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Sample records for cattle excrete farming

  1. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  2. Production of income and energy using cattle excrete. Farming projects MDL; Produciendo ingresos y energia utilizando excretas pecuarias. Proyectos MDL agropecuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernan, Mateus [AGCERT, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The Mexican Farming Sector has a great potential to help solve the worldwide problems caused by greenhouse effect gases (GEI). The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument created to reduce the greenhouse effect gases (GEI) and it also is the fundament of the AgCert project -which consists in applying own financial resources to develop technological options that contribute to the reduction of greenhouse effect gases in cattle productive facilities and to use the income to economically support the producers. In this document it is described the way in which the biodigestor was installed, demonstrating that the MDL for farming projects is a tool to reduce the discharges of greenhouse effect gases. It also demonstrates that technologies and processes can be applied systematically to reduce the emissions of the GEI, bringing along environmental and economic benefits. [Spanish] El Sector Agropecuario Mexicano tiene un gran potencial para ayudar a resolver los problemas mundiales causados por los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI). El protocolo de Kyoto es un instrumento creado para reducir las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y tambien es el fundamento del proyecto AgCert, el cual consiste en aplicar recursos financieros propios para desarrollar opciones tecnologicas que contribuyan a la reduccion de gases efecto invernadero en instalaciones productivas pecuarias y emplear los ingresos para apoyar economicamente a los productores. En este documento se describe la manera en que se llevo acabo la instalacion del biodigestor, demostrando que el MDL para proyectos agropecuarios es una herramienta para reducir emisiones de gases efecto invernadero, y que se pueden aplicar sistematicamente tecnologias y procesos que reduzcan las emisiones de los GEI, trayendo consigo beneficios ambientales y economico.

  3. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  4. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  5. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

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    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  6. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

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    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Daniël L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences.

  7. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

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    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  8. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania....

  9. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

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    Lies Durnez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were divided into “reacting” and “nonreacting” farms, based on tuberculin tests, and more mycobacteria were present in insectivores collected in reacting farms as compared to nonreacting farms. More mycobacteria were also present in insectivores as compared to rodents. All mycobacteria detected by culture and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely. However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania.

  10. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

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    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  11. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

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    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  12. Gastrointestinal parasitic infections in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya

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    R. Laha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25% faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found predominant (65.96 % followed by Strongyloides spp. (25.13%, Eimeria spp. (17.80%, Trichuris spp. (13.08%, Moniezia spp. (10.47% and Nematodirus spp.(2.61%. The Nematodirrus spp. was identified as Nematodirus helvetianus, a first report of its kind from cattle of North-Eastern Region of India, particularly from the state Meghalaya. The eggs per gram of faeces in case of nematode parasites were ranged between 50 to 4000 and in case of coccidian infections the range of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG was between 50 to 1400. Conclusion: Cattle maintained in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya suffers from GI parasitic infections throughout the year. It is highest during rainy season followed by cool, cold and hot season. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 109-112

  13. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

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    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  14. Conservation versus traditional cattle farming - the economic implications

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    J.W. Hearne

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In many areas of South Africa traditional subsistence farming practices entail overstocking of cattle. The resulting damage to the veld can be arrested only by providing the farmers with economic incentives to reduce stocking densities. In this paper cattle offtake strategies are investigated with a view to maximising revenue at lower stocking densities. This is achieved by developing a mathematical model which predicts the revenue generated by a given strategy. It is shown that although the model is nonlinear, a transformation can be made to enable optimisation by linear programming.

  15. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

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    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum.

  16. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in a dairy cattle farm and a research farm in Ghana

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    Adwoa Asante-Poku

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB and to identify the mycobacterial species causing BTB in a dairy farm and research farm. Six hundred and eighty-five cattle were screened for BTB by using the Comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CTT. Positive reactors were slaughtered and carcasses were taken for isolation of mycobacterial species. This was followed by speciation of isolates using both standard conventional and molecular assays. Seventeen of the cattle were positive by CTT, giving a crude BTB prevalence of 2.48% among cattle from the two farms. Six of the 17 samples (35.30% yielded positive acid-fast bacilli cultures and three of the isolates were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC, which were sub-divided into two Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu scrito (Mtb and one Mycobacterium africanum; the remaining three were Mycobacterium other than tuberculoisis (MOTT. Spoligotyping further characterised the two Mtb isolates as Ghana (spoligotype Data Base 4 number 53 and Latin American Mediterranean (LAM, whilst spoligotyping and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP analysis typed the M. africanum as West African 1. Microseq 500 analysis identified two of the MOTT as Mycobacterium flavescens and Mycobacterium Moriokaense respectively, whilst the remaining one could not be identified. This study observed the prevalence of bovine TB among cattle from two farms in Ghana as 2.48% and confirms the public health importance of M. africanum as a pathogen in Ghana. 

  17. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms.

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    Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most

  18. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

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    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  19. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M;

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...

  20. First report of cattle farms with gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to levamisole in Mexico.

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    Becerra-Nava, R; Alonso-Díaz, M A; Fernández-Salas, A; Quiroz, R H

    2014-08-29

    The objectives of the present study were: (1) to report the percentage of cattle farms with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) resistant to levamisole in Veracruz, Mexico, (2) to identify the genera of GINs involved in resistance, and (3) to identify factors associated with these resistances. The faecal egg count reduction test (McMaster technique) was used to detect the presence of resistant GINs. A questionnaire was given to owners to understand the history of anthelmintic use. The percentage of cattle farms with GINs resistant to levamisole was 36.4% (4/11). The percentage of faecal egg count reduction on resistant farms was 91%, 82%, 42% and 88%. A similar number of cattle farms (4/11) were identified as potentially having levamisole resistance. Only three farms had GIN populations susceptible to levamisole. Cooperia spp. was the genus most commonly found to be resistant, followed by Haemonchus spp., Ostertagia spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. No factors were identified that influenced the presence of GIN resistance. However, there were identified inappropriate anthelmintic practices in cattle farms that should be improved. None of the farmers weighed their animals in order to dose them correctly with anthelmintics. Six cattle farms (54.5%) applied anthelmintics to new arriving animals. This is the first report of levamisole resistant GINs in Mexico. Improving the use of anthelmintics and measures of quarantine for infected cattle will help control the spread of resistance.

  1. A review of factors influencing milk urea concentration and its relationship with urinary urea excretion in lactating dairy cattle

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    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Duinkerken, van G.; Bannink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration in dairy cows may serve as an on-farm indicator to guide nutritional strategies and to help reduce emissions of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Excretion of urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) is positively related to MUN, but the relationship is highly variable. The

  2. Creating a model to detect dairy cattle farms with poor welfare using a national database.

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    Krug, C; Haskell, M J; Nunes, T; Stilwell, G

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether dairy farms with poor cow welfare could be identified using a national database for bovine identification and registration that monitors cattle deaths and movements. The welfare of dairy cattle was assessed using the Welfare Quality(®) protocol (WQ) on 24 Portuguese dairy farms and on 1930 animals. Five farms were classified as having poor welfare and the other 19 were classified as having good welfare. Fourteen million records from the national cattle database were analysed to identify potential welfare indicators for dairy farms. Fifteen potential national welfare indicators were calculated based on that database, and the link between the results on the WQ evaluation and the national cattle database was made using the identification code of each farm. Within the potential national welfare indicators, only two were significantly different between farms with good welfare and poor welfare, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' (pwelfare indicators could be used to distinguish farms with good welfare from farms with poor welfare, we created a model using the classifier J48 of Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. The model was a decision tree based on two variables, 'proportion of on-farm deaths' and 'calving-to-calving interval', and it was able to correctly identify 70% and 79% of the farms classified as having poor and good welfare, respectively. The national cattle database analysis could be useful in helping official veterinary services in detecting farms that have poor welfare and also in determining which welfare indicators are poor on each particular farm.

  3. Characteristics of dairy farms in the North-Eastern part of Italy: rations, milk yield and nutrients excretion

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    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey was aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dairy farms in the North- Eastern part of Po valley in terms of ration composition, milk yield and N and P excretions. Eightynine farms, with Italian Holstein Friesian cows, were selected in order to cover different situations in term of farm size and milk yield (MY. MY and quality were obtained from the national database of functional controls. Each farm was visited in order to collect information about ingredients and chemical composition of rations used. Farms were classified in four groups differing for dietary crude protein density (LCP15.3% DM and for MY (LMY30 kg/d. N and P excretions were quantified by following a mass balance approach. Dietary crude protein content (CP was not correlated to milk yield (MY and quality. The estimated amounts of N excreted, discounted for 28% of N losses in atmosphere, were 78.5, 78.2, 87.2 and 89.1 kg/cow/year, and P excreted were 20.2, 18.6, 18.7 and 19.8 kg/cow/year for the LCPLMY, LCPHMY, HCPLMY, HCPHMY groups, respectively. On corn silage and cereals based rations, a dietary CP of 14.3% DM can support 31 kg MY/cow/day.

  4. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

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    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organ

  5. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

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    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  6. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

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    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to di

  7. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

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    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases.

  8. Cattle Housing at the Registered Farms under Cattle Breeders’ Association in Ödemiş, İzmir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine barning conditions of dairy farms registered to Cattle Breeders Association (CBA Ödemiş district of İzmir. The 92 farms were selected among members of the CBA by proportional sampling method. The farms were divided into three groups according to the number of cattle: group 1 from 5 to 20, group 2 from 21 to 40 and group 3 with over 41 heads, respectively. The farms were divided into three groups according to the number of cattle: 5-20; 21-40 and over 41 heads, respectively. The research results indicated that 76.1% of the barns were shed type, 15.2% were corral, 8.7% were completely closed-up. The flooring types of these barns were a mixed of concrete and soil (73.9%, concrete (19.6% and soil (6.5%. The stocking density for group 1, 2 and 3 were 22.2 m2, 19.5 m2 and 18.2 m2 per cow, respectively. The barns had a range of full cattle capacity from 12.5 m2 to 15 m2 per cow. But none of the farms surveyed did not use fully capacity of the barn. The present running capacity of farms were between 55% and 80%. It was observed that 19.6% of farms had a individual calf section, 82.6% had a night lighting at the barn, and 64.1% had a seperate concenrated feed store. All the farms were milked with milking machines. The percentage of farms with bucked milking machine was 47.8%, those with an air pipeline system was 37% and those with parlour system was 15.2%. None of farms had manure pit. Consequently, as herd size grow, the presence of free barn, calving pen, feed store and milk cooling tank increase. It can be concluded that improving the housing conditions is much more related with increasing the herd size per farm.

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level.

  10. Animal health and welfare planning in organic dairy cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is ba...

  11. Livestock Farming Systems and Cattle Production Orientation in Eastern High Plains of Algeria, Cattle Farming System in Algerian Semi Arid Region

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    Lounis Semara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to devise productive orientations of cattle herds in eastern high plains of Algeria. In this regard, 165 farms randomly identified were investigated. The selection of breeders was based to existence of cattle on the farm, and the farmer proposed to investigation must have at least two cows. The approach taken was to identify all systems adopted by farmers in a region through the analysis of the relationship between the maintenance of different types of cattle and preferred marketing policies. The model has been emerged as a result of functional typology established using the procedure categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA of optimal coding in SPSS [19. 2010]. Following this approach, five types of cattle productive orientation have been identified, the balanced mixed system (dairy-beef, beef mixed system, dairy mixed system, dairy system and beef system. These results showed that the breeders were oriented towards specialization (dairy or beef in less than 20% of situations. Farmers in our context prefer mixed systems when beef mixed system was the model type frequently encountered in the region (over than 50% of farms.

  12. Frequency of cattle farms with ivermectin resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Díaz, M A; Arnaud-Ochoa, R A; Becerra-Nava, R; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Quiroz-Romero, R H

    2015-09-15

    This study reports the percentage of cattle farms with ivermectin (IVM) resistant gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in Veracruz, Mexico, and identifies the GIN genera involved in the resistances. It also describes management practices of anthelmintic (AH) use on the surveyed farms. Twenty-one farms were assessed by means of the faecal egg count reduction test using the McMaster technique. Only two farms had GIN populations susceptible to IVM (9.5%). The proportion of farms with IVM resistant GIN was 71.4% (15/21). Seven of these farms had less than 80% egg count reductions. Haemonchus and Cooperia were the genera most commonly found in the resistant populations, followed by Oesophagostomum. Inappropriate AH treatment practices were identified from the completed questionnaires. Further management practices such as selective treatment and quarantine treatments are proposed to further reduce the spread of IVM resistance between farms.

  13. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

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    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  14. Performance analysis of photovoltaic plants installed in dairy cattle farms

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    Remo Alessio Malagnino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric production from renewable resources, such as solar photovoltaic (PV, is playing an increasingly essential role in the agricultural industry because of the progressive increase in the energy price from fossil fuels and the simultaneous decrease in the income deriving from farming activities. A central issue in the sustainable diffusion of PV technologies is represented by the actual energy efficiency of a PV system. For these reasons, a performance analysis has been carried out in order to assess the potentials offered by different PV plants within a defined geographical context with the aim of investigating the impact of each component has on the PV generator global efficiency and defining the main technical parameters that allow to maximise the annual specific electric energy yield of an architectonically integrated plant, installed in a dairy house, compared to a ground-mounted plant. The annual performances of three grid connected PV plants installed in the same dairy cattle farm have been analysed: two are architectonically integrated plants - i.e., a rooftop unidirectional and a multi-field systems (both 99 kWp - and the other is a ground-mounted plant (480 kWp. Furthermore, the electrical performances, estimated by the photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS, developed by the EU Joint Research Centre, and by an analytical estimation procedure (AEP, developed on the basis of a meteo-climatic database related to the records of the nearest weather station and integrated by the components’ technical specifications, have been compared with the actual yields. The best annual performance has been given by the ground-mounted PV system, with an actual increase of 26% and in the range of 6÷12% according to different estimations, compared to the integrated systems, which were globally less efficient (average total loss of 26÷27% compared to 24% of the ground-mounted system. The AEP and PVGIS software estimates showed a good

  15. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

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    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  16. Animal Health and Welfare Planning in Organic Dairy Cattle Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Winckler, Christoph; Roderick, Stephen;

    2011-01-01

    Continuous development is needed within the farm to reach the goal of good animal health and welfare in organic livestock farming. The very different conditions between countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and can be integrated into local practice and be relevant...... for each type of farming context. This article reviews frameworks, principles and practices for animal health and welfare planning which are relevant for organic livestock farming. This review is based on preliminary analyses carried out within a European project (acronym ANIPLAN) with participants from...... as well as animal health and welfare professionals (veterinarians and advisors) is paramount. This paper provides an overview of some current animal health and welfare planning initiatives and explains the principles of animal health and welfare planning which are being implemented in ANIPLAN partner...

  17. BVD-2 outbreak leads to high losses in cattle farms in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Jörn; Homeier, Timo; Holsteg, Mark; Schirrmeier, Horst; Saßerath, Michael; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J

    2015-09-01

    In November 2012, a dairy farmer in the district Kleve first observed a reduction in milk yield, respiratory symptoms, nasal discharge, fever, sporadic diarrhoea and sudden deaths in dairy cows and calves. In the following months, further farms were found infected with cattle showing similar clinical signs. An epidemiological investigation was carried out to identify the source of infection, the date of introduction, potential transmission pathways and to analyse the extent of the epidemic. Furthermore, laboratory analyses were conducted to characterise the causative agent. BVDV had been diagnosed in the index herd in December 2012, but due to the atypical clinical picture, the virus was not immediately recognised as the causative agent. Further laboratory analysis showed that this outbreak and subsequent infections in the area were caused by a BVD type 2c virus with a characteristic genome insertion, which seems to be associated with the occurrence of severe clinical symptoms in infected cattle. Epidemiological investigations showed that the probable date of introduction was in mid-October 2012. The high risk period was estimated as three months. A total of 21 affected farms with 5325 cattle were identified in two German Federal States. The virus was mainly transmitted by person contacts, but also by cattle trade and vehicles. The case-fatality rate was up to 60% and mortality in outbreak farms varied between 2.3 and 29.5%. The competent veterinary authorities imposed trade restrictions on affected farms. All persons who had been in contact with affected animals were advised to increase biosecurity measures (e.g. using farm-owned or disposable protective clothing). In some farms, affected animals were vaccinated against BVD to reduce clinical signs as an "emergency measure". These measures stopped the further spread of the disease.

  18. Geo-referencing livestock farms as tool for studying cystic echinococcosis epidemiology in cattle and water buffaloes from southern Italy

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    Giuseppe Cringoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE, caused by the larval stages of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, is known to be one of the most important parasitic infection in livestock worldwide and one of the most widespread zoonoses known. In the present study, we used a geographical information system (GIS to study the spatial structure of livestock (cattle, water buffaloes and sheep populations to gain a better understanding of the role of sheep as reservoir for the transmission of CE to cattle and water buffaloes. To this end, a survey on CE in cattle and water buffaloes from the Campania region of southern Italy was conducted and the geo-referenced results linked to the regional farm geo-referenced data within a GIS. The results showed a noteworthy prevalence of CE in cattle and water buffalo farms (overall prevalence = 18.6%. The elaboration of the data with a GIS approach showed a close proximity of the bovine and/or water buffalo CE positive farms with the ovine farms present in the study area, thus giving important information on the significance of sheep and free-ranging canids in the transmission cycles of CE in relation to cattle and water buffaloes. The significantly higher prevalence found in cattle as compared to water buffalo farms (20.0% versus 12.4% supports the key role of sheep in the CE transmission; indeed, within the 5 km radius buffer zones constructed around the cattle farms positive for CE, a higher number of (potentially infected sheep farms were found compared to those found within the buffer zones around the water buffalo farms. Furthermore, the average distances between the sheep and cattle farms falling in the same buffer zones were significantly lower than those between the sheep and water buffalo farms. We emphasize that the use of GIS is a novel approach to further our understanding of the epidemiology and control of CE and we encourage other groups to make use of it.

  19. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

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    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  20. Molecular survey and sequence analysis of Anaplasma spp. in cattle and ticks in a Malaysian farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, S T; Koh, F X; Kho, K L; Ong, B L

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in the blood samples of cattle, goats, deer and ticks in a Malaysian farm. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing approach, Anaplasma spp. was detected from 81(84.4%) of 96 cattle blood samples. All blood samples from 23 goats and 22 deer tested were negative. Based on the analysis of the Anaplasma partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, four sequence types (genotypes 1 to 4) were identified in this study. Genotypes 1-3 showed high sequence similarity to those of Anaplasma platys/ Anaplasma phagocytophilum, whilst genotype 4 was identical to those of Anaplasma marginale/ Anaplasma centrale/ Anaplasma ovis. Anaplasma DNA was detected from six (5.5%) of 109 ticks which were identified as Rhipicephalus (formely known as Boophilus) microplus ticks collected from the cattle. This study reported for the first time the detection of four Anaplasma sequence types circulating in the cattle population in a farm in Malaysia. The detection of Anaplasma DNA in R. microplus ticks in this study provides evidence that the ticks are one of the potential vectors for transmission of anaplasmosis in the cattle.

  1. Postal survey of contacts between cattle farms on the Isle of Lewis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M C; Webb, C R; Heath, M F

    2010-01-09

    The British Cattle Movement Service (BCMS) database contains an unprecedented quantity of data on the movement of cattle within the UK. These data may be used to construct models of the contact structure of the UK cattle herd, for epidemiological purposes. There are two significant potential sources of inaccuracy within such models: movements that are not reported or are reported inaccurately to the BCMS, and contacts between farms that might transmit infection, but are not animal movements. This field study addressed these issues. Cattle farmers on the Isle of Lewis were recruited with the assistance of the local veterinary surgeon, and asked to record a range of potential risk behaviours for a one-month period. They were also asked questions about husbandry practices on their farm. Comparison of the BCMS contact data with that reported by Lewis' farmers highlighted use of common grazing land as a significant source of contact, and potential disease transmission, between cattle that currently goes unreported; around half of responding holdings on Lewis use common grazing land at some point during the year, and these movements are not reported to the BCMS.

  2. RATE OF RETURN ON INVESTMENT IN A DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING FARM IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the rate of return on investment in a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria. To achieve the aim, it was investigated a dairy cattle breeding farm in Bulgaria first category with average number of 83 cows in the main herd. Based on information collected from the farm in 2012 and on own calculations it was defined the different types of investments necessary to create a farm. It was calculated also the rate of return of cash inflows, rate of return of cash outflows and investments per cow. It was found that the analyzed farm has implemented 12.5% rate of return on investment in 2012. Investments per cow are 4422 euros. The largest share of investments has the investments in productive animals (43.6%. 64.6% of the revenues are from the sale of milk. The largest share of the cash outflows have the purchase of feed and forage production - 58.3%. Subsidies play an important role for profitable operation of the analyzed farm.

  3. Resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to amitraz and cypermethrin in tropical cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine the prevalence and factors associated with Rhipicephalus microplus , resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz, from cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico, and (2) to determine in vitro mortality percentages of field populations of R. microplus exposed to discriminating doses (DD) of cypermethrin and amitraz. Fifty-three populations of R. microplus were tested by bioassays using DD of cypermethrin (0.05%) and amitraz (0.0002%). The prevalence of cattle farms with R. microplus ticks that were resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz, and co-resistant to both acaricides, was 90.6, 54.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The level of cypermethrin resistance, measured as a survival percentage, was higher as compared to amitraz. Cattle farms with ≤50 animals (odds ratio [OR]  =  3.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]  =  1.07-13.70, P  =  0.038) and a stocking density of >1 animal unit per ha (AU/ha) (OR  =  4.21, 95% CI  =  1.0-17.71, P  =  0.050) had a higher probability to develop R. microplus tick populations co-resistant to both acaricides. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of R. microplus populations on cattle farms in Veracruz, Mexico that are both resistant to cypermethrin and amitraz and co-resistant to both acaricides. The level of cypermethrin resistance is critical, and the exposition variables of ≤50 cattle and a stocking density of >1 AU/ha were factors associated with R. microplus co-resistant to both acaricides.

  4. Biosecurity on cattle farms: a study in north-west England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Brennan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered in detail the range of biosecurity practices undertaken on cattle farms, particularly within the UK. In this study, 56 cattle farmers in a 100 km² area of north-west England were questioned regarding their on-farm biosecurity practices, including those relating to animal movements, equipment sharing and companies and contractors visiting the farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was great variation between farms in terms of the type of, and extent to which, biosecurity was carried out. For example, the majority of farmers did not isolate stock bought onto the farm, but a small proportion always isolated stock. Many farmers administered treatments post-movement, primarily vaccinations and anthelmintics, but very few farms reported carrying out any health checks after moving animals on. In addition, there appeared to be much variation in the amount of biosecurity carried out by the different companies and contractors visiting the farms. Deadstock collectors and contracted animal waste spreaders, although likely to have a high potential for contact with infectious agents, were reported to infrequently disinfect themselves and their vehicles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that although certain biosecurity practices are undertaken, many are carried out infrequently or not at all. This may be due to many factors, including cost (in time and money, lack of proven efficacies of practices and lack of relevant education of veterinary surgeons, producers and other herd health specialists. Further research exploring the reasons for the lack of uptake is imperative if preventive medicine is to be utilised fully by the farming industry.

  5. [Vitamin B12 supplementation and milk production on farms with 'chronic wasting' cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M F; Verhoeff, J; Holzhauer, M; Bartels, C J; van Wuijckhuise, L; Vellema, P

    2001-03-15

    From early 1999 onwards, cattle health problems accompanied by chronic wasting of unknown aetiology were reported on a number of dairy farms. An association between these health problems and the compulsory use of gE-negative marker vaccines against bovine herpesvirus 1 was presumed by farmers. On one dairy farm an increased milk production of 50% was reported within a few days after parenteral vitamin B12 treatment. Therefore, the current study was designed to determine the effect of parenteral vitamin B12 treatment on the milk production of dairy herds with wasting cattle. A randomized blind trial was performed in five problem herds and two control herds. On each farm five lactating cows were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg vitamin B12 and paired with five untreated lactating cows. The milk production of treated and untreated animals was measured for 19 days following treatment and compared to pre-treatment production. No effect of vitamin B12 treatment on milk production was established on either problem farms or control farms. Neither was a difference detected in the response to vitamin B12 treatment between problem herds and control herds. In a second experiment, parenteral vitamin B12 treatment was applied in three problem herds by local veterinary practitioners. The results of this experiment were in line with the results of the first experiment.

  6. Crop-Cattle Integrated Farming System: An Alternative of Climatic Change Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munandar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system is one of the alternatives for climatic change mitigation. This paper reports the application of corn-cattle based integrated farming system in Agrotechno Park Center of Palembang, and discusses its impact on CO2 fixation and the reduction of methane emissions. The study was based on the data of the first 6 yr from 2003 until 2009. The CO2 fixed in the soil and plants was determined based on the content of organic C which was multiplied by the index of 3.67. The methane gas produced by Balinese cattle and its dung was observed and modified into feed rations. The results showed that soil organic C increased from 40.80 tons C/ha in the 1st yr to 66.40 tons C/ha in the 6th yr. In addition, there was organic C fixation equivalent to 93.95 tons of CO2e. Corn biomass increased from 6.67 tons/ha to 18.66 tons/ha, equivalent to an increase in the fixation of atmospheric CO2e as much as 19.80 tons CO2e/ha. The supplementation of 60%-80% grass fodder with concentrate lowered the concentration of methane gas in cattle breathing by 28.7%, from 617 ppm to 440 ppm, while the methane emissions from cattle manure decreased by 31%, from 1367 mL/head/d to 943 mL/head/d. Installing a bio digester that generates biogas served to accommodate methane gas emissions from cattle dung and used it for bioenergy. Composting reduced the formation of methane gas from cattle manure through a regular process of turning over that gives aeration and forms aerobic condition in the heap of cattle dung. Recycling produces a variety of organic products that store carbon for a longer period of time and slowed the conversion of organic C into CO2. This study showed that the diverse activities of an integrated crop-cattle farming could be an alternative solution to climatic change mitigation.

  7. Occurrence of C. botulinum in healthy cattle and their environment following poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souillard, R; Le Maréchal, C; Hollebecque, F; Rouxel, S; Barbé, A; Houard, E; Léon, D; Poëzévara, T; Fach, P; Woudstra, C; Mahé, F; Chemaly, M; Le Bouquin, S

    2015-10-22

    Ten cattle farms located in an area with a recent history of poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic C. botulinum in healthy cattle. Environmental samples in the 10 cattle farms and bovine fecal contents in farms with a confirmed environmental contamination were collected. Detection of C. botulinum toxin genes C, D, C/D, D/C and E was performed using real-time PCR. 4.9% (7/143) of the environmental samples collected in the 10 investigated cattle farms were positive for C. botulinum type C/D. Theses samples (boot-swabs in stalls and on pasture and water of a stream) were collected in 3 different farms. One cow dung sample and 3 out of 64 fecal contents samples collected in a single farm were also positive for C. botulinum type C/D. This study demonstrates that cattle are probably indirectly contaminated via poultry botulism in the area and that they can be intermittent carrier of C. botulinum type C/D after poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms.

  8. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  9. Trajectories of evolution and drivers of change in European mountain cattle farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martínez, A; Olaizola, A; Bernués, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, significant changes in livestock farming systems and land use were observed in European mountain areas with large implications for the sustainability of grazing agro-ecosystems. System dynamic studies become essential to understand these changes, identify the drivers involved and trying to anticipate what might happen in the future. The objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to analyse the main recent changes that occurred in mountain cattle farming in the Spanish Pyrenees; (ii) to typify diverse trajectories of evolution of these systems; and (iii) to establish drivers of change that might help understand the evolution of mountain agriculture. A constant sample of mountain cattle farms was analysed for the period 1990 to 2004. In total, 30% of farms have disappeared during this time interval. For the remaining farms, the most important general changes observed were as follows: increment of size; change of productive orientation from mixed beef-dairy to pure beef production; extensification of grazing management; reduction of family labour and increase of pluriactivity; reduction of unitary variable costs; and increase of labour productivity. After the elimination of common temporal effects between dates, multivariate techniques allowed for the identification of three patterns and six specific trajectories of evolution that are profiled in the text. Relationships between the patterns of evolution and other variables referring the farm, the household and the socio-economic environment were identified as drivers of change: (i) the specific location of the farm in relation to the capital village of the municipality and the evolution other sectors of the economy, in particular tourism; (ii) the size of the family labour, presence of successors and degree of dynamism of the farmer; and (iii) the initial orientation of production.

  10. Effects of cattle and manure management on the nutrient economy of mixed farms in East Africa: A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, P.J.M.; Meer, van der H.G.; Onduru, D.D.; Ebanyat, P.; Ergano, K.; Zake, J.Y.K.; Wouters, A.P.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Keulen, van H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores effects of animal and manure management in a dairy unit on the nutrient economy of crop-livestock farms in East Africa. For this purpose, 8 cattle management scenarios have been developed based on farming systems in Mbeere, Kenya (extensive), Wakiso, Uganda (semi-intensive) and K

  11. Control of VTEC O157 and Campylobacter jejuni/coli on cattle farms : Effective interventions and implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J

    2009-01-01

    Verocytotoxogenic E. coli O157 (VTEC O157) and Campylobacter jejuni/coli are zoonotic pathogens of public health importance, which are commonly carried and shed by cattle. Control at farm level needed isto limit shedding and contamination of the environment and the human food chain. On- farm risk fa

  12. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, William D.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  13. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .

  14. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  15. Effect of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Farming Waste on the Growth, Digestion, Ammonium-Nitrogen Excretion of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; LUO Peng; HU Chaoqun; REN Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic con-tainers (70L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  16. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  17. Dairy cattle management, health and welfare in smallholder farms: An organic farming perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odhong, Charles; Wahome, Raphael; Vaarst, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Organic production principles aim at achieving good animal health and welfare of livestock. The objective of the present study was to investigate animal management, health and welfare in smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, Africa, and to be able to give recommendations which can guide organic...... livestock production practices as specified by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements and the East Africa Organic Product Standard. A longitudinal study of 24 farms was conducted to document and assess management practices and their potential effect on animal health and welfare....... Observation and documentation of animal housing design, cleanliness, feeding management and types of feed available to the cows, milking management, disease and pest management was done in the Kiambu and Kajiado Counties of Kenya. An analysis was performed for indicators of health and welfare with husbandry...

  18. Biophysical and economic water productivity of dual-purpose cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benjelloun, R; Karrou, M; Ates, S; Kuper, M

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes key factors influencing water productivity in cattle rearing, particularly in contexts characterized by water scarcity. This was done through year-round monitoring of on-farm practices within five smallholder farms located in the Saïss area (northern Morocco). The on-farm monitoring protocol consisted of characterizing: (i) volumes of water used for fodder production and distinguished by source (rainfall, surface irrigation and groundwater), (ii) virtual water contained in off-farm feed resources, (iii) total forage biomass production, (iv) dietary rations fed to lactating cows and their calves and (v) milk output and live weight gain. Findings reveal a mean water footprint of 1.62±0.81 and 8.44±1.09 m3/kg of milk and of live weight gain, respectively. Groundwater represented only 13.1% and 2.2% of the total water used to get milk and live weight gain, respectively, while rainfall represented 53.0% and 48.1% of the total water for milk and live weight gain, respectively. The remaining water volumes used came from surface irrigation water (7.4% for milk and 4.0% for live weight gain) and from virtual water (26.5% for milk and 44.7% for live weight gain). The results also revealed a relatively small gross margin per m3 of water used by the herd, not exceeding an average value of US $ 0.05, when considering both milk and live weight. Given the large variability in farm performances, which affect water productivity in cattle rearing throughout the production process, we highlight the potential for introducing a series of interventions that are aimed at saving water, while concurrently improving efficiency in milk production and live weight gain. These interventions should target the chain of production functions that are implemented throughout the process of water productivity in cattle rearing. Moreover, these interventions are of particular importance given our findings that livestock production depends largely upon rainfall, rather than

  19. Airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli in a dairy cattle farm and its environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Susana; Olarte, Carmen; Martínez-Olarte, Roberto; Navajas-Benito, Enrique V; Alonso, C Andrea; Hidalgo-Sanz, Sara; Somalo, Sergio; Torres, Carmen

    2015-03-16

    There are multiple ways bacteria can be transported from its origin to another area or substrate. Water, food handlers, insects and other animals are known to serve as a vehicle for bacterial dispersion. However, the importance of the air in open areas as a possible way of bacterial dissemination has not been so well analyzed. In this study, we investigated the airborne dissemination of Escherichia coli from the inside of a dairy cattle farm to the immediate environment. The air samples were taken inside the farm (area 0) and from the immediate outside farm surroundings at distance of 50, 100 and 150m in four directions (north, south, east, and west). At each point, the air was collected at different heights: 40cm, 70cm and 1m. The sampling was carried out in two weather seasons (November and July). E. coli was isolated in both inside and outside air, even in samples taken 150m from the farm. A seasonal effect was observed with more bacterial isolates when temperature was higher. Regarding the distribution of the isolates, wind direction appeared as a determining factor. In order to verify that E. coli strains isolated from animal housing facilities were identical to those isolated from the air of the immediate farm environment, their genomic DNA profiles were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digestion with the endonuclease XbaI. The comparison of genetic profiles suggested that the strains isolated from inside and outside the farm were related, leading to the conclusion that the air is an important vehicle for E. coli dissemination.

  20. Occurrence and strain diversity of thermophilic campylobacters in cattle of different age groups in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva M.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the occurrence and numbers of thermophilic campylobacters excreted by cattle in dairy herds, and to assess the strain diversity within herds. Methods and Results: Faecal samples from 15 animals at each of 24 cattle farms were cultured quantitatively for thermophilic campyloba...

  1. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  2. Assessment of the welfare of dairy cattle using animal-based measurements: direct observations and investigation of farm records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whay, H R; Main, D C J; Green, L E; Webster, A J F

    2003-08-16

    A protocol was developed by consultation with experts on the welfare of cattle to use direct observations of cattle and an examination of farm records to assess welfare. Fifty-three dairy farms in England were visited and assessed during the winter of 2000/01. The findings were compiled and the results of the welfare measurements were examined by 50 experts who indicated at what level they considered that improvement was required. More than 75 per cent of them considered that 32 of the 53 farms needed to take action to reduce the incidence of mastitis, and that at least 42 of the farms needed to take action to reduce the prevalence of lameness, overgrown claws, swollen and ulcerated hocks, and injuries from the environment.

  3. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  4. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  5. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  6. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  7. Prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter jejuni in pig herds on farms with and without cattle or poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boes, J.; Nersting, L.; Nielsen, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence and diversity of Campylobacter jejuni was investigated in pig herds on farms with and without cattle or poultry production. A bacteriological screening of pig cecal samples from 247 finisher herds was carried out at the slaughterhouse. Subsequently, a follow-up study was conducted ...

  8. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed concentrations

  9. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT. A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% – 3.05% of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% – 5.80%, followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% – 2.50% and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% – 2.20% regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  10. Prevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle from the main dairy farming regions of Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchia, Massimo; Di Provvido, Andrea; Ippoliti, Carla; Kefle, Uqbazghi; Sebhatu, Tesfaalem T; D'Angelo, Annarita; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2013-04-23

    In order to get a reliable estimate of brucellosis prevalence in Eritrean dairy cattle, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 2009. The survey considered the sub-population of dairy cattle reared in modern small- and medium-sized farms. Samples were screened with the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and positive cases were confirmed with the complement fixation test (CFT). A total of 2.77%(417/15 049; Credibility Interval CI: 2.52% - 3.05%) of the animals tested in this study were positive for antibodies to Brucellaspecies, with a variable and generally low distribution of positive animals at regional level. The highest seroprevalence was found in the Maekel region (5.15%; CI: 4.58% - 5.80%), followed by the Debub (1.99%; CI: 1.59% - 2.50%) and Gash-Barka (1.71%; CI: 1.34% - 2.20%) regions. Seroprevalence at sub-regional levels was also generally low, except for two sub-regions of Debub and the sub-region Haicota from the Gash-Barka region. Seroprevalence was high and more uniformly distributed in the Maekel region, namely in the Asmara, Berik and Serejeka sub-regions. Considering the overall low brucellosis prevalence in the country, as identified by the present study, a brucellosis eradication programme for dairy farms using a test-and-slaughter policy would be possible. However, to encourage the voluntary participation of farmers to the programme and to raise their awareness of the risks related to the disease for animals and humans, an extensive public awareness campaign should be carefully considered, as well as strict and mandatory dairy movement control.

  11. Effect of cattle management practices on raw milk quality on farms operating in a two-stage dairy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sraïri, M T; Benhouda, H; Kuper, M; Le Gal, P Y

    2009-02-01

    In many developing countries, milk production varies greatly according to farm size, cattle breed, and milking practices. However, production systems often are dominated by smallholder farms. Therefore, relatively small volumes of milk are delivered daily from numerous farms to intermediate cooperatives which supply industrial units. This paper argues that in such two-stage dairy chains, milk quality could be improved by focusing on farming practices rather than on the testing of individual deliveries. Indeed, it is difficult to analyze their quality due to technical, economic, and logistic limitations. The objective of this study is to link on-farm practices with milk chemical quality parameters (fat and protein) and hygienic quality criteria (Aerobic Plate Count, APC and Coliforms). Cattle management practices were monitored monthly over one year on 23 farms located on an irrigation scheme in Morocco. 276 milk samples were analyzed. The monthly variability of milk quality parameters was then characterized. Results show that average cow milk chemical parameters vary within a normal range. They remain primarily linked to the genetic type of cows, the lactation stage, and the conversion of feed concentrates' net energy into milk. Overall milk hygienic quality was poor (APC and Coliforms counts were 100 fold international norms), due essentially to a lack of hygiene and inadequate milking conditions (hands, udder, and teat washing, type of bucket used, dirtiness of cows...). It is suggested that a close monitoring of herd management practices may allow the indirect control of milk quality parameters, thereby avoiding costly analyses of numerous smallholder milk deliveries.

  12. Ecological study on antimicrobial-resistant zoonotic bacteria transmitted by flies in cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N; Abdel-Latef, Gihan K; Abdel-Azeem, Naglaa M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Flies were qualitatively and quantitatively monitored on both livestock animals and the surrounding environment to investigate their role as a potential carrier for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance in cattle farms. This was done by the use of visual observations and animal photography; meanwhile, in the surrounding environment, flies were collected using sticky cards and then microscopically identified. Representative fly samples were cultured for bacterial isolation, biochemical identification, and then tested against common 12 antibiotics. The total average of dipterous flies in examined farms was 400.42 ± 6.2. Culicoides biting midges were the most common existing species (70.01 %) followed by house flies, stable flies, and mosquitoes (18.31, 7.74, and 3.91 %, respectively) at X (2) = 9.0, P house flies could be considered as a potential carrier for multi-drug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic importance. Furthermore, cows' environment has an essential role in propagation and wide spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial pathogens.

  13. Occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli in soils, cattle and farm environment in France (Burgundy region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eHartmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M (extended spectrum beta-lactamase- ESBL producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France using real time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n=271 were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within 2 of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure one year before sampling.

  14. Male pre- and post-pubertal castration effect on live weight, components of empty body weight, estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency in Piemontese hypertrofic cattle

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    Davide Biagini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sexual neutering and age of castration on empty body weight (EBW components and estimated nitrogen excretion and efficiency, a trial was carried out on 3 groups of double-muscled Piemontese calves: early castrated (EC, 5th month of age, late castrated (LC, 12th month of age and intact males (IM, control group. Animals were fed at the same energy and protein level and slaughtered at 18th month of age. Live and slaughtering performances and EBW components were recorded, whereas N excretion was calculated by difference between diet and weight gain N content. In live and slaughtering performances, IM showed higher final, carcass and total meat weight than EC and LC (P<0.01. In EBW components, IM showed higher blood and head weight than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, and differences were found between EC and LC for head weights (P<0.01. IM showed higher body crude protein (BCP than EC and LC (P<0.01 and 0.05 respectively, but BCP/EBW ratio was higher only in IM than EC (P<0.05. Estimated N daily gain was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.01. Only LC showed higher excretion than IM (P<0.05, and N efficiency was higher in IM than EC and LC (P<0.05 and 0.01 respectively. In conclusion, for the Piemontese hypertrophied cattle castration significantly increases N excretion (+7% and reduces N efficiency (-15%, leading to a lower level of sustainability.

  15. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman......This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...

  16. Field study on evaluation of the efficacy and usability of two disinfectants for drinking water treatment at small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Asmaa N

    2016-03-01

    The hygienic quality of drinking water for cattle originated from different sources together with the efficacy and usability of two types of disinfectants against waterborne pathogens were assessed for small cattle breeders and dairy cattle farms. A total of 120 drinking water samples were collected from water troughs representing three different water sources commonly used for cattle drinking (tap, underground and surface water; n = 65, 25, and 30, respectively). Collected samples were cultured for isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria using serological techniques and PCR. The bactericidal efficacy of the disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 50%, at different concentrations were evaluated by the determination of total viable and coliform counts of water prior and postwater treatment. In small cattle breeders, Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial isolates from surface water (56.7%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (36.7%), Salmonella spp. (26.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (23.3%), Shigella flexneri (16.7%), Proteus spp. (16.7%), and Klebsiella pneumonae (10.0 %) at X(2) = 9, P ≤ 0.01. Prior to the use of disinfectants, the averages of total bacterial and coliform counts were the highest in surface water (3.56 × 10(7), 240.0, and 38.0 CFU/100 ml, respectively). It has been found that hydrogen peroxide 50% at a concentration of 35 mg/l had a lethal effect (100 %) on indicator microorganisms compared with NaDCC at concentration of 2 mg/l. In conclusion, the higher bacterial contaminants in drinking water were found in surface water followed by tap water, particularly for small cattle breeders. Therefore, the usage of more hygienic water troughs with their regular treatment by hydrogen peroxide 50% at concentration of 35 mg/l is highly recommended to control waterborne bacteria and consequently improve and maintain the animal health.

  17. Heterogeneity in a communal cattle-farming system in a zone endemic for foot and mouth disease in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockert Louis van Schalkwyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, communal livestock farming is predominant in the foot and mouth disease control zone adjacent to the Greater Kruger National Park (KNP, where infected African buffaloes are common. During routine veterinary inspections of cattle in this area, a large amount of production and demographic parameters were being recorded. These data were collated for a five-year period (2003-2007 in three study sites to better understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in this system. A decreasing gradient from South to North with respect to both human and cattle population densities was observed. Rainfall and human population density alone could explain 71% of the variation in cattle density. Northern and central sites showed an overall decrease in total cattle numbers (15.1 and 2.9%, respectively, whereas a 28.6% increase was recorded in the South. The number of cattle owners in relation to cattle numbers remained stable during the study period. Only 4.0% of households in the South own cattle, compared to 13.7 and 12.7% in the North and Centre. The overall annual calving rate was 23.8%. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.4 to 3.2%. Low calf mortality (2.1% was recorded in the North compared to the South (11.6%. Annual off-take in the form of slaughter averaged 0.2, 11.7, and 11.0% in the North, Central and South sites, respectively. These figures provide valuable baseline data and demonstrate considerable spatial heterogeneity in cattle demography and production at this wildlife-livestock interface, which should be taken into consideration when performing disease risk assessments or designing disease control systems.

  18. Management and use of dairy cattle feed resources on smallholder certified organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiggundu, Muhammad; Kabi, Fred; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , concluded that management of livestock feeding in the study area fell short of the requirements for organic livestock feeding standards. Research to develop strategies that can use alternative on-farm feed resources through ensiling organic pineapple wastes during the dry season is recommended as a long....... Farmers allocated more land (Porganic pineapple production compared to livestock. Beside dairy cattle, farmers also kept chickens, goats and pigs. Tethering was the commonest cattle management system. Fifty three percent of respondents reported using both natural pastures and crop residues......Formulation of exclusively organic diets that meet maintenance and production requirements of dairy cattle is a major limitation to production of premium organic products of animal origin. This study was therefore carried out to assess the use and availability of feed resources and the coping...

  19. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  20. What is the benefit of organically-reared dairy cattle? Societal perception towards conventional and organic dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Christoph-Schulz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, current systems in agriculture and food production have been topic in public discussions. Especially modern animal husbandry seems not to match consumers’ or societal needs any longer. This paper concentrates on the society’s perspective regarding dairy farming in general and diverting perceptions and expectations with respect to dairy cattle either reared organically or reared conventionally. It aims to give orientation to farmers as well as policymakers about the societal point of view of dairy farming.Six focus groups were carried out in three German cities to capture the scope of opinions and expectations among the population. Three of those groups consisted of participants buying mainly organic food while the other three comprised citizens buying mainly conventional food.With respect to society’s perception of today’s dairy farming results showed that participants put emphasis on the following topics: the space for each cow was considered as insufficient and not species-appropriate, assumed application of medications as too high, and in particular the prophylactic use of antibiotics as problematic.Asked about perceived differences between organic versus conventional farming it became obvious that organic in contrast to the conventional farming was perceived as more species-appropriate. More or less, all previously criticized aspects seem to be regarded as irrelevant in organic farming. Some participants showed a very romantic view of organic dairy farming. The most critical point was an assumed high rate of rogue traders among organic farmers.

  1. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  2. Methanogen community structure in the rumens of farmed sheep, cattle and red deer fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kirs, Marek; Ronimus, Ron S; Hoskin, Simone O; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on knowledge of the methanogens present. We investigated the composition of archaeal communities in the rumens of farmed sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to generate fingerprints of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The total archaeal communities were relatively constant across species and diets, and were less variable and less diverse than bacterial communities. There were diet- and ruminant-species-based differences in archaeal community structure, but the same dominant archaea were present in all rumens. These were members of three coherent clades: species related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae; species related to Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae; and species of the genus Methanosphaera. Members of an archaeal group of unknown physiology, designated rumen cluster C (RCC), were also present. RCC-specific DGGE, clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were very diverse and made up an average of 26.5% of the total archaea. RCC sequences were not readily detected in the DGGE patterns of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes because no single sequence type was abundant enough to form dominant bands.

  3. Motives and values in farming local cattle breeds in Europe: a survey on 15 breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far

  4. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  5. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Cattle Farmers and Farm Residents in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Cong, Wei; Li, Mao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Feng; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about Coxiella burnetii infection among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to detect the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and estimate associated risk factors among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. A cross-sectional study was designed, and sera of 362 people living or working on 106 cattle farms were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescence assay. Overall C. burnetii seroprevalence was 35.6% (129/362, 95% CI: 30.70-40.57), and 112 participants had experienced a past infection and seventeen (4.7%) had experienced a relatively recent infection. In the final combined multilevel model, the following activities were significantly associated with presence of antibodies against C. burnetii: milking cattle, providing general healthcare to cattle, providing birth assistance, contact dead-born animals, urbanization, and presence of mice and/or rats in the stable. Moreover, presence of disinfection equipment was a significant protective factor. This is the first study addressing the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. burnetii infection in cattle farmers and farm residents in three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

  6. An investigation into an outbreak of Rift Valley fever on a cattle farm in Bela-Bela, South Africa, in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço P. Mapaco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, a suspected outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF was reported on a farm in the Bela-Bela area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Seven calves died on the affected dairy farm, where no RVF vaccination programme was practised. No apparent clinical disease was reported in the other 300 cattle (33 calves included or 200 sheep on the farm. During the outbreak, blood samples from 77.7% (233/300 of the cattle and 36.5% (73/200 of the sheep were collected on the affected farm and 55 blood samples were taken from cattle on a neighbouring farm. Eight weeks later, 78% of the cattle (234/300 and 42.5% of the sheep (85/200 were bled on the affected farm only. All sera were tested by an Immunoglobulin M (IgM-capture Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and by an indirect Immunoglobulin G (IgG ELISA. Selected IgM-positive (n = 14, IgG-positive (n = 23 and samples negative for both IgM and IgG-specific antibodies against RVF virus (n = 19 were tested using the serum neutralisation test (SNT. Sera from IgM-positive (n = 14 and negative (n = 20 animals were also tested by a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR. On the affected farm, 7% (16/233 of the cattle were IgM-positive and 13.7% (32/233 IgG-positive at the first bleed and 2% were IgM-positive at the second bleed, whilst the number of cattle positive for IgG-specific antibodies increased by 21.3% compared with the first bleed. Only 1.4% of sheep were positive for both IgM and IgG antibodies at the first collection; at the second bleed, IgM-positive cases decreased to 1.2%, whilst IgG-positive cases increased to 2.4%. Whilst no IgM-positive cattle were found on the neighbouring farm, 5.5% of cattle were IgG-positive. The SNT confirmed most of the ELISA results, whilst PCR results were all negative. Although serology results indicated virus circulation on both farms, the negative PCR results demonstrated that the animals were not viraemic at the time they were sampled. The movement of infected

  7. Study on performance analysis of Holstein Fresien cattle under intensive management at government dairy farm, Pishin, Balochistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf H. Barozai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to analyze the productive and reproductive performance ofHolstein Friesian cattle under intensive management at Government Dairy Farm, Pishin (Balochistanexploring the ten years performance records from 1997-2007. Parameters were productive traits(birth weight, lactation length, lactation milk yield, reproductive traits (age at first conception, age atfirst calving, service period, dry period, calving interval and effect of calving season on (milk yield,calving interval, birth weight, dry period on the Holstein Fresein cattle. Analysis of data revealedsignificant difference in all the productive traits (P0.05 in higher birth weight of calves, dry period,calving interval and milk yield of cows, respectively.

  8. Performance of growing cattle on poor-quality rangelands supplemented with farm-formulated protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusha, J; Katsande, S; Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Chiuta, T

    2015-10-01

    Farmers use different non-conventional protein supplements and different feeding strategies to aid their animals survive the dry season in Zimbabwe. The strategies can be giving supplements once a week or once every other day up to very little supplement daily. Supplements are either legume crop residues or forage legumes. However, the efficacy of the use of non-conventional protein supplements in promoting growth and at the same time lowering the age at first calving is little understood. The study tested whether supplementing with farm-formulated non-conventional feeds could reduce live weight loss during the dry season and promote live weight gain as well as early development of sexual maturity in beef cattle. In a completely randomized design, thirty dams with calves on hooves were allocated to five different treatments which were repeated during the dry season for 3 years. The 3-year study results show that weight loss can be controlled, resulting in positive growth in both the pre-weaning and post-weaning phases of growing cattle. Yearlings fed solely on natural pasture lost significant weight during the dry season as compared to supplemented groups. The period to puberty and first calving was achieved at 18 and 27 months, respectively. Using non-conventional protein supplements could thus improve livestock productivity in resource-poor farming communities. It was concluded that smallholder farmers can supplement cattle with a kilogram per day of low-cost farm-based non-conventional legume meal to improve livestock productivity in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe.

  9. The effect of faecally excreted ivermectin and fenbendazole on the insect colonisation of cattle dung following the oral administration of sustained-release boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, L; Wall, R; Woolford, A; Djeddour, D

    1996-04-01

    The effects of faecal drug residues following the administration of anthelmintics in the form of sustained-release boluses, on dung-colonising Coleoptera and Diptera are reported. In blind field trials, pats of standard weight and size were prepared from the dung of cattle treated with an ivermectin (Ivomec SR Bolus, MSD Agvet) or a fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus, Hoechst) sustained-release bolus, and from a third control group of cattle that received no treatment. Pats were recovered after 7, 14, 21 and 42 days in the field and searched for invertebrates. There were no differences in the numbers of adult beetles found in the pats from the three treatment groups. Pats made from the dung of ivermectin-treated animals contained no larval Diptera Cyclorrhapha and significantly fewer larval Scarabaeidae than pats made from the dung of the other two groups. Furthermore, larval Scarabaeidae in the ivermectin pats were inhibited in their development. The pats from fenbendazole-treated animals contained similar numbers of larval Scarabaeidae and Diptera to the pats from untreated animals throughout the trial. At 42 days, the solid matter of the control and fenbendazole-containing cow pats were reduced to a crumbling, granular texture, while the pats from the ivermectin-treated animals were solid and compacted. Pitfall trapping, using traps baited with dung from the three groups, showed no significant difference between the numbers of adult Scarabaeidae attracted, though a trend towards higher numbers attracted to the dung of both anthelmintic-treated groups was evident. The results provide evidence of the toxic effects of excreted ivermectin on key dung-colonising families of insects, and show that fenbendazole lacks such toxic effects.

  10. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  11. Validation of key indicators in cattle farms at high risk of animal welfare problems: a qualitative case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P C; More, S J; Blake, M; Higgins, I; Clegg, T; Hanlon, A

    2013-03-23

    The objective of this study was to validate four key farmer performance indicators (KFPI), identified in a previous study, as indicators of on-farm cattle welfare incidents in Ireland, through comparison of the distribution of these KPFIs in the national herd (n=109,925) and in case herds (n=18), where welfare incidents were previously studied. The KFPIs identified were late registrations, and exits from the herd by on-farm burial, by moves to knackeries and by moves to 'herd unknown'. Data were extracted from two Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine databases for the national herd and the case herds. All four KFPIs differed significantly between the case herds and the national herd, and one further KFPI was identified, namely moves to factories. The data for these KFPIs are routinely stored on national databases, which were established in order to comply with Regulation (EC) 1760/2000. Based on the results obtained in this study, it may be possible in the future to use routine data capture to improve strategy towards on-farm animal welfare. At this point, however, based on calculated specificities and sensitivities, none of these five KFPIs, at the cut-offs investigated and using several combinations, are able to distinguish herds with and without on-farm animal welfare problems at an accuracy suitable for routine national use in Ireland.

  12. Positive indicators of cattle welfare and their applicability to on-farm protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the research on animal welfare has focused on the negative aspects of the matter including an array of stress categories, whereas little has been done about the positive states of well being. The present study aims to describe indicators of positive animal welfare suitable for on-farm assessment. Appropriate environmental stimulation favours good welfare and, in an adequately enriched environment, positive indicators of welfare such as play behaviour tend to be more common. In addition, animals are motivated to perform these behaviours only if their primary needs are satisfied. In cattle, beneficial effects of social licking have been observed with positive correlation between being licked vs. milk production and weight gain, respectively. Ruminants are gregarious and a high degree of synchronisation within the herd may indicate a positive welfare state, in particular for subordinate animals. They may be able to meet their basic feeding and resting requirements performing these behaviours when the competition for a particular resource is low, however their welfare state would be improved if they could choose when and where (i.e. along with the other members of the group to perform such behaviours. Due to the reduced applicability (mainly young animals, low feasibility (time consuming and lack of research on reliability, play behaviour, albeit of proven validity, does not appear to be suitable for a rapid implementation in a welfare assessment scheme. Social licking is rarely expressed and its detection may be time consuming and scarcely feasible. Although validity and reliability need more studies, behaviour synchrony seems to be a promising positive welfare indicator as the instantaneous scan sampling technique makes this indicator easily applicable. Recently, a new methodology called “qualitative assessment of animal behaviour” has been developed. The method relies on a number of terms which are freely generated by observers. Thus

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Yuwana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meet their obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions (5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fattening and cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage cluster random sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang, Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiple linear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calf operation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’ income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510. Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital, collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capital and collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effects on credit return.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  15. Use of body linear measurements to estimate liveweight of crossbred dairy cattle in smallholder farms in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukuyu, M N; Gibson, J P; Savage, D B; Duncan, A J; Mujibi, F D N; Okeyo, A M

    2016-01-01

    Body linear measurements, and specifically heart girth (HG), have been shown to be useful predictors of cattle liveweight. To test the accuracy of body linear measurements for predicting liveweight, crossbred dairy cattle of different genotypes were measured and weighed. A total of 352 mature cows and 100 heifers were weighed using an electronic weighing scale and measurements of HG, body length, height at withers were taken using an ordinary measuring tape and body condition scored (BCS) using a five-point scale. The animals were grouped according to genotype and age. Genotype classification was undertaken from farmer recall and by visual appraisal as 40-60, 61-80 or 81-100 % exotic (non-indigenous). Age classification was simply as mature cows or heifers. Liveweight of the animals ranged from 102 to 433 kg. Liveweight was strongly correlated with HG (r = 0.84) and body condition scores (r = 0.70) and moderately correlated with body length (r = 0.64) and height at withers (0.61). Regressing LW on HG measurements gave statistically significant (P cattle in the range of 100-450 kg, regardless of age and breed group. Including BCS in the model slightly improved the model fit but not the prediction error. It was concluded that the model can be useful in making general management decisions in smallholder farms.

  16. BVD-2 outbreak leads to high losses in cattle farms in Western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörn Gethmann

    2015-09-01

    The competent veterinary authorities imposed trade restrictions on affected farms. All persons who had been in contact with affected animals were advised to increase biosecurity measures (e.g. using farm-owned or disposable protective clothing. In some farms, affected animals were vaccinated against BVD to reduce clinical signs as an “emergency measure”. These measures stopped the further spread of the disease.

  17. The role of cattle manure in enhancing on-farm productivity, macro- and micro-nutrient uptake, and profitability of maize in the Guinea savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Diels, J.; Schulz, S.; Oyewole, B.D.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    An on-farm trial was conducted in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria, over a period of five years, with the objectives of quantifying the effects on maize of applying cattle manure in combination with synthetic fertilizer with regard to soil characteristics, yield, plant nutrition and profitabil

  18. A longitudinal study of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle of a Dutch dairy farm and in the farm environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, J M; Graat, E A M; Frankena, K; van de Giessen, A W; van der Zwaluw, W K; de Jong, M C M

    2005-05-20

    From July 1999 till November 2000, a longitudinal study was conducted on a dairy farm in The Netherlands to study within herd prevalence and types of verocytotoxin producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) of serogroup O157 over time, and determine environmental reservoirs and possible transmission routes. Faeces, blood, milk and environmental samples were collected 14 times with intervals varying from 4 to 10 weeks during the study period. Faecal samples were selectively cultured for Escherichia coli O157. Isolates were tested by PCR for the most common virulence genes, VTI, VTII and eae, and typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. In total, 71 isolates were obtained, of which 49 from dairy cows, 8 from young stock, 5 from other animals and 9 from the environment. Positive samples were all detected in summer and early fall. VT- and eae-genes were found in all tested isolates, except in one. DNA typing showed that three clusters of O157 isolates could be identified. One of these clusters contained samples of two shedding seasons, indicating persistence on the farm during winter and spring. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that cows with O157 VTEC infection had higher daily milk production in the period preceding sampling (p = 0.0055). There was no significant association between the results of the LPS-ELISA on serum samples from dairy cows and their O157 status.

  19. Occurrence of Theileria parva infection in cattle on a farm in the Ladysmith district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Thompson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva causes widespread morbidity and mortality in cattle in endemic regions. An outbreak of theileriosis occurred on a farm near Ladysmith in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, which is not a declared Corridor disease-infected area. A survey of Red Brangus cattle from all age groups and areas of the farm was performed. Transmission of the parasite from infected animals on the farm to susceptible animals by tick transmission and tick-stabilate injection, was attempted. The survey indicated high numbers of animals with antibody titres to T. parva but only 6 infected animals, based on real-time PCR and RLB analysis. The transmission experiments failed to transmit the parasite. The study shows the difficulty in elucidating a source of infection and determining the dynamics of new infections in a herd where multiple possible sources are present and treatment with tetracyclines has taken place.

  20. Development of risk-based trading farm scoring system to assist with the control of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkin, A; Brouwer, A; Simons, R R L; Smith, R P; Arnold, M E; Broughan, J; Kosmider, R; Downs, S H

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and ranking cattle herds with a higher risk of being or becoming infected on known risk factors can help target farm biosecurity, surveillance schemes and reduce spread through animal trading. This paper describes a quantitative approach to develop risk scores, based on the probability of infection in a herd with bovine tuberculosis (bTB), to be used in a risk-based trading (RBT) scheme in England and Wales. To produce a practical scoring system the risk factors included need to be simple and quick to understand, sufficiently informative and derived from centralised national databases to enable verification and assess compliance. A logistic regression identified herd history of bTB, local bTB prevalence, herd size and movements of animals onto farms in batches from high risk areas as being significantly associated with the probability of bTB infection on farm. Risk factors were assigned points using the estimated odds ratios to weight them. The farm risk score was defined as the sum of these individual points yielding a range from 1 to 5 and was calculated for each cattle farm that was trading animals in England and Wales at the start of a year. Within 12 months, of those farms tested, 30.3% of score 5 farms had a breakdown (sensitivity). Of farms scoring 1-4 only 5.4% incurred a breakdown (1-specificity). The use of this risk scoring system within RBT has the potential to reduce infected cattle movements; however, there are cost implications in ensuring that the information underpinning any system is accurate and up to date.

  1. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

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    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  2. Nitrogen, land and water inputs in changing cattle farming systems. A historical comparison for France, 19th-21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimpiros, Petros; Barles, Sabine

    2010-09-15

    This paper provides an original account of the long-term regional metabolism in relation to the cattle rearing in western France starting by the precise formulation of animal diets at three key dates of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. We established links between the demand in fodder of the meat and dairy sectors and the necessary inputs of nitrogen, water and land as well as the land cover changes occurring on the affected local and remote cattle acreage. The average agricultural productivity for fodder supply is estimated at about 50 kg N/ha in the mid-19th, 54 kg N/ha in the early 20th and 150 kg N/ha at the turning of the 21st century. Jointly for the dairy and meat productions, the potential efficiency in the conversion of the vegetal into animal protein more than doubled over the studied period, passing from less than 9% in the 19th to 20% in the 21st century. The current cattle sector is sustained for about 25% by land situated beyond the regional frontiers and uses water at intensities that approach or exceed the availability of renewable water. The nitrogen pollution is expressed in terms of the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) and, by comparison to the N recovered in products, is used to define the N-Environmental Efficiency of the farming. We discuss the historical succession of the factors that contributed to the growth of the meat and milk production and make a comparison of the impacts and policy between the local and distant resources.

  3. Wild deer as potential vectors of anthelmintic-resistant abomasal nematodes between cattle and sheep farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintoan-Uta, C; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P J; Coles, G C

    2014-04-07

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal components analysis of abomasal nematode species composition revealed differences between wild roe deer grazing in the areas of intensive livestock farming, and fallow and red deer in all environments. Alleles for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance were identified in β-tubulin of Haemonchus contortus of roe deer and phenotypic resistance confirmed in vitro by an egg hatch test (EC50 = 0.149 µg ml(-1) ± 0.13 µg ml(-1)) on H. contortus eggs from experimentally infected sheep. This BZ-resistant H. contortus isolate also infected a calf experimentally. We present the first account of in vitro BZ resistance in wild roe deer, but further experiments should firmly establish the presence of phenotypic BZ resistance in vivo. Comprehensive in-field studies should assess whether nematode cross-transmission between deer and livestock occurs and contributes, in any way, to the development of resistance on livestock farms.

  4. Prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in cattle farms in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabára, Ágnes; Lang, Zsolt; Földi, József; Hornyák, Ákos; Abonyi, Tamás; Ózsvári, László

    2016-06-01

    A study was performed to survey the virological prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus (BVDV) in cattle herds in Hungary between 2008 and 2012. A total of 40,413 samples for BVDV detection and 24,547 samples for antibody testing were collected from 3,247 herds (570,524 animals), thus representing approximately 75% of the cattle population in Hungary. Retrospective Bayesian analysis demonstrated that (1) the herd-level true virus prevalence was 12.4%, (2) the mean individual (within-herd) true virus prevalence was 7.2% in the herds having at least one virus-positive animal and 0.89% for all investigated herds with a mean apparent prevalence of 1.15% for the same population. This is the first study about BVDV prevalence in Hungary.

  5. Increasing the Number of Cattle Meat - Certified Organic Livestock Holding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Daniel Usturoi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Cattle has always represented a base sector in the field of modern agriculture, through the products they offer, bovine and especially taurine assure the consumers need for products of primal necessity, with a high biological and nutritional value, thus adding value to the way the entire population of earth lives. Also the exploitation of bovine assures raw materials for the alimentary and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand.

  7. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar;

    2015-01-01

    cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N = 460). Inputs...... obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF...... countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability...

  8. Farm-level risk factors for the occurrence, new infection or persistence of tuberculosis in cattle herds from South-Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, B; Barasona, J A; Gortázar, C; Rodríguez-Prieto, V; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M; Vicente, J

    2014-10-01

    Eradication of tuberculosis (TB) in cattle is a priority in the EU. However, and despite the resources invested, TB eradication is still a goal yet to be accomplished. As a consequence, the identification of risk factors contributing to TB transmission and persistence is key to a better understand and, ultimately, more cost-effectively control and eradicate this complex zoonotic disease worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to the TB occurrence, new infection, and persistence in one of the most TB-prevalent regions in the South-Central part of Spain (SCS), Ciudad Real (CR), and for which high quality and detailed information on cattle and wild ungulate demographics, management, and sanitary status was available for up to 5 years (2007-2011). Multilevel logistic modeling was used for this purpose. Results of this study revealed that the risk for TB (occurrence, new infection, and/or persistence) in cattle herds from CR is related to TB-persistence on farm in previous years, extensive production systems (beef and bullfighting being more risky that dairy) and large farm in terms of cattle number. Also, the presence and proximity of fenced hunting estates (which are usually intensively managed) significantly contributed to the risk of TB occurrence and persistence in CR. This association suggests that wild ungulates may play a role as TB-reservoirs and transmit TB to cattle in the CR, a region where TB is endemic and is associated with extensive farming of beef cattle. To the best of author's knowledge this is the first study to (i) evaluate the wild ungulate-domestic interface at a farm level using detailed information over an extensive region and period of time (2007-2011) and (ii) to identify a direct association between TB in cattle and the proximity and management practices of wild ungulates. Methods and results presented here may support policies to better prevent and control TB in the SCS and in other regions/countries with similar

  9. Analysis of repeated tests for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) response and faecal excretion for diagnosis of subclinical paratuberculosis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huda, A.; Lind, Peter; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil;

    2003-01-01

    A total of 315 cattle were tested for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) at three consecutive samplings, using the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) test on whole blood and bacteriological culture of faecal samples. Of 205 cattle from 10 infected herds 99...

  10. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  11. The change of sowing structure as a strategy for improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Saša Z.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of sowing structure on family farm competiveness using the model of family farm directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle in the conditions of unchanged estate size. Applying a partial budget analysis, it was examined whether the decision on buying alfalfa hay or mercantile maize on the market and changing the sowing structure was economically justified and under what conditions using additional procedure of sensitive analysis. Applying this approach, it was investigated to what extent that decision contributed to improving the family farm profitability. The results of the conducted research show that the decision on buying mercantile maize mainly contributes to improving competitiveness of family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle compared with the decision on buying alfalfa hay. It is the consequence of the fact that buying mercantile maize on the market will enable sowing structure changes, that is, buying mercantile maize will make the area free, which according to some conservative estimations, can be used for the production of sufficient amounts of alfalfa and silage maize for fattening of additional 19 head, whereas buying alfalfa hay will make the area free, which can be used for production of sufficient amounts of mercantile and silage maize for fattening of additional 6 head. In addition, it is shown that more rational way of organizing family farms directed at the final production of fattened beef cattle can additionally use available land resources and in that way increase profitability and improve competitiveness.

  12. Assessment of the probability of introduction of bovine tuberculosis to Danish cattle farms via imports of live cattle from abroad and immigrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-12-01

    Denmark has been recognized as officially free (OTF) from bovine tuberculosis (bTB) since 1980. In this study, we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing Mycobacterium bovis into the Danish cattle population, through (a) imports of cattle and (b) foreign personnel working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2000 to 2013 with date, number and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish Cattle Federation. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent by email to a sample of Danish cattle farmers (N=460). Inputs obtained from data analysis, expert opinion, the questionnaire and literature were fed into three stochastic scenario tree models used to simulate the effect of import trade patterns, and contact between immigrant workers and cattle. We also investigated the opportunity of testing animals imported from OTF countries by tuberculin skin test and animals from non-OTF countries by interferon-γ test (IFN-γ), exemplified by using year 2009 where the number of imported animals was higher than usual. Results showed that PIntro is driven mainly by importation of live cattle. The combined median annual probability of introducing M. bovis into the Danish cattle population by either imported live cattle or infectious immigrant workers, ranged from 0.3% (90% prediction interval (P.I.): 0.04%:1.4%) in 2001 to 4.9% (90% P.I.: 0.6%; 19.2%) in 2009. The median of the median PIntro estimates from the 14 years was 0.7% (median of 90% P.I.: 0.08%; 3.5%). Hence, on average, at least one introduction each 143 years could be expected, if the annual number of imported animals does not change remarkably in the future. If the number of imported animals increases, compared to the years we analyzed, additional testing of imported cattle might be considered. For example, in 2009, PIntro would have been reduced from 4.9% to 0.8% (90% P.I.: 0.1%; 4.7%) if animals from OTF countries had been tested with

  13. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  14. Analysis and Countermeasures of the Beef Cattle Farm in Yongsheng County%云南永胜县肉牛发展研究及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段治华

    2011-01-01

    云南省永胜县是一个典型的农业县,有自然草山面积15.32万ha,对发展肉牛生产具有独天得厚的自然优势。2010年肉牛存栏11.9万头,占全县大小牲畜存栏的13.38%,占草食畜的20.35%。但由于品种改良滞后,饲养方式落后,严重制约着我县肉牛生产,加强做好肉牛冻精改良工作是发展肉牛生产的重要措施之一,是提高广大农民饲养肉牛经济收入的重要手段。%Yongsheng County is a typical agricultural county,with natural grassplot of 153200ha,which holds an advantageous position in developing beef cattle farm.In 2010,Yongsheng County had 119 thousand heads of beef cattle,accounting for 13.38% of the total livestock,and 20.35% of the herbivorous mammals.But as a result of lags in breed improvement and backward rearing forms,the development of the beef cattle farm has been restrained.The improvement of beef cattle's sperms freezing technology is an important measure in the development of beef cattle farm,and also is a good way to increase the income of farmers.

  15. Survey of management practices on reproductive performance of dairy cattle on large US commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraviello, D Z; Weigel, K A; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Florent, M J; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V; Zwald, N R; Rawson, C L

    2006-12-01

    A survey regarding general management, sire selection, reproductive management, inseminator training and technique, heat abatement, body condition scoring, facility design and grouping, nutrition, employee training and management, and animal health and bio-security was carried out from March to September of 2004 in 153 herds in the Alta Genetics (Watertown, WI) Advantage Progeny Testing Program. A total of 103 herds (67.3%) completed the survey. Herd size was 613 +/- 46 cows, with herds located in Wisconsin (26), California (12), New York (11), Minnesota (10), Michigan (7), Washington (6), Pennsylvania (6), Iowa (5), Idaho (5), Texas (4), Ohio (4), and other states (7). These farms sold 34.5 +/- 0.3 kg of milk/d per cow, with an annual culling rate of 34 +/- 1% and a calving interval of 13.8 +/- 0.1 mo. Cows were observed for estrus 2.8 +/- 0.3 times/d, for a duration of 27 +/- 4 min, but 78% of the respondents admitted that detection of estrus was not the employee's sole responsibility at that time. Managers tried to achieve pregnancy until 8.8 +/- 0.9 failed inseminations, 300 +/- 26 d postpartum, or milk yield cows were culled at 326 +/- 36 d postpartum or milk yield cows, respectively. Hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs were used in 87% of the herds, with 86% synchronizing first services, 77% resynchronizing repeat services, and 59% treating cystic, anestrous, or anovular cows. Finding good employees was identified as the greatest labor challenge, followed by training and supervising employees. Mastitis and hairy heel warts were noted as the greatest animal health concerns, followed by lameness, abortions, and death losses, whereas the greatest reproductive challenges were artificial insemination service rate, conception rate, twinning, and retained placenta or metritis. Results of this study can provide a useful benchmark or reference with regard to commonly used management practices on large commercial US dairy farms at the

  16. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (Pcomposting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF TECHNICAL MEANS FOR PREPARATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FEED MIXTURES AT SMALL CATTLE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To increase the productivity of the cattle it is demanded simultaneous distribution of all types of animal feed in the form of balanced feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Balanced feeding of animals can improve their productivity, reduce feed wastage, and include alternative components of feed mixtures in their diets, which have nourishing properties and high digestibility; make and adjust feeding rations. Researches conducted by Russian and foreign scientists, proved the prospects of full feeding of complete feed mixtures, which allow to increase the productivity of animals to 9-30 % and reduce the feed consumption in the calculation of 1 с of milk by 7-8 %. The composition of complete feed mixtures includes sunflower cake, silage, root crops and forage. The process of preparation and distribution of feeds for large horned livestock is the issue of all the necessary components of the feed mixture with a given nutritional value. Saturation of the feed product with extra energy goes during its interaction with the working bodies of technical means for preparation and distribution (TMPD of different types of food. For preparation and distribution of components of the feed mixture it is necessary to have following facilities, provided with reducing energy intensity and improving the qualitative indicators of processes: for grinding beet fodder and sunflower cake we need disk shredders; for shredding silage and roughage – bearnie and rotor shredders, respectively; for dispensing of beet fodder and sunflower cake – belt conveyor, for dispensing silage and roughage we use disc and drum dispensers, respectively; for mixing sunflower cake - rotary mixers, and for silage, beet fodder and for-age we may use paddle mixers; for distribution of sunflower cake we use rotary feeders, for silage and beet fodder – bin distributors, and for coarse feed we should use conveyor dispensers

  18. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  19. Variation of milk urea in dairy cattle : a study on factors that affect the relationship between urea concentration in milk and urea excretion in urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to increase the applicability of milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) as a predictor of urinary urea nitrogen excretion (UUN) by identifying and quantifying factors that can explain variation in MUN that is not related to UUN. A literature study was conducted in order to

  20. High-Level Genotypic Variation and Antibiotic Sensitivity among Escherichia coli O157 Strains Isolated from Two Scottish Beef Cattle Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Leila; Wisely, Karen A.; Pearce, Michael C.; Turner, Esther J.; Knight, Hazel I.; Smith, Alastair W.; Amyes, Sebastian G. B.

    2004-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a human pathogen that is carried and transmitted by cattle. Scotland is known to have one of the highest rates of E. coli O157 human infections in the world. Two hundred ninety-three isolates were obtained from naturally infected cattle and the environment on two farms in the Scottish Highlands. The isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI restriction endonuclease enzyme, and 19 different variations in patterns were found. There was considerable genomic diversity within the E. coli O157 population on the two farms. The PFGE pattern of one of the observed subtypes matched exactly with that of a strain obtained from a Scottish patient with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. To examine the stability of an individual E. coli O157 strain, continuous subculturing of a strain was performed 110 times. No variation from the original PFGE pattern was observed. We found three indistinguishable subtypes of E. coli O157 on both study farms, suggesting common sources of infection. We also examined the antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Phenotypic studies demonstrated resistance of the strains to sulfamethoxazole (100%), chloramphenicol (3.07%), and at a lower rate, other antibiotics, indicating the preservation of antibiotic sensitivity in a rapidly changing population of E. coli O157. PMID:15466537

  1. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  2. Anthelmintic resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Chartier, Christophe; Fanke, Jane; di Regalbono, Antonio Frangipane; Traversa, Donato; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina; Vanimisetti, Hima Bindu; Bartram, David J; Denwood, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Anthelmintic resistance has been increasingly reported in cattle worldwide over the last decade, although reports from Europe are more limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of injectable formulations of ivermectin and moxidectin at 0.2 mg per kg bodyweight against naturally acquired gastro-intestinal nematodes in cattle. A total of 753 animals on 40 farms were enrolled in Germany (12 farms), the UK (10 farms), Italy (10 farms), and France (8 farms). Animals were selected based on pre-treatment faecal egg counts and were allocated to one of the two treatment groups. Each treatment group consisted of between 7 and 10 animals. A post-treatment faecal egg count was performed 14 days (±2 days) after treatment. The observed percentage reduction was calculated for each treatment group based on the arithmetic mean faecal egg count before and after treatment. The resistance status was evaluated based on the reduction in arithmetic mean faecal egg count and both the lower and upper 95% confidence limits. A decreased efficacy was observed in half or more of the farms in Germany, France and the UK. For moxidectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in France, and on 1 farm in Germany and the UK. For ivermectin, resistance was confirmed on 3 farms in the UK, and on 1 farm in Germany and France. The remaining farms with decreased efficacy were classified as having an inconclusive resistance status based on the available data. After treatment Cooperia spp. larvae were most frequently identified, though Ostertagia ostertagi was also found, in particular within the UK and Germany. The present study reports lower than expected efficacy for ivermectin and moxidectin (based on the reduction in egg excretion after treatment) on European cattle farms, with confirmed anthelmintic resistance on 12.5% of the farms.

  3. Survey on Milking Parlor of Dairy Cattle Farm in Shandong Province%山东省奶牛场挤奶厅情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣岭; 薛光辉; 鲍鹏; 杨君; 李建斌; 赵秀新; 侯明海

    2016-01-01

    The milking parlor is the “heart” of dairy cattle farm. A survey of milking parlor in 56 dairy cattle farms was conducted in Shandong province. Milking machine maintenance, milking workers and milking operation were also analysed in this article. And some advice were put forward on how to improve milking effciency and operation speciifcation.%挤奶厅是奶牛场的“心脏”。本文对山东省56个规模化奶牛场的挤奶厅进行了调查,通过对挤奶设备及维护、奶厅人员配置、挤奶操作等情况的统计分析,对山东省挤奶厅的基本情况有了较为全面的了解,同时指出了在挤奶机检修、挤奶效率及挤奶操作细节方面的问题并给予了改进意见。

  4. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Abdullahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  5. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Carriers of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli (STEC in Dairy Cattle Farms in the Governorate of Blida (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baazize-Ammi Djamila

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether dairy beef cattle raised in Algeria are Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC carriers. Stx1 and stx2 genes were analysed in DNA isolated from 200 faecal samples collected from adult dairy cows from 27 randomly selected farms in Blida, North Algeria, after amplification by PCR. Samples from 61 (30.5% animals out of the 200 were positive and were located in 18 farms with a prevalence of 66.7%. Interestingly, no sample from any cow was positive for only the stx2 gene, while in contrast, samples from 51 cows were positive for the stx1 gene alone (83.6% and those from 10 other cows were positive for both stx1 and stx2 genes (16.4%. It should be noted that the faecal samples infected with pathogens carrying the two genes originated from 4 out of the 18 farms that were found to be positive, with a rate of 22.2%.

  6. A survey of management practices that influence production and welfare of dairy cattle on family farms in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Hötzel, M J; Longo, C; Balcão, L F

    2013-01-01

    A survey on dairy production in family dairy farms in the northwest of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was carried out to assess husbandry practices and elements of the living environment that may influence animal welfare and productivity. Three farm systems common in the region were compared: extensive, pasture-based, and semi-intensive. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers, followed by an inspection of the production environment and of dairy cows on 124 dairy farms. Some welfare and production problems were common to the 3 systems, mainly subclinical mastitis and tick infestations, which affected one-third of cows, deficiencies in the provision of drinking water and shade, and poor hygiene practices during milking. Some problems were specific to farming systems, such as lameness and hock injuries on the semi-intensive farms, and inadequate milking infrastructure and greater frequencies of cows with low body condition scores on extensive and pasture-based farms. A greater proportion of farms in the semi-intensive group had modern, herringbone-type milking parlors, applied the California Mastitis Test, and followed teat disinfection practices, and more pasture-based farms provided shade in the paddocks. The widespread use of pasture and adapted genotypes and individual identification of animals were positive aspects present in all systems. The absence of health and production records in more than half of the farms may prevent farmers from recognizing certain problems. Results of this survey may guide public policies aiming to improve milk productivity and quality with sustainable and low-cost production practices.

  7. Dual Origins of Dairy Cattle Farming – Evidence from a Comprehensive Survey of European Y-Chromosomal Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Genja, Catarina; Kantanen, Juha

    2011-01-01

    , the Nordic region and Russia, with the highest Ychromosomal diversity seen in the Iberian Peninsula. Conclusions: We propose that the homogeneous Y1 and Y2 regions reflect founder effects associated with the development and expansion of two groups of dairy cattle, the pied or red breeds from the North Sea...

  8. Cattle Farming at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface: Assessment of Costs and Benefits Adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Mccrindle, C.M.E.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent and magnitude of cattle loss to wildlife depredation and diseases and also considered the benefits from the park for households adjacent to Kruger National Park. Data were from interviews with 540 randomly sampled households, inspection of records, and focus-group disc

  9. Reconstruction of the late Holocene climate in the Minusink Hollow, south-central Siberia, and its potential influence on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction. Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. Gumilev (2000) developed a theory relating the rise, development and fall of human cultures (ethnos) to the changing environment. This theory improved our understanding of human history as the natural interactions the biosphere and sociosphere. We test the hypothesis that climate change altered the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and forced them to choose agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow located at the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Methods. Three different methods (the Montane Bioclimatic Model; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) were employed to reconstruct vegetation from the fossil pollen of sediment cores of two mountain lakes in the study area at eleven time slices relating to successive human cultures back to the midHolocene. Our bioclimatic model was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. Climate-based regression models were developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Results. Our pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe lands dominating up to 85% of the area and four wetter periods with forests dominating up to 60% of the area since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased one order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space likely suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields dropped during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields could increase twofold and support more fixed human settlements centered around farming and herding cattle. Thus, the dry periods

  10. Potential influence of the late Holocene climate on settled farming versus nomadic cattle herding in the Minusinsk Hollow, south-central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyakharchuk, T. A.; Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Prehistoric and early historic human cultures are known to be closely connected to and dependent on their natural environments. We test the hypothesis that climate change influenced the means of subsistence of ancient tribes and favored agricultural or cattle herding economic strategies. Our study area is the Khakass-Minusinsk Hollow, located in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains, south-central Siberia, which was, for a few millennia, a buffer zone for human migrations across the Great Eurasian Steppe. Three different methods (the Montane BioClimatic Model, MontBCliM; the biomization method; and the actualizm method) are employed to reconstruct vegetation taken from the fossil pollen of sediment cores in two mountain lakes at eleven time slices related to successive human cultures back to the mid-Holocene. MontBCliM model is used inversely to convert site paleo-vegetation into site paleo-climates. Climate-based regression models are developed and applied to reconstructed climates to evaluate possible pasture and grain crops for these time slices. Pollen-based reconstructions of the climate fluctuations uncovered several dry periods with steppe and forest-steppe and wetter periods with forests since 6000 BP. Grasslands increased by an order of magnitude during the dry periods and provided extensive open space suitable for pastoralism; however, both grain and pasture yields decreased during these dry periods. During wetter climates, both grain and pasture yields increased twofold and supported more fixed human settlements centered around farming and cattle herding. Thus, the dry periods favored pastoralist rather than farming activities. Conversely, tribes that practiced agriculture had some advantage in the wet periods.

  11. Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Fractionation in Body Fluid Compartments of Dairy Cattle According to Season, Farm, Breed, and Reproductive Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  12. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  13. Preliminary observations on behaviour of limousine and highland cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Pytlewski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to characterise behaviour of limousine and highland cattle kept on permanent grassland on a farm in the Wielkopolska region. Investigations consisted of observations conducted on the behaviour of animals in two herds of limousine and highland cattle during the four seasons of the year. Frequency was recorded for the following activities performed by animals: food consumption, drinking of water, rumination, resting (lying down, rubbing, allolicking, fights and excretion (urine, faeces. The second stage of the study comprised detailed descriptions of behaviour of animals on the pasture. Observations were conducted on a herd composed of dams, juvenile animals (up to seven-eight months old and a bull.

  14. The Effects of Some External Management Factors on the Nitrogen Composition of Cattle Manure on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Markewich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers in Kenya collect manure from confined cattle housing termed zero-grazing units. Zero-grazing designs may include urine collection, though the effectiveness of these designs in improving manure N content has not been established. The manure-urine mixtures produced in these units were simulated to determine urine effects on manure N composition. Manure and manure-urine mixtures were stored for 120 days during dry and rainy seasons in Kenya. Manure-urine mixtures leached 26% of their mineral N content during the dry season, but only 12% during the rainy season. After storage, manure-urine mixtures had less organic-N and fiber-N than manure alone during the dry season (<0.01, but not during the rainy season. Results suggest that the effect of cattle urine on manure N composition is greater during dry seasons than rainy. Manure should not be stored more than 30 days to minimize N loss to leaching. Farmers may take steps to reduce N loss by controlling leaching and protecting manure from rainfall.

  15. Comportamento da Haematobia irritans em fazendas com diferentes manejos de bovinos Behaviour Haematobia irritans in herd cattle farms under different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Pereira de Oliveira

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica parasitária da Haematobia irritans foi estudada em três fazendas com diferentes tipos de manejo de bovinos mestiços na região de São Carlos, SP, as quais não utilizavam nenhum tratamento específico à mosca. O experimento consistuiu na contagem de mosca na região dorso-lombar a cada 14 dias no período de outubro de 1992 a outubro de 1994. Cada fazenda adotava um tratamento: T1 (Fazenda Ribeirão Bonito, verminose tratada com levamizole-Ripercol L injetável, carrapato com piretróide - Ectoplus "pouron" e berne com trichlorphon-Neguvon + óleo queimado, usotópico; T2(Fazenda São Carlos, verminose tratada com levamizole - Ripercol injetável, carrapato tratado com banho de imersão com formamidina - Triatox e berne com fenthion -Tiguvon "pour on" e T3 (Fazenda Santa Eudóxia - sem tratamento. Os dados de contagem da mosca-do-chifre (MC, na escala √(MC + 0,5, foram analisados em um modelo que incluiu além da média, os efeitos de tratamentos, ano, mês, período e as interações duplas, sendo que todos os efeitos diferiram entre si (PHaematobia irritans parasitical dynamics was studied in three farms rearing crossbred beef cattle, under different management systems, in the region of São Carlos, São Paulo State. In the farms was not utilized any specific treatment against horn flies. The experiment consisted in counting fortnightly the number of flies on the dorso-lombar area of the animals, from October, 1992 to October, 1994. Each farm used a different parasite control: T1- Ribeirão Bonito Farm, anthihelminthic treatment, with injectable levamizole (Ripercol L; ticks treated with pour on pyrethroid compound (Ectoplus; and berne, treated with trichlorphon (Neguvon plus used motor oil, applied topically; T2- São Carlos Farm, antihelminthic treatmen with injectable levamizole (Ripercol L; ticks treated with formamidine (Triatox in immersion bath; and berne treated with pour on fenthion (Tiguvon; and T3- Santa Eud

  16. Calving traits, milk production, body condition, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian and Norwegian Red dairy cattle on commercial dairy farms over 5 lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, C P; Patterson, D C; Gordon, F J; Watson, S; Kilpatrick, D J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare calving traits, BCS, milk production, fertility, and survival of Holstein-Friesian (HF) and Norwegian Red (NR) dairy cattle in moderate-concentrate input systems. The experiment was conducted on 19 commercial Northern Ireland dairy farms, and involved 221 HF cows and 221 NR cows. Cows completed 5 lactations during the experiment, unless they died or were culled or sold. Norwegian Red cows had a lower calving difficulty score than HF cows when calving for the first and second time, but not for the third and fourth time. At first calving, the incidence of stillbirths for NR cows was 4%, compared with 13% for HF cows, whereas no difference existed between breeds in the proportion of calves born alive when calving for the second time. When calving for the first time, NR cows had a poorer milking temperament than HF cows, whereas milking temperament was unaffected by breed following the second calving. Holstein-Friesian cows had a higher full-lactation milk yield than NR cows, whereas NR cows produced milk with a higher milk fat and protein content. Full-lactation fat + protein yield was unaffected by genotype. Norwegian Red cows had a lower somatic cell score than HF cows during all lactations. Although NR cattle had a higher BCS than the HF cows during lactations 1 and 2, no evidence existed that the 2 genotypes either lost or gained body condition at different rates. Conception rates to first artificial insemination were higher with the NR cows during lactations 1 to 4 (57.8 vs. 40.9%, respectively), with 28.5% of HF cows and 11.8% of NR cows culled as infertile before lactation 6. A greater percentage of NR cows calved for a sixth time compared with HF cows (27.2 vs. 16.3%, respectively). In general, NR cows outperformed HF cows in traits that have been historically included in the NR breeding program.

  17. Land legislation and its impact on the development of cattle farms in the Antioquian Magdalena Medio from 1920 to 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Álvarez Múnera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Colombian agricultural sector, predominantly rural country, has combined two models: one led by rural entrepreneurs and one that has been promoted by the rural economy. The two have survived to the debate on agricultural policy that sought the legalization and use of land, access to credit and productive development in general. This historical reflection with support regional sources, a policy associate for the legalization of public lands in relation to business development in rural sector: Livestock in Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia in the first half of the twentieth century. The farm and rural production unit is understood as rural company and the landowner as an entrepreneur. In the end, it is presented the magnitude of farms in the region and period studied. This product of the doctoral thesis “Rural enterprises in Antioquia: the case of livestock in the Eastern and Middle Magdalena in the department of Antioquia, 1920-1960.

  18. Herd-prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) antibodies in dairy cattle farms based on bulk tank milk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Khalili; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Mohammad Reza Aflatoonian; Naser Shahabi-Nejad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antibody positive randomly selected dairy herds in southeast Iran (Kerman). Methods: Bulk tank milk samples were collected randomly from 44 sufficiently large commercial dairy herds, included near 12 000 dairy cattle, in Kerman (The largest province of Iran), southeast Iran. The samples were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using the commercial CHEKIT® Q fever antibody ELISA Test Kit (Idexx, Liebefeld-Bern, Switzerland). Results: The prevalence of positive, negative and intermediate herds were 45.4%, 43.2% and 11.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The result supports the hypothesis of high prevalence and endemic pattern of Q fever in Iran. This investigation highlights the importance of further studies on Q fever in Iran.

  19. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  20. Brucella melitensis Biovar 1 and Brucella abortus S19 Vaccine Strain Infections in Milkers Working at Cattle Farms in the Khartoum Area, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira E F Osman

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is a preventable zoonoses that may become persistent, causing, if left untreated, severe localized disease. Occupational exposure to infected animals or animal products and consumption of fresh contaminated dairy are main risk factors.One hundred farmworkers employed at two cattle farms one in Khartoum North and one in Omdurman were screened for the presence of specific antibodies and seropositive workers were invited to donate a blood sample for blood culture. Molecular typing was used to characterize Brucella isolates.Ten percent of farmworkers tested seropositive and while Brucella melitensis biovar 1 was isolated from the blood of three individuals, an isolate identical to the B. abortus S19 vaccine strain was isolated from a fourth person. All four bacteremic individuals were employed as milkers and did not have obvious disease.The isolation of the highly infectious pathogen B. melitensis from seropositive workers is consistent with the notion that the pathogen may persist in the blood without causing overt disease. While vaccination with strain S19 is essential for the control of bovine brucellosis the vaccine strain may be transmitted to the human population and protective measures remain important to prevent exposure also in view of the presence of B. melitensis. To create awareness for this potentially severe disease more information on the prevalence of the pathogen in different risk groups and in livestock in the Sudan is needed.

  1. Epidemiological survey of the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex in cattle farms in Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane O. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of human taeniasis/bovine cysticercosis for public and animal health and the economy, its actual epidemiological status in Brazil is not well-studied. We sought to assess the epidemiological profile of this zoonosis in the rural area of Viçosa County, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of bovine cysticercosis was 0.42%, whereas no case of human taeniasis was diagnosed. Factors favoring the persistence of zoonosis were identified. These included the supply of untreated water to animals, animals raised for slaughter without sanitary supervision, poor mechanization of raising techniques, and the use of untreated water for human consumption. Bovine meat for human consumption acquired in the city or from the farm itself was characterized as a risk factor for bovine cysticercosis (Odds Ratio (OR =16.77; p<0.05. Nevertheless, the families on the investigated farms did apply several appropriate measures to control this disease, such as the virtual lack of open sewers and the consumption of well-cooked meat. The presence of bovine cysticercosis cases, and the factors favoring its persistence, point to the need for constant epidemiological and sanitary surveillance in this county.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli isolated from symbovine flies, cattle and sympatric insectivorous house martins from a farm in the Czech Republic (2006-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybaríková, Jana; Dolejská, Monika; Materna, David; Literák, Ivan; Cízek, Alois

    2010-10-01

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli was tested in symbovine flies and sympatric house martins (Delichon urbica) at a dairy farm. Antimicrobial resistant E. coli was detected in 89% (n=147) of isolates from flies within a calf barn. Isolates with the same antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, genes, and pulsotypes were found between both fly and calf E. coli isolates, suggesting that the calves were the initial source of the antimicrobial resistant strains in fly isolates. Symbovine flies were considered as important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant E. coli strains at a dairy farm, due to their intensive contact with cattle feces and manure. House martin fecal samples from the same farm contained 4.5% (n=393) of antimicrobial resistant E. coli. House martin isolates displayed different macrorestriction profiles than fly isolates and the significance of house martins as a reservoir and vector of antimicrobial resistant E. coli appears low.

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  4. Search efficiency of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor on Musca domestica pupae in dairy cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    significantly to overall parasitism, M. raptor had a significantly higher attack rate when first a female had located bags with sentinel pupae. Based on the above results, however, S. cameroni seems the most appropriate species for managing house flies in straw bedded dairy cattle farms in Denmark. A biological......). Overall, parasitism increased significantly from 5.3 to 28.8--28.7% of the exposed house fly pupae due to the release of pupal parasitoids. Spalangia cameroni was by far the most dominant species, contributing approximately 71.5--72.3% of the parasitism in the release and post-release period, whereas 20...

  5. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  6. Serological Survey of Paratuberculosis in Cattle of some Dairy Farms in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古地区部分奶牛场副结核病的血清学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田宝; 白乙拉; 蒋永禄; 孙庆宇; 王艳杰; 李智勇; 关平原; 张七斤

    2014-01-01

    Paratuberculosis were detected by using ELISA method of 2 391 cows of 17 dairy farms in Inner Mongolia milk for tuberculosis serological. The results showed that the serum positive rate of paratuberculosis in large-scale dairy farm was low, between 0 and 5%, while the serum positive rate of paratuberculosis in small dairy farm was higher, with the average positive rate of 14.1%. It is indicated that the prevalence of paratuberculosis in cattle exists in Inner Mongolia dairy farm, and it the control works should be paid much attention.%采用ELISA检测方法对内蒙古地区17个奶牛场的2391头奶牛进行牛副结核血清学检测。结果表明,大型奶牛场副结核的血清阳性率较低,在0~5%之间;小型奶牛场的副结核血清阳性率较高,平均阳性率为14.1%。调查结果提示,内蒙古地区奶牛场存在牛副结核病的流行,对该病的防控工作应给予高度重视。

  7. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica; Porrero, María Concepción; Kraushaar, Britta; Argudín, María Angeles; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Monaco, Monica; Stegger, Marc; Aarestrup, Frank M; Butaye, Patrick; Franco, Alessia; Battisti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex(CC)1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100%) similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A) mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A)-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC)1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  8. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Alba

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA Sequence Type (ST1, Clonal Complex(CC1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA- lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in Italian dairy cattle herds. The aim of this study was to analyse the differences between ST1 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA from cattle and pig herds in Italy and Europe and human isolates. Sixty-tree animal isolates from different holdings and 20 human isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, spa-typing, SCCmec typing, and by micro-array analysis for several virulence, antimicrobial resistance, and strain/host-specific marker genes. Three major PFGE clusters were detected. The bovine isolates shared a high (≥90% to 100% similarity with human isolates and carried the same SCCmec type IVa. They often showed genetic features typical of human adaptation or present in human-associated CC1: Immune evasion cluster (IEC genes sak and scn, or sea; sat and aphA3-mediated aminoglycoside resistance. Contrary, typical markers of porcine origin in Italy and Spain, like erm(A mediated macrolide-lincosamide-streptograminB, and of vga(A-mediated pleuromutilin resistance were always absent in human and bovine isolates. Most of ST(CC1 MRSA from dairy cattle were multidrug-resistant and contained virulence and immunomodulatory genes associated with full capability of colonizing humans. As such, these strains may represent a greater human hazard than the porcine strains. The zoonotic capacity of CC1 LA-MRSA from livestock must be taken seriously and measures should be implemented at farm-level to prevent spill-over.

  9. Application of nitrogen generated by cattle at dairies and feedlots to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of nitrogen generated at confined cattle operations that was applied...

  10. Application of phosphorus generated by cattle at dairies and feedlots to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of phosphorus generated at confined cattle operations that was applied...

  11. 规模化肉牛场粪污收集与堆肥处理工艺设计%Feces collection and composting technological design on scaled beef cattle farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹏翔; 孙敏捷; 李季

    2016-01-01

    the waste matter. In this study, the formula for feces collection on scaled beef cattle farms using DCT was analyzed and summarized through investigating formulas for calculating: 1) the feces amount from one adult cattle; 2) the feces amount from all cattles on a cattle farm; and 3) feces collection. After feces collection, the efficient composting technology was designed through determining: 1) the calculation of material balance; 2) the main parameters controlling composting process; 3) the main workshop sizes (e.g. the raw material workshop, the first fermentation workshop, the second fermentation workshop, the product storage workshop, the biological aerated filter and other auxiliary workshops); and 4) the main equipments used in composting. To easily understand, the feces amounts were calculated based on a given breeding scale, i.e., a farm with 10 thousands of beef cattles. The results showed that the feces amounts of scaled beef cattle farms using DCT can be calculated by the cattle number and that the collection rate coefficient was 0.83, resulting in about 150 t feces with 82% moisture for a farm with 10 thousand beef cattles. A total of 210 t raw materials (150 t cattle feces mixed with 60 t additive, adjusting moisture content to 60% based on wet weight) can produce 93.04 t end-products after composting. In addition, the composting project covers an area of 17 738 m2, and the whole system can be operated automatically by a set of special equipments.

  12. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  13. 再论明清时期太湖地区的铁搭与牛耕%On the Cramp Iron and Cattle Farming in Taihu Area during Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志华; 惠富平

    2012-01-01

    The cramp iron is a kind of human tilling tool, and there had been two teeth cramp iron during the Warring States period. From the mid-Ming Dynasty, the cramp iron plowing gradually replaced the cattlefarming, and it become the main tillage mode on rice land in Taihu area. This shift was caused by a variety of factors: in technical aspects, the cattle farming was incommensurate to deep requirements, and cramp iron haddeep function; in economic and social aspects, the cost of cattle farming was high and the risk oI cattle raising was large, but cramp iron cost was very low, also human farming cost was relatively low .During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the cramp iron were widely used to improve rice cultivation quality, and it provided a guaran- tee to proper close planting in Taihu area, promoting the development of rice production. In modem times, the traditional rice agriculture has transformed to contemporary agriculture in Taihu area, and the inefficient cramp iron is gradually withdrawing from the field crop soil preparation, generally used only in small plots of land such as the dug operation.%铁搭是一种人力翻耕工具,战国时期已出现二齿铁搭。从明中期开始,以铁搭翻耕逐步替代牛耕,成为太湖地区主要的稻田土地翻耕方式。这一转变是由多种因素所促成的:技术方面,牛耕不适应深耕要求,而铁搭具有深翻功能;经济社会方面,牛耕成本高、耕牛饲养风险大,而铁搭成本很低,人力耕作的费用也相对低廉。明清时期人力铁搭的广泛使用提高了稻田深耕质量,为太湖地区适当密植提供了保障,促进了水稻生产的发展。近现代,太湖地区传统稻作农业向现代农业转变,效率低下的铁搭逐渐退出大田作物的整地.一般仅用于小规模土地如自留地的翻垦作业。

  14. THE PROJECTION OF A FARM SPECIALIZED IN FATTENING YOUNG ROMANIAN SPOTTED CATTLE WITH AN ANNUAL DELIVERY OF 310 TONS OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA BIANCA GHIRILĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to expose the fattening technology in continuous growing system of young cattle from Romanian Spotted breed, having as purpose the obtainment of average weight young cattle. The quantity of meat that has to be delivered annually is 310 tons at an average weight of delivery in live of 510 kg/head with the fattening period of 460 days which means we will annually deliver 608 heads of young cattle without loosing anyone in the four phases of fattening. For this purpose the capacity of fattening must be 815 heads with an index of annual occupation of 95% and of 75% on the total period of fattening. The surface necessary for the fodder production is 250 ha.

  15. RFID技术在出口活牛育肥养殖管理中的应用%Application of RFID technology in the export management of live cattle fattening farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜立岗

    2011-01-01

    科学的规模化、标准化养殖已经是现在畜牧养殖的发展方向,合理的利用科学手段对畜牧养殖进行有效的监管,已经是现代化养殖的趋势。运用射频识别(RFID)技术,通过电子标签的研制,开发配套的出口活牛育肥场电子信息管理系统,对出口活牛注册育肥场进行科学管理,规范牛只健康档案,加强活牛溯源性管理,提高监管的有效性和工作效率,从而提高出口活牛育肥场的管理水平,保障供港澳活牛的健康和食用安全,为下一步建立我国出口活牛电子监管系统做一些有益的探索。%The scientific large-scale and standardized farming has been the trends of animal husbandry. The reasonable using scientific means to animal husbandry and effective supervision is the modern culture trend. Using the of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology, by the electronic label the electronic information management system on the export of live cattle is developed. The fatten field of scientific management is registered. The cattle health is standardized. The effectiveness of regulation and work efficiency are improved. Thereby the export of live cattle feedlot management level is enhaned, for Hong Kong and Macao live cattle health and food safety. As the next building the China's export of live cattle electronic monitoring system,it is to do some useful exploration.

  16. Cattle as urban planner

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong has a wide variety of habitats which contribute to the diversity of local fauna especially birds and insects. However, wild mammals are declining rapidly because of the degradation or loss of habitats caused by urbanization. For hundreds of years, bovid such as cattle and water buffalo have been an enduring presence amongst the diverse landscape of Hong Kong. Prior to the 1970’s, cattle were important to Hong Kong’s agricultural industry as a valuable labor for farming. Large popula...

  17. Application of Urea Nitrogen Detection on Dairy Cattle Farm%尿素氮检测在规模化奶牛场中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马广英; 高树; 徐清华; 赵新伟; 张文举

    2013-01-01

    尿素氮检测作为一种简便易行且对奶牛非侵害的技术手段越来越受到规模化牧场的重视,本文从尿素氮产生的机理、影响尿素氮浓度的因素、尿素氮的检测以及在生产中的应用展开论述,以供广大同行参考.%Urea nitrogen detection as a simple and noinvasive technology means which has been popularized on dairy cattle factory.To provide for our counterparts,this paper collected literature and the content included the mechanism of producing from urea nitrogen,factors of affecting urea nitrogen concentration and apply on dairy cattle factory.

  18. 山东省威海市规模养殖场牛羊布鲁氏菌病流行情况调查%Epidemiological Survey of Brucellosis in Cattle and Sheep Scaled Farms in Weihai City of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵云龙

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the prevalence of Brucellosis,to provide scientific basis for its prevention and control in the scaled cattle and sheep farms of Weihai City,random sampling and field questionnaire survey of brucellosis were carried out in 53 scale cattle farms and 46 scale sheep farms at the end of 2015. According to this survey,one positive cattle farm and three positive sheep farms of brucellosis were detected,the herd prevalence rate of brucellosis in cattle and sheep were 1.89%and 6.52%respectively. The results indicated that the herds prevalence rate and risk of outbreak of brucellosis was relatively low and its epidemic situation was stable in Weihai city,but the surveillance of cattle brucellosis should be strengthened,the comprehensive measures for the brucellosis prevention and control in cattle and sheep should also be implemented effectively,including disinfection and eliminating infections source,transport supervision and epidemiological investigation of cattle and sheep,etc.%为了解威海市规模养殖场牛羊布鲁氏菌病流行情况,对其提供科学的防控依据,2015年底对全市53个规模牛场、46个规模羊场进行了布鲁氏菌病抽样检测和现场问卷调查。结果检测出阳性牛场1个、阳性羊场3个,牛羊群间布鲁氏菌病流行率分别为1.89%和6.52%。调查结果表明,威海市的牛羊布鲁氏菌病流行率较低,处于稳定控制状态,暴发疫情的风险较低,但应加强对布鲁氏菌病的监测,落实消毒灭源、调运监管、流行病学调查等综合防控措施。

  19. Pushing the envelope? Maize production intensification and the role of cattle manure in recovery of degraded soils in smallholder farming areas of Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusinamhodzi, L.; Corbeels, M.; Zingore, S.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility decline is a major constraint to crop productivity on smallholder farms in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (up to nine years) impacts of nutrient management strategies and their local feasibility on crop productivity, soil fertility status and rainfal

  20. Energy conservation in the dairy cattle farming. Production of milk - vacuum supply, cooling, purification; Energieeinsparung in der Milchviehhaltung. Milchgewinnung - Vakuumsversorgung, Kuehlung, Reinigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonkoss, K.; Neiber, J.; Neser, S.

    2012-09-15

    The major approaches of dairy cattle processing companies in the energy conservation are the milk extraction and milk cooling. The energy consumption can be significantly reduced by means of energy efficient plants such as frequency controlled vacuum pumps, preliminary cooling and heat recovery. Not only the consumption of electricity but also the consumption of water, the functional reality as well as the process quality should be considered. In the case of a new investment or replacement investment in energy saving plants, all influencing factors such as the present technology, the development of the company as well as the actual or planned energy supply of the company are to be considered.

  1. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF CATTLE DIGITAL DERMATITIS IN TWO DAIRY FARMS IN THE STATE OF GOIAS STATE, BRAZIL ASPECTOS EPIDEMIOLÓGICOS DA DERMATITE DIGITAL BOVINA EM DUAS PROPRIEDADES PRODUTORAS DE LEITE DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Leão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From November of 2000 until October 2003 some epidemiologic aspects related to digital dermatitis were evaluated in 7,752 cattle, from two farms in the cities of Jataí and Orizona, Goiás state, in both the wet and dry seasons of the year. Management, age, sex and reproductive status were considered as intrinsic variables of the farm. On the other hand, the introduction of animals without podal examination, cattle transiting on foot or in trucks, access of strangers to the farm, the presence of digital dermatitis bearers in the surrounding properties, and daily visiting of milk transport trucks were considered extrinsic factors to the property. The chi-square test (?2, at 5% of significance, was used to compare the frequency of the condition between age ranges. The comparison between wet and dry seasons of the year associated to intensive and extensive managements was done by diagnosing the condition in the periods and considering the management, and then calculating the association coefficient (j to quantify the intensity of the variables considered. The odds ratio (OR was calculated for the two variables: season of the year and management system. The Spearman coefficient was used to correlate the many associated factors for the disease. Digital dermatitis was diagnosed on 161 (3.85% animals from farm A (Jataí, and in 95 (2.66% animals from farm B (Orizona. There was a difference (p<0.01 on the occurring of the condition among the ages considered, with lower association in farm A (p<0.001 (j=0.13 and moderate association (j=0.41 in farm B. No matter the age ranges, the greater occurrence was diagnosed in the dry season, when the animals were confined. This points to a relative influence from the season in the development of the condition, mainly in farm B, where there was an association (j=0.07. Rainfall and the introduction of new animals in the farm did not correlate positively with the disease. Intensive management presented a greater

  3. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  4. FACTORS LIVESTOCK AND MILKING ASSOCIATED WITH RISK OF MASTITIS IN CATTLE DAIRY FARMS IN ABOVEGROUND OF THE TUNISIA COASTAL SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the Sahel of Tunisia (Monastir region on a sample covering 40 cattle herd’s type above ground. We deduced the mastitis risk factors during the survey during visits for breeding and milking as well as from morphological and hygienic cow’s assessments. The data’s descriptive analysis has highlighted some significant effect factors on cellular levels and the risk of developing mastitis. For individual cell count (ICC, the significant effect factors (P <0.05 are: free stall, milking machine cleaning with only water, the poor condition of the piping, not elimination of the first milk jets and bad cleanliness of udders and the back legs of cows, whereas the herd cell count (HCC, the significant factors (P <0.05 are: cleaning the milking machine with water only, the frequency pulse (FP is too high or low.

  5. Training needs of farm women in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgga Rani V. And Subhadra M.R.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Thrissur taluk of Thrissur district to assess the training needs of farm women engaged in dairy farming. It was found that out of the five major farm operations studied, the farm women needed training the most in housing. The minor operations preferred the most for knowledge need were proper design of cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, vaccination and banking and insurance. As for skill need, construction of scientific low cost cattle shed, selection of breeds, compounding balanced feed using locally available ingredients, symptoms of common diseases and banking and insurance were preferred the most. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 221-223

  6. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  7. Effect of disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora on the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, G. R.; Thornton, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Oral pretreatment of mice with either a mixture of kanamycin and erythromycin or metronidazole to modify the gut microflora greatly enhanced the faecal excretion of Fusobacterium necrophorum biovar A given by mouth. This lends support to the suggestion that disturbance of the gastrointestinal microflora in animals such as cattle, which often carry the organism in the rumen, may lead to intestinal multiplication and faecal excretion, thereby providing a source of infection that may lead to nec...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  9. Assessment time of the Welfare Quality protocol for dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Engel, B.; Uijl, I.; Schaik, van G.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Welfare Quality® (WQ) protocols are increasingly used for assessing welfare of farm animals. These protocols are time consuming (about one day per farm) and, therefore, costly. Our aim was to assess the scope for reduction of on-farm assessment time of the WQ protocol for dairy cattle. Seven tra

  10. A questionnaire-based survey on the uptake and use of cattle vaccines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cresswell, E.; Brennan, Marnie L; Barkema, H. W.; Wapenaar, Wendela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is a widely used strategy for disease control in cattle in the UK and abroad. However, there has been limited research describing the uptake and use of cattle vaccines on UK farms. Aim: To describe the current uptake and usage of cattle vaccines in the UK. Design: A questionnaire, available in paper and online format, was distributed to cattle farmers by convenience sampling. Participants: All UK cattle farmers were eligible to participate in the study. Res...

  11. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas.

  12. Estimating farm-gate ammonia emissions from major animal production systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiling; Ma, Wenqi; Zhu, Gaodi; Roelcke, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock production in China are an important contributor to the global NH3 budget. In this study, by estimating total nitrogen (N) intake based on herd structures and excreted N, a mass balance model was used to estimate NH3 losses from animal housing and manure storage facilities of dairy cattle, beef cattle, pigs, broiler and layer productions within animal farm gate and their corresponding NH3 emission intensities on the basis of animal products, N and protein in animal products. In 2009, NH3 emissions from pigs, layers, beef and dairy cattle and broiler production systems in China were 1.23, 0.52, 0.24, 0.21 and 0.09 million tons, respectively. The NH3 emission intensities were 26.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of pork, 28.1 g NH3-N kg-1 of layer eggs, 39.4 g NH3-N kg-1 of beef meat, 6.0 g NH3-N kg-1 of dairy milk and 4.6 g NH3-N kg-1 of chicken meat, or 1260 (pigs), 1514 (layers), 1297 (beef), 1107 (dairy) and 123 g NH3-N (broilers) kg-1 N in animal products. Of the sectors of NH3 emission, manure storage facilities and farmyard manure (FYM) in animal housing were the major contributors to the total NH3 emissions except for layers; housing emissions from slurry were also major contributors for dairy and pig production.

  13. Studies on the Effect of Different Clean Feeds on the Excretion of N and P in Large Scale Pig Farm%不同清洁型日粮降低规模猪场中氮、磷污染物排泄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊书; 周维仁; 宦海林; 徐小明; 张惠

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究在肥育猪日粮中添加植酸酶、复合酶及微生态制剂3种清洁型日粮对规模猪场氮、磷排泄的影响.试验选取健康无病的60 kg左右的苏钟猪15头,随机分为5个处理,分别为对照组(正常磷水平)、负对照组(不加CaHPO4)、负对照+植酸酶组、对照+植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组、对照+微生态制剂组.结果表明,3种清洁型日粮均可降低粪、尿中氮的排泄量,其中植酸酶组粪中氮的排泄量较对照组降低了0.55%(P>0.05),植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组降低了1O%(P<0.05),微生态制剂组降低了6.11%(P>0.05),其中植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组减排效果更佳,尿氮含量各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05);粪中磷的排泄量植酸酶组较对照组降低了19.19%(P>0.05),植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组降低了36.63%(P<0.05),微生态制剂组降低了16.28%(P>0.05),其中植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组减排效果最佳,尿磷的排泄量植酸酶组降低了12%(P>0.05),植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组降低了16%(P<0.05),微生态制剂组降低了12%(P>0.05),以植酸酶+复合酶+和美酵素组减排效果最好.由此表明,在肥育猪日粮中添加清洁饲料可有效降低规模猪场中氮、磷排泄造成的环境污染,且以植酸酶、复合酶及和美酵素联合应用效果最佳.%An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase, compound enzyme and probiotics supplemented in pig diets on the excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus in large scale pig farm. Fifteen Suzhong pig (60 kg) were randomly allocated to five treatments, control group (normal P level), negative control group (no CaHPO4 ), negative control and phytase group,control and compound and phytase group,control and probiotics. The results showed that three diets decreased the excretion of nitrogen in manure and urine, the nitrogen excretion in phytase group decreased 0. 55% (P>0.05), compound and phytase

  14. Molecular Detection and Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Cattle at a Dairy Farm in the Nkonkobe Region of South Africa: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Silaigwana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC causes tuberculosis (TB in humans and animals. We investigated the presence of MTBC in cattle milk and its drug resistance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Two hundred samples (100 mL each were obtained from a dairy farm in the Nkonkobe region of South Africa. The samples were processed using the modified Petroff method. DNA was isolated using a Zymo Bacterial DNA kit and amplified using Seeplex® MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype® Mycobacterium tuberculosis-multidrug resistantplus (MTBDRplus assay was used to perform drug susceptibility and detection of mutations conferring resistance to isoniazid (INH and rifampicin (RIF. Eleven samples tested positive for MTBC DNA using the Seeplex® MTB Nested ACE assay. The Genotype® MTBDRplus assay showed that 10/11 samples were resistant to both INH and RIF i.e., multi-drug resistant (MDR. The most and least frequent rpoB mutations detected in RIF resistant samples were H526Y (9/10 and D516V (2/10 respectively. None of the INH resistant samples harbored mutations in the katG gene. However, all of them harbored the T8A mutation in the inhA gene. These results have clinical and epidemiological significance and calls for further studies and necessary actions to delineate the situation.

  15. Livestock systems and farming styles in Eastern Italian Alps: an on-farm survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ramanzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the relationships between livestock systems, landscape maintenance and farming styles in the Belluno Province, a mountainous area of the Eastern Italian Alps. A total of 65 farms were sampled on the basis of livestock category farmed and herd size. Farms were visited to collect information on technical and productive aspects, on landscape features of land managed, which was identified by aerial photographs and digitised in a GIS environment, and on the farmers’ background, attitudes and approach to farming. Six different livestock systems were identified: intensive beef cattle (2 farms; extensive beef cattle (12 farms; large sheep/goat farms (9 farms; small sheep/goat farms (6 farms; intensive dairy cattle (14 farms and extensive dairy cattle (22 farms. The intensive systems had larger herds, modern structures and equipment, and were strongly production oriented, whereas the extensive systems had smaller herds and productivity, with often traditional or obsolete structures and equipment, but showed a tendency to diversify production by means of on-farm cheese making and/or mixed farming of different livestock categories. The ability to maintain meadows and pastures was greater for the extensive systems, especially in steep areas, while the annual nitrogen output, estimated as kg N/ha, was lower. Data on the farmers’ background and attitudes were analysed with a non-hierarchical cluster procedure that clustered the farmers into 4 farming styles widely different in motivations to farming, innovative capability, and ability to diversify income sources and ensure farm economic viability. The farming styles were distributed across all livestock systems, indicating the lack of a linkage between the assignment of a farm to a livestock system and the way the farm is managed. This study demonstrates that in mountain areas variability of livestock systems may be high, and that they differ not only in production practices

  16. Occurrence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef cattle and in farm dogs from Avaré Region of São Paulo, Brazil / Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em bovinos de corte e em cães rurais da região de Avaré, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhonda Denise Pinckney

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact caused by Neospora caninum in beef cattle is not clear, the most relevant disturbance is the abortion, which is provoked by this parasite, therefore the identification of the disease etiology is important in order to determine measure of prevention and control. The objective of this study was to find out the occurrence of N. caninum in beef cattle and in farm dogs from Avaré region, the importance of the presence of dogs in farms and its relation to the number of cattle and winter food supplementation. It was collected 777 samples of beef cattle sera and 39 samples of dog sera, which lived with this cows in eight farms, and these sera were submitted to indirect fluorescent antibody test. Anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 15.57% (121/777 of the beef cattle, at dilutions from 1:200 to 1:3200, and 58.97% (23/39 of the dogs at dilutions from 1:50 to 1:400. The occurrence of antibodies have no relation to absence of dogs in two farm, however, the rate of the infected beef cattle were lower in farm with lower number of cattle per hectare. The winter food supplement have no influence in the presence of antibodies anti-N. caninum in the herd.O impacto econômico causado pelo Neospora caninum em bovinos de corte ainda não está bem definido, sendo que o distúrbio mais evidente provocado por este parasita, é o abortamento. Assim, a identificação do agente é fundamental para se determinar medidas de prevenção e controle. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em bovinos de corte e em cães rurais e a importância da presença de cães nessas propriedades, bem como a influência da lotação e da suplementação de inverno na ocorrência do agente. Foram colhidas 777 amostras de soros de vacas de corte e, 39 soros de cães que conviviam com esses animais pertencentes a oito propriedades, e submetidas à reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Anticorpos anti-N. caninum

  17. Escherichia coli verotoxigênica: isolamento e prevalência em 60 propriedades de bovinos de leite da região de Pelotas, RS, Brasil Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli: isolation and prevalence in 60 dairy cattle farms from Pelotas-RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Nunes Moreira Sandrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A produção de verotoxinas foi investigada em 1.127 isolamentos de Escherichia coli feitos a partir de 243 bovinos de leite, de água de consumo humano e animal e de amostras de leite de 60 propriedades da bacia leiteira de Pelotas, no período de dezembro de 1999 a dezembro de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência de E. coli verotoxigênicas (VTEC nas propriedades e no rebanho, de detectar a presença de sorotipos ligados a infecções humanas e de identificar, nas propriedades e na região de Pelotas, potenciais fatores de risco de infecção para os animais. A detecção das toxinas em sobrenadante de culturas de E. coli isoladas foi realizada através do ensaio de citotoxicidade em células Vero. VTEC foi isolada em 95% (57/60 das propriedades estudadas, em 49% (119/243 dos animais testados, em 5% (3/60 das amostras de água de consumo humano, em 8,35% (5/60 das amostras de água de consumo animal e em 5% (3/60 das amostras de leite. A prevalência de bovinos infectados em cada propriedade variou de 0 a 100%. Em 2,9% (7/243 dos animais testados, foram isoladas VTEC pertencentes aos sorogrupos O157, O91 e O112, que incluem cepas responsáveis por casos de colite hemorrágica e síndrome urêmica hemolítica em humanos. Fatores de risco de contaminação, como a precipitação pluviométrica, a temperatura, o tamanho da propriedade e a concentração de animais, apresentaram evidências de influenciarem a prevalência de VTEC nos animais. Estes resultados sugerem que o grupo VTEC está amplamente distribuído na bacia leiteira de Pelotas e inclui organismos pertencentes a sorogrupos patogênicos para humanos.The production of verotoxin was investigated in 1127 Escherichia coli isolated from 243 dairy cattle, water for human and animal consumption, and milk samples from 60 dairy farms from Pelotas-Brazil, from December of 1999 to December of 2000, to determine the prevalence of verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC in farms, to detect the

  18. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of trans-mission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Hetera...

  19. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.

  20. [Risk factors for Salmonella dublin infections on dairy farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, M A; Veling, J; Frankena, K; Graat, E A; Klunder, T

    1998-06-01

    A case-control investigation of the risk factors for Salmonella dublin infections on 126 dairy farms identified the following variables as being significantly associated with infection: standardized farm size and presence of water courses. Contrary to expectations, contact with cattle from other farms when the animals were turned out to grass was negatively associated with S. dublin infection. The purchase of cattle from other farms was a risk factor. There were more infections when feed consisted of grass alone than when grass was supplemented with maize or grass silage. S. dublin infections were strongly correlated with liver fluke infections.

  1. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  2. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  3. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.

  4. Mixed crop-livestock farming systems: a sustainable way to produce beef? Commercial farms results, questions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Bébin, D; Roulenc, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed crop-livestock (MC-L) farming has gained broad consensus as an economically and environmentally sustainable farming system. Working on a Charolais-area suckler cattle farms network, we subdivided the 66 farms of a constant sample, for 2 years (2010 and 2011), into four groups: (i) 'specialized conventional livestock farms' (100% grassland-based farms (GF), n=7); (ii) 'integrated conventional crop-livestock farms' (specialized farms that only market animal products but that grow cereal crops on-farm for animal feed, n=31); (iii) 'mixed conventional crop-livestock farms' (farms that sell beef and cereal crops to market, n=21); and (iv) organic farms (n=7). We analyse the differences in structure and in drivers of technical, economic and environmental performances. The figures for all the farms over 2 years (2010 and 2011) were pooled into a single sample for each group. The farms that sell crops alongside beef miss out on potential economies of scale. These farms are bigger than specialized beef farms (with or without on-farm feed crops) and all types of farms show comparable economic performances. The big MC-L farms make heavier and consequently less efficient use of inputs. This use of less efficient inputs also weakens their environmental performances. This subpopulation of suckler cattle farms appears unable to translate a MC-L strategy into economies of scope. Organic farms most efficiently exploit the diversity of herd feed resources, thus positioning organic agriculture as a prototype MC-L system meeting the core principles of agroecology.

  5. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  6. Supplementation of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with condensed tannin-containing pellets of sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata): Effects on ruminant urinary urea excretion and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some feedstuffs that contain condensed tannins can reduce urinary urea excretion without compromising nutrition for ruminant livestock. This results in reducing environmental impact, improving productivity and enhancing sustainability of ruminant farming operations. In some situations there are adva...

  7. The role of neighboring infected cattle in bovine leukemia virus transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sota; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Hayama, Yoko; Muroga, Norihiko; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Murakami, Kenji

    2015-07-01

    A cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transmission to uninfected cattle by adjacent infected cattle in 6 dairy farms. Animals were initially tested in 2010-2011 using a commercial ELISA kit. Uninfected cattle were repeatedly tested every 4 to 6 months until fall of 2012. The Cox proportional hazard model with frailty showed that uninfected cattle neighboring to infected cattle (n=53) had a significant higher risk of seroconversion than those without any infected neighbors (n=81) (hazard ratio: 12.4, P=0.001), implying that neighboring infected cattle were a significant risk factor for BLV transmission. This finding provides scientific support for animal health authorities and farmers to segregate infected cattle on farms to prevent spread of BLV.

  8. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  9. Phosphorus (P) management in the 'De Marke' dairy farming system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, H.F.M.; Habekotté, B.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    In the sandy regions of the Netherlands water quality is threatened by high losses of nutrients from intensive dairy farms. About 67% (32 kg ha-1yr-1) of farm inputs of P in purchased feeds and fertilisers do not leave in milk or cattle. The Dutch government defined decreasing maximum permitted nutr

  10. Do antibiotic residues in soils play a role in amplification and transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria in cattle populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ruben Call

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When we consider factors that contribute to the emergence, amplification, and persistence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, the conventional assumption is that antibiotic use is the primary driver in these processes and that selection occurs primarily in the patient or animal. Evidence suggests that this may not always be the case. Experimental trials show that parenteral administration of a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftiofur in cattle has limited or short-term effects on the prevalence of ceftiofur-resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. While this response may be sufficient to explain a pattern of widespread resistance to cephalosporins, approximately two-thirds of ceftiofur metabolites are excreted in the urine raising the possibility that environmental selection plays an important additive role in the amplification and maintenance of antibiotic resistant E. coli on farms. Consequently, we present a rationale for an environmental selection hypothesis whereby excreted antibiotic residues such as ceftiofur are a significant contributor to the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria in food animal systems. We also present a mathematical model of our hypothesized system as a guide for designing experiments to test this hypothesis. If supported for antibiotics such as ceftiofur, then there may be new approaches to combat the proliferation of antibiotic resistance beyond the prudent use mantra.

  11. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  12. 新疆部分规模化牛场牛传染性鼻气管炎的流行病学调查%Investigation on Epidemiology of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Some Large-scaled Cattle Farms in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁琼; 张鲁安

    2016-01-01

    522 bovine serums and 208 organizational samples of abortus, calves nasal swab, etc. with the clinical features of abortion, stillbirth, weak-calf, pneumonia, diarrhea, etc. are collected from five large-scaled cattle farms in Xinjiang to test by the means of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) ELISA VCA-IgA and Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR). It is found that, the positive rate results from the method of IBR ELISA VCA-IgA is 80.7%, while another one is 10.7%, which indicates that IBR exists in large-scaled cattle farms in Xinjiang, thus we need to pay high attention to this situation and strengthen the prevention and control of IBR during the whole production.%从新疆五个规模化牛场采集存在流产、死胎、弱犊、肺炎、腹泻等临床表现的牛血清522份和流产胎儿、犊牛鼻拭子等组织样品208份,用牛传染性鼻气管炎ELISA抗体检测和实时荧光RT-PCR的方法检测,牛传染性鼻气管炎血清学检测阳性率为80.7﹪,实时荧光RT-PCR检测阳性率为10.7%。表明新疆规模化牛场存在牛传染性鼻气管炎感染,需引起高度重视,在生产过程中应加强IBR的防控工作。

  13. Farm animal proteomics - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...

  14. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Shah

    Full Text Available Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N, and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively, manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of

  15. Cattle mortality due to poisoning in Spain: a cross-sectional epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Arroyo, R.; Míguez, M.P.; Hevia, M.L.; Quiles, A.

    2015-07-01

    The lack of nationwide public databases on poisoning in cattle makes it difficult to investigate this issue. Hence, we conducted an epidemiological study using the data on cattle poisoning provided by an insurance company (2000-2005), to determine the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain and to assess the influence of the following variables: type of farming, age, sex, time of year, year and region. We observed a mortality rate of 23.25 per 100,000 animals in Spain with a higher rate in beef than dairy cattle (32.14 vs. 4.51 per 100,000 animals). There were also differences in the mortality rate between breeding cattle and future breeders, affecting dairy and beef cattle in a different way. In dairy cattle, we found differences between the years analysed. In beef cattle, the time of year with highest risk of poisoning was the last quarter (19.45 per 100,000 animals), while the lowest mortality rate was observed in the first quarter (1.33 per 100,000). There were pronounced differences between regions in beef cattle, differences being non-significant in dairy cattle. Lastly, in beef cattle, no differences were found between sexes. In summary, the mortality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain is low, and the risk of poisoning is determined by the farming system, animals’ stage of development, time of year and region. (Author)

  16. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  17. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae em sistemas de produção de leite da microrregião fisiográfica fluminense do grande Rio - Rio de Janeiro Control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy de Castro Borba Santos Júnior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os métodos de controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus realizados em três fazendas representativas dos sistemas de produção de leite da Microrregião Fisiográfica Fluminense do Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, levando-se em consideração o manejo das fazendas, o grau de sangue Bos taurus e Bos indicus dos rebanhos, os fatores climáticos e a prevalência estacional do carrapato. Para efeito de avaliação, foi utilizada a contagem periódica de fêmeas ingurgitadas medindo entre 4,5 e 8mm, no antímero direito de 20% das vacas em lactação de cada fazenda, durante um ano. A diferença no manejo das pastagens, a composição genética dos rebanhos e as condições climáticas influenciaram a prevalência estacional de B. microplus. A maior lotação animal por hectare, o elevado "stand" vegetativo das pastagens e o maior grau de sangue B. taurus contribuíram para as maiores infestações de carrapatos nas fazendas. O controle de B. microplus realizado pelos proprietários teve importância secundária em relação as outras atitudes de manejo dos rebanhos. Ficou evidenciado o uso excessivo e ineficiente de produtos químicos para o controle de B. microplus nas fazendas. Para implantação de medidas de controle estratégico do B. Microplus, fazem-se necessários esforços para a transferência e adoção dos resultados de pesquisas disponíveis aos produtores rurais.The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. The experiment was carried out on three farms of the dairy production systems of the Fluminense Physiographic Microregion of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm, in 20% of the lactating cows of each farm

  18. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  19. DIFFERENCES IN FEEDING PRACTICES ON ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL DAIRY FARMS – DATA FROM A FARM NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Warnecke, Sylvia; Schulz, Franziska; Paulsen, Hans Marten; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-01-01

    Organic and conventional feeding practices of dairy cattle differ due to specific regulations that are in place for organic farming. E.g., dairy cows must have access to pasture, and soybean extract, a very common concentrate in conventional dairy feeding, may not be fed. The joint project “Climate Effects and Sustainability of Agricultural Systems – Analyses in a Network of Pilot Farms” determined feeding practices and feed qualities on a total of 44 dairy farms (22 organic and conventional,...

  20. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  1. [The isolation and differentiation of leptospires from cattle drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyven, G; Schönberg, A

    1989-08-01

    The cultural isolation and identification of leptospires from three water samples of farm wells were described. All three strains isolated belong to the apathogenic species L. biflexa. The cattle stock of these farms (A, B, C) had reacted serologically to serovars hardjo and grippotyphosa. The strain isolated from farm A is a new serovar called krefeldi and belongs to serogroup Doberdo. The strain isolated from farm B belongs to serovar montefiascone of serogroup Botanica and the strain from farm C to serovar bessemans of serogroup Bessemans. It is remarkable that serovar krefeldi with all the sera of farm A (titre up to 1:40) and only with part of the sera of farm B reacted.

  2. WELFARE ASPECTS OF THE LONG DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVANGELIA N. SOSSIDOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to examine the facts behind the trade of long distance transportation of cattle. In particular it looks at the various welfare implications during handling and transport with examples from research work on cattle. The role of the science is explained and the methodology for assessing the welfare of animals is then presented. Finally, public concerns and legal position are presented as they play an important role to promote farm animal welfare principles during transportation.

  3. Environmental conditions in typical cattle transport vehicles in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Wikner, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    The current licentiate thesis is dealing with transport of cattle from farms to abattoirs. During transport the animals are confined in the vehicle and are exposed to an unfamiliar environment, including heat, cold, humidity and vibration that might be stressful to them. To determine how inside condition in the vehicle during transportation varies depending of season, loading density, transport time and dynamic performances field experiments were made in commercial cattle transport vehicles. ...

  4. Comparison of bulk-tank standard plate count and somatic cell count for Wisconsin dairy farms in three size categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, S C; Hu, Y; Ané, C

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible claims by advocates of small-scale dairy farming that milk from smaller Wisconsin farms is of higher quality than milk from larger Wisconsin farms. Reported bulk tank standard plate count (SPC) and somatic cell count (SCC) test results for Wisconsin dairy farms were obtained for February to December, 2008. Farms were sorted into 3 size categories using available size-tracking criteria: small (≤118 cows; 12,866 farms), large (119-713 cattle; 1,565 farms), and confined animal feeding operations (≥714 cattle; 160 farms). Group means were calculated (group=farm size category) for the farms' minimum, median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC. Statistical analysis showed that group means for median, mean, 90th percentile, and maximum SPC and SCC were almost always significantly higher for the small farm category than for the large farm and confined animal feeding operations farm categories. With SPC and SCC as quality criteria and the 3 farm size categories of ≤118, 119 to 713, and ≥714 cattle, the claim of Wisconsin smaller farms producing higher quality milk than Wisconsin larger farms cannot be supported.

  5. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized......, our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because...

  6. Efficacy of ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle in Denmark evaluated by different methods for analysis of faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Denwood, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against gastrointestinal nematodes in Danish cattle was assessed by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Six cattle farms with history of clinical parasitism and avermectin use were included. On the day of treatment (Day 0), 20 naturally infected calves per farm...

  7. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Engel, B.; Dijkstra, T.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of rout

  8. Vanadium Mining and Cattle Health : Sentinel studies, epidemiological and veterinary public health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.

    2005-01-01

    The thesis covers a field outbreak investigation into the cause and pathogenesis of "illthrift" on a dairy farm that was due to vanadium exposure, it examines methods of treating vanadium poisoning in cattle using an experimental study, looks at the use of cattle as sentinels for detecting and monit

  9. Livestock-Associated Methicillin Resistant and Methicillin Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Sequence Type (CC)1 in European Farmed Animals: High Genetic Relatedness of Isolates from Italian Cattle Herds and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alba, Patricia; Feltrin, Fabiola; Cordaro, Gessica;

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Sequence Type (ST)1, Clonal Complex( CC) 1, SCCmec V is one of the major Livestock-Associated (LA-) lineages in pig farming industry in Italy and is associated with pigs in other European countries. Recently, it has been increasingly detected in ...

  10. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  11. First record of Giardia in cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that G...

  12. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  13. Comparison of Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli from Different Cattle Farms in Kuitun Area of Xinjiang%新疆奎屯地区不同团场牛源大肠杆菌耐药情况比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    轩慧勇; 高超; 林亚军; 夏绪进; 夏利宁; 王营彬; 马炀

    2016-01-01

    为了解新疆奎屯地区不同团场牛源大肠杆菌对临床常用抗菌药物的耐药情况,比较不同养殖场之间牛源大肠杆菌的耐药差异,分别从新疆奎屯地区位于123团、127团和128团的牛场,用肛拭子在直肠采集粪样各30份,并分离大肠杆菌。采用微量肉汤稀释法,对分离出的大肠杆菌进行10种抗菌药物最小抑菌浓度的测定,通过卡方检验对不同养殖场牛源大肠杆菌耐药差异性进行比较分析。结果显示,128团对阿莫西林/克拉维酸(33.3%)和安普霉素(23.3%)耐药率相对较高;127团对氨苄西林(20.0%)、阿莫西林/克拉维酸(16.7%)和氟苯尼考(16.7%)耐药率相对较高;123团场对氨苄西林(13.3%)和安普霉素(13.3%)耐药率相对较高。卡方检验结果显示,127团对氟苯尼考和恩诺沙星的耐药率显著高于123团和128团( P<0.05);128团对阿莫西林/克拉维酸和安普霉素的耐药率分别显著高于123团和127团( P<0.05)。不同团场多重耐药均以1~2耐为主。结果表明,新疆奎屯地区不同团场牛源大肠杆菌对多数被检药物的耐药率不高,仅对常用药物如阿莫西林/克拉维酸和安普霉素等具有较高耐药率,需在临床治疗细菌疾病时更换或避免使用此类抗菌药物。此外,各养殖场对被检抗菌药物的耐药情况不同,说明养殖场的用药极大程度影响细菌的耐药性。%In order to understand the resistance of E.coli to clinical antimicrobial drugs from dif‐ferent farms in Kuitun area of Xinjiang ,the bovine fecal samples were collected using the anal swab and E .coli was isolated from 123 (30) ,127 (30) and 128 (30) farms ,respectively .The mini‐mum inhibitory concentrations of E coli isolated from fecal samples to 10 antimicrobial drugs were determined by agar dilution method and the difference of resistance rate of E .coli from

  14. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  15. Impact of a trace element supplementation programme on health and performance of cross-breed (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) dairy cattle under tropical farming conditions: a double-blinded randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, V; Dierenfeld, E; Du Laing, G; Buyse, J; Brochier, B; Van Gucht, S; Duchateau, L; Janssens, G P J

    2015-06-01

    Small-scale urban dairy farms (n = 16) in and around Jimma, Ethiopia with cross-bred (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) cows were enrolled in a double-blinded intervention study to investigate the effect of a trace element supplementation programme on trace element status and milk concentrations as well as performance [body condition score (BCS), milk yield, leptin], milk composition, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], blood biochemistry, serum proteins and immune response (antibody titre upon rabies vaccination). The farms were allocated to a (1) placebo or (2) Cu, Zn, Se, Co and I supplementation treatment for 150 d. On days 0 and 120, four lactating cows per farm were sampled for milk and plasma, and on day 150 for serum, following primo-vaccination. Cu deficiency was present in 17% and marginal Se deficiency in 30% of initially sampled cows, while no Zn shortage was detected. Over 120 days, trace element supplementation caused a bigger increase in plasma Se and Cu concentrations, but also a larger decrease of plasma Fe concentrations. A larger increase in milk Se concentrations was observed in the supplemented group, whereas none of the other elements were affected. BCS decreased more over time in the supplemented group. None of the other parameters of performance and antioxidant status nor milk composition or blood biochemistry was affected by treatment. Antibody response to rabies vaccination did not differ between groups, whereas α1-globulins tended to be lower and β-globulins tended to be higher in the supplemented group. In conclusion, despite improved Cu and Se status and Se concentrations in milk, cows on tropical urban dairy farms did not seem to benefit from trace element supplementation, with respect to the parameters investigated.

  16. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  17. Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii Circulation in a Dairy Farm and Sources of Milk Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Stancampiano, Laura; Manfreda, Gerardo; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination.

  18. Synergism between maggot excretions and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-01-01

    Maggots are successfully used to treat severe, infected wounds. This study investigated whether maggot excretions/secretions influence the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined of gentamicin and flucloxacillin for Staphylococcus aureus, of penicillin for Streptococcus pyogenes, of amoxicillin and vancomycin for Enterococcus faecalis, of gentamicin for Enterobacter cloacae, and of gentamicin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa by checkerboard titration. A range of concentrations of antibiotics in combination with excretions/secretions was examined to investigate the potential of maggot excretions/secretions to affect antibacterial activity. The results showed a dose-dependent increase of the antibacterial effect of gentamicin in the presence of excretions/secretions on S. aureus. Minimal concentrations and MBC of gentamicin decreased, respectively, 64- and 32-fold. The MBC of flucloxacillin and excretions/secretions against S. aureus were also decreased. The other antibiotic and excretions/secretions combinations exerted an indifferent effect. Excretions/secretions alone did not have any antibacterial effect. The synergism between gentamicin and maggot excretions/secretions could be of direct importance in clinical practice, because it could allow the use of lower doses of gentamicin and thus minimize the risk of gentamicin-related side effects.

  19. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  20. Ant Farm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Publié à l’occasion de l’exposition d’Ant Farm au Frac Centre du 12 au 23 décembre 2007, ce très beau catalogue, qui fait état des dix ans de création du collectif californien, propose un nombre important de documents iconographiques, de notices et de textes concernant leurs différents projets. Fondé en 1968 par Doug Michels et Chip Lord, rejoints par la suite par Curtis Schreier, Hudson Marquez, Douglas Hurr et d’autres encore, le collectif Ant Farm a marqué les esprits par quelques œuvres s...

  1. /sup 32/P studies into phosphate metabolism of cattle with metabolic acidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachmann, G.; Pfueller, K.; Bier, H.; Mueller, D.; Rummel, G. (Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin)

    1984-03-01

    Phosphorus balance and intraveneous injection of /sup 32/P into three bulls showed that hay diet was followed by excretion of only small amounts of phosphorus in the urine (1.5 g/die), with renal net base excretion being 35 mmol/l. Yet, the amounts of phosphorus excretion in urine were high (16.3 g/die) in conditions of metabolic acidosis due to cereal diet, with renal net acid excretion being 78 mmol/l. No negative balance was observed during three weeks of acidosis, in spite of high phosphaturia, since in cattle with acidosis the increase in renal excretion was offsetted by depression of endogenic fecal phosphorus. Endogenic fecal phosphorus accounted for 43% of phosphorus intake with hay diet but only for 7% with cereal diet. Hence, hyperphosphaturia is ruled out as a cause for the genesis of osteopathies in a condition of metabolic acidosis.

  2. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, L.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Vellema, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs.

  3. Assuring dairy cattle welfare : towards efficient assessment and improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.

    2013-01-01

      In many countries, there is an increasing interest to assure the welfare of production animals. On-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare, however, is time-consuming and, therefore, expensive. Besides this, effects of housing and management interventions that are aimed at improving welfare

  4. Poisoning by Poiretia punctata in cattle and sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiretia punctata (Willd.) Desv. was associated with cattle and sheep poisoning on nine farms in the State of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. The animals were found dead or died later after showing clinical signs for up to 18 hours. Two sheep that ingested 40g/kg body weight (g/kg) of fresh P punctata...

  5. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six Euro

  6. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/ Mexico/2007 is atypical.

  7. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  8. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  9. Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium from cattle from five states of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Nan Jiun; Koehler, Anson V; Ebner, Janine; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of the cattle industry in Malaysia, there are very few studies of the diversity and public health significance of bovine cryptosporidiosis in this country. In the present study, we used a PCR-based approach to detect and genetically characterize Cryptosporidium DNA in faecal samples from a cohort of 215 asymptomatic cattle (of different ages) from six farms from five states of Peninsular Malaysia. Cattle on four of the six farms were test-positive for Cryptosporidium, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae were detected in two (0.9%) and five (2.3%) samples tested; this low prevalence likely relates to the age of the cattle tested, as most (73%) of the samples tested originated from cattle that were ≥2 years of age. Future studies should investigate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and weaned calves in rural communities of Malaysia.

  10. Local cattle movements in response to ongoing bovine tuberculosis zonation and regulations in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel A; Kaneene, John B; Averill, James J; Webb, Colleen T

    2014-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) is an ongoing management issue in the state of Michigan with eradication from livestock as the ultimate goal. Eradication has been a challenge owing to the presence of a wildlife reservoir; competing interests in managing the livestock and wildlife hosts; and many uncertainties in transmission dynamics of M. bovis. One of the cornerstones of the eradication effort has been to stop movement of infected cattle among farms by imposing strict pre-movement testing on cattle being moved within, into and out of the Modified Accredited Zone (MAZ) in northeastern Michigan. In addition to pre-movement tuberculosis testing, detailed information about the origin and destination premises of all movements within the MAZ has been recorded in Michigan. The aim of this study was to describe the farm-to-farm movements of cattle within the MAZ, report changes in the network of movements during a 6-year period when the MAZ was a constant size (2004-2009), and examine changes in cattle movement patterns when the MAZ was reduced from 11 to 5 counties in 2010. Non-slaughter cattle movement within the MAZ was characterized by predominantly local movements at a sub-county scale. Premises that shipped cattle were primarily senders or receivers, but rarely both. From 2004 to 2009, the number of cattle shipped, size of shipments, number of shipments and distance of shipments decreased; there was little change in the network patterns of interaction among individual premises; and interactions among all premises became more disconnected. After accounting for MAZ size, there were also no changes in cattle movement network patterns following the reduction of the MAZ in 2010. The movement of cattle was likely not a key risk factor in bTB spread among premises in the MAZ during the study period and the effect of zonation and movement regulations appeared to further reduce the risk of tuberculosis spread via cattle movements among farms in Michigan's MAZ.

  11. Factores climáticos que afectan el desempeño productivo del ganado bovino de carne y leche Climatic factors affecting cattle performance in dairy and beef farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Arias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto del clima en el ganado bovino es variable y complejo, ya que condiciona el medioambiente en el que los animales viven y se reproducen. Sus influencias en el bienestar y producción animal han sido reconocidas y estudiadas desde 1950. El clima afecta al ganado directa e indirectamente, ya que modifica la calidad y/o cantidad de alimentos disponibles, los requerimientos de agua y energía, la cantidad de energía consumida y el uso de ésta. Los animales hacen frente a las condiciones adversas del clima mediante la modificación de mecanismos fisiológicos y de comportamiento para mantener su temperatura corporal dentro de un rango normal. Como consecuencia, es posible observar alteraciones en el consumo de alimento, comportamiento y productividad. Estos cambios se acentúan bajo condiciones extremas de frío o calor, implicando drásticas reducciones en los índices productivos, tales como tasa de ganancia de peso y producción diaria de leche. La mayor parte de la investigación en esta área ha sido realizada principalmente en cámaras de ambiente controlado, con énfasis en la respuesta fisiológica y productiva del animal. Actualmente, el principal esfuerzo de investigación se concentra en el desarrollo de índices de estrés térmico que permitan mitigar los efectos negativos del clima en la productividad y supervivencia del ganado. Los objetivos de esta revisión son describir los principales factores ambientales que afectan la productividad del ganado y establecer las bases para la cuantificación del impacto climático en la producción de carne y leche en ChileThe effect of climate on dairy and beef cattle is variable and complex because it affects the environment in which the animals are raised and reproduced. Its influence on animal welfare and production have been recognized and studied since 1950's. Climate affects livestock directly and indirectly, since it modifies the quality and/or quantity of food available, the

  12. An initial survey of the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Mario A; Garcia, Omar; Fussell, Weyman; Preston, Kelly; Wagner, Gale G

    2003-12-12

    After the civil war and the Hurricane-Mitch disaster, cattlemen in Nicaragua were forced to transport their cattle from lowland areas to higher, dryer areas of the country. These areas are natural ecological niches for the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) (Diptera: Cuterebridae). To determine the importance of this infestation, the Agricultural and Livestock-Forestry Ministry selected a central area of Nicaragua to run a pioneer survey program to acquire information about hosts involved, number of cases, treatments applied and general knowledge of 42 farmers about the life cycle of the parasite. The subjects were either farm owners or farm managers. Ninety-five percentage of the farms indicated cases of D. hominis infestation in their animals, with cattle being the most affected host (100% of the affected farms). There was poor understanding of the D. hominis life cycle, vectors and control methods. A misuse of insecticides for the treatment of larval infestation by D. hominis was indicated.

  13. Effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treaments in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle in Iringa region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyyu, J.D.; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Monrad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal field trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of strategic anthelmintic treatments in the control of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and Fasciola gigantica in cattle. A total of 167 cattle (6-18 months) from three large-scale dairy farms, four traditional farms and nine...... and the proportion of animals passing Fasciola eggs in faeces (P¿nematodes. It is concluded that a programme of four strategic treatments per year was effective in controlling GI nematodes and F. gigantica and improved...

  14. Activity and relative abundance of hymenopterous parasitoids that attack puparia of Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) on confined pig and cattle farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgård, H; Jespersen, J B

    1999-01-01

    (Linnaeus). In total, seven pteromalid species were recovered: Spalangia cameroni Perkins, S. nigripes Curtis, S. subpunctata Förster, Muscidifurax raptorGirault & Sanders, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Urolepis rufipes(Ashmead) and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker), an ichneumonid Phygadeuon fumator......Gravenhorst, a diapriid Trichopria sp., and a staphylinid Aleocharasp. This is the first time that U. rufipes has been recorded in Europe. Spalangia cameroni and M. raptor were the most frequently recorded species in all regions of the country, and accounted for the main parasitism of Musca domesticaand Stomoxys...... calcitrans puparia. The overall rate of parasitism per farm was low: 12.9% of the total number of fly puparia collected. Direct ordination, used to assess the habitat distribution of the parasitoids, showed that Muscidifurax raptor mainly seeks fly puparia in outdoor manure heaps and especially in manure...

  15. Welfare quality applied to the Brazilian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Amorim Franchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of establishing animal welfare standards for the Brazilian dairy sector in harmony to the new consumer’s requirements and legislation, it was drawn up the project Welfare Quality (WQ - Brazil, based on the proposed project Welfare Quality ® European Union for dairy cattle. The assessments of animal welfare were performed in seven dairy farms at São Paulo/Brazil. They were selected in order to represent the main types of dairy farms found in Brazil. To carry out the project, it was used the evaluation protocol of welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® Assessment Protocol for Cattle, which is based on the principles of Good Feeding, Proper Installation, Good Health and Appropriate Behavior. The protocol defines four possible categories for the assessed dairy farms: Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced or Excellent. Only one farm received category “Acceptable”, while the others received category “Enhanced”. A highlight is the unsatisfactory score for the principle “Appropriate Behavior” received by four farms. Possible reasons are inappropriate animals handling, assessor subjectivity and/or protocol’s subjectivity. To this final point, some emotion standards are vague and do not describe how animals should behave for each type of situation during evaluation. Finally, it can be concluded that the European protocol for the Evaluation of Welfare in Dairy Cattle Welfare Quality ® may be used in Brazilian dairy farms provided there is previous assessor training and adaptation of some points to be feasible to Brazilian dairy sector.

  16. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in wild birds and rodents in close proximity to farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eva Møller; Skov, Marianne; Madsen, Jesper J.;

    2004-01-01

    (Sturnus vulgaris) and a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) were identical to cattle isolates from the corresponding farms with respect to serotype, virulence profile, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type. This study shows that wild birds and rodents may become infected from farm animals or vice versa...

  17. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  18. Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Wright, P A

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning ammonia production, storage and excretion in fish. Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted. Like other weak acids and bases, ammonia is distributed between tissue compartments in relation to transmembrane pH gradients. NH3 is generally equilibrated between compartments but NH4 (+) is distributed according to pH. Ammonia is eliminated from the blood upon passage through the gills. The mechanisms of branchial ammonia excretion vary between different species of fish and different environments, and primarily involves NH3 passive diffusion and NH4 (+)/Na(+) exchange. Water chemistry near the gill surface may also be important to ammonia excretion, but a more accurate measurement of the NH3 gradient across the gill epithelium is required before a more detailed analysis of NH3 and NH4 (+) excretion can be made.

  19. The use of seaweed from the Galician coast as a mineral supplement in organic dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Crespo, F; López-Alonso, M; Miranda, M

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of seaweeds from the Galician coast as a source of minerals (especially iodine (I) but also other micro-minerals) in organic dairy cattle. It was conducted in an organic dairy farm in the Lugo province that typically represents the organic milk production in NW Spain. The animal's diet consisted mainly of local forage (at pasture or as hay and silage in the winter) and 5 kg of purchased concentrate/day per animal (representing 23.5% of feed intake). Based on the mineral composition of the diet, the physiological requirements and the EU maximum authorised levels in feed, a supplement composed by Sea Lettuce (Ulva rigida) (as flakes, 80%), Japanese Wireweed (Sargasum muticum) (flakes, 17.5%) and Furbelows (Saccorhiza polyschides) (powder, 2.5%) was formulated to give 100 g/animal per day. Sixteen Holstein Friesian lactating cows were randomly selected and assigned to the control (n=8) and algae-supplemented groups (n=8). Both groups had exactly the same feeding and management with the exception of the algae supplement, which was mixed with the concentrate feed and given to the animals at their morning milking for 10 weeks. Heparinised blood (for plasma analysis) and milk samples were collected at 2-week intervals and analysed for toxic and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The algae supplement significantly improved the animals' mineral status, particularly I and selenium that were low on the farm. However, the effect of the algae supplement on the molybdenum status in cattle needs further investigation because of its great relevance on copper metabolism in ruminants. The I supply deserves special attention, since this element is at a very high concentration in brown-algae species and it is excreted in the milk proportionally to its concentration in plasma concentrations (mean ± s.e. in the algae-supplemented and control

  20. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactio...

  1. Definition of a protocol for conducting energy audits in cattle facilities: implementation in small and medium farms; Definicion de un protocolo para la realizacion de auditorias energeticas en instalaciones ganaderas: aplicacion en pequenas y medianas explotaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Luis M.; Hernandez, Pablo; Guimaraes, Adriana C.; Sanzi, Juan F.; Gonzalez, Fernando; Ruiz, Gonzalo [Universidad de Valladolid (UVa), Palencia (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenierias Agrarias. Dept. de Ingenieria Agricola y Forestal], E-mail: lmnavas@iaf.uva.es; Baptista, Fatima; Cruz, Vasco F. da [Universidade de Evora (UEv), Evora (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: fb@uevora.pt

    2010-07-01

    The present task shows the results of a project developed in Spain under the sponsorship of the Instituto para la Diversificacion y Ahorro de la Energia (IDAE), Ente Regional de la Energia de Castilla y Leon (EREN) and the Union de Pequenos Agricultores (UPA) which was implemented in the region of Castilla y Leon, an area with a predominantly agricultural and livestock production that aimed the establishment of a protocol for conducting energy audits in livestock facilities, focusing mainly those of small and medium size. The purpose of the protocol was to develop a methodology for the systematic characterization and formulation of proposals for improvement of the following elements: Construction features, power supplies, lighting, electric motors, heating, cooling and ventilation, renewable energies, energy utilization facilities of livestock waste and measuring and control equipment. The protocol was validated by conducting energy audits in 15 farms: 5 dairy cows, 5 sheep milk, 3 fattening pigs and 2 broilers. The results obtained showed that the proposed energy efficiency measures, which are characterized by their simple and usually cost effective deployment results an average energy savings consumption of 18%, which is manifested in a average cost reduction of 24.28%. (author)

  2. Typology of dairy farming systems in the Mediterranean basin (Case of Algeria)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouche-Adjlane S.; Ghozlane F.; Mati A.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of breeding dairy cattle systems from the Mediterranean basin was conducted on 16 farms in the north center region of Algeria through a survey. Results are highly variable both structurally and in techno- economic management terms. The principal component analysis and clusters analysis have identified four groups of farms that differ in feeding strategies. The first group contains four farms that promote the use of forages (61.8% of the tot...

  3. Aplicación del modelo estocástico de costos (pathways para mortalidad de terneros y retorno monetario en la Granja Genética Pecuaria “Nazareno” (Application of the stochastic pattern of costs (pathways for mortality of calves and monetary return in the Cattle Genetic Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez García Liumar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa investigación que se presenta fue realizada durante el año 2006 enla Granja Genética Pecuaria “Nazareno”, para determinar lamortalidad promedio, el porcentaje de sobrevivencia, el porcentaje desobrevivencia y venta y el retorno monetario de los terneros,mediante la aplicación del modelo de árbol de decisión y tasa decambio para la mortalidad de terneros y del modelo de árbol dedecisión indicando el retorno monetario asociado. Además decomparar los diferentes eventos ocurridos durante la vida de losterneros en las unidades de la granja. Se determinó que en laprimera semana de vida de los terneros, la mortalidad promediogeneral fue de un 5% y el porcentaje de sobrevivencia de 91%;mientras que en las recrías la mortalidad promedio fue del 4% y elporcentaje de sobrevivencia de un 96%. No se evidenciarondiferencias significativas en cuanto a la mortalidad y la sobrevivencia de los terneros; sin embargo se obtuvieron diferencias significativas para p<0.05 en relación con las ventas de terneros que sobrevivieron en las recrías. Se constató que las unidades no fueron rentables, en cuanto al retorno monetario asociado con los eventos por los que transitaron los terneros.SummaryThe investigation that is presented was carried out during the year2006 in the Cattle Genetic Farm “Nazareno”, to determine themortality average, the percentage of survival, the percentage ofsurvival and sale and the monetary return of the calves, by means ofthe application of the pattern of tree of decision and it appraises ofchange for the mortality of calves and of the pattern of tree ofdecision indicating the return monetary associate. Besides comparingthe different events happened during the life of the calves in the units of the farm. It was determined that in the first week of life of the calves, the mortality average general was of 5% and the percentage of survival of 91%; while in the breeding units the mortality average was of 4% and the

  4. Análise econômica de sistemas de produção com bovinocultura de leite da depressão central do Rio Grande do Sul Economic analysis of production systems of dairy cattle farms in central Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nunes Portela

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido junto às unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS, com o objetivo de identificar o desempenho econômico e os sistemas de produção existentes entre as mesmas. Foram coletadas as informações de 53 propriedades, sendo identificados os seguintes sistemas de produção: a leite e arroz com tração animal (TA e superfície agrícola útil (SAU média de 30ha; b leite e arroz com tração mecanizada (TM e SAU média de 54ha; c leite e hortigranjeiros com TA e SAU média de 20ha; d leite e hortigranjeiros com TM e SAU média de 50ha; e leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 40ha; f leite e bovinos de corte com TA e SAU média de 308ha; g leite e bovinos de corte com TM e SAU média de 80ha; h leite estreme com TA e SAU média de 2 ha; i leite estreme com TM e SAU média de 45ha. Os sistemas A, B, C, F, H e I apresentam um desempenho econômico por unidade de trabalho homem (UTH superior ao salário mínimo regional, enquanto os sistemas D, E e G apresentam desempenho abaixo deste indicador.This work was developed in family production units (UPFs, associated to a co-operative society, the Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL RS. The goal was to identify the economical performance and the different systems of production used by the UPFs. The information was obtained from 53 farms, and among them the following production systems were identified: a Milk associated to rice crops, with animal traction (AT and an average of 30ha of tillable area (TA; b Milk associated to rice crops with mechanical traction (MT and TA=54ha; c Milk associated to olericulture with AT and TA= 20ha; d Milk associated to olericulture with MT and TA= 50ha; e Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 40ha; f Milk associated to beef cattle with AT and TA= 308ha; g Milk associated to beef cattle with MT and TA= 80 ha; h Milk with AT

  5. Isolation,Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pasteurella multocida from A Large-scale Cattle Farm in Shihezi Xinjiang%新疆石河子规模化牛场多杀性巴氏杆菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺磊; 何延华; 王熙楚; 郑婷婷; 孔科委; 黄新; 韩猛立; 周霞; 钟发刚

    2016-01-01

    To identify the pathogeny of causing dyspnea,cough,emaciation and death of cattle in an intensive cattle farm in Shihezi region,we isolated bacteria from tissue lesions and used routine isolation and identifi-cation methods and 16S rRNA sequence analysis to identify its species.With the use of primers from Pas-teurella multocida species-specific gene Kmt-1 and serotype-specific genes(hyaD-hyaC,bcbD,dcbF,ecbJ, fcbD),we employed PCR to amplify relevant genes for the identification.K-B disk diffusion method and a murine infection model were also used.Results showed that we isolated a strain with a hoar,dewdrop-like, none hemolysis clone which is a type of Gram-negative rhabditiform bacteria.Biochemical identification showed that it is consistent with Pasteurella.And alignments to published sequences on NCBI showed a 99% identity with P.multocida;only Kmt-1 and hyaD-hyaC genes were amplified with PCR;The isolate was resistant to streptomycin,gentamicin,kanamycin and susceptible to 30 other antimicrobials,and all the infected mice died after challenge.Results showed we isolated a strain of serotype A P.multocida with strong virulence from a sick cattle.%为了确定石河子地区某规模化牛场出现呼吸困难、咳嗽、病牛消瘦甚至死亡的病因,本研究以病牛病变组织为研究对象,采用常规细菌分离鉴定和细菌16 S rRNA 序列分析来鉴定菌种,以及多杀性巴氏杆菌种特异性基因 Kmt-1和各个荚膜血清型特异性基因(hyaD-hyaC、bcbD、dcbF、ecbJ、fcbD)PCR 扩增来确定细菌的血清型,同时应用纸片扩散法对分离细菌进行药物敏感性试验和小鼠感染试验。结果表明,从病变的肺组织中分离到1株菌落为灰白色、露珠状、不溶血,染色为革兰阴性球杆状细菌,生化鉴定结果符合巴氏杆菌特征,同时16 S rRNA 序列分析与 NCBI 上已公布的多杀性巴氏杆菌16 S rRNA 序列同源性在99%以上;对多杀

  6. Dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozny, J.

    1965-01-01

    Dental fluorosis in cattle was used as an indicator of toxic effects produced by fluorine emissions from an aluminium factory. Data are presented on the effects of a ten-year exposure to fluorides on cattle teeth. Emissions from the factory were observed in two directions from the factory, and extended as far as 16 km from the source.

  7. Evaluating use of cattle winter feeding areas by elk and white-tailed deer: implications for managing bovine tuberculosis transmission risk from the ground up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Ryan K; Wal, Eric Vander; van Beest, Floris M; McLachlan, Stéphane M

    2013-02-01

    Transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) among wildlife and livestock has created important risks for conservation and agriculture. Management strategies aimed at controlling TB have typically been top-down, regionally focused, and government-led programs that were at best only partially successful. The purpose of this study was to quantify co-mingling of elk and white-tailed deer (WTD) with cattle at multiple spatial scales (i.e., the regional farm scale and winter cattle feeding area patch) in southwestern Manitoba, Canada, to assess the potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission and identify alternative management strategies. For each spatial scale we quantified use of cattle farms by elk and white-tailed deer. We mailed questionnaires to rural households and then conducted personal interviews with 86 cattle farmers to map the spatial distribution of their cattle winter feeding areas at a fine scale. We deployed Global Positioning System (GPS) collars on 48 wild elk and 16 wild white-tailed deer from 2003 to 2011. Elk were observed on farms by 66% of cattle producers, including 5% and 20% who observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between elk and cattle. Cattle producers consistently (≈100%) observed white-tailed deer on their farms, including 11% and 47% whom observed direct and indirect contact, respectively, between white-tailed deer and cattle. A higher probability of white-tailed deer-cattle contact at the regional scale occurs on farms that (1) left crop residues specifically for wildlife, (2) had larger cattle herds, (3) used round bale feeders, and (4) were farther away from protected areas. None of the GPS-collared elk locations overlapped with cattle winter feeding areas. In contrast, 21% of GPS-collared white-tailed deer locations overlapped with winter cattle winter feeding areas (22% of these were from male WTD and 78% were from female WTD). White-tailed deer selected cattle winter feeding areas with higher (1

  8. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummow, B; Myburgh, J G; Thompson, P N; van der Lugt, J J; Spencer, B T

    1999-03-01

    Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was of secondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farm and serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  9. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  10. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  11. Organophosphate poisoning in Ongole cattle in Sukamandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system between rice and beef cattle was initiated in 2000 in Sukamandi, West Java. However, since 2002 some cattle were suffering from neurological and ophthamological signs, and some of them were found dead after consuming rice straws. Field studies showed that 6 out of 12 cattle were suffered from eye disorders such as blindness, corneal opacity and sereous lacrimation. Two of 6 cattle were severely affected. But, neurological signs were not found during field observation. Pesticide analysis in rice straws shows that both groups of pesticide, organochlorines (OP and organophosphates (OP were detected. Residues of OC were higher than OP as shown as 14.41 vs 2.84 ppm (before processing for OC and 1.80 vs 0.0003 ppm (processed for OP consisting aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos methyl. There was only OC detected in sera consisting lindane (0.6–37.6 ppb; heptachlor (0.03–4.4 ppb; and aldrin (0.8–20.4 ppb with an average total of 21,4 ppb. The neurological and ophthalmological signs were suspected to be due to organophosphates (OPs contaminated-rice straws and any other factors such as insufficient vitamin A, magnesium and calcium. Feed replacement with fresh grasses for two cattle reduced corneal changes. Similar symptoms were also reproduced in Wistar rats dosed intraperitoneally with chlorpyriphos methyl. Clinical signs included incoordination, cachexia, eye disorder and corneal opacity. Necropsy showed hepatic injury (hepatic necrosis, mottling of hepatic surface and pale; pale kidneys; swollen of spleen and hyperaemic brain. Microscopic changes were found in brain, liver and eyes. Hepatic changes included haemorrhages, centrolobular hepatic necrosis and focal coagulative necrosis. Brains were showing focal necrosis, haemorrhages, vacuolisation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis and nucleolysis. Eyes appeared to have necrosis of tunica muscularis, haemorrhages and eosinophilic infiltration. The

  12. Dynamical Patterns of Cattle Trade Movements

    CERN Document Server

    Bajardi, Paolo; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria; 10.1371/journal.pone.0019869

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displ...

  13. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... will not have negative consequences for this group. FUNDING: The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  14. Two phase continuous digestion of solid manure on-farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, W.; Lehto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Vihti (Finland). Animal Production Research; Evers, L.; Granstedt, A. [Biodynamic Research Inst., Jaerna (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Present commercially available biogas plants are mainly suitable for slurry and co-substrates. Cattle, horse and poultry farms using a solid manure chain experience a crucial competitive disadvantage, because conversion to slurry technology requires additional investments. Based on the technological progress of anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste, so called 'dry fermentation' prototype plants were developed for anaerobic digestion of organic material containing 15-50% total solids (Hoffman, 2001). These plants show added advantages compared to slurry digestion plants: Less reactor volume, less process energy, less transport capacity, less odour emissions. On-farm research (Gronauer and Aschmann, 2004; Kusch and Oechsner, 2004) and prototype research (Linke, 2004) on dry fermentation in batch reactors show that loading and discharging of batch reactors remains difficult and/or time-consuming compared to slurry reactors. Additionally a constant level of gas generation requires offset operation of several batch reactors. Baserga et al. (1994) developed a pilot plant of 9.6 m{sup 3} capacity for continuous digestion of solid beef cattle manure on-farm. However, on-farm dry fermentation plants are not common and rarely commercially available. We assume that lack of tested technical solutions and scarceness of on-farm research results are the main reason for low acceptance of dry fermentation technology on-farm. We report about an innovative two phase farm-scale biogas plant. The plant continuously digests dairy cattle manure and organic residues of the farm and the surrounding food processing units. The two phase reactor technology was chosen for two reasons: first it offers the separation of a liquid fraction and a solid fraction for composting after hydrolysis and secondly the methanation of the liquid fraction using fixed film technology results in a very short hydraulic retention time, reduction in reactor volume, and higher methane content of the

  15. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases.

  16. Fasciola hepatica en bovinos doble propósito de una finca de Tucacas (Falcón, Venezuela - Fasciola hepatica in a dual-purpose bovine herd from a cattle farm in Tucaras (Falcón, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Mata, Arlett

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa fasciolosis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por eltrematodo Fasciola hepatica, la cual causa pérdidas económicas pordecomiso de hígados en mataderos y disminución en la producción deleche y carne. Esta investigación tuvo dos objetivos: 1. Determinar laprevalencia de Fasciola hepatica en ganado bovino doble propósitoproveniente de una finca de Tucacas, Municipio Silva, Estado Falcón,Venezuela, 2. Determinar la presencia de los hospedadoresintermediarios del parásito en dicha finca. En el 2006, se realizarondos muestreos en animales adultos en edad productiva: El primero alinicio de la época seca (Época 1 = E1, en el mes de enero,utilizándose el 10 % (n = 30 de la población. El segundo se efectuóen la mitad de esa época (Época 2 = E2, en el mes de abril con el10% (n = 18 de la población. En ambas ocasiones se tomaronmuestras coprológicas individuales que fueron procesadas por laTécnica de Sedimentación. Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas paradeterminar el hematocrito. Los resultados indican una prevalencia deFasciola hepatica del 20% en la E1 y del 11,11% en la E2(p>0,05.Se encontraron caracoles lymnaeidos en 4 potreros inspeccionados enla E1, y sólo en uno de ellos en la E2. Se comprobó la infección porFasciola hepatica sólo en los caracoles de un potrero en la E1. Seconcluye que el parasitismo es endémico en la finca no habiendodiferencias estadísticamente significativas en la prevalencia deltrematodo en sus hospedadores bovinos entre las dos épocas. Lapoblación de caracoles en los potreros disminuyó significativamente(p0,05. Lymnaeid snails were found in alllots searched (n = 4 during S1 and only in one lot during S2.Infection with Fasciola hepatica was detected only in snails from one of the lots, during S1. We conclude that this parasitic disease became endemic in the farm. There were not statistical differences inprevalence in definitive bovine hosts between S1 and S2, but snailpopulation decreased

  17. Dairy farm methane emissions using a dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to know whole-farm methane (CH(4)) emissions since confined animal facilities such as beef cattle feedlots and dairy farms are emission "hot spots" in the landscape. However, measurements of whole-farm CH(4) emissions can differ between farms because of differences in contributing sources such as manure handling, number of lactating and nonlactating cows, and diet. Such differences may limit the usefulness of whole-farm emissions for national inventories and mitigation purposes unless the variance between farms is taken into account or a large number of farms can be examined. Our study describes the application of a dispersion model used in conjunction with field measurements of CH(4) concentration and stability of the air to calculate whole-farm emissions of CH(4) from three dairy farms in Alberta, Canada, during three sequential campaigns conducted in November 2004 and May and July 2005. The dairy farms ranged in herd size from 208 to 351 cows (102 to 196 lactating cows) and had different manure handling operations. The results indicate that the average CH(4) emission per cow (mixture of lactating and nonlactating) from the three dairy farms was 336 g d(-1), which was reduced to 271 g d(-1) when the emission (estimated) from the manure storage was removed. Further separation of source strength yielded an average CH(4) (enteric) emission of 363 g d(-1) for a lactating cow. The estimated CH(4) emission intensities were approximately 15 g CH(4) kg(-1) dry matter intake and 16.7 L CH(4) L(-1) of milk produced. The approach of understanding the farm-to-farm differences in CH(4) emissions as affected by diet, animal type, and manure management is essential when utilizing whole-farm emission measurements for mitigation and inventory applications.

  18. Analyzing farming systems diversity: a case study in south-western France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choisis, J. P.; Thevenet, C.; Girbon, A.

    2012-11-01

    The huge changes in agricultural activities, which may be amplified by the forthcoming Common Agriculture Policy reform, call the future of crop-livestock systems into question and hence the impact of these changes on landscapes and biodiversity. We analyzed relationships between agriculture, landscape and biodiversity in south-western France. The study area covered about 4,000 ha and included four villages. We conducted a survey of 56 farms. Multivariate analysis (multiple factor analysis and cluster analysis) were used to analyze relationships between 25 variables and to build a typology. The type of farming (beef and/or dairy cattle, cash crops), size (area and workforce) and cultivation practices, among others, were revealed as differentiating factors of farms. Six farming types were identified (1) hillside mixed crop-livestock farms, (2) large corporate farms, (3) extensive cattle farms, (4) large intensive farms on the valley sides, (5) small multiple-job holdings, and (6) hobby farms. The diversity of farming systems revealed the variable impact of the main drivers of change affecting agricultural development, particularly the enlargement and modernization of farms along with the demography of agricultural holdings. (Author) 41 refs.

  19. Cross-infection of virulent Dichelobacter nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Gilhuus, Marianne; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main aetiological agent of ovine footrot and the bacterium has also been associated with interdigital dermatitis is cattle. The aim of this study was to investigate possible cross-infection of virulent D. nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle. Five farms, where...... sheep previously diagnosed with virulent D. nodosus were co-grazing with cattle for different periods of time, were included. The study sample consisted of 200 cows and 50 sheep. All cows were examined for the presence of interdigital dermatitis, and ten ewes, preferably with symptoms of footrot, had...... and analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization for D. nodosus, Treponema spp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum. D. nodosus defined as virulent by the gelatin gel test were isolated from 16 sheep from four farms and from five cows from two of the same farms. All five cows had interdigital dermatitis. Two...

  20. Reduced field efficacy of ivermectin against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup;

    Field reports of anthelmintic resistance against the widely-used macrocyclic lactones (ML) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle have appeared in NW-Europe in recent years. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against field infections with GIN...... in larval cultures from treated groups in all six farms. At day 14 p.t. in treated animals, O. ostertagi L3 were found in 1 farm and C. oncophora L3 in 3 farms. On day 21 p.t., O. ostertagi L3 and C. oncophora L3 were detected in treated animals of 2 and 4 farms, respectively. Discussion: Reduced field...

  1. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm.

  2. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  3. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  4. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  5. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  6. Environmental sustainability of Alpine livestock farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Battaglini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2006 FAO report concerning the environmental impact of the livestock sector has generated scientific debate, especially considering the context of global warming and the need to provide animal products to a growing world population. However, this sector differs widely in terms of environmental context, production targets, degree of intensification and cultural role. The traditional breeding systems in the Alps were largely based on the use of meadows and pastures and produced not only milk and meat but also other fundamental positive externalities and ecosystem services, such as conservation of genetic resources, water flow regulation, pollination, climate regulation, landscape maintenance, recreation and ecotourism and cultural heritage. In recent decades, the mountain livestock, mainly represented by dairy cattle, has been affected by a dramatic reduction of farms, a strong increase of animals per farm, an increase in indoor production systems, more extensive use of specialised non-indigenous cattle breeds and the increasing use of extra-farm concentrates instead of meadows and pastures for fodder. This paper firstly describes the livestock sector in the Italian Alps and analyses the most important factors affecting their sustainability. Secondly, it discusses the need to assess the ecosystem services offered by forage- based livestock systems in mountains with particular attention to greenhouse gas emission and its mitigation by carbon sequestration. In conclusion, comparison between the different elements of the environmental sustainability of mountain livestock systems must be based on a comprehensive overview of the relationships among animal husbandry, environment and socio-economic context.

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on beef farms and water sources within the vicinity of the farms on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia and species of Cryptosporidium on beef farms in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasites. Twenty beef farms were selected based on the presence of surface waterGiardia was detected in 42% (95% CI: 38-46%) of fecal samples from 100% farms while Cryptosporidium was detected in 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of fecal samples from 80% of farms. The most predominant Giardia assemblage isolated was the livestock specific assemblage E (89%). The zoonotic assemblages A and B were found in 4 and 7% of the Giardia isolates that were genotyped, respectively. The Giardia assemblages were detected equally between the cows and calves examined. Overall, the most common Cryptosporidium species detected in this study was Cryptosporidium andersoni (49%), predominantly found in cattle > 6 mo of age, while most Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium pestis (previously Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype') isolates were detected in calves ≤ 6 mo of age. All Cryptosporidium ryanae isolates (four) were found in calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 14 and 93% of surface water samples of 14 farms, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in three (15%) ground water samples of 20 farms. One Cryptosporidium-positive water sample, which was the only surface water sample amenable to genotyping, contained C. parvum. The farm-level risk factors investigated in this study, age of animals and location of the farm, were not associated with the risk of infection in cattle with either Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia duodenalis. We conclude that beef cattle are a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis that could contaminate source water. There is the possibility of further transmission to humans on PEI if the source water is not

  8. Increasing prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusiluka, L.J.M.; Ojeniyi, B.; Friis, N.F.

    2000-01-01

    A study on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in pneumonic bovine lungs was performed on material submitted for diagnostic pul poses at the Danish Veterinary Laboratory, Copenhagen. Among the 50 examined cases 43 (86.0%) were found to be infected with mycoplasmas. The predominant mycoplasmas were...... electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of ii field isolates of M. bovis from 9 different farms revealed different profiles except for 2 isolates which were recovered from the same farm. Because mycoplasmas belonging to the M.mycoides cluster' were not encountered during this study; it appears that the Danish cattle...

  9. Field-scale dispersal of Aphodius dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in response to avermectin treatments on pastured cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, L; Beaumont, D J; Nager, R G; McCracken, D I

    2010-04-01

    Very few studies have examined, at the field scale, the potential for faecal residues in the dung of avermectin-treated cattle to affect dung-breeding insects. The current study examined populations of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Aphodius) using pitfall traps baited with dung from untreated cattle on 26 fields across eight farms in southwest Scotland. The fields were grazed either by untreated cattle or by cattle treated with an avermectin product, i.e. doramectin or ivermectin. During the two-year study, significantly more beetles were trapped in fields grazed by treated cattle (n=9377 beetles) than in fields where cattle remained untreated (n=2483 beetles). Additional trials showed that beetles preferentially colonised dung of untreated versus doramectin-treated cattle. This may explain the higher captures of beetles in traps baited with dung of untreated cattle, which were located in fields of treated cattle. Given that Aphodius beetles avoided dung of treated cattle in the current study, the potential harmful effects of avermectin residues in cattle dung could be reduced through livestock management practices that maximise the availability of dung from untreated livestock in areas where avermectins are being used.

  10. Structure of the nucleoli in domestic cattle spermatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Andraszek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The work was aimed at determining the number and morphology of nucleoli in the prophase of the first meiotic division in domestic cattle males. The use of AgNO3 staining, commonly applied in cytogenetics for the identification of nucleolar organiser regions, made it possible to identify nucleoli in first-order spermatocytes. One nucleolus was identified in each analysed cell. Considerable morphological differentiation of the nucleoli during the prophase of the first meiotic division, particularly in leptotene, unobserved in other farm animal species, was noticed. Dark-hued grain-like structures were found within the disintegrating nucleoli, corresponding approximately or exactly to the number of the nucleolar organiser regions in the domestic cattle karyotype. Dark areas were identified in the selected prometaphase chromosomes. Their number corresponded with the number of active NORs defined in the domestic cattle karyotype.

  11. Organic Farming in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, C.R.; Heß, J

    1999-01-01

    During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...

  12. Characterisation of commensal Escherichia coli isolated from apparently healthy cattle and their attendants in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, Balichene; Kudirkiene, Egle; Mtambo, Madundo

    2016-01-01

    While pathogenic types of Escherichia coli are well characterized, relatively little is known about the commensal E. coli flora. In the current study, antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli and distribution of ERIC-PCR genotypes among isolates of such bacteria from cattle and cattle...... attendants on cattle farms in Tanzania were investigated. Seventeen E. coli genomes representing different ERIC-PCR types of commensal E. coli were sequenced in order to determine their possible importance as a reservoir for both antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors. Both human and cattle...... specific. The most frequent plasmids replicon genes found in strains from both hosts were of IncF type, which are commonly associated with carriage of antimicrobial and virulence genes. Commensal E. coli from cattle and attendants were found to share same genotypes and to carry antimicrobial resistance...

  13. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  14. Predicting the potential environmental suitability for Theileria orientalis transmission in New Zealand cattle using maximum entropy niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-07-15

    The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas.

  15. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  16. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  17. Anaerobic mesophilic treatment of cattle manure in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with prior pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Elena; Castrillón, Leonor; Fernández, Juan José; Fernández, Yolanda; Peláez, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Jesús

    2006-02-01

    Different autonomous communities located in northern Spain have large populations of dairy cattle. In the case of Asturias, the greatest concentration of dairy farms is found in the areas near the coast, where the elimination of cattle manure by means of its use as a fertilizer may lead to environmental problems. The aim of the present research work was to study the anaerobic treatment of the liquid fraction of cattle manure at mesophilic temperature using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor combined with a settler after a pasteurization process at 70 degrees C for 2 hr. The manure used in this study came from two different farms, with 40 and 200 cows, respectively. The manure from the smaller farm was pretreated in the laboratory by filtration through a 1-mm mesh, and the manure from the other farm was pretreated on the farm by filtration through a separator screw press (0.5-mm mesh). The pasteurization process removed the pathogenic microorganisms lacking spores, such as Enterococcus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas, and coliforms, but bacterial spores are only reduced by this treatment, not removed. The combination of a UASB reactor and a settler proved to be effective for the treatment of cattle manure. In spite of the variation in the organic loading rate and total solids in the influent during the experiment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the effluent from the settler remained relatively constant, obtaining reductions in the COD of approximately 85%.

  18. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; van Deursen, Jan M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) cont

  19. Mixed crop-livestock systems: an economic and environmental-friendly way of farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryschawy, J; Choisis, N; Choisis, J P; Joannon, A; Gibon, A

    2012-10-01

    Intensification and specialisation of agriculture in developed countries enabled productivity to be improved but had detrimental impacts on the environment and threatened the economic viability of a huge number of farms. The combination of livestock and crops, which was very common in the past, is assumed to be a viable alternative to specialised livestock or cropping systems. Mixed crop-livestock systems can improve nutrient cycling while reducing chemical inputs and generate economies of scope at farm level. Most assumptions underlying these views are based on theoretical and experimental evidence. Very few assessments of their environmental and economic advantages have nevertheless been undertaken in real-world farming conditions. In this paper, we present a comparative assessment of the environmental and economic performances of mixed crop-livestock farms v. specialised farms among the farm population of the French 'Coteaux de Gascogne'. In this hilly region, half of the farms currently use a mixed crop-livestock system including beef cattle and cash crops, the remaining farms being specialised in either crops or cattle. Data were collected through an exhaustive survey of farms located in our study area. The economic performances of farming systems were assessed on 48 farms on the basis of (i) overall gross margin, (ii) production costs and (iii) analysis of the sensitivity of gross margins to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs. The environmental dimension was analysed through (i) characterisation of farmers' crop management practices, (ii) analysis of farm land use diversity and (iii) nitrogen farm-gate balance. Local mixed crop-livestock farms did not have significantly higher overall gross margins than specialised farms but were less sensitive than dairy and crop farms to fluctuations in the price of inputs and outputs considered. Mixed crop-livestock farms had lower costs than crop farms, while beef farms had the lowest costs as they are grass

  20. [Effect of industrial and socioeconomic factors on morbidity levels with temporary work loss among workers and employees of specialized state farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleptsov, N F

    1976-01-01

    Specialization of the agricultural industry at state farms brings changes into conditions of work, affects the disease incidence involving temporary incapacitation among state farm workers. The sick-rate among those of them who are engaged in dairy and vegetable-growing state farms is higher that among workers of the cattle breeding ones. A higher level complex mechanization of labour-consuming processes in cattle breeding and plant growing mitigates the influence exercised by specialization of the state farm agricultural production. The disease-incidence with temporary incapacitation is affected not only by occupational, but also by non-occupational factors.

  1. Prevalence of Bovine Brucellosis in Organized Dairy Farms, Using Milk ELISA, in Quetta City, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (=86 and buffalo (=114 were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  2. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in organized dairy farms, using milk ELISA, in quetta city, balochistan, pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafee, Muhammad; Rabbani, Masood; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Ahmad, Mansoor Din; Razzaq, Abdul

    2011-01-24

    A total of 200 milk samples from cattle (n = 86) and buffalo (n = 114) were evaluated using milk ring test (MRT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). The overall prevalence was found to be 3% and 8.5% in cattle and buffaloes using MRT and i-ELISA, respectively. The prevalence was 4.6% and 1.7% in cattle and buffalo using MRT, respectively, while i-ELISA exhibited 20% and 0% in cattle and buffalo, respectively. The prevalence was higher in government dairy farm, compared to privately owned dairy farm. This paper points out an alarming situation in the target area with respect to the public health significance.

  3. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  4. Urinary iron excretion test in iron deficiency anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available A urinary iron excretion test was carried out in 22 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The iron excretion index was significantly higher in patients with intractable iron deficiency anemia compared with normal subjects and anemic patients who were responsive to iron therapy. The findings suggest that iron excretion may be a factor that modulates the response of patients to iron therapy.

  5. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  6. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  7. Screening of selected indicators of dairy cattle welfare in Macedonia

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    Miroslav Radeski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The welfare state of cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia has never been assessed previously. The objective of this study was to perform screening analysis of dairy cows welfare and to test the practical implementation of the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for cattle in dairy farms in Macedonia. In ten small scale and large scale tie stall farms 23 measures were recorded related to 9 welfare criteria of 4 welfare principles (WP described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment protocol for dairy cows. The mean percentage of very lean cows was 40.5±9.1%. All assessed farms were not providing access to pasture and an outdoor loafing area. Regarding cleanliness, the presence of dirty udder, upper leg/flank and lower leg was 65.2±9.0%, 85.5±8.0% and 86.5±5.8%, respectively. The overall prevalence of lameness was 5.6±5.0%, and for mild and severe alterations it was 30.8±5.8% and 54.1±4.6%, respectively. The ocular and vulvar discharge, diarrhea, dystocia, percentage of downer cows and mortality rate exceeded the warning and alarm threshold. The avoidance – distance test classified 70.4±6.8% as animals that can be touched or approached closer than 50cm, with overall score of 42.9±3.5. This screening reveals that the most welfare concerns are found in the WP Good Feeding and Good Housing. The on-farm welfare assessment using the full protocol on a representative sample of farms in the country is highly recommended for emphasizing the key points for improving the animal welfare in Macedonian dairy farms.

  8. Contribution to biorhythm of mercury-excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, H.; Damrau, J.; Franzen, E.; Henkel, W.

    1988-07-01

    The timed urinary mercury-excretion was investigated in 27 formerly exposed. The interval since their last exposure, their age, state of health and duration of exposure differed considerably. Nevertheless a clear circadian rhythm was found by adjustment of mercury to the timed substance-quantity, less to specific gravity, but really not to creatinin. These relations should be considered in biomonitoring. The differences of biorhythm in healthy and mercury-injured persons are discussed.

  9. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

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    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  11. Occurrence of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in Livestock and Farm Workers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

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    Carmen Dahms

    Full Text Available In recent years, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing bacteria have been found in livestock, mainly as asymptomatic colonizers. The zoonotic risk for people working in close contact to animal husbandry has still not been completely assessed. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. in livestock animals and workers to determine the potential risk for an animal-human cross-transmission.In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, northeast Germany, inguinal swabs of 73 individuals with livestock contact from 23 different farms were tested for ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. Two pooled fecal samples per farm of animal origin from 34 different farms (17 pig farms, 11 cattle farms, 6 poultry farms as well as cloacal swabs of 10 randomly selected broilers or turkeys were taken at each poultry farm. For identification, selective chromogenic agar was used after an enrichment step. Phenotypically ESBL-producing isolates (n = 99 were tested for CTX-M, OXA, SHV and TEM using PCR, and isolates were further characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST. In total, 61 diverse isolates from different sources and/or different MLST/PCR results were acquired. Five farm workers (three from cattle farms and two from pig farms harbored ESBL-producing E. coli. All human isolates harbored the CTX-M β-lactamase; TEM and OXA β-lactamases were additionally detected in two, resp. one, isolates. ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. were found in fecal samples at pig (15/17, cattle (6/11 and poultry farms (3/6. In total, 70.6% (24/36 of the tested farms were ESBL positive. Furthermore, 9 out of 60 cloacal swabs turned out to be ESBL positive. All isolated ESBL-producing bacteria from animal sources were E. coli, except for one E. hermanii isolate. CTX-M was the most prevalent β-lactamase at cattle and pig farms, while SHV predominated in poultry. One human isolate shared an identical MLST sequence type (ST 3891 and CTX-M allele to the

  12. Occurrence of ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli in Livestock and Farm Workers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Carmen; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Kossow, Annelene; Mellmann, Alexander; Dittmann, Kathleen; Kramer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing bacteria have been found in livestock, mainly as asymptomatic colonizers. The zoonotic risk for people working in close contact to animal husbandry has still not been completely assessed. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. in livestock animals and workers to determine the potential risk for an animal-human cross-transmission.In Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, northeast Germany, inguinal swabs of 73 individuals with livestock contact from 23 different farms were tested for ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. Two pooled fecal samples per farm of animal origin from 34 different farms (17 pig farms, 11 cattle farms, 6 poultry farms) as well as cloacal swabs of 10 randomly selected broilers or turkeys were taken at each poultry farm. For identification, selective chromogenic agar was used after an enrichment step. Phenotypically ESBL-producing isolates (n = 99) were tested for CTX-M, OXA, SHV and TEM using PCR, and isolates were further characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 61 diverse isolates from different sources and/or different MLST/PCR results were acquired. Five farm workers (three from cattle farms and two from pig farms) harbored ESBL-producing E. coli. All human isolates harbored the CTX-M β-lactamase; TEM and OXA β-lactamases were additionally detected in two, resp. one, isolates. ESBL-producing Escherichia spp. were found in fecal samples at pig (15/17), cattle (6/11) and poultry farms (3/6). In total, 70.6% (24/36) of the tested farms were ESBL positive. Furthermore, 9 out of 60 cloacal swabs turned out to be ESBL positive. All isolated ESBL-producing bacteria from animal sources were E. coli, except for one E. hermanii isolate. CTX-M was the most prevalent β-lactamase at cattle and pig farms, while SHV predominated in poultry. One human isolate shared an identical MLST sequence type (ST) 3891 and CTX-M allele to the isolate

  13. Clinical and biochemical signs in Fleckvieh cattle with genetically confirmed Fanconi-Bickel syndrome (cattle homozygous for Fleckvieh haplotype 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Johann; Url, Angelika; Pausch, Hubert; Schwarzenbacher, Hermann; Egerbacher, Monika; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi-Bickel Syndrome (FBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism, which has been reported in human and some animals (OMIA 000366-9913). In Fleckvieh cattle it is caused by mutations in SLC2A2, a gene encoding for glucose transporter protein 2 (GLUT2), which is primarily expressed in liver, kidney, pancreas and intestines. The causal mutation resides in a previously reported Fleckvieh Haplotype 2 (FH-2). FH-2 homozygous individuals are rare, but due to widespread use of heterozygous bulls in artificial insemination, heterozygous animals are likely to be present in a larger number in the cattle population. Two clinical cases of Fleckvieh cattle with a syndrome resembling the phenotypic appearance of FBS are presented in the present study describing the association between the clinical manifestations of FBS and the postulated frameshift mutation in bovine SLC2A2. Clinical examination showed poor growth, retarded development, polyuria, and polydipsia. Laboratory analyses showed an increased plasma glucose but normal insulin concentration and increased renal glucose excretion. Histopathological examination of kidney and liver samples revealed massively increased liver glycogen storage and nephrosis. Sires of both cases were tested positive for being heterozygous carriers for the same frameshift mutation in SLC2A2 as was originally reported in Fleckvieh cattle. DNA of both cases described was analyzed and Sanger sequencing confirmed homozygosity for the frameshift mutation in SLC2A2.

  14. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  15. Dynamical patterns of cattle trade movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions.

  16. The validity of a monitoring system based on routinely collected dairy cattle health data relative to a standardized herd check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, H; Stegeman, J A; Straatsma, J W; Hooijer, G A; Schaik, G van

    2015-11-01

    Dairy cattle health is often assessed during farm visits. However, farm visits are time consuming and cattle health is assessed at only one point in time. Moreover, farm visits are poorly comparable and/or repeatable when inspection is carried out by many different professionals. Many countries register cattle health parameters such as bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and mortality in central databases. A great advantage of such routinely available data is that they are uniformly gathered and registered throughout time. This makes comparison between dairy cattle herds possible and could result in opportunities to develop reliable tools for assessing cattle health based on routinely available data. In 2005, a monitoring system for the assessment of cattle health in Dutch dairy herds based on routinely available data was developed. This system had to serve as an alternative for the compulsory quarterly farm visits, which were implemented in 2002. However, before implementation of the alternative system for dairy cows, the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to the real health status of the herd should be known. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the data-based monitoring system and the compulsory quarterly visits relative to a standardized herd check for detecting dairy herds with health problems. The results showed that routinely available data can be used to develop an effective screening instrument for detecting herds with poor cattle health. Routinely available data such as cattle mortality and BMSCC that were used in this study had a significant association with animal-based measurements such as the general health impression of the dairy cows (including e.g. rumen fill and body condition). Our study supports the view that cattle health parameters based on routinely available data can serve as a tool for detecting herds with a poor cattle health status which can reduce the number of

  17. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  18. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses......, which are described in other reports from Food and Resource Economic Institute (Jacobsen, 2005 and Andersen et al., 2005). This gives coherent results from the field to the macroeconomic level regarding changes in technology and legislation....

  19. Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring or accurately predicting manure quantities and nutrient concentrations is important for dairy farms facing strict environmental regulations. The objectives of this project were to determine the daily out-flow of manure nutrients from a free-stall barn using mass balance and to compare results with published excretion models. The project was conducted at the free-stall facility housing the lactating cow herd of the Virginia Tech Dairy Center in 2005. The herd consisted of 142 (+/-8.9) Holstein and Jersey cows with a mean body weight of 568 (+/-6.2) kg and average milk yield of 29.8 (+/-1.7) kg/d with 3.18% (+/-0.07) true protein and 3.81% (+/-0.13) milk fat on 18 sampling days. The intakes of dry matter (DM), N, and P were estimated from the formulated ration. Daily consumption averaged 21.7 (+/-0.27) kg of DM with 17.7% (+/-0.26) crude protein and 0.46% (+/-0.03) P. Approximately 110 (+/- 27.9) kg/d of sawdust was used as bedding; its contribution to manure flow was subtracted. The alleys in the free-stall barn were flushed every 6 h with recycled wastewater, and the slurry was collected. On 18 sampling days the volumes and constituents of the flushwater and the flushed manure were determined for a 6-h flush cycle and extrapolated to daily values. Net daily flow of solids and nutrients in manure were calculated as the differences between masses in flushed slurry and flushwater. Nitrogen and P excretion were also calculated from dietary inputs and milk output. The flow was compared with the American Society of Agricultural Engineers' (ASAE) standards. Each cow produced 5.80 kg/d of total solids (remainder after drying at 105 degrees C). The ASAE standard predicted DM (remainder after drying at 60 degrees C) excretion of 8.02 to 8.53 kg/d per cow. Recovery of P amounted to 74.8 g/d per cow. Overall, 102% of intake P was recovered; 75.1% in the manure outflow and 26.9% in milk. About 285 g/d and 148 g/d of N per cow were recaptured in manure and milk

  20. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination.

  1. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  2. Recovery status of bacteriophages of different livestock farms of Veterinary College, Adhartal, Jabalpur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Shukla and S. D. Hirpurkar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to know the presence of bacteriophage in sewage material which can play a very important role during therapy against the some antibiotic resistance organisms. During study waste water samples were collected from different depths of the wastewater collection tanks located in livestock farms of different species (Cattle, pig, goat and poultry. These samples were subjected primarily to rapid detection by streak plate method for the detection of lytic activity followed by primary isolation of phage against two most common bacteria of environment, namely, B. subtilis and E. coli by Double agar layer (DAL method. Recovery of phages was maximum from pig feces (67% followed by dairy cattle farm waste (63%, buffalo farm waste (50%, goat farm waste (13%. [Vet. World 2011; 4(3.000: 117-119

  3. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  4. Foot disorders in dairy cattle: impact on cow and dairy farmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Beerda, B.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the economic consequences and the welfare impact of foot disorders in dairy cattle and the association between them, taking into account clinical and subclinical foot disorders. In dairy farming with cubicle housing and concrete floors, foot disorders are a major welfare problem

  5. Short communication: milk fat composition of 4 cattle breeds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M.H.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition was compared among 4 cattle breeds in the Netherlands: Dutch Friesian (DF; 47 animals/3 farms), Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY; 52/3), Groningen White Headed (GWH; 45/3), and Jersey (JER; 46/3). Each cow was sampled once between December 2008 and March 2009 during the indoor

  6. Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in Brahman cattle in Zimbabwe : the first field outbreak : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masvingwe

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Field outbreaks of Kalanchoe lanceolata poisoning in cattle on a commercial farm in Zimbabwe are reported. The clinical signs and pathological lesions observed in field cases resembled those reproduced in an experimental cow and were consistent with acute cardiac glycoside poisoning.

  7. Utilisation of cattle manure and inorganic fertiliser for food production in central Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Muhereza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertiliser use in small-holder peri-urban crop-livestock farms in Uganda was investigated by conducting a socio-economic survey of 40 farms in the central districts of Wakiso and Kampala where cattle manure is commonly applied to address the issue of declining crop yields. The major benefits obtained from cattle manure application were increased yields and low cost, while negative effects were poor hygienic conditions and bad odour. The challenges associated with the use of cattle manure included its weight and bulkiness, lack of labour, insufficient quantities, high transportation and application costs, lack of storage facilities to maintain quality attributes of manure and the incidence of chaffer grubs and worms; a nuisance during application which affected crop growth. The survey indicated that of the farmers using cattle manure, only 5% also supplemented with inorganic fertilisers. Other animal manures applied included poultry, pig, goat and rabbit where available. The nutrient content of cattle manure was generally low, as a result of livestock diet and storage. There was little education available to farmers as to optimum strategies and rates of fertiliser (including both inorganic and organic fertilisers to improve crop yield and this needed addressing to improve food security and economic development in Uganda. Keywords: cattle manure; fertiliser; urea

  8. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...... of different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p

  9. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  10. EFFECT OF CAPTIVE SUPPLY ON FARM-TO-WHOLESALE BEEF MARKETING MARGIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    Debates about captive supplies have been ongoing for more than a decade. This study investigates the effects captive supplies have on the beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margin. A relative price spread (RPS) model is used to estimate beef farm-to-wholesale marketing margins. Estimates indicate that forward contracts and marketing agreements have a small positive relationship with margins that is marginally significant. Packer fed cattle may or may not be related to margins to depending upon ...

  11. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  12. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  13. Cattle are a potential reservoir of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidana, S. S.; Delgado, F.; Vagnoni, L.; Mauroy, A.; Thiry, E.; Romera, S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, controlled experimental infection and transmission studies in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were carried out to study the in vivo behaviour of bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1). Two bovine and two buffalo calves were infected with BuHV1 (20287N isolate) by intranasal aerosolisation. Two sentinel cattle did not receive the virus challenge, but were housed with infected buffaloes to evaluate horizontal transmission. All experimentally inoculated animals showed viral infection and respiratory clinical signs. BuHV1 experimentally infected calves showed intermittent viral excretion between 2 days and 18 days postinfection (dpi) with a maximum titre of excretion of 106 TCID50/ml and moderate rhinitis between 2 dpi and 20 dpi. BuHV1 experimentally inoculated buffaloes showed mild respiratory signs, which consisted mainly of serous nasal secretions during the infection period. Sentinel calves showed mucosal specific IgG1 antibodies at seven days postcontact. Viral DNA was detected by PCR and sequencing in both buffaloes and sentinel calves, which could be associated with latency. In conclusion, this study showed the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 after both experimental infection and contact with infected buffaloes. These data increase the scarce knowledge on the pathogenesis in natural host and the susceptibility of cattle to BuHV1 experimental infection. PMID:28074144

  14. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    Full Text Available Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1 and 0.96 µg L(-1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%. Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1 of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1. Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03. Peak excretion (2.69 mg was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03. The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from

  15. Alterações físicas e químicas de um Argissolo pela aplicação de água residuária de bovinocultura Physical and chemical changes in an Luvisoil by the application of cattle farm wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio J. T. Erthal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Se bem planejada, a disposição de águas residuárias no sistema solo-planta poderá trazer benefícios, tais como fonte de nutrientes e água para as plantas, redução do uso de fertilizantes e de seu potencial poluidor. O solo apresenta grande capacidade de decompor ou inativar materiais potencialmente prejudiciais ao ambiente, através de reações químicas e por processos microbiológicos. Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplicação da água residuária de bovinocultura (ARB sobre as propriedades físicas e químicas de um Argissolo Vermelho Eutrófico, realizou-se um experimento utilizando-se quatro taxas de aplicação da ARB (25, 50, 75 e 100 kg ha-1 de K, em condições de lisímetros de drenagem e em ambiente protegido. Avaliaram-se: condutividade elétrica da solução do solo; argila dispersa em água; índice de saturação por sódio; pH; CTC; saturação por bases e os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg e Na. Os valores de pH, CTC, saturação por bases e concentrações de P, K, Ca e Mg, aumentaram com acréscimos nas taxas de aplicação da ARB, nas camadas superficiais do solo. Não ocorreu salinização do perfil do solo embora a porcentagem de argila dispersa em água tenha aumentado, indicando que a aplicação permanente da ARB pode propiciar riscos de redução da permeabilidade do solo.When the wastewater disposal in the soil-plant system is well planned, it can provide some benefits, such as a source of nutrients and water for plants and the reduced use of both fertilizers and their pollution potential. The soil has high capacity to decompose or inactivate the material that are potentially harmful to the environment, through chemical reactions and microbiological processes. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the application of cattle farm wastewater (ARB both on physical and chemical properties of an eutrophic Red Luvisoil. The experiment was carried out using four ARB application rates (25, 50, 75 and

  16. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (Pcontrol strategy.

  17. Effects of Cattle Slurry Acidification on Ammonia and Methane Evolution during Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH3 emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH4 emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH4 from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid...... and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH4 emission during storage of cattle....... In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one...

  18. Incidence and toxin production ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta Alonso, E P; Gilliland, S E; Krehbiel, C R

    2007-10-01

    Twelve cattle trucks were analyzed for the presence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Three of them had been washed prior to arrival, and the others had not. Seventy-five percent of the trailers were positive for the presence of this foodborne pathogen. A total of 54 cultures were isolated and identified as E. coli O157:H7, all from the trucks that had not been cleaned. Most of the cultures (96.4%) produced Shiga-like toxin (verotoxin). No E. coli O157:H7 was detected in cattle trucks that were cleaned before arrival at the cattle pens. The incidence of E. coli O157:H7 in transport trailers increases the potential risk of contamination of cattle and transmission from farms to feedlots and to packing plants. This contamination increases the potential of contamination of meat during harvest and the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  19. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  20. Airborne microbial flora in a cattle feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S C; Morrow-Tesch, J; Straus, D C; Cooley, J D; Wong, W C; Mitlöhner, F M; McGlone, J J

    2002-07-01

    A total of 1,408 cattle held in eight commercial feedlot pens were used to examine the quantity and diversity of microorganisms in cattle feedlot air. The effect of two feeding patterns on the generation of airborne dust and the total numbers of microorganisms was also examined (four feedlot pens/treatment). Microbial samples were collected, and dust particles that were 2.5 microm or less in diameter were measured with a Dustrak monitor during the evening dust peak for 4 days at sites both upwind and downwind of the feedlot pens. An Andersen biological cascade sampler was employed with different medium and incubation combinations for the capture and identification of bacteria and fungi. The results showed that when bacteria were considered, only nonpathogenic gram-positive organisms were recovered. However, gram-negative bacteria may have been present in a viable but nonculturable state. Fungi were recovered in smaller numbers than bacteria, and none of the fungi were pathogenic. The Dustrak results showed that one feeding pattern resulted in cattle behavior that generated levels of downwind dust lower (P = 0.04) than the levels generated by the behavior resulting from the other feeding pattern. However, the Andersen sampler results showed that there were no differences between feeding patterns with regard to the total number or diversity of microorganisms. The disparity may have been due to the different operating principles of the two systems. The overall numbers of microorganisms recovered were lower than those reported in studies of intensively housed farm animals in which similar recovery techniques were used.

  1. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  2. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.

  3. Cryptosporidiosis Risk in New Zealand Children Under 5 Years Old is Greatest in Areas with High Dairy Cattle Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Dobbins, Timothy; Bagheri, Nasser; Baker, Michael G; French, Nigel P; Hales, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The public health risks associated with dairy farming intensification are an emerging concern. We examine the association between dairy cattle density and cryptosporidiosis risk in children dairy industry. Multi-level Poisson regression was used to model reported cryptosporidiosis (N = 3869 cases) incidence in relation to dairy cattle densities across urban and rural areas separately, after controlling for microbiological quality of public drinking water supplies and neighbourhood socio-economic factors using the Census Area Unit of residence. Within urban areas, the risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old was significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density IRR 1.3 (95% CI 1.2, 1.5) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.2, 1.9) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. Within rural areas, the incidence risk of cryptosporidiosis in children less than 5 years old were significantly, positively associated with medium and high dairy cattle density: IRR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3, 2.3) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.5, 2.8) respectively, when compared to areas with no dairy cattle. These results have public health implications for children living on and in proximity to intensively stocked dairy cattle farms.

  4. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  5. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions.

  6. Molecular and parasitological study of cryptosporidium isolates from cattle in ilam, west of iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahami Oskouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most important parasitic infections in human and animals. This study was designed for survey on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in farms of Ilam, west of Iran, using parasitology method and genotyping by Nested PCR-RFLP.Fecal samples of 217 cattle were collected fresh and directly from the rectum of cattle. All of the samples were examined by microscopic observation after staining with modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN. Genomic DNA extracted by using EURx DNA kit. A Nested PCR-RFLP protocol amplifying 825 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene conducted to differentiate species and genotyping of the isolates using SspI and VspI as restriction enzymes.The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle using both methods is 3.68%. Most of the positive cattle were calves under six months. Species diagnosis carried out by digesting the secondary PCR product with SspI that C. parvum generated 3 visible bands of 448, 247 and 106 bp and digested by VspI restriction enzyme generated 2 visible bands of 628 and 104bp. In this investigation all of the positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum.C. parvum (bovine genotype detected in all positive cattle samples in Ilam, west of Iran. The results of the present study can help for public health care systems to prevention and management of cryptosporidiosis in cattle and the assessment of cattle cryptosporidiosis as a reservoir for the human infection.

  7. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  8. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered.

  9. Identification of risk factors influencing Clostridium difficile prevalence in middle-size dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelj, Petra; Blagus, Rok; Briski, France; Frlic, Olga; Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Rupnik, Maja; Ocepek, Matjaz; Vengust, Modest

    2016-03-12

    Farm animals have been suggested to play an important role in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in the community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with C. difficile dissemination in family dairy farms, which are the most common farming model in the European Union. Environmental samples and fecal samples from cows and calves were collected repeatedly over a 1 year period on 20 mid-size family dairy farms. Clostridium difficile was detected in cattle feces on all farms using qPCR. The average prevalence between farms was 10% (0-44.4%) and 35.7% (3.7-66.7%) in cows and calves, respectively. Bacterial culture yielded 103 C. difficile isolates from cattle and 61 from the environment. Most C. difficile isolates were PCR-ribotype 033. A univariate mixed effect model analysis of risk factors associated dietary changes with increasing C. difficile prevalence in cows (P = 0.0004); and dietary changes (P = 0.004), breeding Simmental cattle (P = 0.001), mastitis (P = 0.003) and antibiotic treatment (P = 0.003) in calves. Multivariate analysis of risk factors found that dietary changes in cows (P = 0.0001) and calves (P = 0.002) increase C. difficile prevalence; mastitis was identified as a risk factor in calves (P = 0.001). This study shows that C. difficile is common on dairy farms and that shedding is more influenced by farm management than environmental factors. Based on molecular typing of C. difficile isolates, it could also be concluded that family dairy farms are currently not contributing to increased CDI incidence.

  10. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  11. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp...

  13. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in wild birds on Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Nielsen, Eva Møller;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reducing the occurrence of campylobacteriosis is a food safety issue of high priority, as in recent years it has been the most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU. Livestock farms are of particular interest, since cattle, swine and poultry are common reservoirs of Campylobacter spp. ...

  14. Implications of livestock feeding management on soil fertility in smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delve, R.J.; Cadisch, G.; Tanner, J.C.; Thorpe, W.; Thorne, P.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The role of livestock in nitrogen cycling in mixed crop–livestock farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa was explored. Cattle were fed a range of diets to investigate the effects on partitioning of nitrogen between urine and faeces and on the chemical composition of the manures produced. The trade-of

  15. Organic grassland farming in the Netherlands : a case study of effects on vegetation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, JP; ter Heerdt, GNJ

    2005-01-01

    is less expensive than haymaking or extensive grazing without return from agricultural exploitation. Keeping dairy cattle in nature reserves, without any fertilizer application and with rotational grazing-one of the many forms of organic grassland farming-was shown to be economically feasible: the d

  16. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  17. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Pećarević

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  18. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  19. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs - Occurrence and management associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2006-01-01

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy....... For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age...

  20. Managing N Inputs and the Effect on N Losses Following Excretion in Open-Dirt Feedlots in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen E. Erickson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition will play an important role in meeting the environmental challenges of beef cattle feedlots. Nutritionists are continually refining protein requirements, and have recently adopted a new metabolizable protein (MP system to more efficiently use nitrogen (N and allow more accurate diet formulation. Protein requirements vary by animal age and weight during the finishing period. Our hypothesis was that formulating diets with the MP system would decrease N inputs and lead to decreased excretion and losses. Comparing industry average diets (13.5% crude protein to phase-fed diets formulated to not exceed MP requirements decreased N inputs by 10 to 20% for calves and yearlings without affecting average daily gain. Decreasing inputs led to a concomitant decrease in N excretion (12 to 21% and losses (15 to 33% in open-dirt feedlot pens. N losses are variable with time of year, with averages of 60 to 70% of excreted N lost during the summer months and 40% lost during the November to May feeding periods. Protein requirements are being refined continually as more research data are collected. However, formulation to meet protein requirements, but not exceed them, is an important nutritional management option for feedlots to become sustainable.

  1. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  2. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1) and 0.96 µg L(-1) for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms.

  3. Temporal and farm-management-associated variation in faecal pat prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove-White, D H; Leatherbarrow, A J H; Cripps, P J; Diggle, P J; French, N P

    2014-04-01

    In a 2-year longitudinal study of adult animals on 15 dairy farms and four sheep farms in Lancashire, UK, Arcobacter spp. were isolated from all farms although not at every sampling occasion. Faecal samples were collected and cultured using standard techniques for isolation of campylobacters. Assignment to species was via PCR assays. Apparent prevalence of Arcobacter spp. was higher in dairy cattle compared to sheep (40.1% vs. 8%, P Arcobacter spp. and Campylobacter jejuni although this may in part be an artefact of laboratory test method sensitivity, whereby a relative increase in the frequency of one bacterial species would reduce the sensitivity of detecting the other.

  4. Calf management practices, challenges and opportunities in traditional cattle production systems in the Peanut Basin of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Kamga-Waladjo, Alain Richi; Ema, Patrick Jolly Ngono; Muyeneza, Celestin; Kane, Ousmane; Seck, Abdourakhmanne; Ly, Mor Talla; Lo, Mamadou

    2015-06-01

    Calf management in traditional cattle herds in many parts of the tropics receive less attention as compared to immediate income-generating cows or bulls. Information on long-term implications of poorly reared young stock is limited. A study to assess practices, challenges and opportunities during rearing of less than 12-month-old calves in traditional cattle herds in the Peanut Basin of Senegal was carried out. Data were collected on 207 farms through farm visits and completion of a questionnaire. Categorical principal component analysis followed by two-step cluster analysis identified two cattle production systems: livestock based (LB: 47.83 %) and livestock-crop based (LCB, 52.17 %). On average, 2.81 ± 0.15 calves were reared per farm. Calves were weaned at the age of 12.27 ± 0.32 months. A majority of the calves were of indigenous breeds (71.37 %) and were meant to serve as replacement stock (74.23 %). The tropical livestock unit for cattle owned was significantly lower in LB compared to LCB farms (12.71 vs. 18.85). Significantly higher number of farmers owned non-indigenous calves, had clean calf rearing area and reported feed availability in LB farms as compared to LCB farms. A majority of farmers (98.50 %) perceived calf morbidity and mortality as a major challenge in calf rearing. Meanwhile, labour was readily available to assist with calf rearing in 88.24 % of farms in both systems. Capacity building on improve husbandry practices could enhance calf survival and productivity in surveyed farms. Studies to better identify health and feeding constraints of calves will be necessary to define intervention targets.

  5. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  6. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  7. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were stu

  8. Reduced fecal sterol excretion in subjects with familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Franssen, Remco; Hovingh, G. Kees; Bisoendial, Radjesh J.; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion are the obligate endpoints of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT). In studies in mice, no evidence was found for a relation between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and fecal sterol excretion. In this study, we have evaluated this re

  9. Hormonal differences in peripheral blood and gene profiling in the liver and lymphocytes in Japanese black cattle with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sakura; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Eirai, Sayoko; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Tomioka, Michiko; Kurose, Yohei; Hirano, Takashi; Watanabe, Daisaku

    2013-01-31

    Japanese Black cattle occasionally demonstrate growth retardation despite sufficient nutrient intake. To clarify hormonal and transcriptional characteristics, we investigated differences in blood components, including hormones, and differences in exhaustive gene expressions in the liver and peripheral lymphocytes of six cattle with growth retardation (GR cattle) and eight control cattle of the same age and pedigree with normal growth. Hematocrit values and concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thyroxine and insulin in GR cattle were significantly lower than those in controls. GR cattle also excreted higher levels of GH. We used three GR and three control cattle for a microarray analysis in the liver and found that 279 gene expressions were significantly different. However, gene expressions related to the GH-IGF-1 axis, such as the GH receptor and IGF-1, were not significantly different from those of controls. Immune-related gene expressions were significantly lower. To clarify these gene expression levels, peripheral lymphocytes were used for real-time RT-PCR. The expression rates of genes that were significantly lower in the liver, such as chemokine ligand 8, interferon gamma receptor 1 and immunoglobulin light chain VJ region were also significantly lower in three GR cattle than those in the three control cattle. These results suggest that the cause of growth retardation in the present study was due to other factors, not abnormal gene expressions of factors related to the GH-IGF-1 axis in the liver, and that GR cattle were susceptible to infectious disease.

  10. Characterization of multi-antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from beef cattle in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shiori; Nakano, Motoki; Kitagawa, Wataru; Tanaka, Michiko; Sone, Teruo; Hirai, Katsuya; Asano, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistance bacteria is increasing, which is a particular concern on livestock farms. We previously isolated 1,347 antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli strains from the feces of beef cattle on 14 Japanese farms. In the present study, the genetic backgrounds and phylogenetic relationships of 45 AMR isolates were characterized by the chromosome phylotype, AMR phenotype, AMR genotype, and plasmid type. These isolates were classified into five chromosome phylotypes, which were closely linked to the farms from which they were isolated, suggesting that each farm had its own E. coli phylotype. AMR phenotype and plasmid type analyses yielded 8 and 14 types, all of which were associated with the chromosomal phylotype and, thus, to the original farms. AMR genotype analysis revealed more variety, with 16 types, indicating both inter- and intra-farm diversity. Different phylotype isolates from the same farm shared highly similar plasmid types, which indicated that plasmids with AMR genes could be transferred between phylotypes, thereby generating multi-antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. This ecological study demonstrated that the chromosome phylotype was strongly correlated with the farm from which they were isolated, while the AMR phenotype, genotype, and plasmid type were generally correlated with the chromosome phylotype and farm source.

  11. Use of homeopathy in organic dairy farming in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjales, Inmaculada; López-Alonso, Marta; Rodríguez-Bermúdez, Ruth; Rey-Crespo, Francisco; Villar, Ana; Miranda, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Organic farming principles promote the use of unconventional therapies as an alternative to chemical substances (which are limited by organic regulations), with homeopathy being the most extensive. Traditionally, Spain has had little faith in homeopathy but its use in organic farming is growing. Fifty-six Spanish organic dairy farmers were interviewed to obtain what we believe to be the first data on the use of homeopathy in organic dairy cattle in Spain. Only 32% of farms use some sort of alternative therapy (16.1% homeopathy, 10.7% phytotherapy and 5.3% using both therapies) and interestingly, a clear geographical pattern showing a higher use towards the East (similar to that in the human population) was observed. The main motivation to use homeopathy was the need to reduce chemical substances promoted by organic regulations, and the treatment of clinical mastitis being the principle reason. The number of total treatments was lower in farms using homeopathy compared with those applying allopathic therapies (0.13 and 0.54 treatments/cow/year respectively) and although the bulk SCC was significantly higher (p farms (161,826 and 111,218 cel/ml, respectively) it did not have any negative economical penalty for the farmer and milk quality was not affected complying with the required standards; on the contrary homeopathic therapies seems to be an alternative for reducing antibiotic treatments, allowing farmers to meet the organic farming principles.

  12. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T;

    2014-01-01

    ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each......Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...... fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production...

  13. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Akabane virus (AKAV is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184 was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184 seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%, 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%, 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%, and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%, while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97 and 8.2% (4/49, respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria.

  14. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection among cattle in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Drapała, Dorota; Dominiak-Górski, Bartosz; Kur, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a significant disease in livestock and humans. Because of medical and veterinary importance it is essential to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among human and animals in various parts of the word. In this study, 4033 cattle from eight provinces of Northern Poland (belonging to 190 herds) were tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii by an in-house ELISA technique based on native Toxoplasma lysate antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity of test used in this study was 96.3%, and specificity was 98% for the group of 77 cattle sera (27 seropositive and 50 seronegative) previously characterized with the use of agglutination and immunofluorescence methods. A 127 (3.15%) out of all tested animals belonging to 72 (37.9%) out of 190 herds were founded as positive. Furthermore, our results showed that the way of feeding and farming, the size of the herd and the age of animals have the influence on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among cattle. The percentage of infected cattle was the highest for old animals which belongs to the small herds with the traditional way of farming. These results indicate that T. gondii infection in cattle from Northern Poland is relatively low and consumption of beef and milk can be regarded as a poor source of infection for humans.

  15. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  16. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  17. Potential for Local Fertilization: A Benthocosm Test of Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Mussel Excretion on the Plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Mehdi; Granados, Monica; Duffy, Sean; Robert, Pauline; Péquin, Bérangère; Mohit, Vani; McKindsey, Christopher W; Archambault, Philippe; Myrand, Bruno; Lovejoy, Connie; Tremblay, Réjean; Plourde, Stéphane; Fussmann, Gregor F

    2016-01-01

    Mussel aquaculture has expanded worldwide and it is important to assess its impact on the water column and the planktonic food web to determine the sustainability of farming practices. Mussel farming may affect the planktonic food web indirectly by excreting bioavailable nutrients in the water column (a short-term effect) or by increasing nutrient effluxes from biodeposit-enriched sediments (a long-term effect). We tested both of these indirect effects in a lagoon by using plankton-enclosing benthocosms that were placed on the bottom of a shallow lagoon either inside of a mussel farm or at reference sites with no history of aquaculture. At each site, half of the benthocosms were enriched with seawater that had held mussels (excretion treatment), the other half received non-enriched seawater as a control treatment. We monitored nutrients ([PO43-] and [NH4+]), dissolved oxygen and plankton components (bacteria, the phytoplankton and the zooplankton) over 5 days. We found a significant relationship between long-term accumulation of mussel biodeposits in sediments, water-column nutrient concentrations and plankton growth. Effects of mussel excretion were not detected, too weak to be significant given the spatial and temporal variability observed in the lagoon. Effects of mussels on the water column are thus likely to be coupled to benthic processes in such semi-enclosed water bodies.

  18. Potential for Local Fertilization: A Benthocosm Test of Long-Term and Short-Term Effects of Mussel Excretion on the Plankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Cherif

    Full Text Available Mussel aquaculture has expanded worldwide and it is important to assess its impact on the water column and the planktonic food web to determine the sustainability of farming practices. Mussel farming may affect the planktonic food web indirectly by excreting bioavailable nutrients in the water column (a short-term effect or by increasing nutrient effluxes from biodeposit-enriched sediments (a long-term effect. We tested both of these indirect effects in a lagoon by using plankton-enclosing benthocosms that were placed on the bottom of a shallow lagoon either inside of a mussel farm or at reference sites with no history of aquaculture. At each site, half of the benthocosms were enriched with seawater that had held mussels (excretion treatment, the other half received non-enriched seawater as a control treatment. We monitored nutrients ([PO43-] and [NH4+], dissolved oxygen and plankton components (bacteria, the phytoplankton and the zooplankton over 5 days. We found a significant relationship between long-term accumulation of mussel biodeposits in sediments, water-column nutrient concentrations and plankton growth. Effects of mussel excretion were not detected, too weak to be significant given the spatial and temporal variability observed in the lagoon. Effects of mussels on the water column are thus likely to be coupled to benthic processes in such semi-enclosed water bodies.

  19. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p markets were weak (r = 0.2; p > 0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases.

  20. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... of pain in dairy cattle under productionconditions....

  1. Nonrespiratory diseases of stocker cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Smith, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the most common health issue affecting stocker cattle. There are several nonrespiratory diseases that affect stockers. The more common diseases include rumen tympany, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, coccidiosis, photosensitization, and foot rot. Accurate diagnosis, early treatment, and incorporating appropriate preventive measures can assist cattle production.

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were given for up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution, respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952; RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were: up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness; down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness and Supporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion of research indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index and give positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  3. Reduced field efficacy of ivermectin against Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia oncophora in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Drag, Markus; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    Field reports of anthelmintic resistance against the widely-used macrocyclic lactones (ML) in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of cattle have appeared in NW-Europe in recent years. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against field infections with GIN...... in Danish cattle. In addition, we evaluated a novel quantitative (q) real-time PCR assay for accurate identification of surviving nematode species after treatment. Methods: Six farms were selected based on mean faecal egg counts (FEC) of ≥ 100 nematode eggs per gram in first season grazing heifers. All...

  4. First report of closantel treatment failure against Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novobilský, Adam; Höglund, Johan

    2015-12-01

    Control of Fasciola hepatica infection in livestock is based on annual treatment using flukicides such as triclabendazole, albendazole and closantel. However, triclabendazole resistant F. hepatica populations are emerging worldwide and resistance is emerging to albendazole, whereas it has until now never been described for closantel. In Sweden, a topical formulation containing a combination of closantel and ivermectin (Closamectin Pour On) has been registered for use in cattle only since 2011. This study evaluated the efficacy of closantel against F. hepatica in naturally infected beef cattle using both coproantigen and faecal egg count reduction tests. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and coproantigen ELISA examinations were conducted in February 2014 in three beef cattle herds (A, B, C) in south-western Sweden. On each farm, 10 F. hepatica coproantigen-positive and F. hepatica egg-positive animals were allocated after 12-16 weeks of housing into groups and treated topically with a minimum of 20 mg closantel per kg body weight. Faecal samples were collected from selected animals on 0, 7 and 21 day post-treatment (PT). Based on FEC, closantel efficacy 21 days PT was 72% (95% CI: 65-77%) and 97% (95% CI: 95-98%) on farms A and B, respectively. No FEC reduction at all was observed on farm C. In total, 4, 1 and 6 animals remained coproantigen-positive at 21 days PT on farms A, B and C, respectively. Closantel treatment failure was confirmed on two of the farms. As the animals were housed 12-16 weeks before treatment and thereafter during the entire study, failure due to the presence of juvenile flukes was excluded. Although the cause of closantel failure currently remains unclear, development of resistance or/and absorption failure of topical administration should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of closantel treatment failure against F. hepatica in cattle.

  5. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  6. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  7. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  8. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  9. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  10. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...

  11. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, T R; Yasui, T

    2014-02-01

    Trace minerals have critical roles in the key interrelated systems of immune function, oxidative metabolism, and energy metabolism in ruminants. To date, the primary trace elements of interest in diets for dairy cattle have included Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se although data also support potentially important roles of Cr, Co, and Fe in diets. Trace minerals such as Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se are essential with classically defined roles as components of key antioxidant enzymes and proteins. Available evidence indicates that these trace minerals can modulate aspects of oxidative metabolism and immune function in dairy cattle, particularly during the transition period and early lactation. Chromium has been shown to influence both immune function and energy metabolism of cattle; dairy cows fed Cr during the transition period and early lactation have evidence of improved immune function, increased milk production, and decreased cytological endometritis. Factors that complicate trace mineral nutrition at the farm level include the existence of a large number of antagonisms affecting bioavailability of individual trace minerals and uncertainty in terms of requirements under all physiological and management conditions; therefore, determining the optimum level and source of trace minerals under each specific situation continues to be a challenge. Typical factorial approaches to determine requirements for dairy cattle do not account for nuances in biological function observed with supplementation with various forms and amounts of trace minerals. Trace mineral nutrition modulates production, health, and reproduction in cattle although both formal meta-analysis and informal survey of the literature reveal substantial heterogeneity of response in these outcome variables. The industry has largely moved away from oxide-based programs toward sulfate-based programs; however, some evidence favors shifting supplementation strategies further toward more bioavailable forms of inorganic and organic trace

  12. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN USAHA SAPI POTONG (STUDI KASUS CV MITRA TANI FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shally Alpriany Aisyah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study were to 1 analyze the internal and external environmental conditions of CV Mitra Tani Farm, 2 identify and define strategies that affect the cattle breeding business development at CV Mitra Tani Farm, and 3 set the strategic priorities in the development of cattle breeding business in CV Mitra Tani Farm. Analysis strategies model (David, 2009 used were the analysis of the internal and external environment, strategy formulation and strategic priorities. At the stage of strategy formulation, SWOT 4 Quadrants were used. The results showed that the difference between the weighted scores of opportunities and threats as well as strengths and weaknesses is located in first quadrant of the SWOT 4 quadrant matrix. The first quadrant (growth quadrant has eight strategies, but only three can be applied appropriately. The results of the value of interest using quantitative strategic planning matrix strategy used is the market expansion strategy, then the strategy of product development, and concentric diversification strategy. Therefore, in carrying out market expansion strategy, CV Mitra Tani Farm needs to do breakthrough campaign. In product development strategy, preferably CV Mitra Tani Farm makes processed beef products which are unique and still rare in the market today.Keywords: strategy, business beef cattle, CV Mitra Tani Farm, SWOT 4K, QSPMABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini yaitu 1 menganalisis kondisi lingkungan internal dan eksternal CV Mitra Tani Farm, 2 mengidentifikasi dan menetapkan strategi yang memengaruhi dalam pengembangan bisnis sapi potong di CV Mitra Tani Farm, dan 3 menetapkan prioritas strategi dalam pengembangan usaha peternakan sapi potong di CV Mitra Tani Farm. Model analisis strategi (David, 2009 yang digunakan yaitu analisis lingkungan internal dan eksternal, perumusan strategi dan prioritas strategi. Pada tahap perumusan strategi digunakan SWOT 4 Kuadran. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selisih

  13. Reduced efficacy of commercial acaricides against populations of resistant cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus from two municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two distant Antioquian cattle farms where systemic and topical acaricides had previously failed to control infestations by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were studied. An initial in vivo study was conducted using single subcutaneous injections with a long-acting formulation of ivermectin (630 µ...

  14. Farmer’s views and values to focus on cattle conservation policies: the case of eight European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Martin-Collado, D.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Soini, K.; Diaz, C.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify elements useful in designing policies and programmes for conservation of farm animal genetic resources, taking as case study a group of European local cattle breeds. We first investigated the implications of differences among countries in the policies and programmes to be dev

  15. Advising Beef-Cattle Farmers: Problem-Finding Rather than Problem-Solving. Characterization of Advice Practices in Creuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Marie-Angelina; Ingrand, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    French farms have to adapt quickly in an economic and social context that is in profound change. For this, advice procedures must themselves be reconsidered. The aim of this work was to characterize the advice practices in beef-cattle systems in Creuse and define farmers' and advisers' requirements according to future methods of providing advice.…

  16. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  17. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  18. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  19. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  20. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  1. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  2. Assessment of the impact of the 2003 and 2006 heat waves on cattle mortality in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Morignat

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: While several studies have highlighted and quantified human mortality during the major heat waves that struck Western Europe in 2003 and 2006, the impact on farm animals has been overlooked. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of these two events on cattle mortality in France, one of the most severely impacted countries. METHODS: Poisson regressions were used to model the national baseline for cattle mortality between 2004 and 2005 and predict the weekly number of expected deaths in 2003 and 2006 for the whole cattle population and by subpopulation based on age and type of production. Observed and estimated values were compared to identify and quantify excess mortality. The same approach was used at a departmental scale (a French department being an administrative and territorial division to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the mortality pattern. RESULTS: Overall, the models estimated relative excess mortality of 24% [95% confidence interval: 22-25%] for the two-week heat wave of 2003, and 12% [11-14%] for the three-week heat wave of 2006. In 2003, most cattle subpopulations were impacted during the heat wave and some in the following weeks too. In 2006, cattle subpopulations were impacted for a limited time only, with no excess mortality at the beginning or after the heat wave. No marked differences in cattle mortality were found among the different subpopulations by age and type of production. The implications of these results for risk prevention are discussed.

  3. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  4. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  5. DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age, and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

  6. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  7. [Urinary electrolyte excretion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Iordanova, P; Penkova, S

    1991-01-01

    In 33 patients with autosomal dominant renal polycystosis the urine excretion of the electrolytes sodium and potassium was examined and analyzed in relation to the renal function and the arterial pressure. The clearances, the urine ratio and the excreted fractions of both electrolytes were calculated. It was established that by normal renal function and without arterial hypertension there were no significant differences in the parameters studied between the patients and the healthy controls. In the patients with arterial hypertension and preserved renal function the sodium clearance and urine excretion were lower, but the differences with the normotensive patients were not statistically significant. In the patients with chronic renal failure (when diuretic was applied) higher mean values of the excreted fractions of sodium and potassium were established. The results support the thesis that hypertension in renal polycystosis is of volumetric character.

  8. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  9. Farming techniques for seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castaños, M.; Buendia, R.

    1998-01-01

    Details are given of farming methods developed by the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department for 3 different seaweeds: 1) Bottom line culture method for Kappaphycus; 2) Pond culture of Gracilaria; and, 3) Gracilariopsis bailinae, the new seaweed on the block.

  10. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  11. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  12. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  13. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera...... and operating expenditures, which, along with the energy produced, determine the cost of energy. A better system-level understanding of wind farms is hence of critical importance to the wind-energy industry....

  14. Does Land Tenure Security Promote Manure Use by Farm Households in Vietnam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Thanh Nguyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Facing widespread poverty and land degradation, Vietnam started a land reform in 1993 as part of its renovation policy package known as “Doi Moi”. This paper examines the impacts of improved land tenure security, via this land reform, on manure use by farm households. As manure potentially improves soil fertility by adding organic matter and nutrients to the soil surface, it might contribute to improving soil productive capacity and reversing land degradation. Random effect regression models are applied to a panel dataset of 133 farm households in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam collected in 1993, 1998, and 2006. The results confirm that land tenure security has positive effects on manure use, but the levels of influence differ depending on whether the land has been privatized or whether the land title has already been issued. In addition, manure use is also influenced by the number of cattle and pigs, the education level and ethnicity of household heads, farm land size and non-farm income. The findings suggest that speeding up land privatization and titling, encouraging cattle and pig rearing, and improving education would promote manure use in farm production. However, careful interpretation of our research findings is required as land privatization, together with economic growth and population pressure, might lead to overuse of farm inputs.

  15. Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just as it is ......The technology behind constructing wind farms offshore began to develop in 1991 when the Vindeby wind farm was installed off the Danish coast (11 Bonus 450 kW turbines). Resource assessment, grid connection, and wind farm operation are significant challenges for offshore wind power just...... as it is for the more traditional onshore wind power, which has been under development since the 1970s. However, offshore projects face extra technical challenges some of which requires in-depth scientific investigations. This article deals with some of the most outstanding challenges concerning the turbine structure......: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...

  16. Staphylococci in cattle and buffaloes with mastitis in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashker, Maged; Gwida, Mayada; Tomaso, Herbert; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; El-Gohary, Fatma; Hotzel, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the first detailed insight into the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in one modern dairy farm (Gamasa) and several household cows and buffaloes in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. Eight hundred seventy-two quarter milk samples of 218 dairy cattle and buffaloes with clinical and subclinical mastitis were investigated. Bacteria were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and staphylococci were further characterized by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and microarray analysis. Staphylococcus aureus was present in 5.6% of all collected samples, whereas methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) represented 24.5% of all identified S. aureus (12/49). Six clonal complexes (CC) of S. aureus were detected. Staphylococcus aureus CC398 (ST291/813)-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus) was identified frequently in the Gamasa farm in addition to a few CC5-MRSA-V isolates. However, a small number of different isolates of S. aureus were found in household cattle and buffaloes harboring different CC. The presence of these genotypes of S. aureus in milk might indicate a public health hazard, because all of these CC have previously been isolated from human patients. Thus, a recommendation was given to the owner of the dairy farm to review the hygiene regimen on the farm. In perspective, further investigation regarding S. aureus screening of all lactating cows and personnel on the farm is warranted.

  17. Production and environmental impact of dairy cattle production in Denmark 1900–2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Aaes, Ole; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2015-01-01

    a local-based production, (B) 1950 – representing a period with emerging mechanization and introduction of new technologies and a more global market, (C) 1980 – representing a period with heavy use of external resources like fertilizer and feed protein and (D) 2010 – today with focus on balancing......Cattle production during the last century has changed dramatically in Western Europe, including Denmark, with a steady increase in production per animal and in herd and farm size. The effect of these changes on total production, herd efficiency, surplus of nitrogen (N) at herd and farm level...

  18. Tuberculosis in cattle: the results of the four-area project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin John M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The four-area project was undertaken to further assess the impact of badger removal on the control of tuberculosis in cattle herds in Ireland. It was conducted between 1997 and 2002 in matched removal and reference areas in four counties, namely Cork, Donegal, Kilkenny and Monaghan, representing a wide range of Irish farming environments. In the removal areas, a proactive programme of badger removal was conducted, on two or three occasions each year, whereas in the reference areas, badger removal was entirely reactive following severe outbreaks of tuberculosis amongst cattle. A detailed statistical analysis of this study has already been presented by Griffin et al. 13; this paper presents further, mainly descriptive, findings from the study. In total, 2,360 badgers were captured in the removal areas of which 450 (19.5% were considered positive for tuberculosis and 258 badgers were captured in the reference areas, with 57 (26.1% positive for tuberculosis. The annual incidence of confirmed herd restrictions was lower in the removal area compared to the reference area in every year of the study period in each of the four counties. These empirical findings were consistent with the hazard ratios found by Griffin et al. 13. Further, the effect of proactive badger removal on cattle tuberculosis in the four-area project and in the earlier east-Offaly project, as measured using the number of reactors per 1,000 cattle tested, were very similar, providing compelling evidence of the role of badgers in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Irish cattle herds. The validity of the four-area project was discussed in detail. Efforts to minimise badger-to-cattle transmission in Ireland must be undertaken in association with the current comprehensive control programme, which has effectively minimised opportunities for cattle-to-cattle transmission.

  19. [First cases of besnoitiosis in cattle in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, M; Braun, U; Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B; Hilbe, M; Basso, W

    2012-11-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis has been diagnosed in neighboring countries but not in Switzerland so far. This disease occurs endemically in France and focal outbreaks have been reported in Germany and Italy. To determine if Besnoitia besnoiti is introduced into Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a systematic serological survey was performed. A total of 412 breeding cattle (from 114 farms) imported from France into Switzerland between 2005 and 2011, were serologically examined for antibodies against B. besnoiti using a commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK© Besnoitia Ab 2.0, Prionics AG, Zurich, Switzerland). Sixty-four (15.5 %) animals reacted positive in ELISA. The serologic diagnosis was confirmed by an indirect immunfluorescence test (IFAT) and a Western blot (WB) in only 2 Limousin cows imported from France on a farm in Eastern Switzerland. Subsequently, this whole herd (n = 16) was examined clinically and serologically and 2 additional Limousin cows imported from Germany also reacted positive in the three serological tests. One of these cows presented B. besnoiti tissue cysts in the scleral conjunctiva and typical skin lesions in the head region. The infection was further confirmed cytologically, histopathologically and by PCR. It can be concluded that the parasite is most likely being introduced into Switzerland through the import of infected animals.

  20. The Relationship among Total Dissolved Solid in Water and Blood Macro Mineral Concentrations and Health Status of Dairy Cattle in Qom Area

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Dairy farms in some arid areas around the world have to use drinking water that contained elevated total dissolved solids (TDS); however, very limited data is available concerning water TDS effects on health status and blood mineral levels of cattle. The aim of this study was to compare 3 dairy cattle groups in several dairy farms with different drinking water TDS: High (HTDS; >4000 ppm), Medium (MTDS; 1500-3000 ppm), and Low (LTDS; ≈ 490 ppm). Metabolic disorders record and some management i...

  1. Cattle Management for Dairying in Scandinavia's Earliest Neolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt J Gron

    Full Text Available New evidence for cattle husbandry practices during the earliest period of the southern Scandinavian Neolithic indicates multiple birth seasons and dairying from its start. Sequential sampling of tooth enamel carbonate carbon and oxygen isotope ratio analyses and strontium isotopic provenancing indicate more than one season of birth in locally reared cattle at the earliest Neolithic Funnel Beaker (EN I TRB, 3950-3500 cal. B.C. site of Almhov in Scania, Sweden. The main purpose for which cattle are manipulated to give birth in more than one season is to prolong lactation for the production of milk and dairy-based products. As this is a difficult, intensive, and time-consuming strategy, these data demonstrate complex farming practices by early Neolithic farmers. This result offers strong support for immigration-based explanations of agricultural origins in southern Scandinavia on the grounds that such a specialised skill set cannot represent the piecemeal incorporation of agricultural techniques into an existing hunter-gatherer-fisher economy.

  2. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  3. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Slurry Pits below Pig and Cattle Confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Olsen, Anna Bang; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-01-01

    and cattle slurry differed significantly at 0.030 and 0.011 kg CH4 kg-1 VS (volatile solids). Current estimates of CH4 emissions from pig and cattle manure management correspond to 0.032 and 0.015 kg CH4 kg-1, respectively, indicating that slurry pits under animal confinements are a significant source......Quantifying in-house emissions of methane (CH4) from liquid manure (slurry) is difficult due to high background emissions from enteric processes, yet of great importance for correct estimation of CH4 emissions from manure management and effects of treatment Technologies such as anaerobic digestion....... In this study CH4 production rates were determined in 20 pig slurry and 11 cattle slurry samples collected beneath slatted floors on six representative farms; rates were determined within 24 h at temperatures close to the temperature in slurry pits at the time of collection. Methane production rates in pig...

  4. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  5. Prevalence of leptospira species among farmed and domestic animals in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burriel, A R; Dalley, C; Woodward, M J

    2003-08-02

    A total of 1527 serum samples from pigs, goats, sheep, cattle and dogs in Greece were examined by the microscopic agglutination test and 11-8 per cent of them had antibodies against one or more Leptospira serovars at titres of 1/100 or more. The predominant serovar affecting farm animal species was Bratislava, and Copenhageni was common among dogs and the second most important serovar when all animals were considered together. Another prevalent serovar was Australis, but antibodies to Pomona were detected only in goats and cattle.

  6. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  7. Nitrogen balance in a goat farm producing milk in the county of Barva, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify the use of N in a goat milk producer farm located in the province of Heredia. Data such as feed purchases, milk sales, pur¬chase and removal of animals was compiled and analyzed between January and December 2012. In order to evaluate the use of N, three indicators that allowed analyzing farm efficiency were used. Total number of animals was 102. Annual milk production was 22.417,5 kg. The farm imported 729,8 kg of nitrogen, of which 71% came from feed and only 29% from fertilizers. Farm exported 113,3 kg of nitrogen, of which 85,3% was exported as milk and only 14,7% as animals. The farm imported 38,7 g of N per kg of milk produced. In general, N balance was positive for all farms, indicating that more N entered the farm that came out in the form of product, showing that up to 84,5% of all imported N remained in the farms. Our results suggests that strategies to reduce N excretion should be developed, including improvements in the diet, since the largest N input is through imported feed.

  8. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program.

  9. Implementing biosecurity measures on dairy farms in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R G; Sayers, G P; Mee, J F; Good, M; Bermingham, M L; Grant, J; Dillon, P G

    2013-08-01

    Dairy farms in Ireland are expanding in preparation for a new era of unrestricted milk production with the elimination of the European Union (EU) production quotas in 2015. Countries experiencing a changing agricultural demographic, including farm expansion, can benefit from documenting the implementation of on-farm biosecurity. The objectives of this study were to document and describe influences on biosecurity practices and related opinions on dairy farms. A representative response rate of 64% was achieved to a nationwide telesurvey of farmers. A 20% discrepancy was found between self-declared and truly 'closed' herds indicating a lack of understanding of the closed herd concept. Although >72% of farmers surveyed considered biosecurity to be important, 53% stated that a lack of information might prevent them from improving their biosecurity. Logistic regression highlighted regional, age, and farm-size related differences in biosecurity practices and opinions towards its implementation. Farmers in the most dairy cattle dense region were three times more likely to quarantine purchased stock than were their equivalents in regions where dairy production was less intense (P=0.012). Younger farmers in general were over twice as likely as middle-aged farmers to implement biosecurity guidelines (P=0.026). The owners of large enterprises were almost five times more likely to join a voluntary animal health scheme (P=0.003), and were over three times more likely to pay a premium price for health accredited animals (P=0.02) than were those farming small holdings. The baseline data recorded in this survey will form the basis for more detailed sociological and demographic research which will facilitate the targeting of future training of the farming community in biosecurity.

  10. Schmallenberg Virus in Belgium: Estimation of Impact in Cattle and Sheep Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskin, A; Méroc, E; Behaeghel, I; Riocreux, F; Couche, M; Van Loo, H; Bertels, G; Delooz, L; Quinet, C; Dispas, M; Van der Stede, Y

    2017-02-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged during summer 2011. SBV induced an unspecific syndrome in cattle and congenital signs (abortions, stillbirths and malformations) in domestic ruminants. To study the impact of SBV in Belgium, a phone survey was conducted upon September 2012. Hereto two groups of cattle farmers (A and B) and two groups of sheep farmers (C and D) were randomly selected. Farms from groups A (n = 53) and C (n = 42) received SBV-positive result at RT-PCR in the Belgian National Reference Laboratory (NRL). Farms from groups B (n = 29) and D (n = 44) never sent suspected samples to NRL for SBV analysis but were however presumed seropositive for SBV after the survey. Questionnaires related to reproduction parameters and clinical signs observed in newborn and adult animals were designed and addressed to farmers. As calculated on a basis of farmers' observations, 4% of calves in group A and 0.5% in group B were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. The impact as observed by sheep farmers was substantially higher with 19% of lambs in group C and 11% in group D that were reported aborted, stillborn or deformed due to SBV in 2011-2012. Interestingly, abortions or stillbirths were not clear consequences of SBV outbreak in cattle farms, and the birth of a deformed animal was an essential condition to suspect SBV presence in cattle and sheep farms. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the impact of the SBV epidemic. The results suggest that SBV impacted Belgian herds mostly by the birth of deformed calves, stillborn lambs and deformed lambs. This work also demonstrates that the birth of a deformed calf or lamb was a trigger for the farmer to suspect the presence of SBV and send samples to NRL for further analyses.

  11. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu; Comfort Oluladun Aiki-Raji; Emmanuel Chibuzor Umeh; Samat Odunayo Mustapha; Adebowale Idris Adebiyi

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained w...

  12. Effects of stillbirth and dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Uematsu, Mizuho; Kitahara, Go; Osawa, Takeshi; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stillbirth and dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance in Japanese Black cattle. Data were collected for 34,763 calvings from 13,186 animals on 826 farms. Stillbirth was associated with a decreased first service conception rate compared to cows with a normal calving (44.4 versus 54.0%, respectively, P dystocia (P dystocia had inferior subsequent reproductive performance compared with those with a normal calving.

  13. Organophosphorus and carbamates residues in milk and feedstuff supplied to dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Fagnani; Vanerli Beloti; Ana Paula P. Battaglini; Dunga,Karen da S.; Ronaldo Tamanini

    2011-01-01

    Considering acute and chronic toxicity effects on human and animal health caused by pesticide residues in food, this study aimed to analyze organophosphorate (OP) and carbamate (CB) in feedstuff and water destined for dairy cattle, as well as in the milk produced by these animals, through gas chromatography (GC). In the Agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil, 30 raw milk samples and all components of the animals' diet were collected from several farms. Out of the 30 milk of milk analyzed, six (...

  14. Anthelmintic effects of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) against gastrointestinal nematode parasites in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Desrues, Olivier;

    2016-01-01

    received 10 000 Ostertagia ostertagi and 66 000 Cooperia oncophora third-stage larvae (L3) [day (D) 0 post-infection (p.i.)]. In Exp. 2, calves were assigned to pure chicory (CHI2; n=10) or ryegrass/clover (CTL2; n = 10) pastures. After 7 days, animals received 20 000 O. ostertagi L3/calf (D0 p......% (P feed for cattle and further studies should investigate its on-farm use....

  15. First report of closantel treatment failure against Fasciola hepatica in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Novobilský

    2015-12-01

    Closantel treatment failure was confirmed on two of the farms. As the animals were housed 12–16 weeks before treatment and thereafter during the entire study, failure due to the presence of juvenile flukes was excluded. Although the cause of closantel failure currently remains unclear, development of resistance or/and absorption failure of topical administration should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of closantel treatment failure against F. hepatica in cattle.

  16. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

  17. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  18. Genetic characterisation of Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz e Silva, Flávio Medeiros; Lopes, Raimundo Souza; Araújo, João Pessoa

    2012-02-01

    The intestinal protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859) Kofoid & Christiansen, 1915 [syn. Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia] has emerged as a widespread enteric pathogen in humans and domestic animals. In recent years, G. duodenalis has been found in cattle worldwide and longitudinal studies have reported cumulative prevalence of 100% in some herds. In the present study, we determined the prevalence and genetic characterisation of G. duodenalis in 200 dairy cattle from 10 dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. All faecal specimens were screened for the presence of G. duodenalis using microscopy examination, enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). DNA was extracted from faecal samples and G. duodenalis were identified by amplification of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU-rDNA) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or sequencing analysis. Giardia was identified in eight farm locations (80% prevalence). Overall, 15/200 (7.5%) animals were positive for infection, only one of which was a cow. Giardia duodenalis genotype E was present in 14 of the animals tested. Zoonotic genotype AI was present in one positive sample. Genotype E and genotype A represented 93% and 7% of G. duodenalis infections, respectively. This study demonstrates that G. duodenalis infection was prevalent in dairy calves in São Paulo state and that the non-zoonotic genotype E predominates in cattle in this region. Nevertheless, calves naturally infected in Brazil can shed Giardia cysts that can potentially infect humans, and thus, they may represent a public health risk.

  19. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Advances and prospects for management of TB transmission between badgers and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gavin J; Carter, Stephen P; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is the most serious endemic disease facing the livestock industry in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), where its management has been confounded by the presence of persistent infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Field evidence suggests that the social structure of badger populations can have an important influence on disease dynamics, and on the outcome of management interventions. Recent, large-scale badger culling experiments in the UK and RoI had complex epidemiological outcomes. In the UK, proactive culling led to reduced bTB incidence in cattle herds inside culled areas, but a temporary increase in adjacent areas. Reactive culling in response to herd breakdowns was associated with an increase in the incidence of bTB in cattle. In contrast, badger culling in RoI was reported to have only beneficial effects on bTB incidence in cattle. The reasons for these differences are not clear. The complexity of the evidence base for culling is highlighted by the different management approaches currently being adopted by the different authorities of the UK and RoI. It is generally accepted that a holistic approach to bTB management, which targets both cattle and wildlife, is necessary. Consequently recent research activities have also focussed on cattle and badger vaccines, and biosecurity on farms. This paper describes recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of bTB in badgers and the consequences of culling, and current research to develop approaches for the vaccination of badgers, and methods of managing the risks of contact between badgers and cattle in farm buildings.

  1. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (Peconomic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (Peconomic gains from a rabies intervention in the dog population, of which the benefits can be shared by the public health sector.

  2. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection ofCryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylvia Maharani Ananta; Suharno; Adi Hidayat; Makoto Matsubayashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle inIndonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations inIndonesia have never been performed.Methods:Fecal samples from cattle at35 farms in7 districts inWestJava,Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice forCryptosporidium or Giardia spp.Results:153 of394 examined cattle(38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites.The prevalence ofEimeria spp.,Nematoda spp. (includingOesophagustomum andBunostomum-like),Fasciola gigantica andParamphistomum spp. was22.4%,11.2%,12.5% and3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni(C. andersoni) was also found in two samples.One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries.Conclusions:although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites inIndonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production.

  3. Serological detection and epidemiology of Neospora caninum and Cryptosporidium parvum antibodies in cattle in southern Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereig, Ragab M; AbouLaila, Mahmoud Rezk; Mohamed, Samy G A; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Ali, Alsagher O; Ali, Asmaa F; Hilali, Mosaad; Zaid, Anis; Mohamed, Adel Elsayed Ahmed; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Neospora caninum and Cryptosporidium parvum are intracellular protozoan parasites that are distributed worldwide and of major economical concern in cattle industry. N. caninum can cause abortion storms and high culling rates, whereas C. parvum has zoonotic implications and can cause diarrhea in calves. There are currently no data on the prevalence of neosporosis and cryptosporidiosis in humans or animals in southern Egypt. Prevalence of these two infections was determined in a sample of cattle from two different areas in southern Egypt, Sohag and Qena, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total 301 cattle were sampled, of which 18.9% were positive for N. caninum, 35.9% were positive for C. parvum and 10.0% were positive for both. Geographical location and breeding system were considered as potential risk factors for C. parvum infection. A higher prevalence of infection was identified on small scale farms, compared with larger, intensive systems, with a prevalence of 50.2% compared with 37.8%, respectively. Animals in Sohag had a significantly higher prevalence compared with Qena, with a seroprevalence of 46.1% compared with 31.6%, respectively. In brief, marked seroprevalence recorded in this study indicates a high incidence of N. caninum and C. parvum infections in cattle, and this necessitates the application of more effective strategies for combating these types of infections on farms in Egypt.

  4. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cattle, state of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Albuquerque

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses throughout the world. Infection in man and animals varies in different geographical areas influenced by many environmental conditions. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cattle in Brazil ranges from 1.03 to 71%. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 58 out of 453 farms in the South Fluminense Paraiba Valley, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Over 3-year-old cattle (n=589 from dairy herds were selected for blood collection and detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IFA with initial titration of 1:16; titers > 64 were considered positive. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that cats in contact with cattle, cats in contact with drinking water, and number of cats were associated with T. gondii seroprevalence. Logistic regression revealed a two-fold increased risk for infection of cattle (p=0.0138 through larger number of cats (>3 compared with low numbers of cats (1-2 on the farm. In contrast, the presence of chickens was considered a protective factor (p=0.025.

  5. Analysis of tissue residues and comparative metabolism of virginiamycin in rats, turkeys, and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschall, D.W.; Gombatz, C.; Wang, R.

    Liver tissue samples from turkeys, cattle, and rats given (/sup 14/C)virginiamycin were examined for the presence of metabolites. Extraction of the liver was performed sequentially with methanol and pH 7.4 phosphate buffer. The methanol fraction was further partitioned into chloroform-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The majority of the total liver residue (56-73%) remained intractable following these treatments. The three extracts were fractionated by normal- or reversed-phase HPLC. The results indicated that virginiamycin was metabolized to a large number of fragments and that no single metabolite represented greater than 3.5% of the total liver residue. Due to sample limitations no metabolite identification was possible at this time. Fortification experiments indicated that little, if any, parent virginiamycin was present in the tissue. Additional balance-excretion studies conducted in cattle and rats demonstrated that the majority of the dose (83-94%) was eliminated in the feces.

  6. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Soo eKim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis, the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%. Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in eleven genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for

  7. Investigations on prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC among dairy farms in the north part of the Republic of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Urumova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a 2-year period, from January 2011 to May 2013, a total of 1094 faecal swab samples were collected from cattle at different age at 4 farms in North Bulgaria: Okorsh, Slavyanovo (Popovo municipality, Dobri dol and Trem. Out of them, 36 coli strains (3.3% positive in the E. coli O:157 antiserum agglutination test and identified by the BBL CRYSTAL identification system as belonging to the E. coli O:157 serotype were isolated. The distribution of isolates was as followed: 5 (0.5% E. coli O:157 strains at the Okorsh dairy cattle farm, 7 (0.6% E. coli isolates at the Slavyanovo dairy farm, 16 (1.5% isolates at the Dobri dol farm and 8 (0.7% isolates at the Trem farm. Colibacteria exhibited 100% sensitivity to oxyimino-cephalosporins, gentamicin and enrofloxacin, and were resistant to ampicillin (19.4% and tetracycline (41.6%. From the 15 strains resistant to tetracycline, 11 were isolated from the cows at Dobri dol, while the other 4 originated from the other three farms. The 7 ampicillin-resistant E. coli isolates were detected only at the Dobri dol cattle farm.

  8. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  9. Carnitine ester excretion in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D; Bieber, L L; Kerner, J; Rossi, T M; Lebenthal, E

    1990-08-01

    Carnitine plasma concentrations and the excretion of carnitine and individual carnitine esters were determined in 25 children and adolescents with gastrointestinal diseases receiving carnitine-free parenteral nutrition for at least 1 mo using radiochemical and radioisotopic exchange HPLC methods. Children less than 12-y-old usually had carnitine plasma concentrations less than -2 SD from the normal mean for age, whereas patients greater than 12-y-old had carnitine plasma concentrations within the normal range. Age was the only variable to correlate significantly with plasma carnitine concentrations during parenteral nutrition. Free carnitine (FC) excretion was closely correlated with plasma FC concentrations and minimal at values less than 25 mumols/L. The excretion of FC and short-chain acylcarnitines was reduced by an order of magnitude in younger compared with older patients and controls, but the excretion of "other" acylcarnitines was less affected. Some of the latter were tentatively identified using gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectroscopic techniques as unsaturated and/or branched medium-chain carnitine esters with a carbon chain of C8-C10. The results suggest that FC and short-chain acylcarnitine are conserved by the kidney in nutritional carnitine deficiency but that there may be an obligatory renal excretion of other carnitine esters that contributes to the development of hypocarnitinemia in the younger age group.

  10. Urinary carnitine excretion in surgical patients on total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanphaichitr, V; Lerdvuthisopon, N

    1981-01-01

    Urinary free and total carnitine excretions were measured in 41 normal adults and seven surgical patients on fat-free total parenteral nutrition for 8 to 45 days. The means (+/-SEM) of urinary free and total carnitine excretion in normal adults were 162 +/- 19 and 328 +/- 28 micrometers/days, respectively. All of the patients exhibited protein-calorie malnutrition with a mean carnitine intake of 11.6 +/- 1.5 micrometers/day. Under this stringent carnitine economy with the adequate supply of lysine and methionine, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly reduced to 127 to 162 micrometers/day. This probably reflects the carnitine biosynthetic rate. However, during the periods of operation and/or infection, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly increased 2- to 7-fold that of normal levels. Significant positive correlation was found between the two forms of urinary carnitine and total nitrogen excretions. Serum free and total carnitine levels in patients were significantly higher than normal adults. Such findings can be explained by the endocrine responses to the stress phenomenon and indicate a catabolic response of skeletal muscle in which most of the body carnitine resides. This can impair their carnitine status.

  11. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  12. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) are synthesized in the kidneys by the distal tubular cells and excreted into urine. The urinary excretion of these peptides has been suggested as a potential index for distal tubular function. The urinary excretion rates of EGF and THP...

  13. Organic food and farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kledal, Paul Rye

    is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded......The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...

  14. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  15. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  16. Drew Goodman, Earthbound Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Drew Goodman is CEO and co-founder, with his wife, Myra, of Earthbound Farm, based in San Juan Bautista, California. Two years after its 1984 inception on 2.5 Carmel Valley acres, Earthbound became the first successful purveyor of pre-washed salads bagged for retail sale. The company now produces more than 100 varieties of certified organic salads, fruits, and vegetables on a total of about 33,000 acres, with individual farms ranging from five to 680 acres in California, Arizona, Washington, ...

  17. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  18. Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassel CP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.

  20. Application of routines that contribute to on-farm biosecurity as reported by Swedish livestock farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöremark, M; Frössling, J; Lewerin, S S

    2010-08-01

    On-farm biosecurity is important for preventing the spread of several contagious animal diseases. In this study, biosecurity routines among Swedish farmers with livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep or goats) were examined through questionnaires posted by mail. Moreover, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms, such as animal transporters and veterinarians, were investigated through assessments made by the farmers. Questionnaires were completed, partly or fully, by 518 farmers (overall response rate 34%). Possible associations between biosecurity routines and livestock species, geographic location and herd size were analysed. Large variations in biosecurity routines were found, both within and between groups, and some farms appeared to have a relatively high level of biosecurity. However, biosecurity was reported by farmers with herds with only pigs, when compared to farmers with cattle, sheep/goats or mixed species. A higher level of biosecurity was also reported by larger farms compared to hobby farms. Inconsistent biosecurity routines were reported, which was interpreted as a lack of knowledge of how different infections can spread and how this can be prevented. Furthermore, some replies indicated that the farmers perceived the risk of introduction of disease as low. According to the farmers' assessments, the use of protective clothing among professionals visiting farms varied considerably, both among different professions and within the same profession. On average, veterinarians and artificial insemination (AI) technicians got high scores in this assessment, while salesmen, repairmen and animal transporters were reported to seldom use protective clothing. Based on the findings, there is room for improvement of on-farm biosecurity. There is also a need to further investigate the motivators and constraints for altered routines among both Swedish livestock farmers and professionals visiting farms.

  1. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  2. The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Acevedo Vélez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that it is possible for U.S. cattle feeders to obtain additional profits if a consistent technical strategy for trading is applied to the cattle crush spread. However, when trading costs are introduced, the likelihood of obtaining profit from trading the crush reduces considerably. It also shows that the level of gains from the cattle crush is related to the month the cattle are marketed. When the crush is used as a hedging strategy it decreases the profit from the feeding operation and reduces the volatility of those returns, helping producers to transfer part of the price risk associated with their production. To provide evidence of these findings, this study utilizes daily prices for 1995 to 2006 of the futures contracts of corn, feeder and live cattle to construct the daily cattle crush spread for two different combinations of futures contracts traded in the Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange. These contract combinations suppose that cattle are fed in feedlots for 170 days before being marketed in April and in October. Two different scenarios are also evaluated using the cattle crush spread: one in which the crush is employed as a pre-placement hedging tool and another in which the crush is used as a post-placement hedging method.En este estudio se muestra que es posible para un productor de ganado de carne en EE.UU obtener utilidades adicionales cuando estrategias de operación en el mercado financiero de futuros de Chicago son utilizadas (i.e. la estrategia “cattle crush”. No obstante, los costos de transacción presentes reduce la probabilidad de obtener utilidades mediante la estrategia de análisis técnico. También se muestra que el nivel de ganancia derivado del uso del “cattle crush” está relacionado con el ciclo ganadero en el cual se realice la operación. Cuando el “cattle crush” se utiliza como alternativa para cubrir riesgo, se reduce considerablemente la volatilidad de los

  3. Detection of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in Iranian native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexan parasite which may cause abortion in cattle. This study investigated occurrences of antibodies against N. caninum in Iranian native cattle. From September 2010 to September 2011, blood samples (n=768 of native cows were collected randomly from different rural regions of Hamedan (n=400 and Kurdistan provinces (n=368 located to the western part of Iran. All the samples were evaluated for IgG antibodies against N. caninum using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The IgG antibodies to N. caninum were found in 14.2% (n=109/768 of serum samples (95% CI: 11.74 - 16.66. There was a significant difference between seropositivity and abortion history (p<0.0001, OR=2.9, unlike to age groups (p=0.105. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in Iranian native cattle. In conclusion, N. caninum is an important factor in abortion in Iranian native cattle. Further comprehensive studies and designing control strategies for improving management in cattle farms are highly recommended.

  4. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  5. Prevalence and Sequence-Based Identity of Rumen Fluke in Cattle and Deer in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquil, Laura; Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Mitchell, Gillian; Searle, Kate; Skuce, Philip; Zadoks, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    An abattoir survey was performed in the French Melanesian archipelago of New Caledonia to determine the prevalence of paramphistomes in cattle and deer and to generate material for molecular typing at species and subspecies level. Prevalence in adult cattle was high at animal level (70% of 387 adult cattle) and batch level (81%). Prevalence was lower in calves at both levels (33% of 484 calves, 51% at batch level). Animals from 2 of 7 deer farms were positive for rumen fluke, with animal-level prevalence of 41.4% (29/70) and 47.1% (33/70), respectively. Using ITS-2 sequencing, 3 species of paramphistomes were identified, i.e. Calicophoron calicophorum, Fischoederius elongatus and Orthocoelium streptocoelium. All three species were detected in cattle as well as deer, suggesting the possibility of rumen fluke transmission between the two host species. Based on heterogeneity in ITS-2 sequences, the C. calicophorum population comprises two clades, both of which occur in cattle as well as deer. The results suggest two distinct routes of rumen fluke introduction into this area. This approach has wider applicability for investigations of the origin of rumen fluke infections and for the possibility of parasite transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.

  6. BSE, feed and cattle in Switzerland: is there a spatial relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Forster, Katharina; Brülisauer, Franz; Chaubert, Claude; Heim, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Cross-contamination of cattle feed with meat and bone meal (MBM) allowed in feed for other species is regarded as the current hypothesis for the infection pathway of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) cases occurring after the implementation of a ban on feeding MBM to cattle. This study was aimed at establishing a spatial relation between BSE cases in Switzerland and the findings of MBM in cattle feed. A cluster analysis and a cohort study were performed. Two hundred sixteen BSE cases born after December 1990 and detected until August 1st 2005, screening data of 504 feed producers between 1996 and 2001 and population data from the Swiss 2001 cattle census were included. The cluster analysis showed feed producer, positive for MBM contaminations in cattle feed, as possible cluster centres for BSE cases. In the cohort study, farms within a radius of 2 and 10 km around positive feed producers showed significantly higher odds to have a BSE case than the control group. The odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval were 2.23 (1.26-3.93) for the 2 km radius and 1.38 (1-1.9) for the 10 km radius. The results provide evidence for a spatial relation between cross-contamination and BSE occurrence. These findings support the hypothesis of cross-contamination to be an important route for BSE transmission after a feed ban.

  7. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  8. [Effects of fermented cattle dung on the growth and development of Tenebrio molitor larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiang-Wei; Wang, Xia; Guo, Li-Yue; Zhan, Li-Jie; Bo, Wen-Jing; Li, Zhan; Wu, Guang-Lei; Jiang, Gao-Ming

    2012-07-01

    In order to make use of and industrialize the animal dung from large cattle farms, this paper explored the feasibility of using Tenebrio molitor to digest and utilize cattle dung. Cattle dung was mixed with the conventional feed (65% wheat bran, 30% corn flour, and 5% bean pulp) of T. molitor in definite proportions, and fermented with effective microorganisms (EM). The fermented products containing 60% and 80% of cattle dung (FD1 and FD2, respectively) were selected to feed T. molitor larvae, and the effects of the fermented products on the growth curve, death rate, pupation rate, and antioxidant system of the larvae were compared. Compared with CK (conventional deed), the FD1 made the developmental duration of the larvae prolonged by 10 days and the larvae's death rate upraised somewhat, but made the single larva's total food intake, average body mass, crude fat content, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat acids increased by 49%, 28%, 26%, and 32%, respectively (P molitor larvae had weak adaptability to FD2. Our findings suggested that using FD1 to feed the 3rd instar of T. molitor larvae would have good practical prospects in industrializing cattle dung.

  9. Exploring the value of routinely collected herd data for estimating dairy cattle welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2014-02-01

    Routine on-farm assessment of dairy cattle welfare is time consuming and, therefore, expensive. A promising strategy to assess dairy cattle welfare more efficiently is to estimate the level of animal welfare based on herd data available in national databases. Our aim was to explore the value of routine herd data (RHD) for estimating dairy cattle welfare at the herd level. From November 2009 through March 2010, 7 trained observers collected data for 41 welfare indicators in a selected sample of 183 loose-housed and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows) using the Welfare Quality protocol for cattle. For the same herds, RHD relating to identification and registration, management, milk production and composition, and fertility were extracted from several national databases. The RHD were used as potential predictors for each welfare indicator in logistic regression at the herd level. Nineteen welfare indicators were excluded from the predictions, because they showed a prevalence below 5% (15 indicators), or were already listed as RHD (4 indicators). Predictions were less accurate for 7 welfare indicators, moderately accurate for 14 indicators, and highly accurate for 1 indicator. By forcing to detect almost all herds with a welfare problem (sensitivity of at least 97.5%), specificity ranged from 0 to 81%. By forcing almost no herds to be incorrectly classified as having a welfare problem (specificity of at least 97.5%), sensitivity ranged from 0 to 67%. Overall, the best-performing prediction models were those for the indicators access to at least 2 drinkers (resource based), percentage of very lean cows, cows lying outside the supposed lying area, and cows with vulvar discharge (animal based). The most frequently included predictors in final models were percentages of on-farm mortality in different lactation stages. It was concluded that, for most welfare indicators, RHD have value for estimating dairy cattle welfare. The RHD can serve as a

  10. Virulence of Trypanosoma congolense strains isolated from cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhosazana Y. Motloang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax are major species that infect cattle in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa. Of the two genetically distinct types of T. congolense, Savannah and Kilifi sub-groups, isolated from cattle and tsetse flies in KZN, the former is more prevalent and thought to be responsible for African animal trypanosomosis outbreaks in cattle. Furthermore, variation in pathogenicity within the Savannah sub-group is ascribed to strain differences and seems to be related to geographical locations. The objective of the present study was to compare the virulence of T. congolense strains isolated from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer inside Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, and from cattle on farms near wildlife parks (< 5 km, to isolates from cattle kept away (> 10 km from parks. To obtain T. congolense isolates, blood of known parasitologically positive cattle or cattle symptomatically suspect with trypanosomosis, as well as isolates from buffaloes kept inside Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park were passaged in inbred BALB/c mice. A total of 26 T. congolense isolates were obtained: 5 from buffaloes, 13 from cattle kept near parks and 8 from cattle distant from parks. Molecular characterisation revealed 80% and 20% of isolates to belong to T. congolense Savannah and Kilifi, respectively. To compare virulence, each isolate was inoculated into a group of six mice. No statistical differences were observed in the mean pre-patent period, maximum parasitaemia or drop in packed cell volume (PCV. Significant differences were found in days after infection for the drop in PCV, the patent period and the survival time. These differences were used to categorise the isolates as being of high, moderate or low virulence. Based on the virulence, 12 of 26 (46% isolates were classified as highly virulent and 27% each as either of moderate or of low virulence. Whilst 11 of 12 high virulent strains were from buffaloes or cattle near the park, only 1 of 7

  11. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  13. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  14. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  15. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  16. A four year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 in adult cattle in 107 unvaccinated herds in south west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez-Villaescusa Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus type-1 (BHV-1 is an important pathogen of cattle that presents with a variety of clinical signs, including the upper respiratory tract infection infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR. A seroepidemiological study of BHV-1 antibodies was conducted in England from 2002 – 2004: 29,782 blood samples were taken from 15,736 cattle from 114 herds which were visited on up to three occasions. Antibody concentration was measured using a commercial ELISA. Farm management information was collected using an interview questionnaire, and herd size and cattle movements were obtained from the cattle tuberculosis testing database and the British Cattle Movement Service. Hierarchical statistical models were used to investigate associations between cattle and herd variables and the continuous outcome percentage positive (PP values from the ELISA test in unvaccinated herds. Results There were 7 vaccinated herds, all with at least one seropositive bovine. In unvaccinated herds 83.2% had at least one BHV-1 seropositive bovine, and the mean cattle and herd BHV-1 seroprevalence were 42.5% and 43.1% respectively. There were positive associations between PP value, age, herd size, presence of dairy cattle. Adult cattle in herds with grower cattle had lower PP values than those in herds without grower cattle. Purchased cattle had significantly lower PP values than homebred cattle, whereas cattle in herds that were totally restocked after the foot-and-mouth epidemic in 2001 had significantly higher PP values than those in continuously stocked herds. Samples taken in spring and summer had significantly lower PP values than those taken in winter, whereas those taken in autumn had significantly higher PP values than those taken in winter. The risks estimated from a logistic regression model with a binary outcome (seropositive yes/no were similar. Conclusion The prevalence of BHV-1 seropositivity in cattle and herds has increased since

  17. Risks, resources and reason: understanding smallholder decisions around farming system interventions in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens M. Grünbühel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of new cattle management practices by Indonesian smallholders occurs less as a ‘technology transfer’ in the classical sense but rather as a series of conscious decisions by farming households weighing risks and resources as well as matching innovations to livelihood strategies. This paper uncovers the context of decisions and communication of innovations by way of social networks. The research looks at two geographically distinct cases where new cattle management practices have been introduced. We apply the lens of a common sense framework initially introduced by Clifford Geertz. Smallholder decisions are analysed within a socio-cultural context and a particular set of resources, risks and livelihood objectives. We show that the respective value placed on land, cattle and food security is central to adoption of new cattle management techniques. Far from accepting everything novel, smallholders are selective and willing to make changes to their farming system if they do not conflict with livelihood strategies. Innovations are communicated through a range of existing social networks and are either matched to existing livelihood strategies or perceived as stepping-stones out of agriculture.

  18. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms.

  19. Studies on Dairy Cattle Reproduction Performances in Morocco Based on Analysis of Artificial Insemination Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sraïri, MT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to assess dairy cattle reproduction performances from artificial insemination (Al database, using inseminators' records from 1992 to 1998, in three Al circuits established in Settat province in Morocco. Simultaneously a field survey was conducted in the same region, from January to April 1999, to determine main structural parameters of dairy farms which influence Al. Data set analysis has shown an increase in total number of Al performed from an average of 160 to 640 per circuit. Average conception rate was 48.1 %, with a continuous increase from 44.3 to 58.6 %, despite growing number of performed Al. Statistical analysis reveal a significant variation of conception rate between years, in agreement with previous works on cattle reproduction performances in harsh conditions. Mean calving interval was 404.8 days. It was significantly different between circuits (P <0.05. This resuit was explained by Al history in the three circuits (date of implementation and by their structural characteristics (number of cows and length in km. The overall improvement of Al activity (more Al performed and better conception rate could be explained by a greater inseminators' adaptation to their working environment, combined to the progressive elimination of farms with poor dairy cattle reproduction management. This trend was confirmed by discriminant analysis of field survey results, as cattle breeders with real specialisation in milk production (more than 65 % of total land devoted to forages and few sheep have been found to be fervent Al demanders, whereas farms with more interest in cereals and sheep often stop Al. Those observations show that a continuous Al programs evaluation is urgent, in order to select dairy breeders which are really interested in that technique and to avoid the dissipation of the inseminators limited time and resources.

  20. A stochastic exposure assessment model to estimate vanadium intake by beef cattle used as sentinels for the South African vanadium mining industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gummow, B.; Kirsten, W.F.A.; Gummow, R.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an environmental exposure assessment model for estimating chronic intake of vanadium (a transition metal) by cattle farmed extensively in areas contaminated by vanadium pollutants. The exposure model differs from most other models in several ways: (1) it does not rely heavily on

  1. Comparison of energy evaluation systems and a mechanistic model for milk production by dairy cattle offered fresh grass-based diets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.; Crompton, L.A.; Lopez, S.; Abrahamse, P.A.; Chilibroste, P.; Mills, J.A.N.; France, J.

    2008-01-01

    Grass-based diets are of increasing social-economic importance in dairy cattle farming, but their low supply of glucogenic nutrients may limit the production of milk. Current evaluation systems that assess the energy supply and requirements are based on metabolisable energy (ME) or net energy (NE).

  2. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  3. Molecular regulation of copper excretion in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmenga, C; Klomp, LWJ

    2004-01-01

    Cu is an essential nutrient that is required for a broad range of cellular and molecular processes. Mammals have efficient systems to control Cu homeostasis that operate at the level of controlling uptake, distribution, sequestration and excretion of Cu. The study of diseases associated with disturb

  4. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  5. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, van W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  6. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  7. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  8. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  9. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  10. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  11. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  12. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (Paluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (Paluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option.

  13. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gebreyohans; Tsegaye, Wondeson; Chanie, Mersha; Abinet, Fisseha

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on bovine brucellosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms from November 2003 to April 2004. A total of 1,202 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated, cross-bred dairy cattle. The Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) was used as a screening test. Those serum samples reacting positively to RBPT were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The RBPT detected 30 of 1,202 (2.5%) of the samples as brucellosis positive. The positive sera when further retested using CFT, 18 out of the 30 RBPT positive sera were confirmed to be positive. The prevalence of brucellosis based on CFT in the study area was 1.5%, and all positive sera were from female cattle. Result of the questionnaire survey revealed that percentage of 4.4% abortion and 9.5% retained fetal membranes. Abortion and retained fetal membranes were associated with Brucella antibodies (P < 0.05). A total of 153 cattle attendants and owners in the farms were interviewed, and 73.5% were found to have no knowledge of brucellosis, only 20.8% wear protective gloves during handling aborted material and 39.6% responded that they consume raw milk. Results of this study showed that prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the study area is low and a test-and-slaughter policy can be used in order to control the diseases in dairy farms of Addis Ababa.

  14. Seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in Nakuru district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tequiero Abuom Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya. Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC. Results: 15 (17.9% of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6% of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya.

  15. Mycoflora and Aflatoxin levels of Left-over Harvest in some Farms, South West of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Oluwafemi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available More than ninety percent of the ruminant livestock in Nigeria lies in the hands of herders who keep them under extensive and semi-intensive management systems, whereby the animals rely only on natural pasture and crop residues for survival. In this work, the mycoflora and aflatoxin levels of ten farms were determined by sampling crop residues on farms grazed by cattle. Samples of the remains of farm harvest were surface-disinfected and cultured using standard microbiological techniques while aflatoxins in the left over harvest were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. Fungal counts in leftover harvest ranged from 1.2 x 106 to 3.8 x106cfu/g. Aspergillus flavus, A. terreus, A.parasiticus, Rhizopus sp and a yeast, Candida sp were most prevalent on all the investigated crop residues. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on the crop residues ranged between 3.0 and 13.30 μg/Kg, while the levels of AFG1 were between 2.30 and 4.50 μg/Kg. Results of the present study is indicative that the accumulation of these doses of AFB1 can lead to transfer of AFB1 into cattle and subsequently into milk. So there is an urgent need to control the feeding pattern of cattle in order to protect the health of the consuming public.

  16. Seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in Nakuru district, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Tequiero Abuom; Munene, John Njenga; Wabacha, James; Tsuma, Victor; Leeuwen, John Van

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC) and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya. Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC. Results: 15 (17.9%) of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6%) of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya. PMID:27847430

  17. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Kirkeby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new mechanistic bio-economic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build-up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e. due to other diseases by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently.

  18. Simulating the Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Paratuberculosis Control Actions in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Christiansen, Lasse E.; Toft, Nils; Rattenborg, Erik; Halasa, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new mechanistic bioeconomic model for simulating the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) within a dairy cattle herd. The model includes age-dependent susceptibility for infection; age-dependent sensitivity for detection; environmental MAP build up in five separate areas of the farm; in utero infection; infection via colostrum and waste milk, and it allows for realistic culling (i.e., due to other diseases) by including a ranking system. We calibrated the model using a unique dataset from Denmark, including 102 random farms with no control actions against spread of MAP. Likewise, four control actions recommended in the Danish MAP control program were implemented in the model based on reported management strategies in Danish dairy herds in a MAP control scheme. We tested the model parameterization in a sensitivity analysis. We show that a test-and-cull strategy is on average the most cost-effective solution to decrease the prevalence and increase the total net revenue on a farm with low hygiene, but not more profitable than no control strategy on a farm with average hygiene. Although it is possible to eradicate MAP from the farm by implementing all four control actions from the Danish MAP control program, it was not economically attractive since the expenses for the control actions outweigh the benefits. Furthermore, the three most popular control actions against the spread of MAP on the farm were found to be costly and inefficient in lowering the prevalence when used independently. PMID:27777933

  19. Arcobacter population dynamics in pigs on farrow-to-finish farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Sarah; De Zutter, Lieven; Debruyne, Lies; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Vandamme, Peter; Houf, Kurt

    2011-03-01

    Healthy pigs are an important reservoir for the emerging human pathogen Arcobacter which can result in contamination of porcine carcasses and pork and the spread of arcobacters into the environment. Up to now, the excretion of arcobacters by pigs has been studied, but information about the transmission routes in fattening pigs is lacking. The present study aimed to elucidate the Arcobacter population dynamics in pigs during the fattening period on four farrow-to-finish farms. On each farm, 30 clinically healthy, 12-week-old piglets were selected. Fecal samples were collected on 10 sampling occasions until a slaughter age of 30 weeks was reached. Arcobacter spp. were isolated by a selective method and identified by multiplex PCR. The genetic diversity was examined by amplified fragment length polymorphism and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR. The Arcobacter presence in the fecal samples on the four farms ranged from 11.3 to 50.0%, with excretion levels of up to 10(4) CFU/g feces. The ratio in which Arcobacter species were isolated varied between the farms and over time. Characterization revealed a high degree of genotypic diversity among the isolates. Arcobacter strains persisted and spread within the finishing unit during the fattening period. The occurrence of both unique and shared genotypes in pigs in adjacent and nonadjacent pens demonstrates that transmission routes other than fecal-oral transmission occur.

  20. Movement as Spatial Practices and Economic Strategies in Cheese Production at Family Farms in Bohinj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Repič

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article explores dairy and cheese production at family farms in Bohinj, their economical and organisational strategies (variations between family and cooperative organisation of farming and the connection of cheese production with different modes of spatial movement. In the past decade, several family farms have started producing cheese and milk products, which is an economic activity closely linked to traditional forms of cooperatives, and pasture rights of agricultural societies. These farms have revitalised traditional forms of cheese production and established new economic strategies, especially through the plurality of their activities – work outside of the farm, tourism, marketing of their products, etc. The article first presents a development of cheese production in Bohinj, changes in family and cooperative farming and explores movement and the meshwork of paths, tracks, roads and places that are fundamental to cheese economy. Further, the article connects different movements, e.g. daily pastures close to the villages, transhumance in mountain pasturelands, selling products in markets, etc. Modes of movement (walk, cattle herding, driving to markets are basic practices behind economic strategies of dairy and cheese farms, as well as organisations and use of space, in particular mountain paths and pasturelands.

  1. Wind Farms: Modeling and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for wind farms to optimize the power production and augment the lifetime of wind turbines in wind farms. In this regard, a dynamical model for wind farms was required to be the basis of the controller design. In the first stage......, a dynamical model has been developed for the wind flow in wind farms. The model is based on the spatial discretization of the linearized Navier-Stokes equation combined with the vortex cylinder theory. The spatial discretization of the model is performed using the Finite Difference Method (FDM), which...... provides the state space form of the dynamic wind farm model. The model provides an approximation of the behavior of the flow in wind farms, and obtains the wind speed in the vicinity of each wind turbine. The control algorithms in this work are mostly on the basis of the developed wind farm model...

  2. Transmission of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli between cattle, humans and the environment in peri-urban livestock keeping communities in Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Msoffe, Peter L. M.;

    2015-01-01

    between livestock and people, 100 household clusters keeping cattle in close proximity of humans were selected in urban and peri-urban areas of Morogoro in Tanzania. One hundred eighteen ampicillin and tetracycline resistant Escherichia coli (40 from human stool, 50 from cattle feces, 21 from soil...... and seven from water samples) were isolated from 44 different clusters. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of XbaI digested chromosomal DNA was used to compare the genetic relatedness of the ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates. Indistinguishable PFGE band patterns of the ampicillin......- and tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates were found in samples from 23 (52%) clusters. This suggests that transfer of fecal microorganisms between cattle, humans, water and soils within the farms and from livestock farms to the neighborhood occurred commonly. Logistic regression showed that animal housing...

  3. Within-Farm Changes in Dairy Farm-Associated Salmonella Subtypes and Comparison to Human Clinical Isolates in Michigan, 2000-2001 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habing, Greg G; Manning, Shannon; Bolin, Carole; Cui, Yuehua; Rudrik, James; Dietrich, Stephen; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of Salmonella subtypes in livestock populations may have important impacts on human health. The first objective of this research was to determine the within-farm changes in the population of subtypes of Salmonella on Michigan dairy farms that were sampled longitudinally in 2000-2001 and again in 2009. The second objective was to determine the yearly frequency (2001 through 2012) of reported human illnesses in Michigan associated with the same subtypes. Comparable sampling techniques were used to collect fecal and environmental samples from the same 18 Michigan dairy farms in 2000-2001 and 2009. Serotypes, multilocus sequence types (STs), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) banding patterns were identified for isolates from 6 farms where >1 Salmonella isolate was recovered in both 2000-2001 and 2009. The distribution of STs was significantly different between time frames (P Salmonella were due to recovery of MDR subtypes of S. enterica serotypes Senftenberg and Typhimurium in 2000-2001 and genetically distinct, pansusceptible subtypes of the same serotypes in 2009. The annual frequency of human illnesses between 2001 and 2012 with a PFGE pattern matching a bovine strain decreased for patterns recovered from dairy farms in 2000-2001 and increased for patterns recovered in 2009. These data suggest important changes in the population of Salmonella on dairy farms and in the frequency of human illnesses associated with cattle-derived subtypes.

  4. The Profitability of Animal Husbandry Activities on Farms in Dry Farming Areas and the Interaction between Crop Production and Animal Husbandry: The Case of Ankara Province in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Tanrıvermis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the linkages between livestock and crop farming activities and provides a comparative analysis of the profitability of different livestock activities in the highlands of Ankara. The data was collected from 52 sample farms in the Nallıhan, Aya¸s, Güdül and Beypazarı districts of Ankara by way of a questionnaire, where the farms have, on average, 20.7 ha of land and are thus regarded as small family farms. Insufficient irrigated land and working capital, weak market relations and the pressure of high population brings about a requirement to strengthen crop-livestock interaction. Production on the farms is generally carried out in extensive conditions, with goat, sheep and cattle husbandry in addition to crop production. Crop production makes up for 20.8% of the total gross production value on the farms. Of this figure, the entire yields of wheat, barley, pulses, straw and fodder crops are used for own consumption by the households, along with 74% of the wheat and 77% of the barley produced. The research results indicate that the current management systems may be defined as mixed farms in terms of crop–livestock linkages. The average total income of the households surveyed is 9,412.0 USD, of which 63.4% comes from farming activities. Every 1 USD invested in animal husbandry provides an income of 1.12 USD from dairy cattle breeding, 1.13 USD from Angora goat breeding, 1.16 USD from sheep breeding and 1.27 USD from ordinary goat breeding. It has been found that ordinary goat breeding, which provides the greatest relative profitability for the farms, offers many advantages, and that the transition from Angora goat breeding to ordinary goat breeding through the breeding of ordinary male goats into the Angora herd has occurred in recent years. The results of the survey indicate that supporting crop production with animal husbandry is considered a requirement in order to maintain economic and social sustainability in the farms

  5. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D

    1984-10-01

    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  6. Particularities of farm accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapteș, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, agriculture has become one of the most important fields of activity, significant funds being allotted within the EU budget to finance the European agriculture. In this context, organising the accounting of economic entities which carry out their activity in the agricultural sector has acquired new meanings. The goal of the present study is to bring into the light the particularities of the farm accounting on two levels: on the one hand, from the perspective of the international accounting referential and, on the other hand, in compliance with the national accounting regulations. The most important conclusion of this work is that, in post-1990 Romania, no interest was further manifested for the refinement of aspects specific to farm accounting.

  7. Transgenic Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  8. Wind farm production estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge;

    2012-01-01

    on a 3GHz pc. The turbine controller is fully implemented. Initially, production estimates of a single turbine under free and wake conditions, respectively, are compared for (undis- turbed) mean wind speeds ranging from 3m/s to 25m/s. The undisturbed situation refers to a wind direction bin defined......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... as 270◦ ±5◦, whereas the wake situation refers to the wind direction bin 319◦ ±5◦. In the latter case, the investigated turbine operated in the wake of 6 upstream turbines, with the mean wind direction being equal to the orientation of the wind turbine row. The production of the entire wind farm has been...

  9. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  10. Amy Courtney: Freewheelin' Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Rabkin, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Shareholders in Freewheelin’ Farm’s community supported agriculture program enjoy an unusual perk: delivery by bicycle-drawn trailer. Freewheelin’ founder Amy Courtney, a 1997 graduate of UCSC’s Apprenticeship in Ecological Horticulture, strives to produce fresh, healthy food while minimizing her environmental footprint. Courtney started the farm in 2002 with almost no motorized vehicles, incorporating used equipment and recycled materials wherever possible in the farm’s operations. She and h...

  11. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lisa M; Part, Chérie E

    2013-05-16

    The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  12. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chérie E. Part

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested.

  13. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  14. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  15. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  16. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  17. Mathematical modeling of bacterial kinetics to predict the impact of antibiotic colonic exposure and treatment duration on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Thuy Nguyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fecal excretion of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment are major public health threats associated with extensive farming and modern medical care. Innovative strategies that can reduce the intestinal antibiotic concentrations during treatments are in development. However, the effect of lower exposure on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted has not been quantified, making it difficult to anticipate the impact of these strategies. Here, we introduce a bacterial kinetic model to capture the complex relationships between drug exposure, loss of susceptible enterobacteria and growth of resistant strains in the feces of piglets receiving placebo, 1.5 or 15 mg/kg/day ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, for 5 days. The model could well describe the kinetics of drug susceptible and resistant enterobacteria observed during treatment, and up to 22 days after treatment cessation. Next, the model was used to predict the expected amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted over an average piglet's lifetime (150 days when varying drug exposure and treatment duration. For the clinically relevant dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 5 days, the total amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted was predicted to be reduced by 75% and 98% when reducing treatment duration to 3 and 1 day treatment, respectively. Alternatively, for a fixed 5-days treatment, the level of resistance excreted could be reduced by 18%, 33%, 57.5% and 97% if 3, 5, 10 and 30 times lower levels of colonic drug concentrations were achieved, respectively. This characterization on in vivo data of the dynamics of resistance to antibiotics in the colonic flora could provide new insights into the mechanism of dissemination of resistance and can be used to design strategies aiming to reduce it.

  18. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations.

  19. Breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Moradi-Shahrbabak, M; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Amer, P R

    2012-06-01

    Trait-by-trait and multiple trait bioeconomic modeling were used to derive farm-specific economic weights (EW) for a wide range of traits under different production and economic circumstances to define breeding objectives for Holstein dairy cattle in Iran. Production parameters and economic dat