversity. Materials used

  11. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  12. The grazing pattern of Muturu cattle under range system | Nweze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty Muturu cattle were grazed on rangeland, twice daily for two years to determine their grazing pattern. Twenty bulls and cows each between two to four years and forty calves between one to three months were used. The field grazing time (FGT), active grazing time (GT) and grazing travel time (GTT) were monitored.

  13. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonhlanzeko N. Mthembu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change poses a serious threat to efforts by developing countries to ensure food security and poverty reduction. The National Development goals of South Africa envisage the agricultural sector as a key driver for job creation and economic growth. This article seeks to investigate the adaptive capacity of the Ncunjane farming community in Msinga, KwaZuluNatal in response to drought spells of 2010 and 2014. This article draws on data collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods in 2011 and later in 2015 with the data analysed through the Statistical Package for Social Science to determine significant correlations between variables. Analysis of the vulnerability and adaptive capacity is performed using conceptual framework. This study found that both smallholder farmers who engaged in livestock and crop production have experienced high cattle mortalities and stagnant crop productivity, which in turn put pressure on already constrained disposable household income because of increased food costs and agricultural input costs, particularly supplementary animal feed. Cattle owners were more vulnerable to drought because of poor risk management and thus became highly dependent on government to provide drought relief. Application for government drought relief was found not to be effective in cases of large herds of cattle. Variability of rainfall and prolonged heat spells has a significant impact on the sustainability of smallholder mixed-farming systems, leaving agriculture as a highly questionable form of livelihood for rural farming communities such as Msinga. The article recommends strengthened institutional mechanisms so that stakeholders should play a more meaningful role within provincial and local agriculture in leveraging government support but places emphasis on the adoption of innovative strategies that can potentially yield significantly resilient smallholder mixed-farming systems in the wake of climate variability.

  14. Matching breeding goals with farming systems to enhance the sustainability of fish farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Fish farming is growing but is also facing challenges regarding economic viability and environmental sustainability. Selective breeding could enhance the sustainability of fish farming by changing animal performances. Thus, our aim was to develop sustainable breeding goals by using economic (EV)

  15. Production of income and energy using cattle excrete. Farming projects MDL; Produciendo ingresos y energia utilizando excretas pecuarias. Proyectos MDL agropecuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernan, Mateus [AGCERT, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Mexican Farming Sector has a great potential to help solve the worldwide problems caused by greenhouse effect gases (GEI). The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument created to reduce the greenhouse effect gases (GEI) and it also is the fundament of the AgCert project -which consists in applying own financial resources to develop technological options that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases in cattle productive facilities and to use the income to economically support the producers. In this document it is described the way in which the biodigestor was installed, demonstrating that the MDL for farming projects is a tool to reduce the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. It also demonstrates that technologies and processes can be applied systematically to reduce the emissions of the GEI, bringing along environmental and economic benefits. [Spanish] El Sector Agropecuario Mexicano tiene un gran potencial para ayudar a resolver los problemas mundiales causados por los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). El protocolo de Kyoto es un instrumento creado para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y tambien es el fundamento del proyecto AgCert, el cual consiste en aplicar recursos financieros propios para desarrollar opciones tecnologicas que contribuyan a la reduccion de gases efecto invernadero en instalaciones productivas pecuarias y emplear los ingresos para apoyar economicamente a los productores. En este documento se describe la manera en que se llevo acabo la instalacion del biodigestor, demostrando que el MDL para proyectos agropecuarios es una herramienta para reducir emisiones de gases efecto invernadero, y que se pueden aplicar sistematicamente tecnologias y procesos que reduzcan las emisiones de los GEI, trayendo consigo beneficios ambientales y economico.

  16. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...... was not due to the use of AMS but was caused by a higher export of manure by the CMS farms. The number of veterinary treatments per cow per year was unaffected by AMS use, but culling rate was higher for the AMS farms (38%) than for the CMS farms (32%). There was no difference between the AMS and CMS farms...

  17. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  18. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  19. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  20. A proposed new classification for the renal collecting system of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Bagetti Filho, Helio J S; Carvalho, Francismar S; Sampaio, Francisco J B; Henry, Robert W

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the intrarenal anatomy of kidneys obtained from cattle and to propose a new classification for the renal collecting system of cattle. 37 kidneys from 20 adult male mixed-breed cattle. Intrarenal anatomy was evaluated by the use of 3-D endocasts made of the kidneys. The number of renal lobes and minor renal calyces in each kidney and each renal region (cranial pole, caudal pole, and hilus) was quantified. The renal pelvis was evident in all casts and was classified into 2 types (nondilated [28/37 {75.7%}] or dilated [9/37 {24.3%}]). All casts had a major renal calyx associated with the cranial pole and the caudal pole. The number of minor renal calices per kidney ranged from 13 to 64 (mean, 22.7). There was a significant correlation between the number of renal lobes and the number of minor renal calices for the entire kidney, the cranial pole region, and the hilus region; however, there was not a similar significant correlation for the caudal pole region. Major and minor renal calices were extremely narrow, compared with major and minor renal calices in pigs and humans. The renal collecting system of cattle, with a renal pelvis and 2 major renal calices connected to several minor renal calices by an infundibulum, differed substantially from the renal collecting system of pigs and humans. From a morphological standpoint, the kidneys of cattle were not suitable for use as a model in endourologic research and training.

  1. Ecosystem Services in Biologically Diversified versus Conventional Farming Systems: Benefits, Externalities, and Trade-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Kremen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesize that biological diversification across ecological, spatial, and temporal scales maintains and regenerates the ecosystem services that provide critical inputs - such as maintenance of soil quality, nitrogen fixation, pollination, and pest control - to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity is sustained by diversified farming practices and it also supplies multiple ecosystem services to agriculture, thus reducing environmental externalities and the need for off-farm inputs. We reviewed the literature that compares biologically diversified farming systems with conventional farming systems, and we examined 12 ecosystem services: biodiversity; soil quality; nutrient management; water-holding capacity; control of weeds, diseases, and pests; pollination services; carbon sequestration; energy efficiency and reduction of warming potential; resistance and resilience to climate change; and crop productivity. We found that compared with conventional farming systems, diversified farming systems support substantially greater biodiversity, soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water-holding capacity in surface soils, energy-use efficiency, and resistance and resilience to climate change. Relative to conventional monocultures, diversified farming systems also enhance control of weeds, diseases, and arthropod pests and they increase pollination services; however, available evidence suggests that these practices may often be insufficient to control pests and diseases or provide sufficient pollination. Significantly less public funding has been applied to agroecological research and the improvement of diversified farming systems than to conventional systems. Despite this lack of support, diversified farming systems have only somewhat reduced mean crop productivity relative to conventional farming systems, but they produce far fewer environmental and social harms. We recommend that more research and crop breeding be conducted to improve diversified farming

  2. Grid connection of active stall wind farms using a VSC based DC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is an increasing trend to connect large MW wind farms to the transmission system. Requirements that focus on the influence of the farms on the grid stability and power quality, and on the control capabilities of wind farms have already been established. The main trends of modern...... wind turbines/farms are clearly the variable speed operation and a grid connection through a power electronic interface, especially using doubly fed induction generators. Using power electronics the control capabilities of these wind turbines/farms are extended and thus the grid requirements...... are fulfilled. However, the traditional squirrel-cage generators based wind turbines/wind farms directly connected to the grid have less control capabilities. These wind turbines/farms cannot regulate their production and contribute to power system stability. A DC transmission system for connection...

  3. Impact of crossbred cattle (Red Sindhi x Yellow Local) on smallholder households in the mountainous and lowland zones of Quang Ngai, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phung, L.D.; Koops, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    This research investigates the use of crossbreed cattle (Red SindhixYellow Local cattle) at household level in the lowland and mountainous zones in Quang Ngai province, Vietnam. The internal and external inputs and outputs of mixed farming systems were analysed to quantify the productivity and

  4. FSSIM, a bio-economic farm model for simulating the response of EU farming systems to agricultural and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louhichi, K.; Kanellopoulos, A.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Flichman, G.; Blanco, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Heckelei, T.; Berentsen, P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The disciplinary nature of most existing farm models as well as the issue specific orientation of most of the studies in agricultural systems research are main reasons for the limited use and re-use of bio-economic modelling for the ex-ante integrated assessment of policy decisions. The objective of

  5. Optimising biological N2 fixation by legumes in farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, Gudni; Atkins, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Whether grown as pulses for grain, as green manure, as pastures or as the tree components of agro-forestry systems, the value of leguminous crops lies in their ability to fix atmospheric N 2 , so reducing the use of expensive fertiliser N and enhancing soil fertility. N 2 fixing legumes provide the basis for developing sustainable farming systems that incorporate integrated nutrient management. By exploiting the stable nitrogen isotope 15 N, it has been possible to reliably measure rates of N 2 fixation in a wide range of agro-ecological field situations involving many leguminous species. The accumulated data demonstrate that there is a wealth of genetic diversity among legumes and their Rhizobium symbionts which can be used to enhance N 2 fixation. Practical agronomic and microbiological means to maximise N inputs by legumes have also been identified. (author)

  6. The role of psychological determinants and demographic factors in consumer demand for farm-to-fork traceability systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myae, Aye Chan; Goddard, Ellen; Aubeeluck, Ashwina

    2011-01-01

    Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, trade, and the health status of animals and humans, new systems to help confirm the status of cattle products along the supply chain from farm to fork were implemented in many countries (Trautman et al. 2008 ). In this study, people's overall food safety beliefs are explored with the main objective of measuring the link between their food safety beliefs and their attitudes toward traceability. A comparison is made among English-speaking Canadians, French-speaking Canadians, and Japanese consumers. In the study, an Internet-based survey was used to collect data from nationally representative samples of the population in Canada-English (1275), Canada-French (343), and Japanese (1940) in the summer of 2009. Respondents' interests in traceability systems are clearly linked to their sense that the industry is primarily responsible for any food safety outbreaks. Moreover, it is clear that certain segments of the population in all samples feel strongly about the importance of farm to fork traceability in beef; thus, policymakers may wish to consider extending traceability beyond the point of slaughter as a way of encouraging beef sales in Canada.

  7. Application of capital social of Bali cattle farmers that participate in the partnership system in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, S. N.; Siregar, A. R.; Mappigau, P.

    2018-05-01

    There are four models of partnership that is centralized models, multipartite models, intermediary models and informal model application in all livestock commodities, including beef cattle. Partnership in the beef cattle business has been done in Barruie the program showroom cattle (SRS).This study aimed to known application the social capital of beef cattle breeders who followed the partnership system (program showroom cattle) in Barru. This research was conducted in April 2017 in the district Tanete Riaja. The population is all the farmers in Barru Regency who joined the partnership system (showroom program) and the sample is beef cattle breeders who followed the partnership system in Tanete Riaja district, Barru regency. This type of research is quantitative descriptive. This type of data is quantitative and qualitative. The resource data are primary data and secondary data. Data analysis uses descriptive statistical analysis with Likert scale. The results research show that social capital (trust, linkage, norm) of beef cattle breeders who joined the partnership system (cattle showroom program) at high scale

  8. The Impact of Input and Output Prices on The Household Economic Behavior of Rice-Livestock Integrated Farming System (Rlifs) and Non Rlifs Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindawati, L.; Kusnadi, N.; Kuntjoro, S. U.; Swastika, D. K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Integrated farming system is a system that emphasized linkages and synergism of farming units waste utilization. The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of input and output prices on both Rice Livestock Integrated Farming System (RLIFS) and non RLIFS farmers. The study used econometric model in the form of a simultaneous equations system consisted of 36 equations (18 behavior and 18 identity equations). The impact of changes in some variables was obtained through simulation of input and output prices on simultaneous equations. The results showed that the price increasing of the seed, SP-36, urea, medication/vitamins, manure, bran, straw had negative impact on production of the rice, cow, manure, bran, straw and household income. The decrease in the rice and cow production, production input usage, allocation of family labor, rice and cow business income was greater in RLIFS than non RLIFS farmers. The impact of rising rice and cow cattle prices in the two groups of farmers was not too much different because (1) farming waste wasn’t used effectively (2) manure and straw had small proportion of production costs. The increase of input and output price didn’t have impact on production costs and household expenditures on RLIFS.

  9. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Rowlands, G.J.; Thorpe, W.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of

  10. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  11. Occurrence of verotoxigenic E.coli in cow feces and antimicrobial resistance of the isolates in cattle farms in Shahrekord area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Escherichia coli is a common bacterium in the intestinal microflora of warm-blooded animals. They are routinely shed into the environment through feces and can contaminate water and soil, and, consequently fruits and vegetables .Enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains are recently emerged group of food-borne pathogens that are a significant public health threat. This group causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, and the disease is prevalent in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the E.coli O157: H7 and other verotoxigenic ones and major virulence genes (rfbE, eaeA, stx1, stx2 in fecal swab samples by PCR in Shahrekord area. Materials and methods: In Spring and Summer 2015, 400 cow fecal swab samples were collected from farms in Shahrekord area. Bacteriological and biochemical examinations were done for detection of E.coli. PCR assay was done for identification of O157:H7 serotype and other verotoxigenic E. coli using rfbE, eae, stx1 and stx2 genes. Results: E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in any strains tested. But PCR showed that out of 384 E.coli strain, 104(27/08% isolates carried stx1 gene, 36(9/37% carried stx2 gene and 16 (4.16% carried both stx1 and stx2 genes. Intimin (eaeA gene was detected in 280(72/91% of the isolates. Among verotoxigenic strain antibiotic resistance to Tetracycline 87/1%, Ampiciline 51/62%, Cefotaxime 48/38%, Gentamycin 25/81%,, Ciprofeloxacin 3/22% and Sulfamethoxazol 3/22% were observed. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, although the serotype O157: H7 did not isolate from the feces of cattle but other verotoxigenic strains that showed high resistance  to antibiotic were isolated so it is a risk for human health.

  12. Occurrence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes among isolates of Escherichia coli exhibiting high levels of aminoglycoside resistance isolated from Korean cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaynehe, Kuastros Mekonnen; Shin, Seung Won; Hong-Tae, Park; Yoo, Han Sang

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated 247 Escherichia coli isolates collected from four cattle farms to characterize aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme (AME) genes, their plasmid replicons and transferability. Out of 247 isolates a high number of isolates (total 202; 81.78%) were found to be resistant to various antibiotics by disc diffusion. Of the 247 strains, 139 (56.3%) were resistant to streptomycin, and other antibiotic resistances followed as tetracycline (12.15%), ampicillin (7%), chloramphenicol (5.7%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (0.8%). Among 247 isolates B1 was the predominant phylogenetic group identified comprising 151 isolates (61.1%), followed by groups A (27.9%), D (7%) and B2 (4%). Out of 139 isolates investigated for AME, 130 (93.5%) isolates carried at least one AME gene. aph3″-1a and aph3″-1b (46%) were the principal genes detected, followed by aac3-IVa (34.5%). ant2″-1a was the least detected gene (2.2%). Nine (6.5%) strains carried no AME genes. Twelve (63.2%) among 19 isolates transferred an AME gene to a recipient and aph3΄-1a was the dominant transferred gene. Transferability mainly occurred via the IncFIB replicon type (52.6%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing demonstrated a higher degree of diversity with 14 distinct cluster types. This result suggests that commensal microflora from food-producing animals has a tremendous ability to harbor and transfer AME genes, and poses a potential risk by dissemination of resistance to humans through the food chain. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Identifying key entry-points for strategic management of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa using the dynamic farm-scale simulation model NUANCES-FARMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Tittonell, P.A.; Rufino, M.C.; Herrero, M.; Pacini, C.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    African smallholder farming systems are complex, dynamic systems with many interacting biophysical subcomponents. In these systems the major inputs and outputs are managed by human agency ¿ the farmers. To analyse potential developmental pathways of smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa

  14. Qualification of the adaptive capacities of livestock farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Dedieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring what is covered by « adapting to last » with a farming systems approach. Long term dynamics can be analysed as adaptive cycles, the system being permanently exposed to disturbances and shocks. Mobilizing the concept of resilience, we analyse the factors that differentiate the principles for long term action the livestock farmers have, principles which give consistency to the family - farms trajectories. With the concept of operational flexibilty, we qualify the sources of flexibility the livestock farmers maintain to cope with hazards. They are internal, related to the production process regulation properties, to the technical (adaptive or rigid specifications, to the sales policies, or external related to the information and commercial networks. Understanding the production process regulation properties require livestock farming systems models (i.e. combining decisional and biological sub-systems that can simulate how herd dynamics operate under fluctuant rules or productive parameters. It also require to evaluate the room for manoeuvre the work organization let to the farmer. All these aspects are illsutrated with on farm studies in herbivore systems (sheep, dairy, beef.Este artigo busca explorar "adaptações a mudanças" sob a ótica de sistemas de produção animal. Dinâmicas de longo prazo podem ser analisadas como ciclos adaptativos, sendo o sistema permanentemente exposto a distúrbios e choques. Utilizando o conceito de resiliência, analisam-se os fatores que diferenciam os princípios para ações de longo prazo tomadas por produtores rurais, princípios estes que dão consistência à família - trajetórias da propriedade rural. Com o conceito de flexibilidade operacional, qualificam-se as fontes de flexibilidade que os produtores mantêm para lidar com riscos. Eles são internos, relacionados a propriedades de regulação do processo produtivo, a especificações técnicas (adaptáveis ou rígidas, a

  15. Agri-aqua farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Buendia, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems have been in existence in Thailand for centuries. This country has the most varied integrated farming operations in southeast Asia; pig, cattle, buffalo, chicken, duck, vegetable, aquatic plant, rice and orchard in combination with fish are practices. The systems most preferred by subsistence farmers are rice-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish culture. A brief outline is given of these 3 systems.

  16. Developing novel farming systems: effective use of nutrients from cover crops in intensive organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    On-farm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using alfalfa or grass-clover crops directly as fertilizer on other fields: cut-and-carry fertilizers. In two crops in two years, the use of several types of

  17. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected...... in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized...... by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (>= 90% to 100%) similarity with human...

  18. Reliability centered maintenance pilot system implementation 241-AP-tank farm primary ventilation system final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE TL

    2001-01-01

    When the Hanford Site Tank Farms' mission was safe storage of radioactive waste in underground storage tanks, maintenance activities focused on time-based preventive maintenance. Tank Farms' new mission to deliver waste to a vitrification plant where the waste will be processed into a form suitable for permanent storage requires a more efficient and proactive approach to maintenance. Systems must be maintained to ensure that they are operational and available to support waste feed delivery on schedule with a minimum of unplanned outages. This report describes the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) pilot system that was implemented in the 241-AP Tank Farm Primary Ventilation System under PI-ORP-009 of the contract between the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group Inc. (CHG). The RCM analytical techniques focus on monitoring the condition of operating systems to predict equipment failures so that maintenance activities can be completed in time to prevent or mitigate unplanned equipment outages. This approach allows maintenance activities to be managed with minimal impact on plant operations. The pilot demonstration provided an opportunity for CHG staff-training in RCM principles and tailoring of the RCM approach to the Hanford Tank Farms' unique needs. This report details the implementation of RCM on a pilot system in Tank Farms

  19. Factors affecting farmers' adoption of integrated rice-fish farming systems in the Mekong delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Nhan, D.K.; Udo, H.M.J.; Kaymak, U.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the determinants of the adoption of improved rice–fish farming systems in the Mekong delta to support policy making, agricultural land-use planning and extension of integrated rice–fish farming. Recently these systems have been referred to as adaptations to climate change,

  20. Adding a soil fertility dimension to the global farming systems approach, with cases from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smaling, E.M.A.; Dixon, J.

    2006-01-01

    The global farming systems (GFS) approach is extended by adding a soil fertility and nutrient management dimension for Africa's forest-based, maize mixed, cereal¿root crop mixed, and agro-pastoral millet/sorghum farming systems. Use is made of sustainable livelihood concepts, translated into farmer

  1. Exposure to Inhalable Dust, Endotoxin, and Total Volatile Organic Carbons on Dairy Farms Using Manual and Automated Feeding Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Cronin, Garvin; Hogan, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Agricultural workers tend to have high exposures to organic dusts which may induce or exacerbate respiratory disorders. Studies investigating the effect of work tasks and farm characteristics on organic dust exposures among farm workers suggest that handling of animal feed is an imp...... feeding. Until effective permanent engineering controls are established farm workers should be encouraged to wear respiratory protective equipment during these tasks....... of exposure to these agents depend on the applied feeding system in the farms. Methods: Thirty-eight personal exposure measurements were collected from farmers across seven dairy farms. The farms used manual, loft, or semi-automated feeding systems. Information on worker tasks and farm characteristics...

  2. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  3. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  4. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. F. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking systems (AMS rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August and summer (December to February seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  5. Automatic Voltage Control System with Market Price Employing Large Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans

    2018-01-01

    of the voltage control service provided by the power plant owners. The benefit of employing the large offshore wind farms in this AVC system is investigated. The simulation based on the measurement data from the Danish electricity control center demonstrates the superiority of the proposed approach in terms...... of the cost minimization. The gained profit by employing the wind farms can be an argument to purchase the voltage control service provided by these wind farms....

  6. On Farm Feeding Poultry Trial: Wholegrain Wheat in the Commercial System

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Organic systems aim to operate in an ecological and economic way. Importing cereals grown thousands of miles away, processed at a mill and then transported again to our farms is costly in oil and therefore money. It is neither ecologically nor economically sustainable. British farms are capable of producing a large amount of high quality cereal, the majority of which is usually sold. Transportation and processing of the grain uses oil and leaves farms vulnerable to market prices. If farmer...

  7. 77 FR 76356 - Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 630 RIN 3052-AC77 Disclosure to Investors in System-wide and Consolidated Bank Debt Obligations of the Farm Credit System; System Audit Committee; Effective... Corporation System Audit Committee and the Farm Credit System annual report to investors. In accordance with...

  8. Optimized dispatch of wind farms with power control capability for power system restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Yunyun; Liu, Changsheng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    As the power control technology of wind farms develops, the output power of wind farms can be constant, which makes it possible for wind farms to participate in power system restoration. However, due to the uncertainty of wind energy, the actual output power can’t reach a constant dispatch power...... in all time intervals, resulting in uncertain power sags which may induce the frequency of the system being restored to go outside the security limits. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the dispatch of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Considering that the probability...... distribution function (PDF) of transient power sags is hard to obtain, a robust optimization model is proposed in this paper, which can maximize the output power of wind farms participating in power system restoration. Simulation results demonstrate that the security constraints of the restored system can...

  9. CH4 Emission Model from Bos Primigenius Waste in Fish-Water: Implications for Integrated Livestock-Fish Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Okeniyi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a methane (CH4 emission model from the waste of cattle (B. primigenius based on trends in integrated livestock-fish farming adoption by farmers in Nigeria. Dung of B. primigenius was employed as substrate in fish-water, obtained from a fish-rearing farm, as a matrix medium for simulating a low-oxygen wastewater environment of an agriculture-aquaculture system. A substrate to fish-water mass ratio of 1:3 was used, developed in a laboratory-size digesting reactor system. Volumetric readings, at ambient temperature conditions and with a retention time of thirty-two days, were then subjected to the logistic probability density function, and tested against correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency criteria. The readings show that a volume of CH4-containing gas as high as 65.3 x 10−3 dm3 was produced on the 13th day from the B. primigenius substrate. Also, production of 234.59 x 10−3 dm3/kg CH4-containing gas, totaling 703.76 x 10−3 dm3, was observed through the studied retention time. The 60% CH4 constituent model of the measured gas generation showed a potency of 2.0664 kg emission per animal, which is equivalent to 43.3944 CO2eq of global warming potential (GWP annually per animal. This bears environmental and climate change implications, and therefore alternative sustainable practices for integrated livestock-fish farming adoption are suggested.

  10. Investigation of gastrointestinal parasites of dairy cattle around Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Chen; Wang, Lian-Chen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2014-02-01

    Parasitic nematodes are one of the most important causes of production losses in most cattle-producing countries of the world. The aim of the present study is to make a through estimate of helminth and protozoan infection prevalence in dairy cattle around Taiwan. Coprological techniques, including direct fecal smear, simple flotation, and simple sedimentation, were used to detect gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan in dairy cattle. A total of 1259 rectal fecal samples were collected from Holstein dairy cattle at 94 farms in 13 counties in Taiwan. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was 86.9%. The infection rates of protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes were 81.3%, 7.9%, 1.6%, and 0.6%, respectively. Among all parasites, Buxtonella sulcata (61.7%) was the most predominant one, followed with Cryptosporidium spp. (32.6%) and Eimeria spp. (11.8%). There were significant differences in the prevalence of protozoa and nematodes between different age groups and distributional area groups. The present study demonstrated that gastrointestinal parasitic infections occur frequently in dairy cattle around Taiwan, especially protozoan infections. The results indicated that a superior management system and regular anthelmintic treatment should be used for the control of parasitic infections in dairy cattle farms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  12. Antibiotic use by farmers to control mastitis as influenced by health advice and dairy farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizat, A; Bonnet-Beaugrand, F; Rault, A; Fourichon, C; Bareille, N

    2017-10-01

    Mastitis is a bacterial disease common in dairy farms. Although knowledge about mastitis and its optimal technical management and treatment is now available, some dairy farmers still use antibiotics in inappropriate ways. Antibiotic use by farmers can be influenced by personal restraints and motivations, but it can be assumed that external drivers are also influential. The main purpose of this article is thus to analyse the choices of antibiotic and alternative medicine use for mastitis treatment and investigate the possible influence of two unexplored external drivers in dairy farms: (i) the health advice offered to farmers by farm advisors and veterinarians, (ii) the dairy farming system, as defined by combining the market valuation chosen for the milk, the level of intensification, and the perceived pressure related to investments. Research was based on 51 individual semi-structured interviews with farmers and their corresponding veterinarians and farm advisors. Based on verbatim, the use of antibiotics and alternative medicine by farmers for mastitis treatment, the vet-farmers interactions, and the dairy farming systems are described. The advisory relationships between farmers and farm advisors and between farmers and veterinarians influenced the implementation of selective dry cow therapy, but had very little effect on the use of alternative medicines by farmers, who were more willing to experiment alternative medicines than their advisors. The dairy farming system had very little influence on antibiotic use: some misuse of antibiotics was found whatever the farming system. Systematic dry cow therapy was also a widespread habit in all dairy farming systems except organic. The use of alternative medicine was common in all farming systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Shah

    Full Text Available Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N, and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively, manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of

  14. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, J L; de Greef, K; Bonneau, M

    2014-12-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two systems). Data were collected with a questionnaire from nine breeding organisations providing animals and semen to the studied farming systems and from, on average, five farmers per farming system. The sustainability assessment of breeding activities was performed in four dimensions. The first dimension described whether the market for the product was well defined, and whether the breeding goal reflected the farming system and the farmers' demands. The second dimension described recording and selection procedures, together with genetic change in traits that were important in the system. The third dimension described genetic variation, both within and between pig breeds. The fourth dimension described the management of the breeding organisation, including communication, transparency, and technical and human resources. The results show substantial differences in the sustainability of breeding activities, both between farming systems within the same category and between different categories of farming systems. The breeding activities are assessed to be more sustainable for conventional systems than for differentiated systems in three of the four dimensions. In most differentiated farming systems, breeding goals are not related to the system, as these systems use the same genetic material as conventional systems. The breeds used in Traditional farming systems are important for genetic biodiversity, but the small scale of these systems renders them vulnerable. It is hoped that, by

  15. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morpho structure of Spanish goat breeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, A.; Herrera, M.; Luque, M.; Rodero, E.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morpho structure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malaguena) raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semiextensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed. (Author)

  16. Co-development of climate smart flooded rice farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Neergaard, Andreas; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Ly, Proyuth; Pandey, Arjun; Duong Vu, Quynh; Tariq, Azeem; Islam, Syed; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Tourdonnet, Stephane; Van Mai, Trinh; Wassmann, Reiner

    2017-04-01

    Mid-season drainage in flooded rice is known to reduce CH4 emission, while effects on N2O emission are more variable. Banning of crop-residue burning, and growing markets for organically fertilized rice, are resulting in systems with larger reactive C input, and potentially larger methane emissions. Tight farming systems with 2 or 3 annual crops are effective in mitigating emissions, in that the land sparing value is high, but put serious constraints on mitigation options under increased C input scenarios. In a series of field (Cambodia, Philippines and Vietnam) and greenhouse experiments, we investigated the effect of a variety of organic amendments and wetting and drying cycles on yield and GHG emissions. Specifically we have tested the effect of inserting very early, or even-pre-planting drainage, as a means to accelerate turnover of straw or other C sources, and reduce methane emission later in the season. Overall, our results showed that drying periods had minimal impact on yields, while reducing overall GHG emission. Methane emission was strongly controlled by C availability in the substrate (on equal total C-input basis), increasing in the order: biochar-composts-animal manure-fresh material. Nitrous oxide emissions generally increased with draining cycles, but did not lead to overall increase in GHG emissions as its contribution was balanced by lowered CH4 emissions. Growth chamber experiments showed that methane emission was significantly reduced for extended periods after re-flooding, hence the idea of early drainage was developed. Meanwhile, Cambodian farmers expressed concerns over re-supply of water after drainage. In response to that, we tested if early-season drainage could replace mid-season drainage. With addition of labile carbon substrates (straw) duration of early season drainage was more important for reducing GHG emissions, than duration of mid-season drainage, and had the highest potential for total emission reduction. In a farmers

  17. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes......, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  18. Waste management of shrimp farms as starting point to develop integrated farming systems (case study: Kuwaru Coast, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.G. Saiya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensive waste management is a solution to maintain an area of ecological harmony but still can produce economic benefits that are beneficial to social welfare. So in this research, waste of shrimp farms which was just processed by using zeolite, was treated again with a few treatments, i.e. simple filters, constructed wetlands, shell, fish and composting. Simple filters were composed of stone, gravel, coral, charcoal, sand and coconut fibers. Constructed wetland system used was hybrid type which combines type of horizontal flow and type of vertical flow. The shell used was Polymesoda erosa. The fish used was Tilapia. In the composting sediment activator, biang kompos was used with the composting time of one month. The results indicated that the system of simple filters, constructed wetlands, shells and fish proved to be quite effective to reduce levels of pollutants in wastewater and will be more effective if treatment was accompanied with a proper aeration. While, the sediment composted into fertilizer needed to be composted with a longer time than normal composting time. This was because the composted materials were derived from waste having a very low nutrient, so it took longer to restore nutrients. The results also indicated the potential of shrimp farm waste of PT. IBD to be processed into clean water and fertilizer. With the appropriate policies and strategies, this can lead to the development of an integrated farming system to support sustainable coastal ecologically, economically and socially.

  19. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations. In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in smallholder units. The dominant cropping systems are based on maize (Zea mays L.), either as monocrop or intercropped with roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Continuous cropping, and unbalanced fertilizer management systems with an...

  20. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  1. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Evaluation of Crop-Livestock Integration Systems among Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study evaluated the level of access to knowledge, farm assets and inputs .... with an optimal allocation of scarce resources, leads to sustainable production. Combining ecological sustainability and economic viability, the integrated.

  3. Agricultural Innovation Systems and Farm Technology Adoption: Findings from a Study of the Ghanaian Plantain Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyori, Alirah Emmanuel; Amare, Mulubrhan; Garming, Hildegard; Waibel, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We assess farm technology adoption in an integrated analysis of social networks and innovation in plantain production in Ghana. The paper explores the strength of social networks in the agricultural innovation systems (AISs) and the effect of AISs on adoption of improved farm technology. Methodology/Approach: The paper uses social network…

  4. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location

  5. Application of genetic algorithm in electrical system optimization for offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been widely used in solving optimization problem in different areas. This paper illustrates the application of GA in the electrical system design for offshore wind farms, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input...

  6. Differential Haematobia irritans infestation levels in beef cattle raised in silvopastoral and conventional pasture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Nicodemo, Maria Luiza F; Gusmão, Marcos R; Pezzopane, José Ricardo M; Bilhassi, Talita B; Santana, Clarissa H; Gonçalves, Thuane C; Rabelo, Márcio D; Giglioti, Rodrigo

    2017-11-15

    The use of silvopastoral systems (SPS) can be a good alternative to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock breeding in Brazil. One of the reasons for its scarce adoption is the lack of information on health and productivity of cattle raised under these conditions. The experiment reported here was designed to compare the infestation by external parasites - the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus), horn fly (Haematobia irritans), and larvae of the botfly (Dermatobia hominis) - in beef cattle raised in a SPS and a conventional pasture system (CPS), evaluated for 24 months. Data on air and soil temperature, solar radiation, wind incidence and water balance were used to characterize the SPS and CPS. R. microplus adult females and D. hominis larvae were counted on the body of each animal to determine the parasites burdens, but we did not find significant differences between the two systems. Horn flies counts on animals' body, and analysis of the horn fly and its pupal parasitoids associated with the dung pats were obtained in the two systems. Horn fly infestation was significantly lower (p=0.01) in the SPS (13.17±3.46) in comparison with the CPS (24.02±4.43). In SPS and CPS, respectively, the mean densities of pupae of H. irritansin dung pats were 9.8 and 10.7; the mean density of adults of H. irritans, 3.7 and 3.5; and the density of its pupal parasitoids were 20.5 and 5.4. The effect of production system was significant (p<0.05) only for the occurrence of pupal parasitoids of the horn fly, where the greatest occurrences of these natural enemies were in the SPS. These data indicate that natural enemies were able to control, at least partially, the horn fly populations in the cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  8. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  9. Transfer of Biogas Technology to Support Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Systems in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putra, Ahmad Romadhoni Surya

    Mixed crop and livestock (MCL) farming systems has been applied for many years to manage the limited resources owned by smallholder farmers. This farming practice is considered as the best practice to cultivate the limited resources by adopting an integrated life cycle approach within crop...... and livestock production. However, within this farming system, some externalities may appear because of the untreated livestock waste which may pollute air and the surrounding water environment at the farm. This may also affect greenhouse gas emission that potentially contributes to an increase of global...... such as reduction of air and water pollution and gas emission caused by manure. However, despite its multiple benefits, the biogas technology transfer is facing a slow rate of diffusion in most farm households in developing countries. This phenomenon calls for identification of reasons in order to develop solutions...

  10. [Invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an aneroid pressure system in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, M; Franz, S; Iff, I; Schwendenwein, I

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of invasive arterial blood pressure measurement using an electronic pressure transducer (EPT) or an aneroid pressure system (APS) in cattle. A catheter was placed in the auricular artery of 11 adult cattle and connected to a pressure transducer via pressure line. The aneroid system was connected to the same catheter using a three-way stop-cock in the pressure line. On five occasions three consecutive measurements were performed with the APS. The mean blood pressure values of the EPT were recorded before each individual measurement. Values from each device were compared using Passing and Bablok regression of agreement and a Bland and Altman difference plot. One hundred and forty-seven paired measurements were analysed. The average bias between the two methods (EPT vs. APS) was -1.6 mmHg (95 % confidence interval [CI]: -3.0 to -0.2 mmHg). The coefficient of correlation was 1.0084. The aneroid system showed an almost perfect agreement with the EPT. This study shows that it can be used in a clinical setting as well as under field conditions to measure arterial blood pressure in cattle.

  11. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauch, C.

    2006-10-15

    The Ph.D. project 'Stability and Control of Wind Farms in Power Systems' deals with some selected problems related to wind power in power systems. With increasing wind power penetration, wind turbines substitute the power production of conventional power plants. Therefore, wind turbines also have to take over the power system stabilisation and control tasks, that were traditionally carried out by conventional power plants. Out of the many aspects related to this problem, this project focuses on transient fault ride-through and power system stabilisation. The selection of turbine types considered in this project is limited to active-stall turbines and variable speed, variable pitch turbines with gearboxes and full-scale converter-connected synchronous generators. As a basis for the project, a study into the state of the art is conducted at the beginning of the project. Grid connection requirements that were in force, or published as drafts, at the time, and scientific literature related to the topic, are studied. The project is based on simulations of wind turbines in a power system simulations tool. Some of the models used in this project were readily available prior to the project; the development of others is part of the project. The most extensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For that purpose the Nordic power system model, which was available prior to the project, is extended with a realistic feeder configuration. It is commonly demanded from modern wind turbines, that they must not disconnect in case of transient faults. Therefore, controllers are designed that enable the two turbine types to ride through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is

  12. Effect Of Intercropping System On Green Peach Aphid Dinamics On Organic Farming Of Potato In Karo Highland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamria Sidauruk; Darma Bakti; Retna Astuti Kuswardani; Chairani Hanum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Green peach aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer represents one of the major pest affecting decreased production which found in different potato fields in Karo Highland. This study was conducted to determine the population dynamics of Myzus persicae Sulzer on potato cropping system. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with main plot are farming system such as conventional farming semi organic farming and organic farming. The sub plot are intercropping system consist of potato mon...

  13. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  14. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin

  15. Technical efficiency and economic viability of different cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurelio Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the technical efficiency and economic viability of the implementation and use of four cattle identification methods allowed by the Brazilian traceability system. The study was conducted in a beef cattle production system located in the State of Mato Grosso, from January to June 2012. Four identification methods (treatments were compared: T1: ear tag in one ear and ear button in the other ear (eabu; T2: ear tag and iron brand on the right leg (eaib; T3: ear tag in one ear and tattoo on the other ear (eata; and T4: ear tag in one ear and electronic ear tag (eael on the other. Each treatment was applied to 60 Nelore animals, totaling 240 animals, divided equally into three life stages (calves, young cattle, adult cattle. The study had two phases: implementation (phase 1 and reading and transfer of identification numbers to an electronic database (phase 2. All operating expenses related to the two phases of the study were determined. The database was constructed, and the statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 17.0 software. Regarding the time spent on implementation (phase 1, conventional ear tags and electronic ear tags produced similar results, which were lower than those of hot iron and tattoo methods, which differed from each other. Regarding the time required for reading the numbers on animals and their transcription into a database (phase 2, electronic ear-tagging was the fastest method, followed by conventional ear tag, hot iron and tattoo. Among the methods analyzed, the electronic ear tag had the highest technical efficiency because it required less time to implement identifiers and to complete the process of reading and transcription to an electronic database and because it did not exhibit any errors. However, the cost of using the electronic ear-tagging method was higher primarily due to the cost of the device.

  16. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract

  17. Operation and control of a DC-grid offshore wind farm under DC transmission system faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    . Consequently, the protection and control strategies of dc systems need to be established. This paper studies a dc-grid offshore wind farm, where the wind power collection system and power transmission system adopt dc technology. In this paper, the redundancy of the HVDC transmission system under faults...... is studied, and a fault ridethrough strategy for the dc-grid offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed strategy can effectively minimize the impacts of the power transmission system disturbance on the offshore wind farm, and on the ac grid. A dc-grid offshore wind farm example is simulated with PSCAD....../EMTDC, and the results validate the feasibility of the presented redundancy configuration and operation approach, and the fault ridethrough control strategy....

  18. Rice production systems and avian influenza: Interactions between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, S.B.; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, D.J.; Newman, S.H.; Xiao, X.

    2010-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are the reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), a family of RNA viruses that may cause mild sickness in waterbirds. Emergence of H5N1, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain, causing severe disease and mortality in wild birds, poultry and humans, had raised concerns about the role of wild birds in possible transmission of the disease. In this review, the link between rice production systems, poultry production systems, and wild bird ecology is examined to assess the extent to which these interactions could contribute towards the persistence and evolution of HPAI H5N1. The rice (Oryza sativa) and poultry production systems in Asia described, and then migration and movements of wild birds discussed. Mixed farming systems in Asia and wild bird movement and migration patterns create opportunities for the persistence of low pathogenic AIVs in these systems. Nonetheless, there is no evidence of long-term persistence of HPAI viruses (including the H5N1 subtype) in the wild. There are still significant gaps in the understanding of how AIVs circulate in rice systems. A better understanding of persistence of AIVs in rice farms, particularly of poultry origins, is essential in limiting exchange of AIVs between mixed-farming systems, poultry and wild birds.

  19. Assessing the sustainability of EU dairy farms with different management systems and husbandry practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, Katharine; Gerrard, Catherine; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    on farm management practices collected in face to face interviews with farmers were entered and the tool then calculated a composite score for each of 11 separate “spurs” or dimensions contributing to sustainability. The results can be used to stimulate discussion between farmers and point to areas where......The EU funded SOLID project supports research which will contribute to the competitiveness of organic and low input dairy systems, and increase their sustainability. There are many aspects of the sustainability of dairy farms, relating to economic, environmental and social dimensions, and methods...... of animal husbandry can affect all of these. A UK spreadsheet based tool for rapid assessment of the whole farm was adapted for application on a range of organic and low input dairy farms across the EU. This tool was used to assess approximately ten organic dairy farms in each of four EU countries. Data...

  20. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pmanagement practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploration of agro-ecological options for improving maize-based farming systems in Costa Chica, Guerrero, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, D.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: farm diagnosis, farming systems, soil degradation, intercropping, maize, roselle, legumes, nutrient management, vermicompost, crop residues, decomposition, explorations.

    In the Costa Chica, a region of Southwest Mexico, farming systems are organized in

  2. System Safety Program Plan for Project W-314, tank farm restoration and safe operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    This System Safety Program Plan (SSPP) outlines the safety analysis strategy for project W-314, ''Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.'' Project W-314 will provide capital improvements to Hanford's existing Tank Farm facilities, with particular emphasis on infrastructure systems supporting safe operation of the double-shell activities related to the project's conceptual Design Phase, but is planned to be updated and maintained as a ''living document'' throughout the life of the project to reflect the current safety analysis planning for the Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations upgrades. This approved W-314 SSPP provides the basis for preparation/approval of all safety analysis documentation needed to support the project

  3. Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V.; Goodman, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans

  4. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  5. Genomics of high molecular weight plasmids isolated from an on-farm biopurification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martini, Maria C.; Wibberg, Daniel; Lozano, Mauricio; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo; Albicoro, Francisco J.; Jaenicke, Sebastian; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Petroni, Alejandro; Pilar Garcillan-Barcia, M.; de la Cruz, Fernando; Schlueter, Andreas; Puehler, Alfred; Pistorio, Mariano; Lagares, Antonio; Del Papa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of biopurification systems (BPS) constitutes an efficient strategy to eliminate pesticides from polluted wastewaters from farm activities. BPS environments contain a high microbial density and diversity facilitating the exchange of information among bacteria, mediated by mobile genetic

  6. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  7. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to improve resource use efficiency and income while reducing environmental impacts. This study monitored and analyzed water use in and nutrient flows through ponds that are part of an IAA-farming system. Th...

  8. Farming systems and food security in Kwale District, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van C.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines agricultural production and off-farm employment among the rural population in Kwale District Kenya. Research was carried out in two villages, located in different agro-ecological zones: Kibandaongo, in the low-potential livestock-millet zone, inhabited by the Duruma; and Bongwe,

  9. Systems of organic farming in spring vetch I: Biological response of sucking insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Nikolova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Four systems of organic farming and a conventional farming system were studied over the period 2012-2014. The organic system trial variants included: I – an organic farming system without any biological products used (growth under natural soil fertility – Control; II – an organic farming system involving the use of a biological foliar fertilizer and a biological plant growth regulator (Polyversum+Biofa; III – an organic farming system in which a biological insecticide (NeemAzal T/S was used; IV – an organic farming system including a combination of three organic products: the foliar fertilizer, the plant growth regulator and the bioinsecticide (Polyversum+Biofa+NeemAzal T/S. Variant V represented a conventional farming system in which synthetic products were used in combination (foliar fertilizer, plant growth regulator and insecticide: Masterblend+Flordimex 420+Nurelle D. Treatment of vetch plants with the biological insecticide NeemAzal in combination with Biofa and Polyversum resulted in the lowest density of sucking pests, compared to all other organic farming methods tested (i.e. without NeemAzal, with NeemAzal alone, and its combination with Biofa and Polyversum. The greatest reduction in pest numbers during the vegetation period in that variant was observed in species of the order Thysanoptera (36.0-41.4%, followed by Hemiptera, and the families Aphididae (31.6-40.3% and Cicadellidae (27.3-28.6%. This combination showed an efficient synergistic interaction and an increase in biological efficacy as compared to individual application of NeemAzal. The highest toxic impact was found against Thrips tabaci, followed by Acyrthosiphon pisum. An analysis of variance regarding the efficacy against the species A. pisum, E. pteridis and T. tabaci showed that type of treatment had the most dominant influence and statistically significant impact.

  10. Tick-borne disease infections in the traditional cattle farming system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentages of East Coast fever-infected herds (p = 0.0000252) and animals (p = 0.000842) that were sprayed once per month were significantly higher than those ... The apparent low community's motivation to adopt the dipping scheme which has been revived through government support calls for further investigation.

  11. Building student capacity to lead sustainability transitions in the food system through farm-based authentic research modules in sustainability sciences (FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selena Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate courses provide valuable opportunities to train and empower students with the knowledge, skills, and motivation to advance society in more sustainable directions. This article emphasizes the value of bridging primary scientific research with undergraduate education through the presentation of an integrated experiential learning and primary research model called Farm-based Authentic Research Modules in Sustainability Sciences (FARMS. FARMS are collaboratively designed with agricultural stakeholders through a community needs assessment on pressing food system issues and opportunities with the objective for faculty and students to jointly identify evidence-based management solutions. We illustrate the implementation of FARMS in an undergraduate course in Ecological Agriculture at Dartmouth College, NH where students assessed various agroecological solutions for managing plant vitality, weeds, soil quality, pests, pollinators, and biodiversity at the Dartmouth Organic Farm. Student reflections indicate that the FARMS course component was beneficial for understanding agroecological theories and concepts while also motivating involvement in sustainability sciences despite the challenges of primary research. Educator reflections noted that the FARMS pedagogical approach facilitated achieving course objectives to develop students’ ability for systems thinking, critical thinking, and interdisciplinarity while fostering students’ collaboration skills and overall motivation for creating change. Adopting the FARMS model should enable faculty in the sustainability sciences to serve as bridges between the learning, practicing, and scientific communities while supporting educational programming at student and community farms. Ultimately, it is expected that the implementation of FARMS will increase student capacity and prepare the next generation of leaders to address complex challenges of the food system using an evidence-based approach.

  12. Bodems voor vrijloopstallen = Bedding materials in loose housing systems for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooren, van H.J.C.; Galama, P.J.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sand, Compost and 'toemaak' (a mixture of reed, dredge and manure) had been used as bedding material for loose housing systems on three dairy research farms of Wageningen UR Livestock Research. Gaseous emissions, animal behavior and health and food safety aspects were measured and reported together

  13. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  14. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Pugesgaard, Siri; Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  15. Net-Energy Analysis of Integrated Food and Bioenergy Systems Exemplified by a Model of a Self-Sufficient System of Dairy Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markussen, Mads Ville [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Pugesgaard, Siri [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Østergård, Hanne, E-mail: haqs@kt.dtu.dk [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-11-25

    Agriculture is expected to contribute in substituting of fossil fuels in the future. This constitutes a paradox as agriculture depends heavily on fossil energy for providing fuel, fodder, nutrients, and machinery. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether organic agriculture is capable of providing both food and surplus energy to the society as evaluated from a model study. We evaluated bioenergy technologies in a Danish dairy-farming context in four different scenarios: (1) vegetable oil based on oilseed rape, (2) biogas based on cattle manure and grass-clover lays, (3) bioethanol from rye grain and whey, and (4) a combination of (1) and (2). When assessing the energetic net-contribution to society from bioenergy systems, two types of problems arise: how to aggregate non-equivalent types of energy services and how to account for non-equivalent types of inputs and coproducts from the farming? To avoid the first type, the net output of liquid fuels, electricity, useful heat, and food were calculated separately. Furthermore, to avoid the second type, all scenarios were designed to provide self-sufficiency with fodder and fertilizer and to utilize coproducts within the system. This approach resulted in a transparent assessment of the net-contribution to society, which is easy to interpret. We conclude that if 20% of land is used for energy crops, farm-gate energy self-sufficiency can be achieved at the cost of 17% reduction in amount of food produced. These results demonstrate the strong limitations for (organic) agriculture in providing both food and surplus energy.

  16. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  17. Security region-based small signal stability analysis of power systems with FSIG based wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Yang; Cui, Xiaodan; Xu, Xialing; Li, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Security Region approach, the impact of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems is analyzed. Firstly, the key factors of wind farm on the small signal stability of power systems are analyzed and the parameter space for small signal stability region is formed. Secondly, the small signal stability region of power systems with wind power is established. Thirdly, the corresponding relation between the boundary of SSSR and the dominant oscillation mode is further studied. Results show that the integration of fixed-speed induction generator based wind farm will cause the low frequency oscillation stability of the power system deteriorate. When the output of wind power is high, the oscillation stability of the power system is mainly concerned with the inter-area oscillation mode caused by the integration of the wind farm. Both the active power output and the capacity of reactive power compensation of the wind farm have a significant influence on the SSSR. To improve the oscillation stability of power systems with wind power, it is suggested to reasonably set the reactive power compensation capacity for the wind farm through SSSR.

  18. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  19. Impacts of large-scale offshore wind farm integration on power systems through VSC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongzhi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The potential of offshore wind energy has been commonly recognized and explored globally. Many countries have implemented and planned offshore wind farms to meet their increasing electricity demands and public environmental appeals, especially in Europe. With relatively less space limitation......, an offshore wind farm could have a capacity rating to hundreds of MWs or even GWs that is large enough to compete with conventional power plants. Thus the impacts of a large offshore wind farm on power system operation and security should be thoroughly studied and understood. This paper investigates...... the impacts of integrating a large-scale offshore wind farm into the transmission system of a power grid through VSC-HVDC connection. The concerns are focused on steady-state voltage stability, dynamic voltage stability and transient angle stability. Simulation results based on an exemplary power system...

  20. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  1. Optimisation of electrical system for offshore wind farms via genetic algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Menghua; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    An optimisation platform based on genetic algorithm (GA) is presented, where the main components of a wind farm and key technical specifications are used as input parameters and the electrical system design of the wind farm is optimised in terms of both production cost and system reliability....... The power losses, wind power production, initial investment and maintenance costs are considered in the production cost. The availability of components and network redundancy are included in the reliability evaluation. The method of coding an electrical system to a binary string, which is processed by GA......, is developed. Different GA techniques are investigated based on a real example offshore wind farm. This optimisation platform has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for offshore wind farm design and evaluation....

  2. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  3. Development of a decision support system for assessing farm animal welfare in relation to husbandry systems: Strategy and prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Spruijt, B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm-animal welfare based on

  4. Reliability Assessment of Wind Farm Electrical System Based on a Probability Transfer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejun Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical system of a wind farm has a significant influence on the wind farm reliability and electrical energy yield. The disconnect switch installed in an electrical system cannot only improve the operating flexibility, but also enhance the reliability for a wind farm. Therefore, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique for integrating the electrical topology structure, the isolation operation of disconnect switch, and stochastic failure of electrical equipment into the reliability assessment of wind farm electrical system. Firstly, as the traditional two-state reliability model of electrical equipment cannot consider the isolation operation, so the paper develops a three-state reliability model to replace the two-state model for incorporating the isolation operation. In addition, a proportion apportion technique is presented to evaluate the state probability. Secondly, this paper develops a probabilistic transfer technique based on the thoughts that through transfer the unreliability of electrical system to the energy transmission interruption of wind turbine generators (WTGs. Finally, some novel indices for describing the reliability of wind farm electrical system are designed, and the variance coefficient of the designed indices is used as a convergence criterion to determine the termination of the assessment process. The proposed technique is applied to the reliability assessment of a wind farm with the different topologies. The simulation results show that the proposed techniques are effective in practical applications.

  5. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF FARM DATA SYSTEM IN AZERBAIJAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namig SHALBUZOV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarce information on production costs and farms profitability, in line with the lack of adequate institutional arrangements between the institutions collecting, processing and analyzing information are serious obstacles to the preparation of relevant analyses. The establishment of FDMS will address these problems and allow to collect, process and analyze information on small and medium farms level, which produce more than 90 percent of agricultural products in Azerbaijan Republic. Establishment process of FDMS is analysed and recommendations for improvement are put forward in this article. This can also be in interest of Republic of Moldova which has signed the association agreement with EU and is going to enter this organisation in future. Because, establishment of FADN is one of the most important terms obligatory for EU member states.

  6. The role of a fish pond in optimizing nutrient flows in integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nhan, D.K.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong delta, the Vietnamese government promoted integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems as an example of sustainable agriculture. An important advantage of IAA-farming is the nutrient linkage between the pond and terrestrial components within a farm, which allows to

  7. Diversity in the dry land mixed system and viability of dairy sheep farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rivas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Castilla La Mancha is a Spanish region where sheep farming system is traditionally pasture-based. Recently, this territory has undergone a recession of dairy sheep activity, which changed the type and intensity of land utilization and led to environmental and landscape degradation. The present study analyzed the diversity and viability of dairy sheep of mixed systems. Multivariate analysis was conducted on 157 dairy sheep farms, factor analysis selected 3 productivity factors (level of intensification, land use, size and family labour, and cluster analysis classified farms into three groups. Group 1, smallholders – with the smallest size (405.5 ewes and 564.7 ha, lowest area in ownership (1.5%, and agriculture activity (6.5% crops area: family farms (90.8% highly dependent on external inputs. Group 2, large-scale farms (1058.7 ewes and 1755.1 ha – with the lowest stocking rate (0.14 livestock unit/ha and productivity: nonfamily farms (39.1% with low area in ownership (4.1% and agriculture activity (7.6%. Group 3, mixed-technified – with the highest levels of technology and least use of family labour (27.0%: large-scale farms (1387.4 ewes and 955.8 ha, combining milk production with agricultural activities (55.7% crops area, with the highest area in ownership (63.1% and the best productivity performance. In conclusion, the dry land mixed system of Castilla La Mancha showed diversity of farms. Improving viability requires a systemic approach where the key tool is grazing, allowing the mixed system to be consolidated as a model that enhances the positive impact of livestock on the environment in the Mediterranean basin.

  8. Environmental Implications of Eco-Labeling for Rice Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Solhee Kim; Taegon Kim; Timothy M. Smith; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have forced countries to strengthen regulations, standards, and certifications related to greenhouse gas emissions. Various policies targeting farm products, such as carbon labeling and the Environmentally-Friendly Agricultural Product Certification (EFAPC) for agricultural products, have been implemented in South Korea to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agricultural sector. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implications of the various certific...

  9. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  10. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  11. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in beef feedlot of Borena cattle by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle, 24.2 million sheep, 22.6 million goats, 987, 000 camels, 44.9 million poultry and nearly ... animals and in extensive traditional and pastoralist production system. ... farms were mainly from the Borena zone, South Ethiopia and the breed were ..... goes to Dr. Shimelis Bekele and W/t Frehiwot Ayele for assisting us during.

  13. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, Amira E. F.; Hassan, Abdullahi N.; Ali, Ali E.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2015-01-01

    Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors. One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle

  14. Hydrological and Farming System Impacts of Agricultural Water Management Interventions in North Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, O.P.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater over-exploitation is a common phenomenon in many arid and semi arid regions of the world. Within India, north Gujarat is one of such intensively exploited regions. Groundwater supports irrigated crop production and intensive dairy farming in the region. Well irrigation is critical to the region’s rural economy and livelihoods. The overall objective of the study was to examine the water demand management interventions on farming system, livelihood patterns, food and nutritional s...

  15. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks

  16. Analysis of the Spatial Relationship between Cattle and Wild Ungulates across Different Land-Use Systems in a Tropical Savanna Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many African savanna landscapes, domestic and wild herbivores cooccur across different land-use systems, but the role of land-use in shaping their spatial relationship is poorly understood. We evaluated the spatial relationship between cattle and wild herbivores categorized by body sizes and feeding habits across different land-use types, namely, private ranches (PR, transitional lands (TRL, and pastoral grazing areas (PGA, in Laikipia County, Kenya. Cattle and wild herbivores spatial distribution data were obtained from Kenya’s Department of Resources Survey and Remote Sensing (DRSRS. Spatial relationships between cattle and different wild herbivore guilds were analyzed using Ripley’s bivariate K12 function. In PR, wild herbivore guilds showed significant attraction to cattle at short distances. In TRL, wild grazers, mixed feeders, megaherbivores, and medium-sized ungulates exhibited significant attraction to cattle. Additionally, repulsion was observed between cattle and browsers at short distances under this land-use system. In PGA, wild grazers, mixed feeders, and megaherbivores repelled strongly with cattle at short distances while browsers and medium-sized ungulates were significantly attracted to cattle. Cattle and wild herbivores were more randomly and independently distributed in PR than in TRL and PGA. These spatial relationships imply better coexistence between cattle and wild herbivores in PR than in TRL and PGA.

  17. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Maggiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  19. Assessment of Primary Production of Horticultural Safety Management Systems of Mushroom Farms in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzingirayi, Garikayi; Korsten, Lise

    2016-07-01

    Growing global consumer concern over food safety in the fresh produce industry requires producers to implement necessary quality assurance systems. Varying effectiveness has been noted in how countries and food companies interpret and implement food safety standards. A diagnostic instrument (DI) for global fresh produce industries was developed to measure the compliancy of companies with implemented food safety standards. The DI is made up of indicators and descriptive grids for context factors and control and assurance activities to measure food safety output. The instrument can be used in primary production to assess food safety performance. This study applied the DI to measure food safety standard compliancy of mushroom farming in South Africa. Ten farms representing almost half of the industry farms and more than 80% of production were independently assessed for their horticultural safety management system (HSMS) compliance via in-depth interviews with each farm's quality assurance personnel. The data were processed using Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and are represented in frequency tables. The diagnosis revealed that the mushroom farming industry had an average food safety output. The farms were implementing an average-toadvanced HSMS and operating in a medium-risk context. Insufficient performance areas in HSMSs included inadequate hazard analysis and analysis of control points, low specificity of pesticide assessment, and inadequate control of suppliers and incoming materials. Recommendations to the industry and current shortcomings are suggested for realization of an improved industry-wide food safety assurance system.

  20. A Simulation Software for the Analysis of Cropping Systems in Livestock Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models can support quantitative and integrated analyses of agricultural systems. In this paper we describe VA.TE., a computer program developed to support the preparation and evaluation of nitrogen fertilising plans for livestock farms in the Lombardy region (northern Italy. The program integrates the cropping systems simulation model CropSyst with several regional agricultural databases, and provides the users with a simple framework for applying the model and interpreting results. VA.TE. makes good use of available data, integrating into a single relational database existing information about soils, climate, farms, animal breeds, crops and crop managements, and providing estimates of missing input variables. A simulation engine manages the entire simulation process: choice of farms to be simulated, model parameterisation, creation of model inputs, simulation of scenarios and analysis of model outputs. The program permits to apply at farm scale a model originally designed for the lower scale of homogeneous land parcel. It manages alternative simulation scenarios for each farm, helping to identify solutions to combine low nitrate losses and satisfactory crop yields. Example simulation results for three farms located on different soils and having varying levels of nitrogen surplus show that the integrated system (model + database can manage various simulations automatically, and that strategies to improve N management can be refined by analysing the simulated amounts and temporal patterns of nitrogen leaching.We conclude by discussing the issues regarding the integration of existing regional databases with simulation models.

  1. Postruminal Delivery System for Amino Acids and Proteins in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sýkora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to develop an effective postruminal transport system (PTS with a high content of suitable vegetable proteins and amino acids. PTS serves for nutrient delivery to the abomasum and small intestine of dairy cows in order to increase the milk yield. Direct addition of proteins and amino acids to the diet is not useful as the ruminal microbes will utilize active substances before they reach absorption sites in the small intestine. PTS has several advantages, e.g. a possibility of the direct application in a food, low cost, and nutritional and therapeutical improvement. PTS consists of a core (pellets, small tablets and a coating, which protects the core against the environment of rumen and enables to release the core content in the environment of abomasum and small intestine. Lenticular tablets - cores of PTS were prepared by wet granulation method and compression. Qualitative indicators of tablets (average weight, weight uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time were determined according to valid Czech and European Pharmacopoeias. Cores were subsequently coated with several types of coating - ethylcellulose, stearic acid and pH sensitive polymer poly-(2-vinylpyridine-co-styren, alone or in combination of various rates. Nine samples of coated protein tablets exhibiting appropriate characteristics in vitro were prepared. The presence of the pH sensitive polymer at least in 10% concentration of the coating and the coating amount of 9.0 to 12.6% per tablet were necessary to ensure the requested PTS properties.

  2. Transient stability probability evaluation of power system incorporating with wind farm and SMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jiakun; Miao, Lu; Wen, Jinyu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale renewable power generation brings great challenges to the power system operation and stabilization. Energy storage is one of the most important technologies to face the challenges. This paper proposes a method for transient stability probability evaluation of power system with wind farm...... and SMES. Firstly, a modified 11-bus test system with both wind farm and SMES has been implemented. The wind farm is represented as a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG). Then a stochastic-based approach to evaluate the probabilistic transient stability index of the power system is presented. Uncertain...... the probability indices. With the proposed method based on Monte-Carlo simulation and bisection method, system stability is "measured". Quantitative relationship of penetration level, SMES coil size and system stability is established. Considering the stability versus coil size to be the production curve...

  3. On-farm starling populations and other environmental and management factors associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cattle in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhanie, Genet A; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Guerin, Michele T; Jardine, Claire M; Schrock, Jennifer; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2016-11-01

    Wild birds that forage around livestock facilities have been implicated as vectors of antimicrobial resistant organisms. Although antimicrobial resistant bacteria have been isolated from European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), their role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant elements in livestock facilities needs further investigation. To determine whether on-farm starling density and other factors were associated with the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli among dairy cows in Ohio, bovine fecal pats from 150 farms were tested for the presence of cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. Each farm was visited twice (during the summer and fall of 2007-2009). Multi-level logistic regression models with a random intercept to account for fecal pats collected within a specific visit to a farm were used to assess the associations. The percentage of samples with cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 13.4% and 13.6%, respectively. The percentage of farms having at least one sample testing positive for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli was 56.7% and 48.7%, respectively. The odds of detecting cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli in the samples was significantly higher in 2007 compared to 2008 and 2009, in fall compared to summer, and from farms closer than 60km to starling night roost sites compared to the farms further than 60km. The presence of starlings during the day had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting cefotaxime resistant E. coli. Presence of calves also had a negative association with the likelihood of detecting both cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli. European starlings might play a role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant agents in livestock facilities related to their daily population movements rather than the specific density of birds on farm during the day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Centralized configuration system for a large scale farm of network booted computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestrero, S.; Brasolin, F.; Dârlea, G.-L.; Dumitru, I.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Twomey, M. S.; Vâlsan, M. L.; Zaytsev, A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition online farm is composed of nearly 3,000 computing nodes, with various configurations, functions and requirements. Maintaining such a cluster is a big challenge from the computer administration point of view, thus various tools have been adopted by the System Administration team to help manage the farm efficiently. In particular, a custom central configuration system, ConfDBv2, was developed for the overall farm management. The majority of the systems are network booted, and are running an operating system image provided by a Local File Server (LFS) via the local area network (LAN). This method guarantees the uniformity of the system and allows, in case of issues, very fast recovery of the local disks which could be used as scratch area. It also provides greater flexibility as the nodes can be reconfigured and restarted with a different operating system in a very timely manner. A user-friendly web interface offers a quick overview of the current farm configuration and status, allowing changes to be applied on selected subsets or on the whole farm in an efficient and consistent manner. Also, various actions that would otherwise be time consuming and error prone can be quickly and safely executed. We describe the design, functionality and performance of this system and its web-based interface, including its integration with other CERN and ATLAS databases and with the monitoring infrastructure.

  5. Mastitis occurrence and constraints to mastitis control in smallholder dairy farming systems in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byarugaba, D. K.; Nakavuma, J. L.; Vaarst, Mette

    2008-01-01

    was administered to 60 farmers to collect data regarding their farm circumstances and management of their farms and the risk factors to mastitis. Quarter milk samples were collected from the milking cows and screened for mastitis using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The milk samples were cultured...... for isolation of pathogens and assessment of their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. A total of 172 milking cows were sampled corresponding to 688-quarter milk samples. The prevalence of CMT-positive cows was 61.3%, of which sub-clinical mastitis was 60.7%. The levels of hygiene on most of the farms......A study was conducted in the district of Jinja in Uganda to explore the pattern of mastitis including the occurrence of antibiotic resistant mastitis pathogens and to understand the constraints that limit effective control of mastitis in smallholder dairy farming systems.  A questionnaire...

  6. PERFORMANCES COMPARISON BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL PIG FARMING SYSTEMS IN MANOKWARI, WEST PAPUA PROVINCE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desni Triana Ruli Saragih

    2015-10-01

    were no differences in household members, experience, average pig owned, working hours, selling period, litter size and number of farrowing. There are nine point of pig farming improvement that should be done to sustain pig farming systems in Manokwari Papua. Education may be improved by provide informal and skillful education. Pig ownership should be increased. Working hours must be increased. Pig keeping in the pens should be done by farmers. Managing pigs with additional time is important so that pigs will be maintained well. Litter sizes both in urban and rural are low, therefore further improvements are needed. Recording pig productivities must be done by every farmer. (Key words: Arfak pig farmers, Pig performance, Rural pig farming, Urban pig farming

  7. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  8. FUNCTIONING OF A FARM ADVISORY SYSTEM ACCORDING TO THE FARMERS OF THE OPOLE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisława Sokołowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farm advisory system is a unique form of long-lasting education of framers and rural area dwellers. This attribute is significant as far as a transformation of European agriculture is concerned which resulted in creating a farm advisory system for the territorial scope Europe. The effectiveness of the system depends on many factors mainly, however, on active trust of farmers in the knowledge they acquire. The case study uses a questionnaire data collecting method in the households of the Opole voivodeship. On their basis the place and aim of a farm advisory organisation in the system of both agricultural knowledge and information have been determined as well as kinds of knowledge sought by farmers. The respondents’ evaluation of the significance of this institutional structure in the development of households and in the local development has also been presented. A question of the use of regional internet platforms in the realisation of farm advisory system tasks has been considered. The case study ends with conclusions and recommendation referring to the challenges to be faced by the regional structures of a farm advisory system.

  9. The Effect of GST on Farm Management Information Systems and Business Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lewis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1989 New Zealand farmers were confronted by the introduction of a GST. Despite the short to medium term difficulties, many farmers have benefited from the experience. The introduction of the GST forced many New Zealand farmers to improve their record systems as they were required to submit more extensive and accurate information to comply with their new GST requirements. This increase in sophistication of their record systems also meant that farmers had a larger store of more accurate information available to support their farm business management decision-making. It is expected that the introduction of GST and PAYG reporting requirements in Australia is also acting as a catalyst in the evolution of dairy farm record systems and increase in dairy farmer’s store of business management skills. This paper reports the results of a survey that describes the characteristics of dairy farm management information systems and indicates the business management skills that dairy farmers perceive they need to acquire in the short term in order to improve their farm management information systems and comply with their GST requirements. Overall, the importance of bookkeeping/ accounting skills is strongly related to BAS. However, the results also show that as the level of sophistication of dairy farm record systems grows the demand for business skills shifts from accounting/ bookkeeping skills to computer and analytical skills.

  10. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...... of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows...

  11. The Complexity Of Government Communication System In Ettawa Crossbed (Ec Goat Farming In Purworejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Handaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to determine the complexity of the environment that is faced by the government communication system and regulation that was used to resolve the issue. The theory used is communication system in the perspective of Niklas Luhmann. The research method used is ethnography. The population of the study are in Purworejo which becomes center of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. Data collection technique is conducted throught interviews and observations. The results of data analysis show that the government communication system has made regulations to resolve the real problems of crossbreed Ettawa goat farming that is done by breeders. When the government communication system produces the regulation, environmental issue has grown more complex. So the regulation that was made becomes irrelevant to the demands and challenge in the crossbreed Ettawa goat farming. The government communication system is slow in reducing the complexity of the environment and producing regulation.

  12. Dynamic performance of a novel offshore power system integrated with a wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlandini, Valentina; Pierobon, Leonardo; Schløer, Signe

    2016-01-01

    of the system is compared with a simplified plant consisting of three gas turbines and a wind farm, in order to identify benefits of the installation of the ORC system. The maximum allowable wind power is 10 MW for a nominal platform load of 30 MW. The results show that the presence of the ORC system allows......Offshore wind technology is rapidly developing and a wind farm can be integrated with offshore power stations. This paper considers as case study a futuristic platform powered by a wind farm and three combined cycle units consisting of a gas turbine and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) module....... The first aim of this paper is to identify the maximum amount of wind power that can be integrated into the system, without compromising the electric grid balance. The stability of the grid is tested using a dynamic model of the power system based on first principles. Additionally, the dynamics...

  13. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  14. Environmental and economic comparisons of manure application methods in farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Kleinman, P J A; Dell, C J; Veith, T L; Beegle, D B

    2011-01-01

    Alternative methods for applying livestock manure to no-till soils involve environmental and economic trade-offs. A process-level farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to evaluate methods for applying liquid dairy (Bos taurus L.) and swine (Sus scrofa L.) manure, including no application, broadcast spreading with and without incorporation by tillage, band application with soil aeration, and shallow disk injection. The model predicted ammonia emissions, nitrate leaching, and phosphorus (P) runoff losses similar to those measured over 4 yr of field trials. Each application method was simulated over 25 yr of weather on three Pennsylvania farms. On a swine and cow-calf beef operation under grass production, shallow disk injection increased profit by $340 yr(-1) while reducing ammonia nitrogen and soluble P losses by 48 and 70%, respectively. On a corn (Zea mays L.)-and-grass-based grazing dairy farm, shallow disk injection reduced ammonia loss by 21% and soluble P loss by 76% with little impact on farm profit. Incorporation by tillage and band application with aeration provided less environmental benefit with a net decrease in farm profit. On a large corn-and-alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-based dairy farm where manure nutrients were available in excess of crop needs, incorporation methods were not economically beneficial, but they provided environmental benefits with relatively low annual net costs ($13 to $18 cow). In all farming systems, shallow disk injection provided the greatest environmental benefit at the least cost or greatest profit for the producer. With these results, producers are better informed when selecting manure application equipment.

  15. Vertical farming monitoring system using the internet of things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yap Shien; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    Vertical farming had become a hot topic among peak development countries. However, vertical farming is hard to practice because minor changes on the surrounding would leave big impact to the productivity and quality of farming activity. Thus, the aim of this project is to provide a vertical farming monitoring system to help keeping track on the physical conditions of crops. In this system, varieties of sensors will be used to detect current physical conditions, and send the data to BeagleBone Black (BBB) microcontroller either in analog or digital input. Then, the data will be processed by BBB and upload to the Thingspeak Cloud. Furthermore, the system will record the position of equipment in used, which make it easier for maintenance when there is equipment broken down. The system also provide basic remote function where users could turn on/off the watering system, and the LED light via web-based application. The web-based application will also be designed to analyze and display data gathered in the form of graphs, charts or figures, for better understanding. With the improvement implemented on the vertical farming culture, it is expected that the productivity and quality of crops would increase significantly.

  16. Evaluation of the sustainability of contrasted pig farming systems: breeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Rydhmer, L; Gourdine, Jean-Luc; de Greef, K; Bonneau, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of breeding activities in 15 pig farming systems in five European countries was evaluated. One conventional and two differentiated systems per country were studied. The Conventional systems were the standard systems in their countries. The differentiated systems were of three categories: Adapted Conventional with focus on animal welfare, meat quality or environment (five systems); Traditional with local breeds in small-scale production (three systems) and Organic (two syste...

  17. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA....... Comprehensive studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the network design, component parameters, and wind-speed regimes on the GRA. The analysis presented in this paper is useful for both future wind farm planning and existing OWF evaluation....

  18. Influence of farming system and production purpose on the morphostructure of Spanish goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gonzalez-Martinez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of farming systems, based on the morphostructure of 1,571 female goats drawn from 40 flocks containing seven Spanish breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtiberica, Negra Serrana, Pirenaica, Payoya, Murciano-Granadina and Malagueña raised under four different farming systems. Analysis of morphometric variables showed that the morphostructure of native Spanish goat breeds was linked to the farming system used and thus to the production purpose. The morphostructure of grazing breeds may be more influenced by natural selection within the physical environment and less by human selection. That of stall-fed breeds, by contrast, reflects intense artificial selection aimed at achieving a highly-productive dairy type. For this reason, morphological evaluation systems used in breeding programmes for meat or dual-purpose goat breeds farmed extensively or semi-extensively should be specific, and should reflect the influence of the environment in which these goats are farmed.

  19. Standardized facility record and report model system (FARMS) for material accounting and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideo; Ihara, Hitoshi; Hisamatsu, Yoshinori.

    1990-07-01

    A facility in which nuclear materials are handled maintains a facility system of accounting for and control of nuclear material. Such a system contains, as one of key elements, a record and report system. This record and report information system is a rather complex one because it needs to conform to various requirements from the national or international safeguards authorities and from the plant operator who has to achieve a safe and economical operation of the plant. Therefore it is mandatory to computerize such information system. The authors have reviewed these requirements and standardized the book-keeping and reporting procedures in line with their computerization. On the basis of this result the authors have developed a computer system, FARMS, named as an acronym of standardized facility record and report model system, mainly reflecting the requirements from the national and international safeguards authorities. The development of FARMS has also been carried out as a JASPAS - Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards - project since 1985 and the FARMS code was demonstrated as an accountancy tool in the regional SSAC training courses held in Japan in 1985 and 1987. This report describes the standardization of a record and report system at the facility level, its computerization as a model system and the demonstration of the developed system, FARMS. (author)

  20. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovera, Rosario; Fernández, María Soledad; Jacob, Jens; Lucero, Nidia; Morici, Gabriel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Farace, María Isabel; Caracostantogolo, Jorge; Cavia, Regino

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels. Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights) included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported. Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid contact with other

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors related to pathogen infection in wild small mammals in intensive milk cattle and swine production systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Lovera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological processes that are involved in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens by small mammals may aid adequate and effective management measures. Few attempts have been made to analyze the ecological aspects that influence pathogen infection in small mammals in livestock production systems. We describe the infection of small mammals with Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., Trichinella spp. and Cysticercus fasciolaris and assess the related intrinsic and extrinsic factors in livestock production systems in central Argentina at the small mammal community, population and individual levels.Ten pig farms and eight dairy farms were studied by removal trapping of small mammals from 2008 to 2011. Each farm was sampled seasonally over the course of one year with cage and Sherman live traps. The 505 small mammals captured (14,359 trap-nights included three introduced murine rodents, four native rodents and two opossums. Leptospira spp., anti-Brucella spp. antibodies and Trichinella spp. were found in the three murine rodents and both opossums. Rattus norvegicus was also infected with C. fasciolaris; Akodon azarae and Oligoryzomys flavescens with Leptospira spp.; anti-Brucella spp. antibodies were found in A. azarae. Two or more pathogens occurred simultaneously on 89% of the farms, and each pathogen was found on at least 50% of the farms. Pathogen infections increased with host abundance. Infection by Leptospira spp. also increased with precipitation and during warm seasons. The occurrence of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies was higher on dairy farms and during the winter and summer. The host abundances limit values, from which farms are expected to be free of the studied pathogens, are reported.Murine rodents maintain pathogens within farms, whereas other native species are likely dispersing pathogens among farms. Hence, we recommend preventing and controlling murines in farm dwellings and isolating farms from their surroundings to avoid

  2. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  3. Strategic Maintenance Scheduling of an Offshore Wind Farm in a Deregulated Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mazidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for strategic maintenance scheduling of offshore wind farms (SMSOWF in a deregulated power system. The objective of the model is to plan the maintenance schedules in a way to maximize the profit of the offshore wind farm. In addition, some network constraints, such as transmission lines capacity, and wind farm constraints, such as labor working shift, wave height limit and wake effect, as well as unexpected outages, are included in deterministic and stochastic studies. Moreover, the proposedmodel provides theability to incorporate information from condition monitoring systems. SMSOWF is formulated through a bi-level formulation and then transformed into a single-level through Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions. The model is validated through a test system, and the results demonstrate applicability, advantages and challenges of harnessing the full potential of the model.

  4. Open-nucleus theory for beef cattle breeding systems: A revisitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Packer, I.U.; Tenorio Vasconselos, M.

    1990-07-01

    A theoretical model for Open-Nucleus Systems is herein described in the case of beef cattle breeding. One of the starting points is the observation that the majority of the standard theoretical models for open-nucleus breeding systems were constructed for the case of discrete generations, i.e. for the cases in which the dam average fertility coefficient is f>2. In the case of cattle herds, when only a fraction of the breeding dams can be replaced, it is therefore worthwhile to build up anew a rather rigorous theoretical model, with overlapping generations, and check its predictions. Namely, we apply the new formulae - explicitly depending on β F , ν F , ν M , K and R - to the system in which all breeding sires are in the Nucleus (and are reared in the nucleus itself), and are mated to both Nucleus and Base dams via artificial insemination. Optimal system design has been looked for by the NAG and MINOS computation programs, operated on Vax computers. Opening the nucleus in this situation results to be very effective since the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain per generation for ''closed nucleus'' systems (x=0) results to be, when e.g. R≡F/M≅200, more than 40% lower than the (optimum) asymptotic genetic gain, G*, for open nucleus systems. Optimal design corresponds to: (i) having a fraction p≅16% of the female population in the nucleus; (ii) replacing practically all the (nucleus) breeding sires by the best (nucleus born) males: ν M =97/98%; (iii) using for dam replacement all (b≅100%) the (base and nucleus born) females; (iv) implementing a high upward gene migration (x≅80%), while all the surplus nucleus-born females are to be used as base replacements. This corresponds to replace, at each generation, also almost all the nucleus dams (ν F ≅95/100%), and the largest possible fraction of base dams (β F ≅30%, a value changing with p). 17 refs

  5. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and cattle from Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jorge Rodrigues Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease of global distribution that affects all warm-blooded animals. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and identify the risk factors associated with its occurrence in domestic ruminants raised on the island of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil, and to confirm that cattle and sheep raised in Fernando de Noronha Island present statistically different T. gondii prevalence rates. Serum samples were collected from sheep (n=240 and cattle (n=140 for the detection of antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. Samples were collected from all the animals on all the farms. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and logistic regression. The prevalence rate of positive sheep was 85.0% while that of cattle was 10.7%. A multivariate analysis revealed that the site of contact of sheep with felines was a risk factor. For cattle, the risk factors identified in this study were: extensive farming system, water source, more than three cats per farm, and the presence of rats in feed storage locations. The findings revealed a significant difference in the prevalence rates in sheep and cattle raised in this insular environment.

  6. Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2013-07-01

    The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis to develop a program for energy-integrated farm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Clark, M.A.; Inaba, L.K.; Johnson, K.I.

    1981-09-01

    A program to use renewable energy resources and possibly develop decentralization of energy systems for agriculture is discussed. The purpose of the research presented is to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for program development. The program's objective is determined by: (1) an analysis of the technologies that could be utilized to transform renewable farm resources to energy by the year 2000, (2) the quantity of renewable farm resources that are available, and (3) current energy-use patterns. Individual research, development, and demonstration projects are fit into a national program of energy-integrated farm systems on the basis of: (1) market need, (2) conversion potential, (3) technological opportunities, and (4) acceptability. Quantification of these factors for the purpose of establishing program guidelines is conducted using the following four precepts: (1) market need is identified by current use of energy for agricultural production; (2) conversion potential is determined by the availability of renewable resources; and (3) technological opportunities are determined by the state-of-the-art methods, techniques, and processes that can convert renewable resources into farm energy. Each of these factors is analyzed in Chapters 2 to 4. Chapter 5 draws on the analysis of these factors to establish the objective of the program and identify guidelines for the distribution of program funds. Chapter 6 then discusses the acceptability of integrated farm systems, which can not be quantified like the other factors.

  8. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  9. Effect of complementation of cattle cooling systems with feedline soakers on lactating dairy cows in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Bradford, B J; Harner, J P; Oddy, A

    2011-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted on a commercial dairy farm in eastern Saudi Arabia to investigate the effects of Korral Kool (KK; Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ) cattle cooling systems complemented with feedline soakers on core body temperature (CBT) of dairy cows. In both experiments, cows had access to KK 24h/d. In the first experiment, 7 primiparous and 6 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence over 4 d in a switchback design. Soakers were on (ON24) or off (OFF24) for 24h/d. For the second experiment, 20 multiparous lactating Holstein cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 pens, which were assigned randomly to treatment sequence in a switchback design. This experiment lasted 4 d and feedline soakers alternately remained off or were on (ON12) for 12h/d. In experiment 1, average ambient temperature was 30 ± 0.9°C and average relative humidity was 44 ± 14% (mean ± SD). Feedline soakers complementing KK systems for 24 h/d decreased the mean CBT of lactating dairy cows compared with KK systems alone (38.80 vs. 38.98 ± 0.061°C, respectively). A significant treatment by time interaction was found. The greatest treatment effects occurred at 2100 h; treatment means at this time were 39.26 and 38.85 ± 0.085°C for OFF24 and ON24 treatments, respectively. In experiment 2, average ambient temperature was 35 ± 1.5°C and average relative humidity was 33 ± 16%. Feedline soakers running for 12 h/d significantly decreased the mean 24-h CBT from 39.16 to 38.99 ± 0.084°C. Treatment by time interaction was also significant; the greatest treatment effects occurred at 1500 h, when ON12 reduced CBT from 39.38 to 38.81 ± 0.088°C. These results demonstrate that complementing the KK system with feedline soakers decreased the CBT of dairy cows housed in desert environments. However, the combined systems were not sufficient to lower CBT to normal temperatures in this extreme environment. Copyright

  10. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    characteristic forage systems according to field management based on grazing, zero-grazing, conserved forages and growth of maize. The semi-dynamic whole farm model FarmAC was used to characterize a model farm representing an average farm in each of the forage systems including field area and use, number of cows...

  11. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  12. Cassava and soil fertility in intensifying smallholder farming systems of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermont, van A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Cost-benefits, Crop management, Farming systems, Fertilizer, Food security, Generalizations, Income, Labour, Land pressure, Niche, Rainfall, Sub-Saharan Africa, System analysis, Yield gap.
    Cassava is an important crop in Africa. This thesis focuses on cassava production in the mid

  13. Socioeconomic impact of widespread adoption of precision farming and controlled traffic systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2012-01-01

    and the Danish society as a whole. At the farm level, the findings from the study indicate that an implementation of CTF systems may have a significant impact on fuel savings due to a reduced overlap with auto guidance systems and easier movement with tractors and tools in the field. The PF site-specific weed...

  14. Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Hloušková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.

  15. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  16. Upgrading plant amino acids through cattle to improve the nutritional value for humans: effects of different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Sonesson, U; Hessle, A

    2017-03-01

    Efficiency in animal protein production can be defined in different ways, for example the amount of human-digestible essential amino acids (HDEAA) in the feed ration relative to the amount of HDEAA in the animal products. Cattle production systems are characterised by great diversity and a wide variety of feeds and feed ration compositions, due to ruminants' ability to digest fibrous materials inedible to humans such as roughage and by-products from the food and biofuel industries. This study examined the upgrading of protein quality through cattle by determining the quantity of HDEAA in feeds and animal products and comparing different milk and beef production systems. Four different systems for milk and beef production were designed, a reference production system for milk and beef representing typical Swedish production systems today and three alternative improved systems: (i) intensive cattle production based on maize silage, (ii) intensive systems based on food industry by-products for dairy cows and high-quality forage for beef cattle, and (iii) extensive systems based on forage with only small amounts of concentrate. In all four production systems, the quantity of HDEAA in the products (milk and meat) generally exceeded the quantity of HDEAA in the feeds. The intensive production models for beef calves generally resulted in output of the same magnitude as input for most HDEAA. However, in beef production based on calves from dairy cows, the intensive rearing systems resulted in lower output than input of HDEAA. For the extensive models, the amounts of HDEAA in meat were of the same magnitude as the amounts in the feeds. The extensive models with beef calves from suckler cows resulted in higher output in meat than input in feeds for all HDEAA. It was concluded that feeding cattle plants for production of milk and meat, instead of using the plants directly as human food, generally results in an upgrading of both the quantity and quality of protein, especially

  17. THE INFORMATION SYSTEM TO SUPPORT SAFE FOOD PRODUCTION IN CATTLE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez JERETINA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2006 we started with the development of computerized system for monitoring the veterinarian treatments to support safe food production in cattle sector. Veterinary database and web application which will be used by PC or handhelds were created. Additionally the code listing of diseases was built up with technical support of Veterinary Faculty. The idea was that all treatments should be registered into database, connected to the database of Animal Identification and Registration Service (SIR. Slaughterhouses which are connected to SIR regularly check the identity of incoming animals. According to our project they are warned if the withdrawal period is not respected or health status is not suitable. The response time of slaughterhouses, dairy or other official authorities will be reduced in these cases. The suggested model upgrades the system of traceability and helps the veterinarians at their professional work, too. All the data will be accessible to breeders and other agricultural services.

  18. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  19. Performance and operational experience with the heterogeneous farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition system.

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connectivities, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we will present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We will describe a graphical tool to show, control, modify and balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon which provides a high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information, and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  20. Performance and Operational Experience with the Heterogeneous Farm of the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Garelli, N; The ATLAS collaboration; Vandelli, W

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) is a distributed, multi trigger level, data-acquisition system, mostly made of off-the-shelf processing units organized in a farm. In its final configuration the system will account more than 2000 nodes, sporting heterogeneous capabilities and network connections, due to the TDAQ program for rolling expansions and upgrades. In this paper we present how we dealt with the farm heterogeneity during the proton-proton collisions of 2010 and 2011: a period characterized by changing working conditions, and constantly increasing LHC instantaneous luminosity. We describe a graphical tool to balance the computing-power and bandwidth sharing across the trigger farms, a data-flow monitoring daemon that provides high-level resource-aware data-flow operational information and the evolution of data-flow communication protocols.

  1. Energy conservation in the dairy cattle farming. Production of milk - vacuum supply, cooling, purification; Energieeinsparung in der Milchviehhaltung. Milchgewinnung - Vakuumsversorgung, Kuehlung, Reinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonkoss, K.; Neiber, J.; Neser, S.

    2012-09-15

    The major approaches of dairy cattle processing companies in the energy conservation are the milk extraction and milk cooling. The energy consumption can be significantly reduced by means of energy efficient plants such as frequency controlled vacuum pumps, preliminary cooling and heat recovery. Not only the consumption of electricity but also the consumption of water, the functional reality as well as the process quality should be considered. In the case of a new investment or replacement investment in energy saving plants, all influencing factors such as the present technology, the development of the company as well as the actual or planned energy supply of the company are to be considered.

  2. Smart Dairy Farming through Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonsri Vate-U-LanAssumption University, Bangkok, Thailand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report a smart dairy farming in Ontario, Canada, which is a case study for future of food production, and ways that advancements related to the Internet of Things (IoT. It is impacting upon agricultural practice in the form of smart farming. Smart farming is the practice of intelligent agricultural management based upon technological data gathering farm practice for the purpose of increased levels of quality, production, and environmental protection. This paper will illustrate one example whereby partnerships among the academic world, government agencies and local food producing communities in Canada are adapting innovative thinking and smart technologies to address the need to implement the more effective agricultural practice. Food from Thought is a Canadian research project, based upon high-tech information systems to produce enough food for a growing human population while sustaining the Earth’s ecosystems. The paper will outline how one dairy farmer in Ontario has been able to apply smart farming technologies to increase milk production while maintaining the health of his cattle and preserving the environment. The review of applications of smart farming in Ontario such as digital tracking for a cow, genomic testing, digitally signaled birth, sensor driven crop management and data driven dairy production also details in this article.

  3. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  4. Welfare of cattle kept in intensive silvopastoral systems: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different intensive silvopastoral systems (ISPS on cattle animal welfare (AW in Colombia. The three ISPS differed in area, plant composition, and grazing periods as follows: ISPS1 - low plant diversity in paddocks of 1200 m2, with grazing period of 24 h; ISPS2 - middle plant diversity in paddocks of 600 m2, with grazing period of 12 h; and ISPS3 - high plant diversity in paddocks of 600 m2, with grazing period of 24 h. Animal welfare was assessed using a wide range of criteria, which were integrated using L-spline functions and Choquet integrals to generate overall values. It was found that AW was good in all ISPS; the highest scoring criteria was for food and water, with 99, 97, and 100 points from a maximum of 100 for ISPSs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Comfort showed values of 100 for all three systems, but good health was the most problematic criteria of the AW features with scores of 25, 40, and 36 for ISPSs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All three ISPS showed excellent scores for appropriate behavior (82, 88, and 89. The welfare problems shown here were not specific to the individual ISPS, but were common to all livestock systems in the region. Despite the differences in diversity of plants, size of paddocks, and grazing period among the three ISPSs tested, all of them provide cattle with sufficient resources and a diverse environment, ensuring a good state of welfare to them.

  5. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  6. Development and analysis of microbial characteristics of an acidulocomposting system for the treatment of garbage and cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryoki; Otawa, Kenichi; Ozutsumi, Yuhei; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Abdel-Mohsein, Hosnia Swafy; Nakai, Yutaka

    2010-10-01

    An acidulocomposting system for the treatment of cattle manure with little emission of ammonia gas was developed, and the structure of its microbial community was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library construction. An acidulocomposting apparatus (BC20, 20 L) was operated for 79 days to treat 2 kg (wet wt) of garbage per 1 or 2 days. On day 80 of operation, the substrate was changed from garbage to cattle manure (1 kg of beef cattle manure was added to the apparatus every 2 or 3 days), and the system continued operating from days 80 to 158. The compost in the vessel was under acidic conditions at pH 5.2-5.8, and ammonia emission was below the detectable level (acidulocomposting treatment of cattle manure is not accompanied by ammonia emission and that Bacillus and LAB may be the key components in the system. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  8. Simulation of interaction between wind farm and power system[Flicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hansen, A.; Janosi, L.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    A dynamic model of the wind farm Hagesholm has been implemented in the dedicated power system simulation program DIgSILENT. The wind farm consists of six 2MW NM2000/72 wind turbines from NEG-Micon. The model has been verified using simultaneous power quality measurements on the 10 kV terminals of a single wind turbine and power performance measurements on two wind turbines. The verification shows a generally good agreement between simulations and measurements, although the simulations at higher wind speeds seem to underestimate the power and voltage fluctuations. A way to improve the simulation at higher wind speeds is suggested. (au)

  9. Influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming systems in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Migose, S.A.; Bebe, B.O.; Boer, de, I.J.M.; Oosting, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    We studied influence of distance to urban markets on smallholder dairy farming system development. Farms were chosen from three locations that varied in distance to the urban market of Nakuru Town in the Kenyan highlands: urban location (UL, n = 10) at less than 15 km distance, mid-rural location (MRL, n = 11) in between 20 and 50 km west of Nakuru and extreme rural location (ERL, n = 9) beyond 50 km west and south-west of Nakuru. In-depth interviews with farmers and focus group discussions w...

  10. Serological investigation of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon I.B. Cadmus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the risk factors responsible for the occurrence of brucellosis amongst different cattle production systems in Nigeria despite its significant impact on livestock production. Consequently, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in three cattle production systems in Yewa Division of Ogun State, south-western Nigeria. A total of 279 blood samples (sedentary = 88; transhumance = 64; trade = 127 were examined for antibodies to Brucella sp. using the Rose Bengal test (RBT and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. Overall, 24 (8.6% and 16 (5.7% of the animals tested seropositive for Brucella using RBT and cELISA, respectively. The herd seroprevalences based on RBT and cELISA were 31.6% and 15.8%, respectively. The results using cELISA reveal higher seroprevalence in the trade cattle (7.9%; confidence intervals [CI] = 3.2% – 12.6% and those in a sedentary system (5.7%; CI = 0.9% – 10.5% than in cattle kept under a transhumant management system (1.6%; CI = 1.5% – 4.7%. Age (> 3 years; p = 0.043 and breed (Djali; p = 0.038 were statistically significant for seropositivity to brucellosis based on cELISA, but sex (female, p = 0.234, production system (trade and sedentary; p = 0.208 or herd size (> 120; p = 0.359 was not. Since breeding stock is mostly sourced from trade and sedentary cattle, it is important that routine serological screening should be conducted before introducing any animal into an existing herd.

  11. A Multi-level hierarchic Markov process with Bayesian updating for herd optimization and simulation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeter, R.M.; Kristensen, A.R.; Dijkstra, J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Herd optimization models that determine economically optimal insemination and replacement decisions are valuable research tools to study various aspects of farming systems. The aim of this study was to develop a herd optimization and simulation model for dairy cattle. The model determines

  12. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable

  13. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate variability and change in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurinda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Climate change; Increased climate variability; Vulnerability; Smallholder farmers; Adaptation

    Climate change and increased climate variability are currently seen as the major constraints to the already stressed smallholder farming livelihood system in

  14. Aligning strategy and performance management systems : the case of the wind-farm industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieira, R.; O'Dwyer, B.; Schneider, R.

    This article presents a case study examining the problems and possibilities of performance management in a wind-farm company. Drawing on Ferreira and Otley’s recently developed performance management systems (PMSs) framework, the study demonstrates how the framework facilitates in-depth, holistic,

  15. Optimizing soil and water management in dryland farming systems in Cabo Verde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Baptista Costa, Dos I.

    2016-01-01

    “Optimizing Soil and Water Management in Dryland Farming Systems in Cabo Verde”

    Isaurinda Baptista

    Summary

    Soil and land degradation poses a great challenge for sustainable development worldwide and, in Cabo Verde, has strongly affected both

  16. Diagnosis for ecological intensification of maize-based smallholder farming systems in the Costa Chica, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Kleine Koerkamp-Rabelista, J.; Navarro-Garza, H.; Lantinga, E.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Kropff, M.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced utilization of ecological processes for food and feed production as part of the notion of ecological intensification starts from location-specific knowledge of production constraints. A diagnostic systems approach which combined social-economic and production ecological methods at farm and

  17. Decision support for mastitis on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.

    2010-01-01

    For an optimal mastitis management on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), two individual cow decisions are important. First, there is a need for decision support on which mastitis alerts have the highest priority for visual checking for clinical mastitis (CM). In essence, all cows with

  18. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  19. Co-learning cycles to support the design of innovative farm systems in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falconnier, Gatien N.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Mourik, Van Thomas A.; Adam, Myriam; Sogoba, Bougouna; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Farm systems were re-designed together with farmers during three years (2013–2015) in Southern Mali with the aim to improve income without compromising food self-sufficiency. A cyclical learning model with three steps was used: Step 1 was the co-design of a set of crop/livestock technical

  20. On-farm impact of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Evidence and knowledge gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2015-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix

  1. Upscaling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Related Agroecosystems Services in Smallholder Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruru, Marjorie Bonareri; Njeru, Ezekiel Mugendi

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder farming systems form unique ecosystems that can protect beneficial soil biota and form an important source of useful genetic resources. They are characterized by high level of agricultural diversity mainly focused on meeting farmers' needs. Unfortunately, these systems often experience poor crop production mainly associated with poor planning and resource scarcity. Soil fertility is among the primary challenges faced by smallholder farmers, which necessitate the need to come up with affordable and innovative ways of replenishing soils. One such way is the use of microbial symbionts such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a beneficial group of soil microbiota that form symbiotic associations with majority of cultivated crops and play a vital role in biological soil fertility, plant nutrition, and protection. AMF can be incorporated in smallholder farming systems to help better exploit chemical fertilizers inputs which are often unaffordable to many smallholder farmers. The present review highlights smallholder farming practices that could be innovatively redesigned to increase AMF symbiosis and related agroecosystem services. Indeed, the future of global food security depends on the success of smallholder farming systems, whose crop productivity depends on the services provided by well-functioning ecosystems, including soil fertility. PMID:26942194

  2. Soil quality improvement under an ecologically based farming system in northwest Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologically based farming conserves and improves the soil resource and protects environmental quality by using organic or natural resources without application of synthetic chemicals. Soil quality assessment indicates the ability of management systems to optimize soil productivity and to maintain i...

  3. Soil microbiome is more heterogeneous in organic than in conventional farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupatini, Manoeli; Korthals, Gerard W.; de Hollander, Mattias; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming system and sustainable management of soil pathogens aim at reducing the use of agricultural chemicals in order to improve ecosystem health. Despite the essential role of microbial communities in agro-ecosystems, we still have limited understanding of the complex response of microbial

  4. Effects of climate change and adaptation on the livestock component of mixed farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Descheemaeker, Katrien; Zijlstra, Mink; Masikati, Patricia; Crespo, Olivier; Homann-Kee Tui, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Large uncertainties about the impacts of climate change and adaptation options on the livestock component of heterogeneous African farming systems hamper tailored decision making towards climate-smart agriculture. This study addressed this knowledge gap through the development and use of a

  5. Sustainable intensification of smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia : what roles can scattered trees play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sida, Tesfaye Shiferaw

    2018-01-01

    Scattered trees dominate smallholder agricultural landscapes in Ethiopia, as in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While the integration of scattered trees with crops could provide a viable pathway for sustainable intensification of these farming systems, they also lead to trade- offs.

  6. Agro-ecological indicators (AEIs) for dairy and mixed farming systems classification: Identifying alternatives for the Cuban livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.; Monzote, M.; Lantinga, E.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Sánchez, J.E.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Attainment of acceptable levels of land and labor productivity and low external input use is not a mutually exclusive proposition. This study examines characteristics of a range of current specialized dairy farming systems (DFS) and mixed (crop-livestock) farming systems (MFS) in Cuba to determine

  7. Livestock production & marketing: interaction between farming system, supply chain, and context - a systems perspective with examples from the dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationships between animal product value chains and the farming systems these are produced by. Starting from a description of these production and marketing systems and their environment, this paper takes a general look at the dynamics within and between these systems. It

  8. Methodological Aspects of On-Farm Monitoring of Cropping Systems Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bechini

    Full Text Available To conduct agro-environmental assessments at field and farm scale, detailed management data of crop and animal production systems are needed. However, this type of data is only rarely collected by public administrations. In the period 2005-2006, we made an experience of on-farm monitoring of cropping systems management, within a larger project aimed at assessing sustainability of agricultural systems in Italian Parks. In this paper, we describe and discuss the steps taken to carry out periodic face-to-face interviews in farms in the Sud Milano Agricultural Park (northern Italy. The first step was the selection of seven farms, which we identified by applying cluster analysis at a large database describing 733 farms of the Park. After having identified the most relevant agro-environmental issues in the studied area, we established a list of simple but sound indicators to evaluate the effects of agricultural management on the environment. The criteria used to select the indicators were that they should: be calculated on easily available data, not be based on direct measurements, make a synthesis of different aspects of reality, and be easily calculated and understood. The indicators selected evaluate nutrient management, fossil energy use, pesticide toxicity, soil management, and economic performance. Subsequently, we designed a data model to store input data used to calculate the indicators (farm configuration, flows of materials and money through the farm gate, animals and their rations, history of crop cultivation, crop management. The data model that we obtained is relatively complex, but adequate to store and analyse the large amount of data acquired during the two-year project. A questionnaire was developed to fully comply with the indicators selected and the data model. The questionnaire was used to carry out approximately six interviews per farm each year, with an investment of time of 1-2 hours per interview. Appropriate double checks of

  9. Impact of potato cultivation and cattle farming on physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; León Sicard, Tomás Enrique; Torres Rojas, Esperanza

    2018-08-01

    The Andean Páramos are high mountain ecosystems whose soils are essential for the management of South American water resources, but research on anthropic impacts to these soils is currently minimal and insufficient. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivation and livestock on the physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities that determine the soil quality of the Neotropical high Andean Páramo ecosystem in the Nevados National Natural Park (Nevados NNP) in Colombia. It was hypothesised that sites with potato crops and livestock farming would exhibit significant changes in soil physicochemical parameters and enzymatic activities compared with Páramo sites that have been conserved without agriculture. Samples were collected from soils under potato cultivation, livestock and Páramo (subject to the lowest degree of human intervention possible), on three farms in the El Bosque District at three different altitudes (Buenos Aires, El Edén and La Secreta) during two seasons (dry and rainy). The results showed that none of the physical parameters under study presented statistically significant differences due to the type of use (livestock, potato crop or Páramo), season of sampling (dry or rainy season) or altitude (different farms). The chemical parameters that statistically significantly differed due to land use were organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, calcium, potassium, and ammonium and those that showed statistically significant differences associated with the sampling timing were organic carbon, nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, total carbon, C/N and nitrate. Additionally, there were differences in organic carbon due to the altitude of the farms. With respect to enzymatic activities, those of β-glucosidase, phosphodiesterase and urease significantly decreased in soils under potato cultivation and livestock relative to those of Páramo, but those of acid phosphatase and protease increased

  10. ASAS centennial paper: net energy systems for beef cattle--concepts, application, and future models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, C L; Oltjen, J W

    2008-10-01

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the 1400s. Lavoisier established relationships among O(2) use, CO(2) production and heat production in the late 1700s, and the laws of thermodynamics and law of Hess were discovered during the 1840s. Those discoveries established the fundamental bases for nutritional energetics and enabled the fundamental entity ME = retained energy + heat energy to be established. Objectives became: 1) to establish relationships between gas exchange and heat energy, 2) to devise bases for evaluation of foods that could be related to energy expenditures, and 3) to establish causes of energy expenditures. From these endeavors, the basic concepts of energy partitioning by animals were developed, ultimately resulting in the development of feeding systems based on NE concepts. The California Net Energy System, developed for finishing beef cattle, was the first to be based on retained energy as determined by comparative slaughter and the first to use 2 NE values (NE(m) and NE(g)) to describe feed and animal requirements. The system has been broadened conceptually to encompass life cycle energy requirements of beef cattle and modified by the inclusion of numerous adjustments to address factors known to affect energy requirements and value of feed to meet those needs. The current NE system remains useful but is empirical and static in nature and thus fails to capture the dynamics of energy utilization by diverse animals as they respond to changing environmental conditions. Consequently, efforts were initiated to develop dynamic simulation models that captured the underlying biology and thus were sensitive to variable genetic and environmental conditions. Development of a series of models has been described to show examples of the conceptual evolution of dynamic, mechanistic models and their applications. Generally with each new system, advances in prediction accuracy came about by adding new terms to conceptually validated models

  11. Profile and Role of Woman Involvement in Dry System Pig Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartoko Hartoko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to study the profile and role of woman involvement in dry system pig farming (pig housing with mattress from grass, pig manure, vegetable waste and kitchen waste.  The research was carried out from August to November 2003.  Pig housing areas were located on eight villages of Kertek District in Wonosobo Regency (Central Java.  The method applied was survey with intensive observation.  Sample were randomly selected, involved 180 respondents (15 percent of total pig farmers, while the locations of the sample were selected based on purposive sampling method.  The result showed that respondents were in productive age, with low formal education level. Most of all are Moslems (98% and they have small family size.  The level of woman involvement in pig farming was high, approximately 85 percent.  They have other income source and they involve in pig farming to help their husbands in generating income.  Experience in the dry system pig farming was quite long (more than 10 years and skill come from imitating their neighbours otherwise of autodidact. (Animal Production 6(1: 23-29 (2004   Key Words: Pig, Dry System, Woman Profile and Role

  12. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  13. Invited review: Learning from the future-A vision for dairy farms and cows in 2067.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, J H; Cushman, R A; Dechow, C D; Dobson, H; Humblot, P; Hutjens, M F; Jones, G A; Ruegg, P S; Sheldon, I M; Stevenson, J S

    2018-05-01

    The world's population will reach 10.4 billion in 2067, with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems. Profitability of dairy farms will be the key to their sustainability. Genetic improvements will include emphasis on the coding genome and associated noncoding epigenome of cattle, and on microbiomes of dairy cattle and farmsteads. Farm sizes will increase and there will be greater lateral integration of housing and management of dairy cattle of different ages and production stages. Integrated sensors, robotics, and automation will replace much of the manual labor on farms. Managing the epigenome and microbiome will become part of routine herd management. Innovations in dairy facilities will improve the health of cows and permit expression of natural behaviors. Herds will be viewed as superorganisms, and studies of herds as observational units will lead to improvements in productivity, health, and well-being of dairy cattle, and improve the agroecology and sustainability of dairy farms. Dairy farmers in 2067 will meet the world's needs for essential nutrients by adopting technologies and practices that provide improved cow health and longevity, profitable dairy farms, and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate

  15. Farmers' preferences for automatic lameness-detection systems in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Van Nuffel, A; Pluym, L; Piccart, K; Lauwers, L; Vangeyte, J; Van Weyenberg, S

    2017-07-01

    As lameness is a major health problem in dairy herds, a lot of attention goes to the development of automated lameness-detection systems. Few systems have made it to the market, as most are currently still in development. To get these systems ready for practice, developers need to define which system characteristics are important for the farmers as end users. In this study, farmers' preferences for the different characteristics of proposed lameness-detection systems were investigated. In addition, the influence of sociodemographic and farm characteristics on farmers' preferences was assessed. The third aim was to find out if preferences change after the farmer receives extra information on lameness and its consequences. Therefore, a discrete choice experiment was designed with 3 alternative lameness-detection systems: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Each system was defined by 4 characteristics: the percentage missed lame cows, the percentage false alarms, the system cost, and the ability to indicate which leg is lame. The choice experiment was embedded in an online survey. After answering general questions and choosing their preferred option in 4 choice sets, extra information on lameness was provided. Consecutively, farmers were shown a second block of 4 choice sets. Results from 135 responses showed that farmers' preferences were influenced by the 4 system characteristics. The importance a farmer attaches to lameness, the interval between calving and first insemination, and the presence of an estrus-detection system contributed significantly to the value a farmer attaches to lameness-detection systems. Farmers who already use an estrus detection system were more willing to use automatic detection systems instead of visual lameness detection. Similarly, farmers who achieve shorter intervals between calving and first insemination and farmers who find lameness highly important had a higher tendency to choose for automatic

  16. Farm Household Economic Model of The Integrated Crop Livestock System: Conceptual and Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated approach to enhance rice production in Indonesia is very prospectus throughout the implementation of adapted and liable integrated program. One of the challenges in rice crop sub sector is the stagnation of its production due to the limitation of organic matter availability. This provides an opportunity for livestock development to overcome the problems on land fertility through the use of manure as the source of organic fertilizer. Ministry of Agriculture had implemented a program on Increasing Integrated Rice Productivity with an Integrated Crop Livestock System as one of the potential components since 2002. Integrated crop livestock system program with special reference to rice field and beef cattle is an alternative to enhance the potential development of agriculture sector in Indonesia. The implementation on this integrated program is to enhance rice production and productivity through a system involving beef cattle with its goal on increasing farmers’ income. Household economic model can be used as one of the analysis to evaluate the success of the implemented crop livestock system program. The specificity of the farmers is that rationality behavior of the role as production and consumption decision making. In this case, farmers perform the production to meet home consumption based on the resources that used directly for its production. The economic analysis of farmers household can be described to anticipate policy options through this model. Factors influencing farmers’ decisions and direct interrelations to production and consumption aspects that have complex implications for the farmers’ welfare of the integrated crop livestock system program.

  17. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Hwang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation.

  18. Studies of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations in Large-Scale Wind Farm Integrated System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Liu; Hang, Mend

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development and construction of large-scale wind farms and grid-connected operation, the series compensation wind power AC transmission is gradually becoming the main way of power usage and improvement of wind power availability and grid stability, but the integration of wind farm will change the SSO (Sub-Synchronous oscillation) damping characteristics of synchronous generator system. Regarding the above SSO problem caused by integration of large-scale wind farms, this paper focusing on doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms, aim to summarize the SSO mechanism in large-scale wind power integrated system with series compensation, which can be classified as three types: sub-synchronous control interaction (SSCI), sub-synchronous torsional interaction (SSTI), sub-synchronous resonance (SSR). Then, SSO modelling and analysis methods are categorized and compared by its applicable areas. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the suppression measures of actual SSO projects based on different control objectives. Finally, the research prospect on this field is explored.

  19. Anaerobic digester systems (ADS) for multiple dairy farms: A GIS analysis for optimal site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Ethan; Wang, Qingbin; Li, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    While anaerobic digester systems (ADS) have been increasingly adopted by large dairy farms to generate marketable energy products, like electricity, from animal manure, there is a growing need for assessing the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple farms that are not large enough to capitalize their own ADS. Using geographical information system (GIS) software, this study first identifies potential sites in a dairy region in Vermont, based on geographical conditions, current land use types, and energy distribution infrastructure criteria, and then selects the optimal sites for a given number of ADS, based on the number of dairy farms to be served, the primary energy input to output (PEIO) ratio of ADS, and the existing transportation network. This study suggests that GIS software is a valid technical tool for identifying the potential and optimal sites for ADS. The empirical findings provide useful information for assessing the returns of alternative numbers of ADS in this region, and the research procedures can be modified easily to incorporate any changes in the criteria for this region and can be applied in other regions with different conditions and criteria. - Highlights: • This study examines the feasibility of regional ADS for multiple dairy farms. • GIS is used to identify candidate sites and optimal locations for ADS in a dairy region. • Model includes environmental, social, infrastructure, and energy return criteria. • Empirical analysis provides scenario results on 1–15 ADS in the study region. • Method could be applied to other regions with different conditions and criteria

  20. Farm specific transmission patterns of Fasciola hepatica in Danish dairy cattle based on different diagnostic methods and monitoring of grazing management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    levels in bulk tank milk were selected. From each farm a cohort of 40 animals from different age groups (calves, heifers, primiparous and multiparous cows) were sampled 7 times between April 2015 and January 2017. Diagnostic methods included faecal egg count by sedimentation, serum ELISA and coproantigen...... ELISA. Additionally, monthly bulk tank milk samples were analyzed by ELISA. The analyses are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that F. hepatica is mainly transmitted via summer infection of snails as most animals seroconvert in late autumn without shedding of eggs. However, infection early...

  1. Typology of the noir de bigorre pig farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Justine Faure; Alexandre Fonseca; Florence Garcia-Launay

    2016-01-01

    Intensive pig production systems are facing economic and environmental challenges that outdoor systems relying on local pig breeds may overcome. The Noir de Bigorre (NDB) pork chain located in South West of France is organized as a cooperative including farmers and processers.

  2. Stability and control of wind farms in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens

    is part of the project. The mostextensive modelling work deals with the design of the electrical part of the variable speed turbine and its controls. To simulate realistic grid operation the wind turbine models are connected to an aggregated model of the Nordic power system. For thatpurpose the Nordic...... through transient faults. With these transient fault controllers the wind turbines can stay connected to the grid, such that their generation capacity is sustained, and normal gridoperation can resume, after the fault is cleared. Transient faults in the transmission system often cause power system...... oscillations. To further support the grid, a situation is assumed, where in future, wind turbines will be required to contribute to thedamping of these power system oscillations. Power system oscillations are counteracted with a controlled injection of oscillating active power. With an active-stall turbine...

  3. An Implementation of the Salt-Farm Monitoring System Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jonggil; Park, Ingon; Lee, Yongwoong; Cho, Jongsik; Cho, Hyunwook; Yoe, Hyun; Shin, Changsun

    In producing solar salt, natural environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind direction, wind speed and rain are essential elements which influence on the productivity and quality of salt. If we can manage the above mentioned environmental elements efficiently, we could achieve improved results in production of salt with good quality. To monitor and manage the natural environments, this paper suggests the Salt-Farm Monitoring System (SFMS) which is operated with renewable energy power. The system collects environmental factors directly from the environmental measure sensors and the sensor nodes. To implement a stand-alone system, we applied solar cell and wind generator to operate this system. Finally, we showed that the SFMS could monitor the salt-farm environments by using wireless sensor nodes and operate correctly without external power supply.

  4. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly Petrina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P P P P P P P Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  5. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Alexandre; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Earley, Bernadette; Black, Alistair D; Campion, Deirdre P; Englishby, Tanya; Reilly, Petrina; O'Doherty, John; Sweeney, Torres

    2010-03-31

    Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P outdoor animals (P outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system.

  6. Assessing the users’ need for a spatial decision support system of smallholder farming in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Teucher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data of the natural conditions and agricultural systems with a good spatial resolution are a key factor to tackle food insecurity in developing countries. A broad variety of approaches exists to achieve precise data and information about agriculture. One system, especially developed for smallholder agriculture in East Africa, is the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya. It was first published in 1982/83 and fully revised in 2012, now containing 7 volumes. The handbooks contain detailed information on climate, soils, suitable crops and soil care based on scientific research results of the last 30 years. The density of facts leads to time consuming extraction of all necessary information. In this study we analyse the user needs and necessary components of a system for decision support for smallholder farming in Kenya based on a geographical information system (GIS. Required data sources were identified, as well as essential functions of the system. We analysed the results of our survey conducted in 2012 and early 2013 among agricultural officers. The monitoring of user needs and the problem of non-adaptability of an agricultural information system on the level of extension officers in Kenya are the central objectives. The outcomes of the survey suggest the establishment of a decision support tool based on already available open source GIS components. The system should include functionalities to show general information for a specific location and should provide precise recommendations about suitable crops and management options to support agricultural guidance on farm level.

  7. The optimal access system for future far-offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obdam, T.S.; Rademakers, L.W.M.M.; Savenije, L.B. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Operation and maintenance (O and M) of offshore wind turbines is one of the main cost drivers of offshore wind energy. One of the aspects critical for an efficient and cost-effective O and M strategy is the selection of the access system which is used to transfer technicians and, optionally, small spare parts. Currently, most offshore wind farms are located close to shore, and their size is relatively small. For these farms the typical access system consists of catamaran-like workboats, which are used to transfer both technicians and small spare parts. As wind farms move further offshore this O and M concept might no longer be cost-effective. Currently, different alternative O and M concepts are being considered for the future far-offshore sites. In this paper an extensive and holistic comparison of different O and M concepts including different access system solutions is presented. This analysis has been performed using the OMCECalculator, ECN's software for advanced O and M cost modelling. Different sites have been considered, which are typical for the future offshore wind farms that will be commissioned during the next five years. The results of the performed analyses indicate that when moving further offshore harbour-based O and M strategies are no longer economical, even when helicopters are added to the mix. Looking at farm-based O and M concepts a supply vessel with a compensated access gangway offers great potential. However, the calculations also indicate that its ability to transfer small spare parts, in addition to technicians, is crucial.

  8. Drivers of Live Cattle Price in the Livestock Trading System of Central Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Handel, Ian G.; Rydevik, Gustaf; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngwa, Victor Ngu; Tanya, Vincent N.; Morgan, Kenton L.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Porphyre, Thibaud

    2018-01-01

    Livestock production and trade are critical for the food security and welfare of rural households in sub-Saharan Africa. In Cameroon, animal trade consists mainly of live cattle commercialized through livestock markets. Identifying the factors contributing to cattle price formation is critical for designing effective policies for sustainable production and for increasing food availability. In this study, we evaluated the influence of a range of individual- and market-level factors on the price of cattle that were sold in all transactions (n = 118,017) recorded over a 12-month period from 31 livestock markets in the main cattle production area of the country. An information-theoretic approach using a generalized additive mixed-effect model was implemented to select the best explanatory model as well as evaluate the robustness of the identified drivers and the predictive ability of the model. The age and gender of the cattle traded were consistently found to be important drivers of the price (p livestock market and the price of the traded live cattle (p < 0.01). Although our analysis did not account for factors informing on specific phenotypic traits nor breed characteristics of cattle traded, nearly 50% of the observed variation in live cattle prices was explained by the final model. Ultimately, our model gives a large scale overview of drivers of cattle price formation in Cameroon and to our knowledge is the first study of this scale in Central Africa. Our findings represent an important milestone in designing efficient and sustainable animal health management programme in Cameroon and ensure livelihood sustainability for rural households. PMID:29387687

  9. CATTLE FEEDER BEHAVIOR AND FEEDER CATTLE PLACEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    1994-01-01

    Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profit is negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different expectations than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This study examines feeder cattle placement determinants, comparing performance of expec...

  10. Root system-based limits to agricultural productivity and efficiency: the farming systems context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, John

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been renewed global interest in both genetic and management strategies to improve root system function in order to improve agricultural productivity and minimize environmental damage. Improving root system capture of water and nutrients is an obvious strategy, yet few studies consider the important interactions between the genetic improvements proposed, and crop management at a system scale that will influence likely success. Scope To exemplify these interactions, the contrasting cereal-based farming systems of Denmark and Australia were used, where the improved uptake of water and nitrogen from deeper soil layers has been proposed to improve productivity and environmental outcomes in both systems. The analysis showed that water and nitrogen availability, especially in deeper layers (>1 m), was significantly affected by the preceding crops and management, and likely to interact strongly with deeper rooting as a specific trait of interest. Conclusions In the semi-arid Australian environment, grain yield impacts from storage and uptake of water from depth (>1 m) could be influenced to a stronger degree by preceding crop choice (0·42 t ha–1), pre-crop fallow management (0·65 t ha–1) and sowing date (0·63 t ha–1) than by current genetic differences in rooting depth (0·36 t ha–1). Matching of deep-rooted genotypes to management provided the greatest improvements related to deep water capture. In the wetter environment of Denmark, reduced leaching of N was the focus. Here the amount of N moving below the root zone was also influenced by previous crop choice or cover crop management (effects up to 85 kg N ha–1) and wheat crop sowing date (up to 45 kg ha–1), effects which over-ride the effects of differences in rooting depth among genotypes. These examples highlight the need to understand the farming system context and important G × E × M interactions in studies on proposed genetic improvements to root systems for improved

  11. Ruminant Nutrition Symposium: a systems approach to integrating genetics, nutrition, and metabolic efficiency in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J P

    2012-06-01

    The role of the dairy cow is to help provide high-quality protein and other nutrients for humans. We must select and manage cows with the goal of reaching the greatest possible efficiency for any given environment. We have increased efficiency tremendously over the years, yet the variation in productive and reproductive efficiency among animals is still quite large. In part this is because of a lack of full integration of genetic, nutritional, and reproductive biology into management decisions. However, integration across these disciplines is increasing as biological research findings show more specific control points at which genetics, nutrition, and reproduction interact. An ordered systems biology approach that focuses on why and how cells regulate energy and N use and on how and why organs interact by endocrine and neurocrine mechanisms will speed improvements in efficiency. More sophisticated dairy managers will demand better information to improve the efficiency of their animals. Using genetic improvement and proper animal management to improve milk productive and reproductive efficiency requires a deeper understanding of metabolic processes during the transition period. Using existing metabolic models, we can design experiments specifically to integrate new data from transcriptional arrays into models that describe nutrient use in farm animals. A systems modeling approach can help focus our research to make faster and large advances in efficiency and show directly how this can be applied on the farms.

  12. Development of a decision support system for individual dairy farms in mixed irrigated farming systems in the Nile Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabana, A.

    2000-01-01

    The principal animal production system in Egypt is the mixed crop-livestock production system with a semi-intensive/semi-commercial orientation. The development strategies emphasized in this study contribute to the development and implementation of improved

  13. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  14. Sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems in Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, C.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Vazzana, C.; Wossink, G.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic,

  15. Diversity of flower-visiting bees in cereal fields: Effects of farming system, landscape composition and regional context.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzschuh, A.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Kleijn, D.; Tscharntke, T.

    2007-01-01

    1. Agri-environment schemes promote organic farming in an attempt to reduce the negative effects of agricultural intensification on farmland biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination. Farming system, landscape context and regional differences may all influence biodiversity, but their

  16. Targeting resources within diverse, heterogeneous and dynamic farming systems: Towards a ‘uniquely African green revolution’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Misiko, M.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are highly diverse and heterogeneous, often operating in complex socio-ecological environments. Much of the heterogeneity within the farming systems is caused by spatial soil variability, which results in its turn from the interaction between inherent

  17. Wind farm fuzzy modelling for adequacy evaluation of power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeini-Aghtaie, M.; Abbaspour, A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Center of Excellence in Power System Management and Control

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented details of a fuzzy logic-based active learning method (ALM) designed to model variations in wind speed. A pattern-based approach was used to model system behaviour. The ALM was algorithmically modelled on the information-handling processes of the human brain. Wind data were gathered and projected on different data planes. The horizontal axis of each data plane was one of the inputs, while the vertical axis was the output. An ink drop spread (IDS) processing engine was used to look for behaviour curves on each data plane. A fuzzy interpolation method was used to derive a smooth curve among the data points. Sequential Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) were used to evaluate power systems based on hourly random simulations. After the hourly wind speed was generated, wind turbine generator outputs were calculated by considering the nonlinear relationship between the estimated wind speed and the wind turbine output. The developed algorithm was validated on a 6-bus reliability test system. Results of the study can be used by power system schedulers to develop power system reliability guidelines. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Replacement inhibitors for tank farm cooling coil systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    Sodium chromate has been an effective corrosion inhibitor for the cooling coil systems in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks for over 40 years. Due to their age and operating history, cooling coils occasionally fail allowing chromate water to leak into the environment. When the leaks spill 10 lbs. or more of sodium chromate over a 24-hr period, the leak incidents are classified as Unusual Occurrences (UO) per CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act). The cost of reporting and cleaning up chromate spills prompted High Level Waste Engineering (HLWE) to initiate a study to investigate alternative tank cooling water inhibitor systems and the associated cost of replacement. Several inhibitor systems were investigated as potential alternatives to sodium chromate. All would have a lesser regulatory impact, if a spill occurred. However, the conversion cost is estimated to be $8.5 million over a period of 8 to 12 months to convert all 5 cooling systems. Although each of the alternative inhibitors examined is effective in preventing corrosion, there is no inhibitor identified that is as effective as chromate. Assuming 3 major leaks a year (the average over the past several years), the cost of maintaining the existing inhibitor was estimated at $0.5 million per year. Since there is no economic or regulatory incentive to replace the sodium chromate with an alternate inhibitor, HLWE recommends that sodium chromate continue to be used as the inhibitor for the waste tank cooling systems

  19. Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Game farming as a supplementary farming activity in the Karoo. ... Veld management in a game farming situation poses problems due to the ineffectiveness of rotational grazing systems. Simplification of natural ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  1. Tank Farm Contractor Waste Remediation System and Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy

  2. Sostenibilidad de sistemas agrícolas Sustainability of farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiva Fabio R.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Las actividades agrícolas pueden tener impactos negativos sobre el ambiente, con efectos dentro y fuera de los predios. El presente artículo pretende contribuir al avance de la agricultura sostenible con énfasis en países en vías de desarrollo. Se revisan y analizan los conceptos de sostenibilidad y agricultura sostenible, incluyendo los diferentes puntos de vista en el debate sobre sostenibilidad'. El artículo examina los impactos ambientales debidos a las actividades agrícolas, destacando la importancia de fortalecer la investigación, con publicación de resultados, sobre la relación agricultura y medio ambiente. La complejidad de los factores que determinan la sostenibilidad agrícola exige una concepción de sistemas, integradora, participativa y holística. El uso de indicadores tiene un gran potencial en la evaluación de la sostenibilidad de sistemas productivos. La práctica de agricultura sostenible requiere tener en cuenta las condiciones ambientales, sociales y económicas en las cuales
    se desenvuelve la agricultura.Farming activities have the potential to affect the farming system itself and the offfarm environment. This paper attempts to contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture with emphasis in developing countries. The concepts of sustainability and sustainable agriculture are reviewed and discussed, including the different viewpoints in the sustainability debate. Environmental impacts due to farming activities are examined emphasising the need of promoting further research and publication of findings on the links between environment and agriculture. The complexity of the factors that determine farming sustainability requires
    a systematic, holistic, participative and integrated approach. Indicators are likely to contribute to the development of sustainable farming systems. Understanding environmental, social and economic circumstances is required to promote sustainability.

  3. Grid-connection of offshore wind farms using VSC-HVDC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofan; Dessaint, Louis A. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Gagnon, Richard [Hydro-Quebec Research Institute, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, the structure of variable speed PMSG-based offshore wind farms connected to the grid through VSC-HVDC link is presented. And the system models are developed. Also, the corresponding control strategy for this system is proposed. The control objective of the generator side VSC is to achieve the optimal wind power by adjusting the speed of permanent magnet synchronous generator, while the grid side VSC is to maintain DC voltage constant. Furthermore, a case study of 100MW offshore wind farm consisting of 50 individual 2MW PSMG-based wind turbines is developed in MATLAB/SimPowerSystems. Simulation results show the proposed scheme works well. (orig.)

  4. Design and Simulation of Dairy Farm Photovoltaic System for a Rural Area in Tlemcen, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi Aicha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy in agriculture is a research knows that considerable development in the last decade. In this paper we scrutinized optimal sizing of solar array and battery in a stand-alone photovoltaic (SPV system to provide the required electricity for a dairy cow farm located in Terny Beni hdiel in Tlemcen, Algeria. Solar radiation data measured in an hourly time-series format are used based on 22 years. Average between 1983 and 2005. The PVSYST software tool was used for simulation of the system. The study is addressed to loads in the small dairy farm with energy consumption levels of around 121 kWh per day. The stand-alone PV system consists of a Solar panel, DC-DC Converter, Maximum Power Point Tracker, DC/AC Inverter, and Battery.

  5. Offshore Wind Farms and HVDC Grids Modeling as a Feedback Control System for Stability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidadfar, Ali; Saborío-Romano, Oscar; Altin, Müfit

    The low impedance characteristics of DC transmission lines cause the voltage source converter (VSC) in HVDC networks to become electrically closer together and increase the risk of severe interactions between the converters. Such interactions, in turn, intensify the implementation of the grid...... control schemes and may lead the entire system to instability. Assessing the stability and adopting complex coordinated control schemes in an HVDC grid and wind farm turbines are challenging and require a precise model of the HVDC grid, wind farm, and the controllers. In this paper, a linear multivariable...... feedback control system (FCS) model is proposed to represent the dynamic characteristics of HVDC grids and their controllers. The FCS model can be used for different dynamic analyses in time and frequency domains. Moreover, using the FCS model the system stability is analyzed in both open- and closed...

  6. Developing an Indicator System for Measuring the Social Sustainability of Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzay-An Shiau

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s government has promoted investment in an offshore wind power farm, and local fishermen have protested. A social impact assessment (SIA has examined the impact of the proposed offshore wind power farm on all stakeholders. The main objective of the present study was to develop an indicator system for measuring the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms; this study also reports on the particular case of Taiwan’s offshore wind power project. This study began by defining 35 social sustainability indicators and selecting 23 representative indicators by using rough set theory. Subsequently, 14 key indicators were constructed using the social construction of technology (SCOT method. Finally, we developed a social impact index for evaluating the social sustainability of offshore wind power farms by using the analytic network process and Dempster-Shafer theory. Our social impact index yields a total score of 0.149 for Taiwan’s pilot offshore wind power project; this result indicates that the pilot project is socially sustainable. A substantial contradiction exists between the fishermen’s protest and the results of the social impact assessment. The findings can assist the government in building a coordination platform for the investors and the fishermen. Government regulation is necessary to set boundaries for fishing areas that protect both the fishermen’s and investors’ rights.

  7. Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors Sustainable Farming Systems in the Sub-Sahelian Zone of Burkina Faso - Key Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. - Hien

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth and climatic change threatens the sustainability of natural resources. Farming practices can mitigate environmental change and degradation. The aim of this research conducted in Yatenga region was to describe and to analyse manure practices management. In 2005, a survey was carried out to assess the evolution of farming practices. A survey was initially conducted with a sample of 44 farmers, selected randomly in the three neighbouring villages. Subsequently, 18 farms were selected for in-depth interviews. The grain yield was measured and the different practices of soil and water conservation developed by farmers were compared. According to the enquiries, two practices, called “zaï” and “djengo”, were largely used in cereals production. The “zaï” practice, known as a traditional technique for restoration of degraded soil, is characterized by the capture of runoff by micro-watersheds and a localized organic matter supply at the soil-plant system scale. The “djengo” practice is based on the same principle of the “zaï” practice but was applied on the sandy soil as traditionally “zaï” concerned the degraded and crusty soils. The two practices could increase grain crop production but moreover could limit the risk of crops failure. In addition, our observations also showed that frequent tree regenerations occurred in plots and watersheds where “zaï” or “djengo” practices were used. This study highlights the necess