Jensen, R; Pierson, R E; Braddy, P M; Saari, D A; Lauerman, L H; England, J J; Horton, D P; McChesney, A E
During all of 1974 we surveyed, for illnesses and deaths, about 407,000 yearling feedlot cattle. The morbidity was 5.1%, with a case mortality of 18.9% and a population mortality of 1.0%. Both morbidity and mortality were higher during fall and winter than during spring and summer. Of the 3,943 dead cattle, 1,988 were necropsied. The most prevalent diseases were: pneumonia, 48%; diphtheria, 6%; brisket disease, 6%; hemorrhagic colitis, 5%; riding injury, 4%; bloat, 3%; calculosis, 2%; endocarditis, 2%; abomasal ulcers, 2%; bovine viral diarrhea, 2%; embolic pulmonary aneurysm, 1%; and pulmonary edema, 1%. PMID:956027
Wikse, S E; Craig, T M; Hutcheson, D P
This article describes current methods of controlling acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (ABPEE) and edema, lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes, and bloat in grazing beef cattle. Success in handling outbreaks of these conditions and in their prevention depends on an understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis. Supplementation with ionophore antibiotics is effective in prevention of ABPEE and bloat and may also prevent other diseases of cattle that graze lush pastures. PMID:1828709
Larson, Robert L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765
Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
"Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practice...
Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for investigating gastrointestinal disorders in cattle. It is performed on standing non-sedated cattle using a 3.5 MHz linear transducer. In animals with traumatic reticuloperitonitis, inflammatory fibrinous changes, and abscesses can be imaged; however, magnets and foreign bodies are difficult to visualize because of the gas content of the reticulum. Ultrasonography can be used to assess the size, position and contents of the abomasum. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided abomasocentesis can be performed to evaluate the nature and chemical composition of its contents. In left displacement of the abomasum, the abomasum is seen between the left abdominal wall and the rumen. It contains fluid ingesta ventrally and a gas cap of varying size dorsally. Occasionally, the abomasal folds are seen in the ingesta. In cattle with right displacement of the abomasum, the liver is displaced medially from the right abdominal wall by the abomasum, which has an ultrasonographic appearance similar to that described for left displacement. Motility and diameter of the intestine are the most important criteria for ultrasonographic assessment of ileus. However, the cause of the ileus is rarely determined using ultrasonography. In cases with ileus of the small intestine, there is at least one region of dilatation of the intestine and motility is reduced or absent. In cattle with caecal dilatation, the caecum can always be imaged from the right lateral abdominal wall. The wall of the caecum closest to the transducer appears as a thick, echogenic, semi-circular line. PMID:12902177
Diarrhea in neonatal and adult cattle is common and can be caused by several etiologic agents. As diagnostic testing is not always readily available, practitioners must often decide on a course of treatment based on knowledge of the likely pathogen and their own clinical experience. Antimicrobials have long been used to treat diarrhea in adults and neonates; however, there is increased pressure to prevent unnecessary use of antibiotics in food animal species. This article reviews existing data on the use of antibiotics given to cattle with enteric diseases to decide when they are necessary and which antimicrobials should be used. PMID:25705025
Diana S. Vargas; Agustín Góngora-Orjuela; Jairo Jaime Correa
This paper was aimed at updating readers regarding some recently discovered viral diseases or new viral variants affecting dairy-cattle production, with special reference to Latin-America A growing human population’s high demand for milk and its derivatives around the world may lead to as hort-term shortage, thereby increasing human malnutrition indices in many countries Progress must thus be made in epidemiology, diagnosis and monitoring to limit the dairy industry’s financial losses ca...
Avci, Oğuzhan; Doğan, Müge; İnce, Ömer Barış
Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). For this study, blood samples in EDTA, serum samples, and nodular skin lesions were obtained from clinically infected animals (n = 15) whereas blood samples in EDTA and serum samples were collected from healthy animals (n = 15). A quantitative real-time PCR method was used to detect Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA in clinical samples. A real-time PCR high-resolution melt assay was performed to genotype CaPVs. Serum cardiac, hepatic, and renal damage markers and lipid metabolism products were measured by autoanalyzer. LSDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples which were obtained from clinically infected cattle. The results of serum biochemical analysis showed that aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and creatinine concentrations were markedly increased in serum from infected animals. However, there were no significant differences in the other biochemical parameters evaluated. The results of the current study suggest that liver and kidney failures occur during LSDV infection. These findings may help in developing effective treatment strategies in LSDV infection. PMID:27294125
Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.
Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise
Inoue, Keiichi; Honda, Takeshi; Oyama, Kenji
The objective of this study was to estimate the direct economic losses due to the condemnation of the liver and large intestine because of internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver (MNL) and inflammation of the large intestine (ILI)), and the indirect losses because of reductions in carcass performance from MNL, bovine abdominal fat necrosis (BFN) and ILI using data from 5383 Japanese Black cattle. Direct losses were estimated by multiplying the price of the condemned part by the frequency of its occurrence owing to the disease. Similarly, indirect losses were estimated as the product of unit carcass price and reduction in carcass weight (CW) due to the disease. The direct impact on the beef cattle industry from MNL and ILI was estimated at around $1.29 million (US$1 = ¥120) per year. A least-squares analysis showed that MNL had no influence on any carcass trait, whereas BFN and ILI significantly reduced CW, rib eye area and darkened the beef. ILI also reduced rib thickness. The indirect losses from BFN and ILI were estimated as a maximum of $131.7 and $256.4 per animal and around $6.26 million and $4.03 million for the industry, respectively, mostly because of the reduction in CW. PMID:26277864
José Diomedes Barbosa; Danillo Henrique S. Lima; Alessandra S. Belo-Reis; Cleyton P. Pinheiro; Melina G.S. Sousa; Jenevaldo B. Silva; Felipe M. Salvarani; Carlos Magno C. Oliveira
A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD) was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwent a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observ...
The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...
Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna;
A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were...
R.M. Abdul Adjid; M Saepulloh
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial inseminat...
Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa
"Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania. PMID:25851929
Olds, Cassandra Leah
Infection of cattle with the tick-borne apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva results in the fatal lympho-proliferative disease known as East Coast fever (ECF). ECF is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa affecting all sectors of livestock production. The three-host brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is the primary vector of T. parva with all tick life stages adapted to feeding on cattle. Currently, there is no effective vaccine ag...
Gates, Maureen Carolyn
The British cattle population hosts a diverse community of endemic pathogens that impact the sustainability of beef and dairy production. As such, there has been a tremendous amount of ongoing research to develop more cost-effective strategies for controlling disease at the industry level. Cattle movements have come under particular scrutiny over the past decade both because of their role in spreading many economically important diseases and because the movements of individual ...
Parthiban, AravindhBabu R.; Mahapatra, Mana; Parida, Satya
For the first time, the complete genome sequences of the six serotype O foot-and-mouth disease viruses from persistently infected carrier cattle are reported here. No consistent amino acid changes were found in these viruses obtained from persistently infected cattle compared with the complete genome of the parent virus that was used to infect the cattle.
Achterbosch, T.J.; Dopfer, D.D.V.
This study examines the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands through livestock trade. It presents projections of Dutch cattle imports until 2010, and applies quantitative epidemiology to estimate the related probabilities of importing three animal diseases (foot and mouth disease,
Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O. M.; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D
This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the firs...
M Carolyn Gates
Full Text Available Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.
Moore, Dale A.; Adaska, J. M.; Higginbotham, G E; Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Collar, Carol; Sischo, William M.
Dairy producers seldom test or examine incoming cattle, although these important biosecurity practices are recommended. This pilot project examined risk management decisions that producers make when faced with test-positive animals in purchased groups of dairy cattle, in order to provide information on disease risks and conditions that could affect animal health and performance. New arrivals to seven herds at dairy farms in four California counties were examined and tested for a range of cond...
M. A. Mannan; Siddique, M.P; Uddin, M.Z; M. M. Parvez
The present study was performed in the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Meghna, Comilla during the period from September 2006 to February 2007 to observe the prevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla. A total of 253 skin diseased cattle head were examined in this study where 109 were males and 144 were females. The prevalence of FMD was 24.51% at Meghna upazila. The effect of age, sex, breed, season and farming system on the incidence rate of the disease wa...
Elnekave, Ehud; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Abed El Khaliq, Mohamad; Sharir, Beni; Berke, Olaf; Klement, Eyal
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease with major economic consequences. In Israel, FMD epidemics recur almost every year and mostly affect cattle. The highest number of outbreaks occurs among beef cattle farms, followed by feedlot farms and dairy farms. We performed several cross-sectional serological studies in Israel during 2006-2014, aimed to reveal if the virus is endemic among cattle and to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies directed against non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMD virus. Additionally we aimed to determine the risk factors for such sero-positivity. A risk based sampling was performed and the presence of anti-NSP antibodies was estimated using the PrioCHECK(®) ELISA kit. Beef cattle showed the highest sero-prevalence (13.2%, CI95%=10.8-15.8%). Higher FMD sero-prevalence in beef cattle sampled in 2014 was associated with previous FMD outbreaks in the farm and with age (adult cows versus calves (pFMD outbreaks in multiple farms and location of up to 5km from the nearest border standing out as significant (pFMD in feedlot cattle and the significant association of infection in beef cattle with previous outbreaks suggest absence of virus circulation between these two populations during the study period, although previous data show that during outbreaks such transmission can occur. Low sero-prevalence in dairy cattle located in areas adjacent to previous FMD outbreaks may be attributed to intense routine vaccination and stringent control measures that were applied during outbreaks such as emergency vaccination and strict quarantine. Early detection of FMD outbreaks among grazing beef herds as well as the implementation of control measures among these farms are therefore the methods of choice to prevent future outbreaks in Israel. PMID:27435646
Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34%) with most of those able...
José Diomedes Barbosa
Full Text Available A retrospective study of the epidemiological and clinic-pathological aspects of cattle and buffaloes with degenerative joint disease (DJD was conducted in the state of Pará, Brazil. From 1999 to 2014, eleven cattle and 24 buffaloes were evaluated. All the treated animals with suspected DJD underwent a clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system. In seven cattle and eight buffaloes with clinical signs of the disease postmortem examination was performed. The common clinical signs observed in both species were chronic lameness, stiff gait, postural changes, audible crackles in the affected limb, prolonged recumbency, difficulty in getting up and progressive weight loss. The lesions observed at necropsy were: irregular articular surfaces, erosion of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone tissue, and proliferation of the periarticular bone tissue with formation of osteophytes. The most affected joints in cattle and buffaloes wereof the hind limb. In buffaloes, the main predisposing factor to the onset of DJD was phosphorus deficiency. In cattle, defects of the anatomical conformation of the hind limbs, chronic trauma due to the activities performed, such as semen collection, and advanced age possibly contributed to the emergence of the disease.
Hawkins Steve AC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c. inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated with pools of brain material from sheep scrapie cases collected prior to 1975 and after 1990. Control groups comprised five cattle inoculated with sheep brain free from scrapie, five cattle inoculated with saline, and for comparison with BSE, naturally infected cattle and cattle i.c. inoculated with BSE brainstem homogenate from a parallel study. Phenotypic characterisation of the disease forms transmitted to cattle was conducted by morphological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and biological methods. Results Disease occurred in 16 cattle, nine inoculated with the pre-1975 inoculum and seven inoculated with the post-1990 inoculum, with four cattle still alive at 83 months post challenge (as at June 2006. The different inocula produced predominantly two different disease phenotypes as determined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western immunoblotting methods and biological characterisation on transmission to mice, neither of which was identical to BSE. Whilst the disease presentation was uniform in all scrapie-affected cattle of the pre-1975 group, the post-1990 inoculum produced a more variable disease, with two animals sharing immunohistochemical and molecular profile characteristics with animals in the pre-1975 group. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that cattle inoculated with different pooled scrapie sources can develop different prion disease phenotypes, which were not consistent with the phenotype of BSE of cattle and whose isolates did not have the strain typing characteristics of the BSE agent on transmission to mice.
M. M. Uddin
Full Text Available Prevalence of several diseases is one of the most economically important matters for maintaining a good treatment schedule of an area. This study detects the prevalence of several diseases and to evaluate the disease condition of cattle population in the selected area. Records of 306 clinical cases of cattle (120 dairy cows, 89 bulls and 97 calves treated at the Chandanaish Upazila Veterinary Hospital during the month from December 2010 to February 2011 were analyzed to assess the importance of existing diseases. The recorded clinical cases were classified into seven major diagnostic groups, of which the highest prevalence was recorded with digestive disorders (47.05%, followed by parasitic infection (26.79%, infectious diseases (7.84%, respiratory disorder (6.2%, surgical affections (5.22%, metabolic disorder (4.24%, ectoparasitic infection (1.96% and others (0.65%. The percentage of occurrence of major diagnostic groups of disease constituted infectious disease, (cows 41.66%, bulls 33.33%, calves 25%, parasitic disease (cows 37.80%, bulls 19.05% and calves 42.68%, digestive disorders (cows 41.66% , bulls 35.41% and calves 22.91%, respiratory disorders (cows 21.05%, bulls 26.31% and calves 52.63%, ectoparasitic infection (cows 16.66%, bulls 33.33% and calves 50%,metabolic diseases ( cows 46.15%, bulls 38.46% and calves 15.38% and surgical affections( cows 50%, bulls 12.5% and calves 37.5%. Though each of all the diagnostic groups of diseases is significant but the digestive disorder, parasitic and infectious diseases were the most pressing constraint for improvement of cattle at the Chandanaish Upazila in Bangladesh. Key words: Cattle, diseases, prevalence, Bangladesh.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
With about $300,000 in funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), scientists in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) at Virginia Tech are trying to clone cattle that are genetically incapable of developing Mad Cow Disease.
Baluka, Sylvia Angubua
Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
The role of non-structural protein 3A in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) on the virulence in cattle has received significant attention. Particularly, a characteristic 10–20 amino acid deletion has been implicated as being responsible for virus attenuation in cattle: a 10 amino acid deletion in t...
Smith, J D; Greenlee, J J; Hamir, A N; Richt, J A; Greenlee, M H West
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of diseases that result in progressive and invariably fatal neurologic disease in both animals and humans. TSEs are characterized by the accumulation of an abnormal protease-resistant form of the prion protein in the central nervous system. Transmission of infectious TSEs is believed to occur via ingestion of prion protein-contaminated material. This material is also involved in the transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") to humans, which resulted in the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Abnormal prion protein has been reported in the retina of TSE-affected cattle, but despite these observations, the specific effect of abnormal prion protein on retinal morphology and function has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize potential functional and morphologic abnormalities in the retinas of cattle infected with a bovine-adapted isolate of transmissible mink encephalopathy. We used electroretinography and immunohistochemistry to examine retinas from 10 noninoculated and 5 transmissible mink encephalopathy-inoculated adult Holstein steers. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy-infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Müller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. This is the first study to identify both functional and morphologic alterations in the retinas of TSE-infected cattle. Our results support future efforts to focus on the retina for the development of
Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F
After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock. PMID:167503
R.M. Abdul Adjid
Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial insemination (AI centers as the first priority, then village breeding centers as the second priority, and the last priority is in cattle owned by smallholders. In the breeding and AI centers, eradication of the disease is carried out by surveilance, excluding reactors, and applying biosecurity. In the village breeding centers, the use of semen for AI should come from centers that free from IBR, the use of bull that free from IBR, surveilance and application of biosecurity. At the farmer levels, IBR control is bone by using semen from AI centers free from IBR and routine vaccination. The final step is performed after evaluating the successful rate and economic impact of the disease control.
Eschbaumer, Michael; Rekant, Steven I.; Pacheco, Juan M.; Smoliga, George R.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Luis L.
ABSTRACT The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated in 46 cattle that were either naive or had been vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine 2 weeks before challenge. The prevalence of FMDV persistence was similar in both groups (62% in vaccinated cattle, 67% in nonvaccinated cattle), despite vaccinated cattle having been protected from clinical disease. Analysis of antemortem infection dynamics demonstrated that the subclinical divergence between FMDV carriers and animals that cleared the infection had occurred by 10 days postinfection (dpi) in vaccinated cattle and by 21 dpi in nonvaccinated animals. The anatomic distribution of virus in subclinically infected, vaccinated cattle was restricted to the pharynx throughout both the early and the persistent phases of infection. In nonvaccinated cattle, systemically disseminated virus was cleared from peripheral sites by 10 dpi, while virus selectively persisted within the nasopharynx of a subset of animals. The quantities of viral RNA shed in oropharyngeal fluid during FMDV persistence were similar in vaccinated and nonvaccinated cattle. FMDV structural and nonstructural proteins were localized to follicle-associated epithelium of the dorsal soft palate and dorsal nasopharynx in persistently infected cattle. Host transcriptome analysis of tissue samples processed by laser capture microdissection indicated suppression of antiviral host factors (interferon regulatory factor 7, CXCL10 [gamma interferon-inducible protein 10], gamma interferon, and lambda interferon) in association with persistent FMDV. In contrast, during the transitional phase of infection, the level of expression of IFN-λ mRNA was higher in follicle-associated epithelium of animals that had cleared the infection. This work provides novel insights into the intricate mechanisms of FMDV persistence and contributes to further understanding of this critical aspect of FMDV pathogenesis
Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.
This paper investigates private responses and ecological impacts of policies proposed to confront the problem of brucellosis being spread from elk to cattle in Wyoming. The policies consist of combinations of changes in elk feeding and population levels. Farmers’ responses to these dynamics are modeled along with the associated impacts to livestock population dynamics. Our findings suggest that feedbacks between jointly determined disease dynamics and decentralized economic behavior matter, a...
Paiva, Newton N.
Due to red meat consumption, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) disease has been a major human health concern since its discovery in 1986. An event study approach was applied to determine the impact of BSE official events that occurred in the United Kingdom on U.S. live cattle futures prices. When abnormal returns were aggregated during the course of the events, the price series were adversely affected, mainly after the event day. This suggests that market reaction was dissipated quickly ...
Xie, Fang; Horan, Richard D.
We investigate private responses to policies that have been proposed to confront a human-wildlife conflict that likely emerged as a result of a management regime designed to address an earlier human-wildlife conflict: specifically, brucellosis in elk that has spread to cattle in Wyoming. We examine population and disease dynamics under several different management options for the Jackson elk herd, where each option involves a combination of changes in elk feeding and population levels. Farmer...
Lind, Ann-Kristina; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Espetvedt, M. N.; Wolff, C.; Rintakoski, S.; Houe, Hans
. Completeness figures for farmer-recorded disease events were calculated on two different levels: the first refers to disease events that were observed on the farm regardless of whether a veterinarian had been involved (FARMER); the second refers to farmer records of cases attended by a veterinarian, i.e. to...... were created and added to match recordings appearing in both datasets. In all 555 farmers completed data records in the first data-recording period, and 515 farmers did so in the second period. In DK, FIN, NO and SE, 55%, 77%, 82% and 75%, participating farmers completed the recordings during the first...... recording period, respectively; the corresponding figures for the second recording period were 71%, 82%, 83% and 91%. To calculate completeness, disease cases recorded in the national databases were compared with the farmer recordings using an exact match for the locomotor complex defined as same country...
Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto
Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus. PMID:27154321
McKenna, T S; Lubroth, J; Rieder, E; Baxt, B; Mason, P W
Binding of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to cells requires an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence in the capsid protein VP1. We have genetically engineered an FMDV in which these three amino acids have been deleted, producing a virus particle which is unable to bind to cells. Cattle vaccinated with these receptor binding site-deleted virions were protected from disease when challenged with a virulent virus, demonstrating that these RGD-deleted viruses could serve as the basis ...
Oluwatoyin Catherine Agbonifo
Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is the core of computing research that makes machine to mimic the intelligence of a man. Intelligent means less of user interaction and automated adaptation to changing environment. When compared to other primitive techniques used in the past, AI has been highly efficient in knowledge acquisition in diverse areas of application. In the light of this, the paper focuses on intelligent technique of determining the possible diseases that affect the life of cattle. Hence, fuzzy expert technique is proposed for the diagnosis of the Antrax, Babesiosis, Blackleg and Epizootic Hemorrrhapic diseases. The result generated by the system was sufficient to demonstrate its performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic and the emergence of a new human variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD have led to profound changes in the production and trade of agricultural goods. The rapid tests currently approved for BSE monitoring in slaughtered cattle are all based on the detection of the disease related isoform of the prion protein, PrPd, in brain tissue and consequently are only suitable for post-mortem diagnosis. Objectives: In instances such as assessing the health of breeding stock for export purposes where post-mortem testing is not an option, there is a demand for an ante-mortem test based on a matrix or body fluid that would permit easy access and repeated sampling. Urine and urine based analyses would meet these requirements. Results Two dimensional differential gel eletrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify proteins exhibiting differential abundance in the urine of BSE infected cattle and age matched controls over the course of the disease. Multivariate analyses of protein expression data identified a single protein able to discriminate, with 100% accuracy, control from infected samples. In addition, a subset of proteins were able to predict with 85% ± 13.2 accuracy the time post infection that the samples were collected. Conclusion These results suggest that in principle it is possible to identify biomarkers in urine useful in the diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of disease progression of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases (TSEs.
Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.
Aravindh Babu R Parthiban
Full Text Available The role of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV carrier cattle in causing new outbreaks is still a matter of debate and it is important to find out these carrier animals by post-outbreak serosurveillance to declare freedom from FMDV infection. In this study we explore the differences in viral shedding between carrier and non-carrier animals, quantify the transmission rate of FMDV infection from carriers to susceptible animals and identify potential viral determinants of viral persistence. We collected nasal and saliva samples from 32 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated FMDV carrier cattle and 48 vaccinated and 13 unvaccinated non-carrier cattle (total n=100 during the acute phase of infection (up to 28 days post-challenge and then from limited number of animals up to a maximum 168 days post-challenge. We demonstrate that unvaccinated cattle excrete significantly higher levels of virus for longer periods compared with vaccinated cattle and this is independent of whether or not they subsequently become carriers. By introducing naïve cattle in to the FMDV carrier population we show the risk of new outbreaks is clearly very low in controlled conditions, although there could still be a potential threat of these carrier animals causing new outbreaks in the field situation. Finally, we compared the complete genome sequences of viruses from carrier cattle with the challenge virus and found no evidence for viral determinants of the carrier state.
To quantify the radiographic parameters of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in healthy cattle and demonstrate their clinical usefulness, the present study compared the ratios of the diameter of the thoracic CVC to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) and length of the thoracic vertebrae (VL), which are all positioned in the same intercostal space, in 81 healthy control cattle (43 growing, 38 adult) and 10 cattle with heart disease. The average diameter of the CVC (CVCave) was correlated with the size of the Ao and VL in the control cows. Although the diameter and pulsation index of the CVC differed significantly between the growing and adult cows, the ratios of CVC/Ao and CVC/VL were fixed values for both the growing and mature cattle. However, in the cattle with heart disease, the pulsation index of the CVC was significantly lower or there was absence of pulsation due to a dilated CVC, and the ratio of CVCave/Ao and CVCave/VL were significantly higher than those in the healthy cattle
Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights
MacLachlan, Matthew; Springborn, Michael
In the context of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in New Zealand cattle, we address the problem of management under uncertain disease prevalence by integrating a model of disease transmission and Bayesian learning from testing. We show the implications of accounting for the full dynamic value of information for setting levels of investment in, and targeting of, disease control measures. In the process, we provide a methodology to addressing problems in which learning occurs regarding an unc...
VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott
Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases. PMID:26708252
High altitude or brisket disease of cattle is common at high altitude areas. It is characterized by right ventricular hypertrophy and edema of the chest and brisket, because of reduced blood oxygen saturation at high elevation. It is similar to altitude sickness in humans and frequently ends with the death of the affected animal unless transferred to lower altitude. The incidence and severity of the disease increase with altitude. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is an indicator of proneness to the disease. High values (>50 mm HG) indicate high risk and low values (<35 mmHG) indicate resistance to the disease. Analyses of heritability of PAP, mostly performed on Angus cattle in the Rocky Mountains at altitudes of 2000-3800 m indicate a relatively high heritability, in the range of 0.30-0.50. This provides options for selection, which is performed routinely in the Rocky Mountains. The Semien Mountains are the highest mountain range of Ethiopia, peaking at the Ras Dashen (4620 m). Cattle are kept at altitudes of up to almost 4000 m. Along the western side of the mountain range, there is a rather continuous drop in altitude down to about 600 m, over a rather short distance (250 km). The cattle in the region are partly of different type (Zebu, Sanga) and partly a mixture (Zenga = Zebu x Sanga). The phenotypic differentiation in terms of body size along levels of altitude is strong. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence rate of high altitude disease and as well as to compare adaptive characteristics of indigenous cattle populations and their crosses with European types towards altitude, in particular, to high altitude disease. In January 2007, 218 animals situated within an altitude range of 1730 - 3500 m were tested for PAP by an experienced veterinarian from Colorado State University. Local breeds and crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey were measured. The results in Table I indicate that no sign of brisket disease is observed among the studied
A serological survey for the prevalence of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) was performed in six Divisions and three States in Myanmar. A liquid phase blocking ELISA prepared and standardized by World Reference Laboratory (WRL) for FMD was used for this study. A total of 831 serum samples from cattle and buffalo were collected by a random process and assayed for antibody against FMD virus types O, A, C and Asia I. Positive reactions to FMD virus O, A, C, and Asia I sero-types were detected. Even in the free zone area, (Ngape township) and the buffer zone (Minbu township) serum samples showed positive reactions. Ten percent of the sera tested showed positive reactions to all sero-types within the free zone and buffer zone. The majority of cattle and buffaloes, except those in the FMD free and buffer zones, were not vaccinated against FMD. The percentage of positive sera in each State and Divisions varied from 16 to 90 for at least one sero-type. More epithelial specimens from FMD outbreaks should be submitted for investigation and further nation-wide serological surveys for FMD should be carried out if a national policy for FMD control and eradication is to be effective and enforceable. (author)
MS El-Neweshy*, TM El-Shemey1 and SA Youssef
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate clinical and pathologic characteristics of acute and subacute lumpy skin disease (LSD among naturally infected cattle and to study the localization of LSDV capsid antigen within different cells of the skin and regional lymph nodes using immunohistochemistry. Herein, we describe the gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings in 13 dairy cattle, 11 beef calves and 2 newly born calves that were naturally infected with LSDV. Prominent gross changes in all cases included numerous 1-6 cm well circumscribed, round cutaneous nodules with severe enlargement of superficial lymph nodes. Histologic changes in all acute cases consisted of severe ballooning degeneration of the epidermis, lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis, folliculitis, furunculosis, with severe vasculitis affecting the dermal capillaries, venules and arterioles. Rare intracytoplasmic inclusions were present in degenerated epidermal cells. Subacute cases showed multifocal areas of pannicular infarction with severe vasculitis affecting the neighboring arterioles and venules. Strong positive immunoreactivity for LSDV was identified primarily within macrophages and in degenerated epidermal cells. However, no viral antigen was present in endothelial cells. It can be concluded that vasculitis is a constant lesion in acute and subacute LSD and is most likely of an immune-mediated mechanism rather than a true tropism of the LSDV to endothelial cells.
Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939
Ben M Hause
Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.
For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...
A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...
Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...
The goal of this study was to identify the primary sites of replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cattle subsequent to aerogenous inoculation. A novel aerosol inoculation method was developed to simulate natural, airborne transmission and thereby allow the identification of early rep...
Bigras-Poulin, M.; Thompson, R.A.; Chriél, Mariann; Mortensen, S.; Greiner, M.
animal movements and graph theory was used to analyse the movements of cattle within this network. A premise was defined as a farm, an abattoir or a market. These premises constituted the network nodes in the graph and the animal movements between them were the links. In this framework, each premise had...... identify the transmission risks. A network of animal movements should provide information about pathogen transmission and disease spread. The network of the Danish cattle industry network was a directed scale-free graph (the direction of a movement was known), with an in-degree power of 2 an out......-degree power of 1.46, consisted of 29,999 nodes, and 130,265 movements during a 6-month period. The in clustering coefficient was calculated to be 0.52 for the inward direction (movement to), while it was 0.02 for the outward direction (movement from). In Denmark, the cattle movements between premises...
In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...
Full Text Available Studies covering all aspects of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV have been conducted in several countries in Europe, Asia and America. In southern Africa, more information is required about the nature of BVDV infection, the prevalence of different strains and the economic importance of the disease. The presence of BVDV in southern Africa has been known since the early 1970s through serological surveys but few reports confirming its presence by virus isolation and correlation with clinical disease are available. Specimens (n = 312 collected in 1998/99, from live and dead cattle from different farming systems, were obtained from private practitioners, feedlot consultants and abattoirs throughout the country. Specimens (n=37 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park were also included. All specimens were processed for virus isolation in cell culture with confirmation by means of immunofluorescent antibody tests and some also by means of an antigen capture ELISA. BVDV was isolated from 15 (4.7 % cattle and were all noncytopathic biotypes. BVDV was not detected in 37 lymph nodes obtained from buffaloes in the Kruger National Park. Of the clinical signs in cattle from which virus were isolated, respiratory signs was the most frequent (10/15, followed by diarrhoea (5/15. Abortion, congenital malformations, haemorrhagic diarrhoea and poor growth were also included as criteria for selection of animals for specimen collection, but no BVD viruses were isolated from cattle manifesting these clinical signs.
Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Javed Arshed; Qurban Ali; Manzoor Hussain
The present study describes the frequency of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus serotypes (O,A and Asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of Pakistan using Indirect Sandwich ELISA.Also,spatial distribution of various FMD serotypes and their comparison is discussed.A total of 590 samples (Epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009).Out of 590 samples,180 were found positive,giving an overall confirmation of FMDV about 33.2 ％.Of the prevalent serotypes,FMDV ‘O’ serotype caused most outbreaks (20.7 ％),followed by serotype A (6.6 ％) and serotype Asia-1 (4.6 ％) while there was no positive case of type ‘C’.The study clearly showed that the disease was more frequent in the agro-climatic zones than in hilly areas.Based on the data of 590 samples (＞50 outbreaks),the overall prevalence of FMDV in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan was 33.2 ％,while in cattle alone,it was 37.1％,higher than in buffalo (28.7 ％).There were eight cases of mixed serotypes infection,indicating the presence of endemic state of disease.Another significant feature was the change over time.In phase-I (2005-2007),there was an overall prevalence of 29.4 ％,while the occurrence of the serotype O,A and Asia-1 was 20.4 ％,2.9 ％ and 4.7 ％,respectively.During phase-II (2008-2009),the overall prevalence was 59.21％,while those of serotype O,A and Asia-1 were 22.4 ％,31.6 ％ and 4.0 ％,respectively.This clearly indicated a shift from serotype O to A,which may help to explain the occurrence of more severe outbreaks,despite vaccination.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermal imagers have been used in a number of disciplines to record animal surface temperatures and as a result detect temperature distributions and abnormalities requiring a particular course of action. Some work, with animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, has suggested that the technique might be used to identify animals in the early stages of disease. In this study, images of 19 healthy cattle have been taken over an extended period to determine hoof and especially coronary band temperatures (a common site for the development of FMD lesions and eye temperatures (as a surrogate for core body temperature and to examine how these vary with time and ambient conditions. Results The results showed that under UK conditions an animal's hoof temperature varied from 10°C to 36°C and was primarily influenced by the ambient temperature and the animal's activity immediately prior to measurement. Eye temperatures were not affected by ambient temperature and are a useful indicator of core body temperature. Conclusions Given the variation in temperature of the hooves of normal animals under various environmental conditions the use of a single threshold hoof temperature will be at best a modest predictive indicator of early FMD, even if ambient temperature is factored into the evaluation.
Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;
Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non-structural......Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non......-structural proteins and structural proteins. Three hundred and forty-nine cattle sera were collected from seven districts in Uganda, and 65% of these were found positive for antibodies against the non-structural proteins of FMDV. A subset of these samples were analysed for serotype specificity of the identified...... antibodies. High prevalences of antibodies against non-structural proteins and structural proteins of FMDV serotype O were demonstrated in herds with typical visible clinical signs of FMD, while prevalences were low in herds without clinical signs of FMD. Antibody titres were higher against serotype O than...
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Grell, S. N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Jungersen, Gregers; Pudrith, C. B.; Coussens, P. M.
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (paraTB) or Johne's disease in ruminants, is a health problem for the global cattle industry with significant economic losses related to decreased milk production and reduced ...
Raaperi Kerli; Bougeard Stephanie; Aleksejev Annely; Orro Toomas; Viltrop Arvo
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD) occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV),...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to detect the associations between bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1 status of a herd and respiratory disease (BRD occurrence and reproductive performance in pregnant heifers and cows. The association between management-related factors and higher BRD occurrence was also estimated. Methods Serum samples, collected from cows and youngstock from 103 dairy cattle herds, were analyzed for antibodies against BHV-1, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, and Mycoplasma bovis. A questionnaire was used to collect data concerning herd management factors and reproductive performance, as well as the occurrence of clinical signs of respiratory disease in the last two years, as evaluated by the veterinarian or farm manager. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify and quantify the risk factors. Results A low to moderate prevalence (1-49% of BRSV antibodies among youngstock was associated with a high occurrence of respiratory disease (OR = 6.2, p = 0.010 in cows and in-calf heifers. Employees of the farm may participate in the spread of such disease. Larger herd size, loose-housing of cows, housing youngstock separately from cows until pregnancy, and purchasing new animals were factors possibly related to a high occurrence of respiratory disease symptoms in pregnant heifers and cows. The highest risk of abortions (> 1.3% and increased insemination index (number of inseminations per pregnancy (> 1.9 occurred in herds with a moderate prevalence of BHV-1 antibodies (1-49% in cows. Conclusions BHV-1 was not associated with acute respiratory disease in adult dairy cattle, however was significantly related to reproductive performance. BRSV possesses the main role in respiratory disease complex in adult dairy cattle.
Medina, Gisselle N.; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J.
Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon (IFN-γ)+ cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle. PMID:26607309
Varga, Noemi; Varallyay, Erika Bertalanne; Salamon, Lajos
The political and economical changes in 1989 and 90 influenced Hungaryâ€™s agriculture greatly. The transition hit the branches of animal husbandry more than plant growing. Cattle husbandry is one of the most important branches of agriculture in Hungary. Its production is equally important both for the domestic and for export markets. Under the present market conditions Hungary will only be able to maintain its cattle stock if the profitability and competitiveness of the branch can be enhance...
Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina
substantial economical implications for farmers and live-stock industries of affected countries. The occurrence of persistently infected, so called “carriers” of FMD-virus (FMDV) which may shed infectious virus for prolonged periods of time following exposure to the virus, causes significant complications...... for effective disease control. The main purpose of this PhD-project has been to investigate the host response to FMD infection in cattle, with further objectives of elucidating any detectable differences in the measured immune response between animals that developed into FMDV carriers and those that did not....... Experimental studies The thesis is based on results obtained from seven separate animal experiments with FMDV serotype O, which have been performed at DTU-Vet, Lindholm. In five out of the six experiments that were performed in cattle, animals were infected with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, representing the virus...
Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime
Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the
Salt, J. S.; Mulcahy, G; Kitching, R. P.
Isotype-specific antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were measured in the sera and upper respiratory tract secretions of vaccinated and susceptible cattle challenged with FMDV by direct contact or by intranasal inoculation. A comparison was made between cattle that eliminated FMDV and those that developed and maintained a persistent infection. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were detected in all animals after challenge. IgA and IgM were detected before the dev...
Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's...
Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;
Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...... obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced...
Frank Norbert Mwiine; C. Ayebazibwe; W. Olaho-Mukani; S. Alexandersen and K. Tjornehoj
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against Non-Structural (NS) and Structural Proteins (SP) using Ceditest® FMDV-NS and C editest® FMDV type O test kits. Seroprevalences were much higher in Kasese in both tests (61 and 43%, respectively) than in Bush...
Fowler, Veronica; Bashiruddin, John B.; Belsham, Graham;
Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspar......Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine...... detection by ELISA and qRT-PCR. Following needle inoculation with the A(−) virus, naïve cattle developed typical clinical signs of FMDV infection, diagnostic assays also provided positive serological and virological results. However, the contact cattle did not develop clinical signs or generate serological...... or virological markers indicative of FMDV infection even when the cattle were subsequently needle inoculated with 105 TCID50 A(−) FMDV delivered IDL following three days of direct contact exposure. The results suggest that the A(−) virus is not attentuated in cattle when inoculated IDL. This virus could...
Christensen, Laurids Siig; Brehm, Katharina E.; Skov, Julia;
Exhaled air of individual cattle infected experimentally with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was sampled to assess the feasibility of a rapid, non-invasive general screening approach for identifying sources of FMDV infection. The air sampler used was a handheld prototype device employing...... of FMDV in cattle infected experimentally. Detection in exhaled air from individual cattle was compared to FMDV detection in serum and saliva for 3 different strains of FMDV (O1/Manisa/69, C/Oberbayern/FRG/1960 and SAT1/Zimbawe/1989). Detection of FMDV in exhaled air was possible for all strains of FMDV...... used for experimental infection but the period that detection was possible varied among the strains. Detection in exhaled air generally peaked on day 2–4 post infection. The perspectives of monitoring for FMDV in the breath of infected cattle are discussed in the context of real-time epidemiological...
Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure. PMID:25929158
Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;
to the disease. The FMDV infection is defined as persistent when live virus can be detected for more than 28 days post infection. FMD infection in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Characteristic vesicular lesions develop...... replication of FMDV is located in pharyngeal lymphoid tissue, as well as the basal epithelia of the dorsal soft palate. A series of animal experiments, with the aim of investigating the host immune response, and sites of viral replication at different time points during both acute and persistent phases...... of FMDV infection in cattle has been performed. During these experiments, bull calves of 4-5 months of age were infected with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, and disease development was monitored for 32 days. Disease progression was monitored through observation of clinical signs, and analysis of serum...
Ayelet, Gelagay; Abate, Yebeyen; Sisay, Tesfaye; Nigussie, Haileleul; Gelaye, Esayas; Jemberie, Shiferaw; Asmare, Kassahun
This study was conducted in and around Debre Zeit town to assess the field efficacy of LSD vaccine in use and overview associated disease impact. The study comprised cross-sectional and retrospective study design which employed active disease follow-up, semi-structured questionnaire survey and molecular techniques. The finding revealed that the Kenyan sheep pox vaccine strain used for the control of LSD did not confer expected protection. From the total of 476 animals observed, 22.9% and 2.31% cattle were found sick and dead due to LSD, respectively. Breed specific morbidity rate was 22.5% in Holstein Friesian-zebu cross and 25.9% in local zebu breed. The disease was observed to be more serious in young animals and also in females. A trend of seasonality was also observed in its occurrence. The study finding urges the need for investigation of vaccine failure including vaccine matching and alternative vaccine development. PMID:23428671
Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Dubovi, E J; Eberle, R
Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) causes disease in cattle with varied clinical forms. In the U.S. there are two BoHV1 subtypes, BoHV-1.1 and BoHV-1.2b. Control programs in North America incorporate modified live (MLV) or killed (KV) viral vaccines. However, BoHV-1 strains continue to be isolated from diseased animals or fetuses after vaccination. It is possible to differentiate BoHV-1 wild-type from MLV vaccine strains by determining their single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) patterns through either whole-genome sequencing or PCR sequencing of genomic regions containing vaccine-defining SNPs. To determine the BoHV-1 subtype in clinical isolates and their relationship to MLV strains, 8 isolates from varied clinical disease at three different laboratories in the U.S. were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Five samples were isolated within the past 5 years from New York and 3 were archived samples recovered 35 years prior from Oklahoma and Louisiana. Based on phylogenetic analysis, four of the cases appeared to be due to an MLV vaccine: 3 cases of aborted fetuses and one neonate with systemic BoHV-1 disease. One aborted fetus was from a herd with no reported history of MLV vaccination in two years. The remaining four isolates did not group with any MLV vaccines: two were associated with bovine respiratory disease, one with vulvovaginitis, and a fourth was determined to be a BoHV-1.2b respiratory isolate. Recovery of BoHV-1.1 that is very closely related to an MLV vaccine virus from a herd not receiving vaccines in an extended period prior to its isolation suggests that MLV viruses may remain latent or circulate within herds for long periods. PMID:27374060
Currin, John F.; Whittier, W. Dee; Currin, Nancy
Mycoplasma is a tiny bacterium that can cause mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, drooped ears, and lameness in dairy cattle. While this bacterium has existed for more than 100 years, the current disease has only recently become a problem in Virginia.
Bagley, Clell V, DVM; Burrell, W. Craig
Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease that is spread mainly by one specific type of gnat. Other gnats and blood sucking insects may occasionally transmit BT, but they are much less important in its transfer. Cattle are the main reservoir for overwintering of the virus in temperate climates. The gnats become infected from cattle and then spread the disease to other cattle and sheep as they take blood meals. It is also spread through infected semen and may be spread by blood sucking lice and a sof...
Pyörälä, S; Taponen, J; Katila, T
Use of antimicrobials for veterinary indications related to reproduction in cattle and horses is reviewed. Antimicrobial compounds are widely used to treat and prevent infections of reproductive organs. Total amounts of antimicrobials for such purposes, estimated by weight, are low compared with major uses in food animals. The most common reproduction-related indication in cattle is mastitis. The number of intramammary products available for treatment of mastitis in the European Union is high. Metritis and endometritis also require antimicrobial treatment of cattle and specific products for intrauterine administration are available. The traditions and practices associated with the use of these products vary considerably among different countries. Parenteral antimicrobial treatment is used to treat acute clinical mastitis and puerperal metritis. Pharmacological characteristics of the antimicrobial administered parenterally are critical to achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations in the target organs. In mares, the most common indications associated with reproduction are endometritis, retained placenta and placentitis. The number of authorized antimicrobial products for horses is limited. Horses are treated individually and off-label use of antimicrobials is very common. In veterinary indications related to reproduction, treatment practices exist that cannot be considered to be evidence-based or responsible use of antimicrobials. Not all products for local treatment have proven efficacy data. Examples of unnecessary uses are routine treatment of cows with retained placenta and use of post-breeding antibiotic treatments in mares. PMID:25220745
I Martin Sheldon
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli are widespread in the environment and pathogenic strains cause diseases of mucosal surfaces including the female genital tract. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; metritis or endometritis affects approximately 40% of cattle after parturition. We tested the expectation that multiple genetically diverse E. coli from the environment opportunistically contaminate the uterine lumen after parturition to establish PID. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Distinct clonal groups of E. coli were identified by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD and Multilocus sequence typing (MLST from animals with uterine disease and these differed from known diarrhoeic or extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli. The endometrial pathogenic E. coli (EnPEC were more adherent and invasive for endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, compared with E. coli isolated from the uterus of clinically unaffected animals. The endometrial epithelial and stromal cells produced more prostaglandin E(2 and interleukin-8 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS purified from EnPEC compared with non-pathogenic E. coli. The EnPEC or their LPS also caused PID when infused into the uterus of mice with accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the endometrium. Infusion of EnPEC was only associated with bacterial invasion of the endometrium and myometrium. Despite their ability to invade cultured cells, elicit host cell responses and establish PID, EnPEC lacked sixteen genes commonly associated with adhesion and invasion by enteric or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, though the ferric yersiniabactin uptake gene (fyuA was present in PID-associated EnPEC. Endometrial epithelial or stromal cells from wild type but not Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 null mice secreted prostaglandin E(2 and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1 in response to LPS from EnPEC, highlighting the key role of LPS in PID. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The implication arising from the discovery
Widgren, Stefan; Engblom, Stefan; Bauer, Pavol; Frössling, Jenny; Emanuelson, Ulf; Lindberg, Ann
European Union legislation requires member states to keep national databases of all bovine animals. This allows for disease spread models that includes the time-varying contact network and population demographic. However, performing data-driven simulations with a high degree of detail are computationally challenging. We have developed an efficient and flexible discrete-event simulator SimInf for stochastic disease spread modelling that divides work among multiple processors to accelerate the computations. The model integrates disease dynamics as continuous-time Markov chains and livestock data as events. In this study, all Swedish livestock data (births, movements and slaughter) from July 1st 2005 to December 31st 2013 were included in the simulations. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC O157) are capable of causing serious illness in humans. Cattle are considered to be the main reservoir of the bacteria. A better understanding of the epidemiology in the cattle population is necessary to be able to design and deploy targeted measures to reduce the VTEC O157 prevalence and, subsequently, human exposure. To explore the spread of VTEC O157 in the entire Swedish cattle population during the period under study, a within- and between-herd disease spread model was used. Real livestock data was incorporated to model demographics of the population. Cattle were moved between herds according to real movement data. The results showed that the spatial pattern in prevalence may be due to regional differences in livestock movements. However, the movements, births and slaughter of cattle could not explain the temporal pattern of VTEC O157 prevalence in cattle, despite their inherently distinct seasonality. PMID:27515697
The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...
Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 st...
Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham;
To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples...
This paper investigates private responses to policies that have been proposed to confront a human-wildlife conflict that likely emerged as a result of a management regime designed to address an earlier human-wildlife conflict. The artificial elk feeding which is intended to conserve wildlife and reduce elk predation on cattle forage, now led to the emergence of brucellosis in elk and has allowed it to become endemic, in turn imposing great risk to the livestock. We propose a joint model of wi...
Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...... Non-Structural (NS) and Structural Proteins (SP) using Ceditest® FMDV-NS and C editest® FMDV type O test kits. Seroprevalences were much higher in Kasese in both tests (61 and 43%, respectively) than in Bushenyi (3 and 4% , respectively). A high proportion of sera, that tested positive in the NSP test......, were subjected to seven serotype specific blocking ELISAs for antibodies against the seven FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3). The study showed presence of antibodies against four FMDV serotypes with decreasing magnitude as follows: O> SAT 1> SAT 3/SAT 2. It is recommended...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of the uterine lumen with bacteria is ubiquitous in cattle after parturition. Some animals develop endometritis and have reduced fertility but others have no uterine disease and readily conceive. The present study tested the hypothesis that postpartum cattle that develop persistent endometritis and infertility are unable to limit the inflammatory response to uterine bacterial infection. Methods Endometrial biopsies were collected several times during the postpartum period from animals that were subsequently infertile with persistent endometritis (n = 4 or had no clinical disease and conceived to first insemination (n = 4. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the expression of candidate genes in the endometrial biopsies, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR 1 to 10 family of innate immune receptors, inflammatory mediators and their cognate receptors. Selected proteins were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results The expression of genes encoding pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukins (IL1A, IL1B and IL6, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2 were higher during the first week post partum than subsequently. During the first week post partum, there was higher gene expression in infertile than fertile animals of TLR4, the receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL1A and IL1B, and their receptor IL1R2. The expression of genes encoding other Toll-like receptors, transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1 or prostaglandin E2 receptors (PTGER2 and PTGER4 did not differ significantly between the animal groups. Gene expression did not differ significantly between infertile and fertile animals after the first week postpartum. However, there were higher ratios of IL1A or IL1B mRNA to the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10, during the first week post partum in the infertile than fertile animals, and the protein products of these genes were mainly localised to the epithelium
Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren;
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...... examined for the presence of antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins and structural proteins using Ceditest® FMDV-NS and Ceditest® FMDV type O (Cedi Diagnostics BV, Lelystad, The Netherlands). Furthermore, serotype-specific antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV were determined using in......-house serotype-specific Solid Phase Blocking ELISAs (SPBE). Of the sera tested, 42.7% (90/211) were positive in the ELISA for antibodies against non-structural proteins, while 75.4% (159/211) had antibodies against the structural proteins of FMDV serotype O. Titres of ≥ 1:160 of serotype-specific antibodies...
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease resistant prion protein throughout the central...
Graham J Belsham
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus replication. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the "field". Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD were obtained from within Pakistan and Afghanistan. The samples were treated to preserve the RNA and then transported to National Veterinary Institute, Lindholm, Denmark. Following RNA extraction, FMDV RNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR and samples containing significant levels of FMDV RNA were introduced into susceptible cells using electroporation. Progeny viruses were amplified in primary bovine thyroid cells and characterized using antigen ELISA and also by RT-PCR plus sequencing. FMD viruses of three different serotypes and multiple lineages have been successfully rescued from the RNA samples. Two of the rescued viruses (of serotype O and Asia 1 were inoculated into bull calves under high containment conditions. Acute clinical disease was observed in each case which spread rapidly from the inoculated calves to in-contact animals. Thus the rescued viruses were highly pathogenic. The availability of the rescued viruses enabled serotyping by antigen ELISA and facilitated genome sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: The procedure described here should improve the characterization of FMDVs circulating in countries where the disease is endemic and thus enhance disease control globally.
Vajana, Elia; Rochat, Estelle; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Masembe, Charles; Joost, Stéphane; Nextgen, Consortium
East Coast Fever (ECF) is a livestock disease caused by Theileria parva, a protozoan transmitted by the vector tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. This disease causes high mortality in cattle populations of Central and Eastern Africa, especially in exotic breeds. Here, we highlight genomic regions likely involved into tolerance/resistance mechanisms against ECF, and we introduce the estimation of their Spatial Area of Genotype Probability (SPAG) to delimit areas where the concerned genotypes a...
Myrian Trotta; Juan Lahore; Nancy Cardoso; Osvaldo Melucci; María Catena; Mariano Pérez-Filgueira; Fernando Fernández; Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous ...
Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P
Hay, K E; Ambrose, R C K; Morton, J M; Horwood, P F; Gravel, J L; Waldron, S; Commins, M A; Fowler, E V; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S; Mahony, T J
Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50days following induction. Biological samples collected from all animals were tested to determine which animals were persistently infected (PI) with BVDV-1. Data obtained from the Australian National Livestock Identification System database were used to determine which groups of animals that were together at the farm of origin and at 28days prior to induction (and were enrolled in the study) contained a PI animal and hence to identify animals that had probably been exposed to a PI animal prior to induction. Multi-level Bayesian logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on the risk of occurrence of BRD. Although only a total of 85 study animals (0.24%) were identified as being PI with BVDV-1, BVDV-1 was detected on quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 59% of cohorts. The PI animals were at moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.9; 95% credible interval 1.0-3.2). Exposure to BVDV-1 in the cohort was also associated with a moderately increased risk of BRD (OR 1.7; 95% credible interval 1.1-2.5) regardless of whether or not a PI animal was identified within the cohort. Additional analyses indicated that a single quantitative real-time PCR test is useful for distinguishing PI animals from transiently infected animals. The results of the study suggest that removal of PI animals and/or vaccination, both before feedlot entry, would reduce the impact of BVDV-1 on BRD risk
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...
Erb, Hollis N.
Epidemiological evidence is presented in order to answer two questions. The first question is: “Does high milk production put a cow at increased risk of disease?” The answer to this question seems to be “maybe” for milk fever, but “no” for most other common diseases (veterinary-assisted dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovary, ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and mastitis). The second question is: “Is low milk production a consequence of disease?” For most diseases the answer is a cautious “yes”. PMID:17422802
Erb, Hollis N.
Epidemiological evidence is presented in order to answer two questions. The first question is: “Does high milk production put a cow at increased risk of disease?” The answer to this question seems to be “maybe” for milk fever, but “no” for most other common diseases (veterinary-assisted dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovary, ketosis, left displaced abomasum, and mastitis). The second question is: “Is low milk production a consequence of disease?” For most diseases the answer is ...
Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin
New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true
Zanella, Ricardo; Casas, Eduardo; Snowder, Gary; Neibergs, Holly L.
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. BVDV infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI) and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2) and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26). The obje...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...
In 1898 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) earned a place in history as the first disease of animals shown to be caused by a virus. Yet, despite over a century of active investigation and elucidation of many aspects of FMD pathogenesis, critical knowledge about the virus-host interactions is still lacking...
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Belsham, Graham; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Balinda, Sheila Nina; Muwanika, Vincent B.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten
Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife arou...
Schutta, Christopher; Barrera, José; Pisano, Melia; Zsak, Laszlo; Grubman, Marvin J; Mayr, Gregory A; Moraes, Mauro P; Kamicker, Barbara J; Brake, David A; Ettyreddy, Damodar; Brough, Douglas E; Butman, Bryan T; Neilan, John G
The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularly to a total of 150 steers in doses ranging from approximately 1.0×10(8) to 2.1×10(11) particle units per animal. No detectable local or systemic reactions were observed after vaccination. At 7 days post-vaccination (dpv), vaccinated and control animals were challenged with FMDV serotype A24 Cruzeiro via the intradermal lingual route. Vaccine efficacy was measured by FMDV A24 serum neutralizing titers and by protection from clinical disease and viremia after challenge. The results of eight studies demonstrated a strong correlation between AdtA24 vaccine dose and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.97) and viremia (R(2)=0.98). There was also a strong correlation between FMDV A24 neutralization titers on day of challenge and protection from clinical disease (R(2)=0.99). Vaccination with AdtA24 enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) as demonstrated by the absence of antibodies to the FMDV nonstructural proteins in vaccinates prior to challenge. Lack of AdtA24 vaccine shedding after vaccination was indicated by the absence of neutralizing antibody titers to both the adenovector and FMDV A24 Cruzeiro in control animals after co-mingling with vaccinated cattle for three to four weeks. In summary, a non-adjuvanted AdtA24 experimental vaccine was shown to be safe, immunogenic, consistently protected cattle at 7 dpv against direct, homologous FMDV challenge, and enabled differentiation of infected from vaccinated cattle prior to challenge. PMID:26707216
Sei, Janet J; Waters, Ryan A; Kenney, Mary; Barlow, John W; Golde, William T
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, investigating their role during FMDV infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, following infection of cattle with FMDV, we investigated the frequency and function of conventional (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) in blood by using multi-color flow cytometry. We show that the frequency of cDC and pDC increased following FMDV infection and peaked 3 to 4 days post-infection. During peak viremia, the cattle became lymphopenic, the expression of MHC class II molecules on cDC and pDC was dramatically down-regulated, the processing of exogenous antigen by cDC and pDC was impaired, and there was an increase in IL-10 production by DC and monocytes. Notably, after clearance of FMDV from the blood, MHC class II expression returned to pre-infection levels. Altogether, our study demonstrates that in cattle, FMDV inhibits the function of DC, thereby retarding the initiation of adaptive immune responses, potentially enhancing virus shedding during the acute phase of infection. PMID:27008425
Sei, Janet J.; Waters, Ryan A.; Kenney, Mary; Barlow, John W.; Golde, William T.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, investigating their role during FMDV infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, following infection of cattle with FMDV, we investigated the frequency and function of conventional (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) in blood by using multi-color flow cytometry. We show that the frequency of cDC and pDC increased following FMDV infection and peaked 3 to 4 days post-infection. During peak viremia, the cattle became lymphopenic, the expression of MHC class II molecules on cDC and pDC was dramatically down-regulated, the processing of exogenous antigen by cDC and pDC was impaired, and there was an increase in IL-10 production by DC and monocytes. Notably, after clearance of FMDV from the blood, MHC class II expression returned to pre-infection levels. Altogether, our study demonstrates that in cattle, FMDV inhibits the function of DC, thereby retarding the initiation of adaptive immune responses, potentially enhancing virus shedding during the acute phase of infection. PMID:27008425
Janet J Sei
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. Dendritic cells (DC play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, investigating their role during FMDV infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, following infection of cattle with FMDV, we investigated the frequency and function of conventional (cDC and plasmacytoid DC (pDC in blood by using multi-color flow cytometry. We show that the frequency of cDC and pDC increased following FMDV infection and peaked 3 to 4 days post-infection. During peak viremia, the cattle became lymphopenic, the expression of MHC class II molecules on cDC and pDC was dramatically down-regulated, the processing of exogenous antigen by cDC and pDC was impaired, and there was an increase in IL-10 production by DC and monocytes. Notably, after clearance of FMDV from the blood, MHC class II expression returned to pre-infection levels. Altogether, our study demonstrates that in cattle, FMDV inhibits the function of DC, thereby retarding the initiation of adaptive immune responses, potentially enhancing virus shedding during the acute phase of infection.
Glass, Elizabeth J; Baxter, Rebecca; Leach, Richard J; Jann, Oliver C
Farm animals remain at risk of endemic, exotic and newly emerging viruses. Vaccination is often promoted as the best possible solution, and yet for many pathogens, either there are no appropriate vaccines or those that are available are far from ideal. A complementary approach to disease control may be to identify genes and chromosomal regions that underlie genetic variation in disease resistance and response to vaccination. However, identification of the causal polymorphisms is not straightf...
Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary
Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) ...
Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J
To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more
Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease (LSD is a disease of cattle, primarily in Africa and Madagascar and rarely in the Middle East. It is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. The disease is of economic importance in endemic areas. Effective control of LSD requires accurate and rapid laboratory techniques to confirm a tentative clinical diagnosis. Comparative studies on different diagnostic tests used at different stages of the disease have not been done. The aim of this study was to compare several of these tests. Six seronegative bulls, between 11 and 20 months of age, were infected intravenously and kept in an insect-free facility. The course of the infection was monitored. During a 3-month period blood samples and skin biopsies were collected for virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Skin biopsies were also examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The incubation period in infected animals varied from 4-5 days. The length of the viraemic period did not correlate with the severity of clinical disease. Viraemia was detected from 1-12 days using virus isolation and from 4-11 days using the PCR, which is longer than has previously been reported. Virus was isolated from skin biopsies until Day 39 post infection (p.i. and PCR could demonstrate viral DNA until Day 92 p.i. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained skin biopsies detected LSD virus only in one of the four bulls that developed skin lesions until Day 33 p.i. The PCR was a fast and sensitive method to demonstrate viral DNA in blood and skin samples. It could detect viral nucleic acid in skin lesions 53 days longer than virus isolation. Virus isolation from blood and skin samples was sensitive and reliable, but as a single test it may be too time-consuming to use although this depends on how rapidly the diagnosis must be confirmed. In conclusion, this study showed the PCR to be superior in detecting LSD virus from blood and skin samples
Rashid Ahmad, Javaid Iqbal and Ghu1am Akbar1
During the months of December 200 I and January 2002, an outbreak of Foot and Mouth disease (Foot and Mouth Disease type-A virus) was recorded in a crossbred dairy herd at Livestock Experiment Station, Qadirabad. The sick animals showed only the oral lesions except one, which developed foot lesions after 10 days. The overall morbidity rate was 52.13% while the same was recorded as 7.95, 14.06, 97.36, 80.14, 62.68, 62.68, 62.50, and 7.14% in milking cows, dry cows, male young stock, female you...
Bravo De Rueda, C.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Eble, P.L.; Dekker, A.
The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was perfor
The decrease in cost of Next-Generation Sequencing has brought the technology into the realm of practical applications in livestock genomics. Recently, the 1000 Bulls Project has heralded the possibility of using full sequence data to improve imputation and detect disease loci within select founder ...
Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham;
To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples...... were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK® FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45...... Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. Consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2, was the isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently...
Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;
A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through...... periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals.There was a significant increase in serum concentrations....... There was a statistically significant difference in the HP response between carriers and non-carriers with a lower response in the animals that subsequently developed into FMDV carriers. It was concluded that the induction of SAA, HP and type 1 IFN in serum can be used as markers of acute infection by FMDV in cattle....
Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Lohse, Louise; Belsham, Graham
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oralswab and probangsamples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oralswabs as well...... as in probangsamples from both species. FMDV RNA could be detected in oralswabs and probangsamples from a time point corresponding to the onset of viremia in directly inoculated animals, whereas animals which were infected through contact exposure had low levels of FMDV RNA in oralswabs before viral RNA could...... be measured in serum. Analysis of samples collected from cattle persistently infected with FMDV showed that it was not possible to detect FMDV RNA in oralswabs harvested beyond 10 days post infection (dpi), despite the presence of FMDV RNA in probangsamples that had been collected as late as 35 dpi...
Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi
H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues. PMID:27010466
Qual, D A; Kaneene, J B; Varty, T J; Miller, R; Thoen, C O
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify associations between Crohn's disease (CD) and Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) exposure. A questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to cattle infected with Map, and personal and family history of CD in dairy and beef cattle producers with and without Map-infected herds, and in veterinarians who did or did not have contact with Map-infected herds. Cases of CD were selected from respondents and matched 1:4 with controls on occupation, age, and sex. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between Map exposure and CD. There were 3 cases of CD in 702 producers and 4 cases in 774 veterinarians, yielding a prevalence of 0.47%. No association was found between exposure to JD and CD in any phase of the analysis. However, the number of cases of CD is not large and limits the power to detect important differences. PMID:20494145
Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan
The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies. PMID:21968089
A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals. After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to p...
Swai ES; Schoonman L
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ≥3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods: Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results: Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospirahardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.
Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.;
Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult ticks......, without providing complete tick control. In one trial, which tested a threshold dipping regimen, 20 heifers were dipped only once in 6 months to control a flush of Boophilus microplus. Unimmunised controls showed serological evidence of exposure to T. parva and B. bigemina, and one died of ECF, but there...... were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically...
The intact open reading frame (ORF) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Asia I/XJ strain was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted into the transfer vector pVL1393 to generate plasmid pVL-ORF. Bm-N cells were transfected with pVL-ORF and linearized Bm-BacPAK6 DNA, and the recombinant silkworm baculovirus Bm-ORF containing the full ORF of FMDV was obtained. The results of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that Bm-ORF could be expressed efficiently in Bm-N cell. After inoculating the early 5th instar larvae of silkworm, the polyprotein of FMDV could be detected by sandwich ELISA and empty capsid-like particles could be observed under the electron microscope. Expression products from silkworm were used as the antigen to immunize the cattle. The specific antibody was induced in all vaccinated animals. The immunized cattle were challenged with the virulent FMDV Asia I/XJ strain, two of the four cattle were completely protected and clinical symptoms were alleviated and delayed in the others. The results suggest that this strategy might be used to develop the new subunit FMDV vaccine.
Bronsvoort, Barend M deC; Handel, Ian G; Nfon, Charles K; Sørensen, Karl-Johan; Malirat, Viviana; Bergmann, Ingrid; Tanya, Vincent N; Morgan, Kenton L
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) "carrier" state was defined by van Bekkum in 1959. It was based on the recovery of infectious virus 28 days or more post infection and has been a useful construct for experimental studies. Using historic data from 1,107 cattle, collected as part of a population based study of endemic FMD in 2000, we developed a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable FMDV by probang and culture, conditional on the animal's age and time since last reported outbreak. We constructed a second set of models to predict the probability of an animal being probang positive given its antibody response in three common non-structural protein (NSP) ELISAs and its age. We argue that, in natural ecological settings, the current definition of a "carrier" fails to capture the dynamics of either persistence of the virus (as measured by recovery using probangs) or the uncertainty in transmission from such animals that the term implies. In these respects it is not particularly useful. We therefore propose the first predictive statistical models for identifying persistently infected cattle in an endemic setting that captures some of the dynamics of the probability of persistence. Furthermore, we provide a set of predictive tools to use alongside NSP ELISAs to help target persistently infected cattle. PMID:27381947
Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Handel, Ian G.; Nfon, Charles K.; Sørensen, Karl-Johan; Malirat, Viviana; Bergmann, Ingrid; Tanya, Vincent N.; Morgan, Kenton L.
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) “carrier” state was defined by van Bekkum in 1959. It was based on the recovery of infectious virus 28 days or more post infection and has been a useful construct for experimental studies. Using historic data from 1,107 cattle, collected as part of a population based study of endemic FMD in 2000, we developed a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable FMDV by probang and culture, conditional on the animal’s age and time since last reported outbreak. We constructed a second set of models to predict the probability of an animal being probang positive given its antibody response in three common non-structural protein (NSP) ELISAs and its age. We argue that, in natural ecological settings, the current definition of a ”carrier” fails to capture the dynamics of either persistence of the virus (as measured by recovery using probangs) or the uncertainty in transmission from such animals that the term implies. In these respects it is not particularly useful. We therefore propose the first predictive statistical models for identifying persistently infected cattle in an endemic setting that captures some of the dynamics of the probability of persistence. Furthermore, we provide a set of predictive tools to use alongside NSP ELISAs to help target persistently infected cattle. PMID:27381947
Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter
The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure the...... thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits, but......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...
Seifi, Hesam A; Leblanc, Stephen J; Leslie, Ken E; Duffield, Todd F
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the relationship between serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose and calcium (Ca) with the occurrence of displaced abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis and culling in Holstein cows. Eight hundred and forty-nine cows from 16 farms were sampled weekly for the first 3 weeks post-partum. The cows were under clinical observation from calving until 60 days in milk (DIM) and during this time there were 22 cases of DA, 31 cases of clinical ketosis and 39 cows were culled. Elevated concentrations of BHBA were associated with DA, clinical ketosis and culling. In the first week after calving, cows with serum BHBA ≥1000μmol/L had 13.6 times greater odds of developing DA than cows with lower values. Serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations during week 1 were associated with the subsequent occurrence of clinical ketosis. The odds of clinical ketosis were 6.3 times greater in cows with serum NEFA ≥ 1.0mmol/L in the first week after calving. In addition, cows with BHB ≥1200μmol/L in the first week after calving, were at 4.7 times greater risk of developing clinical ketosis. In the first and second weeks after calving the serum Ca concentration was associated with subsequent culling. In addition, cows with NEFA concentration ≥ 1.0mmol/L were 3.6 times more likely to be culled within the following 2 months. The study indicated that early post-partum serum BHBA, NEFA and Ca concentrations have potential as indicators of disease and culling risk in dairy cows. PMID:20457532
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to establish the incidence of cystic ovarian disease (COD and its geographical and seasonal variation in Norway, investigate the effect of COD on culling rates, and describe the effects of COD on subsequent reproductive performance and its association to twins. Methods Diagnosis of COD was made by veterinary surgeons in the field. Four statistical models were made all including herd as random effect: The four different dependent variables investigated were: 1 Diagnosis of COD between 40 and 165 days in milk or not; (n = 511,657; 2 Twins or singleton; data restricted to lactations with new calving (n = 156,661: 3 Culling/removal or not (n = 573,184: 4 Culling due to reproductive problems; data included only lactations which ended in culling (n = 234,232. Model 1, 3 and 4 applied Cox regression models, and model 2 logistic regression. Independent variables were parity, twins/singletons, calving season, herd size, region, COD occurrence in present lactation (if not dependent, and COD diagnosis in previous lactation. Results The incidence was 0.82% per lactation. COD increased with increasing parity, was smallest at herd size between 35 and 85 cows. Cows in 1st parity and calved in spring had lowest hazard of COD and hazard for COD diagnosis was highest in autumn with HR = 2.6 (1.9 - 3.4 compared to spring. There was an interaction between parity and season. COD incidence was lower south of 60°N. Cows which experienced COD had an increased odds of giving birth to twins OR = 2.2 (1.7 - 2.7. Of those that were culled, those with COD were culled more frequently because of reproductive problems; HR = 2.1 (1.9 - 2.3 for higher parity than 2. Having COD diagnosed in the preceding lactation was a hazard for diagnosis in the lactation studied. Conclusion COD diagnosis is strongly associated with season (autumn calving and parity. Herds north of 60°N have more COD. Occurrence of COD is associated with twin
Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;
A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN......-a mRNA expressed in samples derived from animals that were identified subsequently as persistently infected FMDV-carriers. It was concluded that there was a significant difference in the host-response in the DSP of calves that were identified as persistently infected, subclinical carriers of FMDV....
Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril;
Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... region within the O1K B64 strain that inhibits replication in cattle. These chimeric infectious cDNA plasmids provide a basis for the analysis of FMDV pathogenicity and characterization of receptor utilization in vivo....
Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam
There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette;
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced...... in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When...... the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle...
Fulton, R W; d'Offay, J M; Landis, C; Miles, D G; Smith, R A; Saliki, J T; Ridpath, J F; Confer, A W; Neill, J D; Eberle, R; Clement, T J; Chase, C C L; Burge, L J; Payton, M E
This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected from 114 cattle on initial BRD treatment. Processing included modified live virus (MLV) vaccination. Seven BRD necropsy cases were included for 121 total cases. Mean number of days on feed before first sample was 14.9 days. Swabs and tissue homogenates were tested by gel based PCR (G-PCR), quantitative-PCR (qPCR) and quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) and viral culture. There were 87/114 (76.3%) swabs positive for at least one virus by at least one test. All necropsy cases were positive for at least one virus. Of 121 cases, positives included 18/121 (14.9%) BoHV-1; 19/121 (15.7%) BVDV; 76/121 (62.8%) BoCV; 11/121 (9.1%) BRSV; and 10/121 (8.3%) PI3V. For nasal swabs, G-PCR (5 viruses) detected 44/114 (38.6%); q-PCR and qRT-PCR (4 viruses) detected 81/114 (71.6%); and virus isolation detected 40/114 (35.1%). Most were positive for only one or two tests, but not all three tests. Necropsy cases had positives: 5/7 G-PCR, 5/7 q-PCR and qRT-PCR, and all were positive by cell culture. In some cases, G-PCR and both real time PCR were negative for BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V in samples positive by culture. PCR did not differentiate field from vaccines strains of BoHV-1, BVDV, and PI3V. However based on sequencing and analysis, field and vaccine strains of culture positive BoHV-1, BoCV, BVDV, and PI3V, 11/18 (61.1%) of BoHV-1 isolates, 6/17 (35.3%) BVDV isolates, and 1/10 (10.0%) PI3V identified as vaccine. BRSV was only identified by PCR testing. Interpretation of laboratory tests is appropriate as molecular based tests and virus isolation cannot separate field from vaccine strains. Additional testing using sequencing appears appropriate for identifying vaccine
Wambua, Lillian; Wambua, Peninah Nduku; Ramogo, Allan Maurice; Mijele, Domnic; Otiende, Moses Yongo
Wildebeest-associated malignant catarrhal fever (WA-MCF), an acute lymphoproliferative disease of cattle caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), remains a significant constraint to cattle production in nomadic pastoralist systems in eastern and southern Africa. The transmission of WA-MCF is dependent on the presence of the wildlife reservoir, i.e. wildebeest, belonging to the species Connochaetes taurinus and Connochaetes gnou; hence, the distribution of WA-MCF is largely restricted to Kenya, Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa, where wildebeest are present. WA-MCF is analogous to sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF) in many aspects, with the latter having sheep as its reservoir host and a more global distribution, mainly in developed countries with intensive livestock production systems. However, unlike SA-MCF, the geographic seclusion of WA-MCF may have contributed to an apparent neglect in research efforts aimed at increased biological understanding and control of the disease. This review aims to highlight the importance of WA-MCF and the need for intensified research towards measures for its integrated control. We discuss current knowledge on transmission and geographical distribution in eastern and southern Africa and the burden of WA-MCF in affected vulnerable pastoral communities in Africa. Recent findings towards vaccine development and pertinent knowledge gaps for future research efforts on WA-MCF are also considered. Finally, integrated control of WA-MCF based on a logical three-pronged framework is proposed, contextualizing vaccine development, next-generation diagnostics, and diversity studies targeted to the viral pathogen and cattle hosts. PMID:26446889
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous application of a Bacillus anthracis live vaccine with a commercial tetravalent oil-based FMD vaccine (FMD-vac used in Argentina, modifies the antibody booster responses against FMD virus (FMDV in cattle. Two groups of 16 heifers with comparable liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE titers were immunized with the FMD-vac alone or simultaneously with a commercial attenuated bovine anthrax Sterne strain vaccine (ABV. Serum samples were obtained at 0, 25, 60 and 90 days post vaccination (dpv and specific antibodies against two FMDV vaccine strains were assessed by LPBE, avidity and IgG-isotype ELISAs. Bovines immunized with FMD-vac or FMDV-V + ABV responded with a boost in the LPBE antibody titers and avidity at 25 dpv, and remained within similar levels up to the end of the study. Animals vaccinated with FMD-vac + ABV had significantly higher LPBE titers at 25 dpv, compared to those immunized with FMD-vac alone; which was due to an increase in IgG2 titers. Overall, antibody titers elicited in both groups were similar and followed comparable kinetics over time. We conclude that the simultaneous application of a live anthrax vaccine with the current FMD tetravalent vaccine used in Argentina in cattle previously immunized against FMD, did not counteract the serological response induced by FMD vaccination.
Mulongo, Musa; Frey, Joachim; Smith, Ken; Schnier, Christian; Wesonga, Hezron; Naessens, Jan; McKeever, Declan
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a serious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. Current vaccines against CBPP induce short-lived immunity and can cause severe postvaccine reactions. Previous studies have identified the N terminus of the transmembrane lipoprotein Q (LppQ-N') of M. mycoides subsp. mycoides as the major antigen and a possible virulence factor. We therefore immunized cattle with purified recombinant LppQ-N' formulated in Freund's adjuvant and challenged them with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides. Vaccinated animals showed a strong seroconversion to LppQ, but they exhibited significantly enhanced postchallenge glomerulonephritis compared to the placebo group (P = 0.021). Glomerulonephritis was characterized by features that suggested the development of antigen-antibody immune complexes. Clinical signs and gross pathological scores did not significantly differ between vaccinated and placebo groups. These findings reveal for the first time the pathogenesis of enhanced disease as a result of antibodies against LppQ during challenge and also argue against inclusion of LppQ-N' in a future subunit vaccine for CBPP. PMID:25733516
Sammin, D J; Paton, D J; Parida, S; Ferris, N P; Hutchings, G H; Reid, S M; Shaw, A E; Holmes, C; Gibson, D; Corteyn, M; Knowles, N J; Valarcher, J-F; Hamblin, P A; Fleming, L; Gwaze, G; Sumption, K J
During a field study in Zimbabwe, clinical specimens were collected from 403 cattle in six herds, in which the history of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination and infection appeared to be known with some certainty. Five herds had reported outbreaks of disease one to five months previously but clinical FMD had not been observed in the sixth herd. A trivalent vaccine (South African Territories [SAT] types 1, 2 and 3) had been used in some of the herds at various times either before and/or after the recent outbreaks of FMD. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of serological tests for the detection of SAT-type FMD virus infection, particularly elisas for antibodies to non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD virus and solid phase competition ELISAS (SPCEs) for serotypes SAT1 and SAT2. Secondary aims were to examine NSP seroconversion rates in cattle that had been exposed to infection and to compare virus detection rates by virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rtRT-PCR) tests on both oesophagopharyngeal fluids and nasopharyngeal brush swabbings. In addition, the hooves of sampled animals were examined for growth arrest lines as clinical evidence of FMD convalescence. Laboratory tests provided evidence of FMD virus infection in all six herds; SAT2 viruses were isolated from oesophagopharyngeal fluids collected from two herds in northern Zimbabwe, and SAT1 viruses were isolated from three herds in southern Zimbabwe. Optimised rtRT-PCR was more sensitive than virus isolation at detecting FMD virus persistence and when the results of the two methods were combined for oesophagopharyngeal fluids, between 12 and 35 per cent of the cattle sampled in the convalescent herds were deemed to be carriers. In contrast, nasopharyngeal swabs yielded only two virus-positive specimens. The overall seroprevalence in the five affected herds varied with the different NSPS from 56 per cent to 75 per cent, compared with 81 per cent and 91 per cent
Background: Cattle babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle that has severe economic impact on cattle producers throughout the world's tropical and subtropical countries. The most severe form of the disease is caused by the apicomplexan, Babesia bovis, and transmitted to cattle through the bite ...
Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Belsham, Graham
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. The occurrence of persistently infected ‘‘carriers’’ of FMD-virus (FMDV) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control....... There have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. In this study, collection of small biopsy samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of live animals...... was used to investigate the level of FMDV RNA present at this site at sequential time points during the infection. Results were compared to measurements of virus excretion in samples of oropharyngeal fluid collected at corresponding time points. Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through...
Capozzo, Alejandra V; Wilda, Maximiliano; Bucafusco, Danilo; de los Ángeles Lavoria, María; Franco-Mahecha, Olga L; Mansilla, Florencia C; Pérez-Filgueira, Daniel M; Grigera, Pablo R
Effective Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) peptide vaccines for cattle have two major constraints: resemblance of one or more of the multiple conformations of the major VP1 antigenic sites to induce neutralizing antibodies, and stimulation of T cells despite the variable bovine-MHC polymorphism. To overcome these limitations, a chimeric antigen was developed, using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) as carrier protein of an in tandem-dimer of FMDV antigenic site A (ASA), the major epitope on the VP1 capsid protein (aa 139-149, FMDV-C3 serotype). The G-ASA construct was expressed in the Baculovirus system to produce a recombinant protein (DEL BAC) (cloned in pCDNA 3.1 plasmid) (Invitrogen Corporation, Carlsbad, CA) and was also prepared as a DNA vaccine (pC DEL). Calves vaccinated with both immunogens elicited antibodies that recognized the ASA in whole virion and were able to neutralize FMDV infectivity in vitro. After two vaccine doses, DEL BAC induced serum neutralizing titers compatible with an "expected percentage of protection" above 90%. Plasmid pC DEL stimulated FMDV specific humoral responses earlier than DEL BAC, though IgG1 to IgG2 ratios were lower than those induced by both DEL BAC and inactivated FMDV-C3 after the second dose. DEL BAC induced FMDV-specific secretion of IFN-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of outbred cattle immunized with commercial FMDV vaccine, suggesting its capacity to recall anamnestic responses mediated by functional T cell epitopes. The results show that exposing FMDV-VP1 major neutralizing antigenic site in the context of N-terminal sequences of the VSV G protein can overcome the immunological limitations of FMDV-VP1 peptides as effective protein and DNA vaccines for cattle. PMID:21889542
Juan M Pacheco
Full Text Available Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95% and dorsal soft palate (71.43%. FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT. Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198, IFN-β (RE = 0.269, IL-12 (RE = 0.275, and IL-2 (RE = 0.312. Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065. Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.
Ricardo B. Lucena
Full Text Available As doenças que acometem bovinos na região Sul do Brasil foram analisadas através de um estudo dos protocolos de necropsia de 6.706 bovinos examinados pelo Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, de 1964-2008. Desses, 20,9% foram necropsias realizadas no LPV-UFSM e 79,1% foram amostras de tecidos submetidos por veterinários de campo. Dos 6.706 exames, 62,9% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo. A autólise ou material insuficiente foram as principais razões para a ocorrência de casos com diagnóstico inconclusivo. A intoxicação por Senecio spp. foi a principal causa de morte de bovinos neste estudo. As plantas tóxicas e as toxiinfecções juntas, responderam por 22,8% dos casos com diagnóstico conclusivo. As doenças inflamatórias e as parasitoses juntas contribuíram com mais de 30% das doenças de bovinos e a tristeza parasitária bovina foi a principal doença nessa categoria. As demais categorias distribuíram-se na seguinte ordem: neoplasmas e lesões tumoriformes (13,87%, doenças causadas por agentes físicos (2,7%, doenças metabólicas e nutricionais (2,46%, distúrbios circulatórios (1,4%, doenças degenerativas (1,1%, distúrbios do desenvolvimento (0,54%, distúrbios iatrogênicos (0,16%, distúrbios imunogênicos (0,19% e, outros distúrbios (0,21%. A alta prevalência de tumores em bovinos foi atribuída a ingestão crônica de Pteridium aquilinum, uma toxicose comum na região. As principais doenças de bovinos na região estudada estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais resultante do manejo característico de criação predominantemente extensiva adotado na região.The diseases affecting cattle in southern Brazil were studied through a review of the necropsy reports filed at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, and pertaining to the examination of 6.076 cattle during 1964-2008. Of those
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer, which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP. They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.
Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events. PMID:19294983
Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar
The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...
Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice;
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Uganda in spite of the control measures used. Various aspects of the maintenance and circulation of FMD viruses (FMDV) in Uganda are not well understood; these include the role of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) as a reservoir for FMDV. To better...... understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15 %) of 247...... serum samples had detectable antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSPs) using a pan-serotypic assay. Within these 37 sera, antibody titres ≥ 80 against the structural proteins of serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were detected by ELISA in 5, 7, 4 and 3 samples, respectively, while...
• Multiple cases of acorn poisoning in cattle and sheep following bumper crop • Salmonella Dublin infection causes abortions in cattle • Respiratory disease affecting different age groups of pigs on a nursery finisher unit • Porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome cases diagnosed • A further case of suspect Marek's disease in turkeys. These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for November 2013 to January 2014. PMID:24578432
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a “single cycle” packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham J
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro) using a "single cycle" packaged alphavirus self-replicating RNA based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV). When the FMDV P1-2A was expressed with 3Cpro then processing of the FMDV capsid precursor protein is observed within cells and the proteins assemble into empty capsid particles. The products interact with anti-FMDV antibodies in an ELISA and bind to the integrin αvβ6 (a cellular receptor for FMDV). In cattle vaccinated with these rSFV-FMDV vectors alone, anti-FMDV antibodies were elicited but the immune response was insufficient to give protection against FMDV challenge. However, the prior vaccination with these vectors resulted in a much stronger immune response against FMDV post-challenge and the viremia observed was decreased in level and duration. In subsequent experiments, cattle were sequentially vaccinated with a rSFV-FMDV followed by recombinant FMDV empty capsid particles, or vice versa, prior to challenge. Animals given a primary vaccination with the rSFV-FMDV vector and then boosted with FMDV empty capsids showed a strong anti-FMDV antibody response prior to challenge, they were protected against disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera post-challenge. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed. This prime-boost system, using reagents that can be generated outside of high-containment facilities
Schaffer, Aaron P; Larson, Robert L; Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Hanzlicek, Gregg A; Bartle, Steven J; Thomson, Daniel U
OBJECTIVE To describe the frequency of calfhood producer-identified bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in Holstein replacement heifers on 1 large farm and determine associations between development of BRDC at ≤ 120 days of age (BRDC120) with milk production estimate, calving interval, and risk of departure from the herd (DFH). DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 14,024 Holstein heifer calves born on 1 farm. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from herd management records. Cox proportional hazard and generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to assess associations for variables of interest (BRDC120 status, demographic data, and management factors) with DFH, milk production estimate, and calving interval. RESULTS Except for the year 2007, animals identified as having BRDC120 were 1.62 to 4.98 times as likely to leave the herd before first calving, compared with those that did not have this designation. Calves identified as having BRDC prior to weaning were 2.62 times as likely to have DFH before first calving as those classified as developing BRDC after weaning. Cows identified as having BRDC120 were 1.28 times as likely to have DFH between the first and second calving as were other cows. The BRDC120 designation was associated with a 233-kg (513-lb) lower 305-day mature equivalent value for first lactation milk production, but was not associated with longer or shorter calving intervals at maturity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dairy cattle identified as having BRDC120 had increased risk of DFH before the first or second calving and lower first-lactation milk production estimates, compared with results for cattle without this finding. Further investigation of these associations is warranted. PMID:27135672
Full Text Available Li Pan,1,2 Zhongwang Zhang,1,2 Jianliang Lv,1,2 Peng Zhou,1,2 Wenfa Hu,1,2 Yuzhen Fang,1,2 Haotai Chen,1,2 Xinsheng Liu,1,2 Junjun Shao,1,2 Furong Zhao,1,2 Yaozhong Ding,1,2 Tong Lin,1,2 Huiyun Chang,1,2 Jie Zhang,1,2 Yongguang Zhang,1,2 Yonglu Wang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD. In this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type A FMD were designed: (1 chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with plasmid DNA (Chi-PLGA-DNA and (2 chitosan-trehalose and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV (Chi-Tre-Inactivated. Cattle were immunized by an intranasal route with nanoparticles and then challenged for 48 hours by direct contact with two infected donor cattle per pen. Donors were inoculated intradermally in the tongue 48 hours before challenge, with 0.2 mL cattle-passaged FMDV. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were evaluated, and virus excretion and the number of contact infections were quantified. FMDV-specific secretory immunoglobulin (IgA (sIgA antibodies in nasal washes were initially detected at 4 days postvaccination (dpv with two kinds of nanoparticles. The highest levels of sIgA expression were observed in nasal washes, at 10 dpv, from animals with Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles, followed by animals immunized once by intranasal route with
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...
O'Sullivan, B M; Healy, P J; Fraser, I R; Nieper, R E; Whittle, R J; Sewell, C A
Generalised glycogenosis was diagnosed in Brahman cattle on 4 Queensland properties on the basis of clinical observations and pathological and biochemical findings. The disease presented as a problem of ill-thrift and poor growth rate in calves which eventually showed nervous signs. Histologically there was vacuolation in the cells of the central nervous system, heart and muscular tissues. Biochemical assay of liver and blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a deficiency of alpha-glucosidase. Parents of affected calves had approximately half the alpha-glucosidase activity of that found in normal cattle. PMID:6945845
A study has been conducted to determine the effect of gamma ray irradiation to attenuate infectivity of S. agalactiae as dominant bacteria causing mastitis in dairy cattle. The aim of the study is obtaining optimum irradiation dosage to provide radio vaccine for mastitis. S. agalactiae isolate bacteria of which has reach the mid log-phase was cultured and divided into 6 treatment groups of irradiation doses, i.e. 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 kGy. Following irradiation, bacteria were then cultured in BHI agar media for colony counting to determine the LD50, resulting 7.5x108; 5.0x107; 7.0x106; 9.5x105; 1.5x104; and 3.5x103 cell/ml, respectively. Result of this study shows the higher irradiation doses the lower number of bacteria per ml, and LD50, which found to be under 0.2 kGy of irradiation dose
Glauco J.N. Galiza
Full Text Available Para determinar as doenças que ocorrem no sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em 411 necropsias de bovinos realizadas no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2008. Dos 411 casos analisados 139 (33,81% apresentaram alterações clínicas do sistema nervoso e as fichas foram revisadas para determinar os principais achados referentes à epidemiologia, aos sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. Em 28 (20,14% casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. As principais enfermidades foram raiva (48,7% dos casos com sinais nervosos, abscessos cerebrais (7,2% incluindo três casos de abscesso da pituitária, febre catarral maligna (6,3%, botulismo (6,3%, alterações congênitas (4,5%, traumatismo (4,5%, tuberculose (2,7%, tétano (2,7%, infecção por herpesvírus bovino-5 (2,7%, encefalomielite não supurativa (2,7%, intoxicação por Prosopis juliflora (2,7%, status spongiosus congênito de causa desconhecida (1,8% e polioencefalomalacia (1,8%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (0,9% foram criptococose, listeriose, encefalite tromboembólica, linfossarcoma, tripanossomíase e babesiose por Babesia bovis.Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil were evaluated by a retrospective study of 411 cattle necropsies performed in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, from January 2000 to December 2008. Of the 411 cases analyzed, 139 (33.81% were from cattle that presented nervous signs and the records were reviewed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and macroscopic and histologic main features. Diagnosis was inconclusive in 28 cases (20.14%. In cases with diagnosis the main diseases were rabies (48.7% of the cases with nervous signs, brain abscesses (7.2% including three cases of
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...
Previous work in swine has demonstrated that full protection against Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) can be achieved following vaccination with chimeric Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) vaccines, whereby the VP1 G-H loop has been substituted with a non-homologous alternative. If proven to be effect...
Doyle, Rovaina L; França, Raqueli T; Oliveira, Camila B; Rezer, João F P; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Mesick, Joanne B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Daniela B R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Andrade, Cinthia M
Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma marginale. These bacteria are transmitted by tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, blood-sucking insects, and fomites (needles, clippers, and other blood contaminated equipment). During the acute phase of infection, animals may develop fever, anemia, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. The aims of this study are to quantify the bacteremia by quantitative PCR in eight naïve calves experimentally infected by A. marginale [splenectomized (n = 4), and intact/non-splenectomized (n = 4)], and to correlate these findings with markers of oxidative stress on days 0, 8, 15, 21 and 23 post-infection. Complete blood counts (CBC) were performed in both groups. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed by erythrocyte content of non-protein thiols (NPSH). There were no significant differences in complete blood counts (CBC) between the two groups. However, both groups had a slight decrease on packet cell volume (PCV), erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, as well as an increase in total leukocyte counts due to elevated lymphocytes when comparing pre and post-infection with A. marginale. Progressive increase on TBARS levels and concomitant decrease on NPSH content were observed in all animals, without significant differences between splenectomized and intact animals. A positive correlation between bacteremia and TBARS, and a negative correlation between bacteremia and NPSH were observed in both groups with higher correlation for NPSH in splenectomized animals. A negative correlation between TBARS and NPSH levels was observed in both groups indicating lipid peroxidation without a non-enzymatic antioxidant response. The results of experimental infection by A. marginale in cattle showed that bacteremia has an impact on lipid peroxidation regardless of the splenectomy. PMID
Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.
House, J K; Smith, B P; Maas, J; Lane, V M; Anderson, B C; Graham, T W; Pino, M V
Two 2-year-old Salers cattle from different herds raised on pasture were evaluated for retarded growth and diarrhea. Increase of liver enzyme activities and prolonged sulfobromophothalein (BSP) half life (T1/2) indicated liver disease with impaired liver function. Histopathologic examination of liver biopsies revealed a micronodular cirrhosis with marked deposition of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and arterioles. Transferrin saturation (TS) and liver iron content were markedly increased, consistent with a diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Both animals were euthanatized due to deterioration in their condition. Necropsy findings included hepatomegaly and hemosiderin accumulation in the liver, lymph nodes, pancreas, spleen, thyroid, kidney, brain and other glandular tissue. Continued surveillance of the second herd (serum iron, total iron binding capacity [TIBC], unsaturated iron binding capacity [UIBC], and TS), identified a heifer as a hemochromatosis suspect in a subsequent generation. Liver biopsies from that animal revealed the same histopathologic changes as the previous 2 animals, and similar increases in liver iron content (8,700 ppm, normal range 45 to 300 ppm). The 3 affected cattle were all products of line breeding programs and shared a common ancestor. The absence of dietary iron loading in conjunction with the histopathologic and metabolic findings were consistent with a diagnosis of primary hemochromatosis. The reported disease is similar to idiopathic hemochromatosis in human beings in which there is a hereditary defect in iron metabolism. PMID:8046672
Full Text Available Abstract Background New and emerging diseases of livestock may impact animal welfare, trade and public health. Early detection of outbreaks can reduce the impact of these diseases by triggering control measures that limit the number of cases that occur. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prospective spatiotemporal methods could be used to identify outbreaks of new and emerging diseases in scanning surveillance data. SaTScan was used to identify clusters of unusually high levels of submissions where a diagnosis could not be reached (DNR using different probability models and baselines. The clusters detected were subjected to a further selection process to reduce the number of false positives and a more detailed epidemiological analysis to ascertain whether they were likely to represent real outbreaks. Results 187,925 submissions of clinical material from cattle were made to the Regional Laboratory of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA between 2002 and 2007, and the results were stored on the VLA FarmFile database. 16,925 of these were classified as DNRs and included in the analyses. Variation in the number and proportion of DNRs was found between syndromes and regions, so a spatiotemporal analysis for each DNR syndrome was done. Six clusters were identified using the Bernoulli model after applying selection criteria (e.g. size of cluster. The further epidemiological analysis revealed that one of the systemic clusters could plausibly have been due to Johne's disease. The remainder were either due to misclassification or not consistent with a single diagnosis. Conclusions Our analyses have demonstrated that spatiotemporal methods can be used to detect clusters of new or emerging diseases, identify clusters of known diseases that may not have been diagnosed and identify misclassification in the data, and highlighted the impact of data quality on the ability to detect outbreaks. Spatiotemporal methods should be used alongside
DeDonder, K D; Apley, M D; Li, M; Gehring, R; Harhay, D M; Lubbers, B V; White, B J; Capik, S F; KuKanich, B; Riviere, J E; Tessman, R K
The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in plasma or in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) effect compartment. The study design was a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial utilizing three groups of 60 (362-592 lb) steers/bulls randomly allocated within origin to sham injection or gamithromycin mass medication. Cattle were evaluated daily for signs of BRD by a veterinarian blinded to treatment. Animals meeting the BRD case definition were enrolled and allocated to a sample collection scheme consisting of samples for bacterial isolation (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and nasopharyngeal swabs) and gamithromycin concentration determination (PELF and plasma). Gamithromycin susceptibility of M. haemolytica (n = 287) and P. multocida (n = 257) were determined using broth microdilution with frozen panels containing gamithromycin at concentrations from 0.03 to 16 μg/mL. A two-compartment plasma pharmacokinetic model with an additional compartment for gamithromycin in PELF was developed using rich data sets from published and unpublished studies. The sparse data from our study were then fit to this model using nonlinear mixed effects modeling to estimate individual parameter values. The resulting parameter estimates were used to simulate full time-concentration profiles for each animal in this study. These profiles were analyzed using noncompartmental methods so that PK/PD indices (AUC24 /MIC, AUC∞ /MIC, CMAX /MIC) could be calculated for plasma and PELF (also T>MIC) for each individual. The calculated PK/PD indices were indicative that for both M. haemolytica and P. multocida a higher drug
Maurer, B; Forster, S
For disease control in the case of epidemics killing of cattle via electrical stunning is a method of choice. The official veterinarian is responsible for monitoring the adhesion to animal welfare principles during electrical stunning and killing. This requires specialised knowledge and experience as the symptoms of effective stunning are quite variable in cattle. Signs of effective and ineffective stunning are described below. In addition to suitable technical equipment, restraint of the animals and correct use of the equipment, neurophysiological processes have to be considered. Calm handling of the animals avoiding stress is a prerequisite for ensuring animal welfare and minimising pain especially when killing cattle using electrical methods. PMID:17484500
Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
spreads rapidly amongst susceptible animals. The host response involves initial activation of the innate immune response, followed by subsequent production of high titres of anti-FMDV antibodies in the circulation. Antibodies are effective in clearing virus from the circulation, but in a proportion...... with FMDV O UKG 34/2001, and disease development was monitored for 35 days. Disease progression was monitored through observation of clinical signs and analysis of serum for the presence of viral genomes as well as FMDV-specific antibodies. Viral shedding was measured through qPCR of mouth swabs...
曹杰; 刘英霞; 齐长明
This article discussed some infectious diseases in dairy cattle like infectious bovine rhinotracheitis(IBR), bovine virus diarrhea (BVD), and brucellosis. The clinical signs, disease prevalence in China are reviewed, countermeasures of control and prevention are suggested.%本文就近年来奶牛养殖业中高发的牛传染性鼻气管炎、牛病毒性腹泻及布氏杆菌病的流行现状进行分析,并在诊断与综合防控方面提出建议.
Mweu, Marshal M.; Fournié, Guillaume; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;
-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should......Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy for...
Ifeoma Nancy Obijiaku; Ikwe Ajog; Jarlath Udoudo Umoh; Idris Alao Lawal; Bernard Ortwer Atu
Background: Sarcocystis infection is a parasitic zoonosis, which may cause acute and fatal clinical diseases in susceptible cattle. When raw or undercooked infected beef is consumed by man, it could result in intestinal sarcocystosis. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in which oesophagus and diaphragm samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattl...
Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most
Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial ...
Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Rajput, Mrigendra K S; Braun, Lyle J; Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Chase, Christopher C L
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a positive single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. BVDV has a wide host range that includes most ruminants. Noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV may establish lifelong persistent infections in calves following infection of the fetus between 40 and 120 days of gestation. Cytopathic (cp) BVDV strains arise from ncp strains via mutations. The most common cp mutations are insertions of RNA derived from either host or a duplication of viral sequences into the region of the genome coding for the NS2/3 protein. Superinfection of a persistently infected animal with a cp virus can give rise to mucosal disease, a condition that is invariably fatal. A herd of 136 bred 3-year old cows was studied. These cows gave birth to 41 PI animals of which 23 succumbed to mucosal disease. In this study, we characterized the ncp and cp viruses isolated from 13 of these animals. All viruses belonged to the BVDV type 2a genotype and were highly similar. All the cp viruses contained an insertion in the NS2/3 coding region consisting of the sequences derived from the transcript encoding a DnaJ protein named Jiv90. Comparison of the inserted DnaJ regions along with the flanking viral sequences in the insertion 3' end of the 13 cp isolates revealed sequence identities ranging from 96% to 99% with common borders. This suggested that one animal likely developed a cp virus that then progressively spread to the other 12 animals. Interestingly, when the inserted mammalian gene replicated within viral genome, it showed conservation of the same conserved motifs between the different species, which may indicate a role for these motifs in the insertion function within the virus genome. This is the first characterization of multiple cp bovine viral diarrhea virus isolates that spread in a herd under natural conditions. PMID:25300803
Bronsvoort, B.M.D.; Sørensen, K.J.; Anderson, J.;
The development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for FMDV....... The nonstructural polyprotein 3ABC has recently been proposed as such an antigen, and a number of diagnostic tests are being developed. This paper evaluates the performance of two FMDV tests for antibodies to nonstructural proteins in an unvaccinated cattle population from a region of Cameroon with endemic multiple...
Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province． In this paper，an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread． Theoretically，we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model． For the 2-patch submodel，sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number Ｒ0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out． By numerical analysis，it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region．
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Grell, S. N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Jungersen, Gregers; Pudrith, C. B.; Coussens, P. M.
the seven genes selected for qRT-PCR, CD30 ligand (CD30L) and P-selectin were consistently differentially expressed in freshly isolated leukocytes from paraTB infected and control animals of both breeds of cattle. Although further work is clearly needed to develop a more complete gene expression...
In a companion study, we reported that the cellular Jumonji-C Domain containing Protein 6 (JMJD6) protein is involved in an alternate integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. Here, we investigated the JMJD6 localization in animal tissues from cattle infected with either ...
Kamal M. Alsaad,
Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.
Ondrak, Jeff D
Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds. PMID:27039692
Elnekave, E; Shilo, H; Gelman, B; Klement, E
ELISA tests for detection of anti NSP antibodies are extensively used in surveys estimating exposure of livestock to foot and mouth disease virus as a part of endemic and post epidemic surveillance programs. Yet, estimation of the longevity of anti NSP antibodies in naturally infected cattle and the sensitivity of ELISA tests based on them were rarely studied to date. Our research aim was to estimate the long term (up to 1118 days after exposure) change in levels of anti NSP antibodies in dairy cattle individuals naturally infected by FMDV and to evaluate the sensitivity of a commercially available ELISA kit in detecting anti NSP antibodies during the follow up period. A 3ABC blocking ELISA kit (PrioCHECK(®) FMDV NS) was used in a 3 years follow up study of repeatedly vaccinated cattle, which were found to be NSP positive during an FMD outbreak in a dairy farm. In order to rule out the possibility of a recurrent FMD outbreak involving the study population we combined clinical and laboratory monitoring: Cattle which were located in the same herd and were previously found as negative to anti NSP antibodies were followed and did not present FMD symptoms or a serological conversion. The overall sensitivity for infection detection was calculated using two approaches. When a conservative approach was taken and equivocal results (45%≤PI≤55%) were treated as negative, the sensitivities were 95% (CI95%=75.1-99.9%), 88.2% (CI95%=63.6-98.5%) and 76.9% (CI95%=46.2-95%) 311, 689 and 1118 days after the outbreak, respectively. However, when equivocal results were treated as positive, the sensitivities were 100% (CI95%=83.2-100%), 94.1% (CI95%=71.3-99.9%) and 92.3% (CI95%=64-99.8%) 311, 689 and 1118 days after the outbreak, respectively. We therefore conclude that this test can serve as a valuable tool for detection of previous FMDV infection in cattle in endemic countries, where routine vaccinations are implied, even several years after exposure. PMID:25937314
Kotla, Sivareddy; Sanghratna Vishanath, Bahire; H J, Dechamma; K, Ganesh; V V S, Suryanarayana; Reddy, G R
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. Presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. DNA vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. In the present study, we constructed P1-2A-3CpCDNA (containing P1-2A-3C coding sequences of FMDV Asia-1 Ind 63/72) and bovine IL-18 pCDNA plasmids and evaluated in cattle. Four groups of calves each group containing six calves were vaccinated with 200μg of plasmid DNA vaccine P1-2A-3CpCDNA, P1-2A-3CpCDNA+ bIL-18pCDNA and inactivated vaccine respectively where as fourth group was unvaccinated. P1-2A-3CpCDNA+bIL-18pCDNA vaccinated animals have shown higher levels of neutralizing antibodies and specific T-cell proliferation responses. Higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells were observed in these animals. Similarly, IL-18 adjuvanted group has shown increased Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. All the vaccinated animals were challenged with cattle adapted FMD homologous Asia1 virus two weeks after the booster dose. IL18 co administered DNA vaccine construct has protected four out of six animals challenged with homologous virus. PMID:27599937
Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M
Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105
Neospora caninum is a major pathogen of cattle and dogs that occasionally causes clinical infections in horses, goats, sheep, and deer. The domestic dog is the only known definitive host for N. caninum. In cattle N. caninum is a major cause of bovine abortion in many countries and is one of the mo...
Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Hogeveen, Henk
Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have ext
Mastitis is ranked as the top disease for dairy cattle based on traditional cost analysis. Greater than 100 organisms from a broad phylogenetic spectrum are able to cause bovine mastitis. Transcriptomic characterization facilitates our understanding of host-pathogen relations and provides mechanisti...
Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085
Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti
Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry. PMID:27026233
G Adam Mott
Full Text Available Trypanosomatid parasites are notorious for the human diseases they cause throughout Africa and South America. However, non-pathogenic trypanosomatids are also found worldwide, infecting a wide range of hosts. One example is Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum theileri, a ubiquitous protozoan commensal of bovids, which is distributed globally. Exploiting knowledge of pathogenic trypanosomatids, we have developed Trypanosoma theileri as a novel vehicle to deliver vaccine antigens and other proteins to cattle. Conditions for the growth and transfection of T. theileri have been optimised and expressed heterologous proteins targeted for secretion or specific localisation at the cell interior or surface using trafficking signals from Trypanosoma brucei. In cattle, the engineered vehicle could establish in the context of a pre-existing natural T. theileri population, was maintained long-term and generated specific immune responses to an expressed Babesia antigen at protective levels. Building on several decades of basic research into trypanosomatid pathogens, Trypanosoma theileri offers significant potential to target multiple infections, including major cattle-borne zoonoses such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Brucella abortus and Mycobacterium spp. It also has the potential to deliver therapeutics to cattle, including the lytic factor that protects humans from cattle trypanosomiasis. This could alleviate poverty by protecting indigenous African cattle from African trypanosomiasis.
Aznar, M N; Stevenson, M A; Zarich, L; León, E A
We describe the movement of cattle throughout Argentina in 2005. Details of farm-to-farm and farm-to-slaughter movements of cattle were obtained from the Sanitary Management System database (Sistema de Gestión Sanitaria, SGS), maintained by the National Service for Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA). Movements were described at the regional and district level in terms of frequency, the number of stock transported, the district of origin and destination and Euclidean distance traveled. Social network analysis was used to characterize the connections made between regions and districts as a result of cattle movement transactions, and to show how these characteristics might influence disease spread. Throughout 2005 a total of 1.3 million movement events involving 32 million head of cattle (equivalent to approximately 57% of the national herd) were recorded in the SGS database. The greatest number of farm-to-farm movements occurred from April to June whereas numbers of farm-to-slaughter movement events were relatively constant throughout the year. Throughout 2005 there was a 1.1-1.6-fold increase in the number of farm-to-farm movements of cattle during April-June, compared with other times of the year. District in-degree and out-degree scores varied by season, with higher maximum scores during the autumn and winter compared with summer and spring. Districts with high in-degree scores were concentrated in the Finishing region of the country whereas districts with high out-degree scores were concentrated not only in the Finishing region but also in Mesopotamia, eastern Border and southern Central regions. Although movements of cattle from the Border region tended not to be mediated via markets, the small number of districts in this area with relatively high out-degree scores is a cause for concern as they have the potential to distribute infectious disease widely, in the event of an incursion. PMID:21122931
Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a costly disease of cattle that can be controlled by vaccination, biosecurity, and removal of persistently infected cattle. Development and proficiency testing of assays to identify persistently infected cattle substantial quantities of known positive and negative samp...
Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat
Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579
Hisamuddin, Nur Hazirah; Hashim, Najat; Soffian, Sharmeen Nellisa; Amin, Mohd Hishammfariz Mohd; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Isa, Muhammad Lokman Md; Yusof, Afzan Mat
Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite, can cause cryptosporidiosis which is a gastrointestinal disease that can infect humans and livestock. Cattle are the most common livestock that can be infected with this protozoan. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia and to find out the association between the occurrence of infection and 3 different ages of cattle (calves less than 1 year, yearling, and adult cattle). The samples were processed by using formol-ether concentration technique and stained by modified Ziehl Neelsen. The results showed that 15.9% (24/151) of cattle were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium in calves less than 1 year was the highest with the percentage of 20.0% (11/55) followed by yearling and adult cattle, with the percentage occurrence of 15.6 % (7/45) and 11.8% (6/51), respectively. There was no significant association between the occurrence and age of cattle and presence of diarrhea. Good management practices and proper hygiene management must be taken in order to reduce the infection. It is highly important to control the infection since infected cattle may serve as potential reservoirs of the infection to other animals and humans, especially animal handlers. PMID:27180579
Johne's disease in cattle is associated with enhanced expression of genes encoding IL-5, GATA-3, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2, and factors promoting apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Coussens, P.M.; Pudrith, C.B.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Ren, X.N.; Suchyta, S.P.; Stabel, J.R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
transmission in utero. Once established, infections typically exist in a subclinical state for several years. Recent gene-expression profiling studies suggested the hypothesis that inherent gene-expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) front M. paratuberculosis-infected cattle may be......Infection of ruminants with Mycobacterium avium. subspecies paratuberculosis (M. para tuberculosis) leads to a chronic and often fatal granulomatous enteritis known as Johne's disease. Most infections with M. paratuberculosis occur during the first 6 months of life, and there is some evidence for...... different than expression profiles in PBMCs from uninfected controls. If true, this would suggest that it is possible to identify an M. paratuberculosis infection "signature" through transcriptional profiling of peripheral immune cells. In addition, identification of groups or classes of genes showing...
Background. Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from bovine respiratory disease complex. It has recently emerged as a major health problem in bison, causing pharyngitis, pneumonia, arthritis, dystocia and abortion. In cattle, M. b...
Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...
Iburg, T.; Gasser, R.B.; Henriksen, S.A.
Faecal samples from asymptomatic dairy cows and calves from a farm on the Island Falster, Denmark, were examined by a sucrose gradient flotation technique. Giardia cysts were found in 7.6% of the 92 samples, and estimated cyst excretion rates ranged from 50-200 cysts per gram faeces. Given that...... Giardia has the potential to cause clinical disease in cattle and to be transmitted to other animal species and humans, finding the parasite in cattle may be of major epidemiological significance. Future work should focus on elucidating the pathogenicity, transmission patterns and the genetic structure of...... Giardia populations in cattle in Denmark....
Machila, Noreen; Wanyangu, Samuel W; McDermott, John; Welburn, Susan C; Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark C
A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted in Busia District, Western Kenya and Kwale District, Coastal Kenya to obtain qualitative and quantitative information from 256 cattle owners about their production systems, their perceptions of the diseases encountered in their cattle, the drugs used, and other measures adopted to control trypanosomiasis in cattle. The predominant production system was mixed crop-livestock with farmers owning 2-11 local cattle on holdings between 2 and 5 ha. Approximately 15% of disease episodes in cattle were perceived to be trypanosomiasis, although the farmers' ability to make diagnoses was limited in that over half of the diagnoses were inconsistent with the clinical signs described. Drugs were generally obtained from agro-veterinary shops, and the farmers themselves administered slightly more than half of these. One third of drug treatments given to sick cattle were trypanocides, but over half of these trypanocidal treatments were given to cattle believed to have diseases other than trypanosomiasis. PMID:12711100
Kusuma Diwyanto; S Rusdiana; B Wibowo
Developing an integrated coconut beef cattle system could be prospective in view of both technical and economical aspects. The present agribusiness of coconut plantation as monoculture, has not met sufficient farmer’s income, because each hectare of land, only produces equivalent to 2,500,000 rupiahs per year. Constraints such as plant disease, fluctuation price of coconut and the large areas of old plants need to be solved seriously. Integrated coconut-cattle system (CCS) in small holding sc...
Cecília José Veríssimo; Selma D'Agostino; Fernanda Pessoa; Luciandra Macedo Toledo; Keila Maria Roncato Duarte
The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat followi...
Full text: The improvement of domestical animal breeds productivity or the animal genetic diversity maintenance to allow breeders to select animals or to create new breeds in order to adapt to environmental modifications, new diseases and societies needs, requires first a detailed inventory and, secondly, a genetic characterization of domestic animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clear; visual parameters are often used even if these procedures are subjective. So it is necessary to complete this phenotypic approach by a genomic one in order to contribute to an efficient characterization. At CIRDES, a regional center for subhumid livestock research and development, these studies have been conducted during the past ten years. They permitted (i) to describe the cattle phenotypic traits and their geographical localization and to highlight the breeds threatened with extinction, (ii) to determine zebu introgression level in taurine trypanotolerant cattle (iii) to identify specific alleles of different cattle breeds, and (iv) to quantify the importance of Robertson translocation in livestock production. Data collection has been realized using a bibliography study, completed by investigations in seven countries of West Africa. Blood collection has been also done for an analysis of 4 categories of genome markers (11 blood group systems, 3 blood protein loci, microsatellites and chromosomes). According to phenotypic description and to the conceptions of autochtone human population, 13 local cattle breeds have been identified: Ndama, Kouri, the group Baoule-Somba, the group Lagoon cattle, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu peuhl soudanien, zebu Gobra, and their crossbreds (Zebu x Ndama and Zebu x West African Shorthorns). Nine exotic breeds have been also identified: American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown
Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .
Md. Reazul Islam
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17
The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide in regions recognized as free from the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody ...
Hezekiah K. Adesokan
Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.
Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.
A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.
Sawyer, Mary M.; Smith, Wayne L.; Rensen, Gabriel J.; Osburn, Bennie I.; Cullor, James S.
Preventing the spread of mad cow disease through contaminated cattle feed is a major concern of beef and dairy producers, regulators and consumers around the world. Routine testing of cattle feeds for the presence of banned substances is a critical control point in assuring animal health and food safety. We compared the results of two test procedures (a real-time polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay and a commercially available ruminant antibody detection kit) on five cattle rations spiked w...
Selwyn A. Headley; Ana Paula F.R.L. Bracarense; Victor H.S. Oliveira; Gustavo R. Queiroz; Werner Okano; Alice F. Alfieri; Karina K.M.C. Flaiban; Júlio A. N. Lisbôa; Amauri A. Alfieri
Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME) is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histop...
Luiz C.L. Ferreira
. Imunoistoquímica realizada em biópsia de orelhas identificou apenas um destes animais como positivo. O rebanho apresentou redução no índice de fertilidade e taxa de desmame no ano seguinte ao nascimento dos bezerros PI, mas estes indicadores retornaram posteriormente aos valores anteriores. Os resultados apresentados demonstram a presença da infecção por BVDV em rebanhos de corte no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, e evidenciam a necessidade da inclusão dessa enfermidade no diagnóstico diferencial de causas de dermatites generalizadas.This paper reports epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratory diagnostic aspects of a form of dermatitis associated with mucosal disease (MD in cattle. It also focuses on the methods used for identifying persistently infected (PI animals and on the impact of the disease on fertility and weaning rates in the affected herd. Cases of dermatitis associated with MD were diagnosed in two 12 and 24-month-old Nelore calves belonging to a beef cattle farm that operates the full cycle of production (calving, rearing, finishing in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil. The clinical signs exhibited by affected cattle 0included slow, progressive weight loss; formation of diffuse skin crusts in multiple body areas; skin dryness; multiple ulcerations on the gums and dorsal surface of the tongue which evolved to longitudinal fissures; formation of keratinized projections; and detachment of hoof horn. In addition, diarrhea affected one animal in the late stage of the disease. Necropsies also revealed longitudinal erosions in the esophagus. Histological examination showed coagulation necrosis foci in esophageal and lingual mucosae, with neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration. Skin lesions consisted of epidermal coagulation necrosis associated with neutrophil infiltration and hyperkeratosis. In both cases, clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation and identification of cytopathic and noncytopathic biotypes of the bovine viral diarrhea virus
Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.
Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette; McInerney, Gerald M.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry; Polacek, Charlotta; Belsham, Graham
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. Here, we have expressed the FMDV capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) of strain O1 Manisa alone or with the FMDV 3C protease (3Cpro...
Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Vincent B Muwanika; Gakuya, Francis; Mijele, Dominic; Redlef Siegismund, Hans
Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly intermingle with livestock in Kenya, yet earlier studies have focused on FMD in the domestic livestock, hence the contribution of buffalo to disease in livestock is largely unknown. This study analysed 47...
Janet J Sei; Waters, Ryan A.; Kenney, Mary; John W Barlow; Golde, William T.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, investigating their role during FMDV infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, ...
Step, D L; Krehbiel, Clint
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) involves interactions between respiratory pathogens and stressors. Marketing beef cattle in North America frequently involves commingling of cattle from different backgrounds along with various stressors. Veterinarians are faced with unique challenges when designing preventive health care protocols. Research at Oklahoma State University has generated information to assist the practitioner to make more informed recommendations regarding the value of a single vaccination or revaccination in high-risk cattle, and the benefits of management programs at the farm or ranch of origins, particularly in regard to the impact of commingling of cattle from different origins. PMID:25384831
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision ... during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) ...
Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are common genomic structural variations that have been linked to human diseases and phenotypic traits. CNVs represent an important type of genetic variation among cattle breeds and even individual animals; however, only low-resolution maps of cattle CNVs currently exis...
Copy Number Variations (CNVs) are common genomic structural variations that have been linked to human diseases and phenotypic traits. Prior studies in cattle have produced low-resolution CNV maps. We constructed a draft, high-resolution map of cattle CNVs based on whole genome sequencing data from 7...
Case description – Severe disease and death in cattle exhibited at a state fair and naturally infected with Ovine Herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). Clinical Findings – Most affected cattle had anorexia, depression, diarrhea, fever and respiratory distress ultimately leading to death. Average duration of clin...
Garbaccio, Sergio; Macias, Analía; Shimizu, Ernesto; Paolicchi, Fernando; Pezzone, Natalia; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Abdala, Alejandro; Tarabla, Hector; Peyru, Maite; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín; Canal, Ana; Cataldi, Angel
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentine cattle. The aim of this research was to study if it is possible to infer the degree of virulence of different M. bovis genotypes based on scorified observations of tuberculosis lesions in cattle.
Xiao, Yan; Chen, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yuzhou; Yin, Bo; Lv, Chaochao; Mo, Xiaobing; Yan, He; Xuan, Yajie; Huang, Yuxin; Pang, Wenqiang; Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Y Adam; Tian, Kegong
Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling FMD. Compared to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines, the format of FMDV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative. Results In this study, we have developed a co-expression system in E. coli, which drove the expression of FMDV capsid proteins (VP0, VP...
Sharma, G; Singh, S V; Sevilla, I; Singh, A V; Whittington, R J; Juste, R A; Kumar, S; Gupta, V K; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Vihan, V S
Present study is the first attempt to evaluate an indigenous milk ELISA with milk culture, standardize milk PCR, estimate lacto-prevalence of Map and genotype Map DNA from milk samples in few Indian dairy herds. In all 115 cows were sampled from 669 lactating cows in six dairy herds from three districts of North India. Fifty milk samples (four herds) were screened by three tests (milk culture, m-ELISA and m-PCR). Lacto-prevalence of Map in four dairy herds was 84.0% (50.0% in fat and 62.0% in sediment). Screening of both fat and sediment increased the sensitivity of culture. Colonies appeared between 45 and 120 DPI. In indigenous m-ELISA, protoplasmic antigen derived from native Map 'Bison type' strain of goat origin was used. Screening of 115 lactating cows by m-ELISA ('herd screening test') detected 32.1% positive lactating cows (lacto-prevalence). Sensitivity of ELISA was 28.5% and 42.8% in single point cutoff and S/P ratio, respectively. Lacto-prevalence of JD was high in dairy herds (66.6-100.0% by culture and 20.0-50.0% by m-ELISA). DDD farm, Mathura had very high (95.8%) and moderate prevalence of Map and lacto-antibodies, respectively. All cows were clinically suffering from JD. Specific IS 900 PCR was standardized in decontaminated fat and sediment of milk samples. DNA isolated from decontaminated pellets was amplified and characteristic 229 bp band was confirmatory for Map. Of the 50 milk samples, 6.0% were positive in m-PCR. The test needs further standardization. Map DNA were genotyped as Map 'Bison type' by IS 1311 PCR-REA. Of the three tests, milk culture was most sensitive followed by m-ELISA and m-PCR. Map DNA isolated from milk samples of dairy cattle were first time genotyped as Map, 'Bison type' in India. High prevalence of Map in milk of dairy herds, posed major health hazard for calves and human beings. PMID:17544046
Bundza, Adam; Stevenson, Daniel A.
Sporadic arteriosclerosis of the aorta, with or without pulmonary ossification, occurred in seven cattle from slaughter-houses and farms. Aortic walls were thickened, and had many white or yellow mineralized plaques on the intimal surface. The lungs did not collapse, were firm, gritty and crepitant on palpation, and sponge-like in appearance on cross section. Microscopically, the aortas had mineral deposits in the tunica intima and media, varying in size and structure and surrounded by fibrou...
Youcef Mehdi; Isabelle Dufrasne
This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyan...
Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.
The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.
Picornavirus RNA replication is initiated by a small viral protein primer, 3B (also known as VPg), that is covalently linked to the 5’RNA of the viral genome. In contrast to other picornaviruses that encode a single copy of 3B, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) encodes three copies of 3B that are ...
Non-structural protein 3A of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a partially conserved protein of 153 amino acids in most FMDVs examined to date. The role of 3A in virus growth and virulence within the natural host is not well understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified cellular ...
Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...
Prolonged postpartum anoestrus is a major cause of economic losses in cattle in most tropical countries. The length of the period from parturition to first oestrus varies greatly in cattle in the tropics and is influenced by many factors, including endocrine events, management, nutrition, heat and humidity, genetic-environmental interactions, diseases and internal and external parasites. Results of recent research on endocrinology of the postpartum cow are particularly relevant to the problem in tropical cattle. Development of a pulsatile pattern of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion is necessary for induction of the first postpartum oestrus, and many cows undergo a short episode of elevated plasma progesterone levels immediately before the first oestrus. Adrenal corticosteroids inhibit development of the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion. The concept is developed that elevated levels of cortisol, resulting from the stresses of heat, high humidity, malnutrition, parasites and diseases to which tropical cattle are often exposed, contribute to anoestrus. Techniques developed for oestrous cycle synchronization of cyclic cattle have been found to induce first oestrus and a fertile ovulation in a significant percentage of anoestrous lactating beef cattle. These treatments involve short-term (6-7 day) progesterone treatments, followed by single injections of prostaglandin Fsub(2α) and insemination 80 hours later. Some success has also been achieved in shortening the postpartum interval by pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone which, in turn, causes pulsatile release of LH, and by administering progestational compounds for short periods of time. Improved management, particularly oestrus detection and insemination at the optimum time, could contribute greatly to reducing the postpartum interval in tropical cattle. Nutritional factors that result in reduced haemoglobin levels (trace mineral deficiencies and parasite infestations) also cause
Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;
Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...... samples collected from buffalo in three different Kenyan ecosystems; Maasai-Mara (MME) (n = 40), Tsavo (TSE) (n = 33), and Meru (ME) (n = 29). Results Antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins were found in 65 of 102 (64%) sera from buffalo with 44/102 and 53/102 also having neutralising antibodies...... directed against FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2, respectively. FMDV RNA was detected in 42% of the buffalo probang samples by RT-qPCR (Cycle Threshold (Ct) ≤32). Two buffalo probang samples were positive by VI and were identified as FMDV SAT 1 and SAT 2 by Ag-ELISA, while the latter assay detected serotypes O (1...
Govind Narayan Purohit
Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.
Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C; Chan, Eva K F; Johnston, David J; Hawken, Rachel J; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E; Burrow, Heather M; Henshall, John M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Barendse, William
Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663
Laercio R Porto-Neto
Full Text Available Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity.
Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell
A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891
The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared on 56 horses and cows with lower respiratory tract disease. Ultrasonography was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of small pleural effusions and consolidations in large animals. The side of the thorax affected and the character of the pleural fluid and lung in large animals with pleural effusion can be evaluated ultrasonographically. The periphery of the lung must be affected to characterize pulmonary lesions ultrasonographically. Radiography is the best technique to characterize lesions deep within the lung when the periphery of the lung is normal
Reef, V B; Boy, M G; Reid, C F; Elser, A
The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared on 56 horses and cows with lower respiratory tract disease. Ultrasonography was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of small pleural effusions and consolidations in large animals. The side of the thorax affected and the character of the pleural fluid and lung in large animals with pleural effusion can be evaluated ultrasonographically. The periphery of the lung must be affected to characterize pulmonary lesions ultrasonographically. Radiography is the best technique to characterize lesions deep within the lung when the periphery of the lung is normal. PMID:1885315
The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)
Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert
In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows.
Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert
In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofBacillus anthracisstrain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225
Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A;
To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... of more than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...
Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana
Full Text Available Cases of vesicular and exanthematic disease by Vaccinia virus (VACV have been reported in dairy herds of several Brazilian regions, occasionally also affecting humans. The present article describes eight outbreaks of vesicular disease caused by VACV in dairy herds of six counties of Goiás state, Midwestern Brazil (2010-2012, involving a total of 122 cows, 12 calves and 11 people. Dairy cows (3 to 9 years old were affected in all cases and calves (2 to 9 months old were affected in five outbreaks, presenting oral lesions. The morbidity ranged between 8 and 100% in cows, and 1.5 to 31% in calves. In the cows, the clinical signs started with vesicles (2-7mm, painful and coalescent papules (3-8 mm, which resulted in ulcers (5-25mm and scabs in teats, and, occasionally, in the muzzle. The clinical course lasted from 16 to 26 days. The histopathology of bovine skin samples revealed superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, macrophages and multifocal areas of acanthosis, spongiosis, hipergranulosis and parakeratotic or orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasm of the keratinocytes. PCR to vgf gene of Orthopoxvirus was positive in samples collected from all outbreaks, and in some cases, genomic VACV sequences were identified by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Infectious virus was isolated in cell culture from scabs from one outbreak. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in at least 3 or 4 animals in most outbreaks, by ELISA (outbreaks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 or virus-neutralization (outbreak 6. Neutralizing titers ranging from 8 to 64 in outbreak 6. In all outbreaks, VACV infection was suspected based on the clinical and pathological findings and it was confirmed by laboratory tests. Upon the etiological confirmation, other agents associated with vesicular disease were discarded. In all outbreaks, at least
Paton, D.J.; de Clercq, K.; Greiner, Matthias;
There has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding...... herds, reducing the need for large-scale pre-emptive culling of at-risk animals. Since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with FMDV following challenge exposure, it is necessary to either remove all vaccinates (vaccinate-to-kill) or to detect and remove vaccinates in which virus......) of FMDV, which are induced by infection with the virus, but not by vaccination with purified FMD vaccines. Using test sensitivity and specificity data established at a recent workshop on NSP assays [Brocchi E, Bergmann I, Dekker A, Paton DJ, Sammin DJ, Greiner M, et al. Comparative performance of six...
Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan
Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p 0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases. PMID:25700674
Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J
A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223
Sordillo, L M
Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740
Bicalho, M L S; Lima, F S; Ganda, E K; Foditsch, C; Meira, E B S; Machado, V S; Teixeira, A G V; Oikonomou, G; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between selected minerals' serum levels, energy metabolites, oxidative stress indicators, IL-8 and haptoglobin levels, and the potential for uterine diseases. Additionally, we investigated the effect of injectable trace mineral supplementation (ITMS) on metabolism, immune function, and animal health under field conditions involving a dairy herd with high milk production. The study was conducted in 1 dairy farm located near Ithaca, New York, with 270 multiparous cows were enrolled from October 3, 2012 until January 10, 2013. Cows were randomly allocated into 1 of 2 treatments groups: ITMS or control. Cows randomly assigned to the ITMS group received 2 injections of trace minerals at 230 and 260 d of gestation; each injection contained 300 mg of Zn, 50mg of Mn, 25mg of Se, and 75 mg of Cu. Retained placenta (RP) and metritis were diagnosed and treated by trained farm personnel. Clinical endometritis evaluation was performed by the investigators. Blood mineral levels, plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations, plasma IL-8 concentrations, serum haptoglobin concentration, and serum superoxidase dismutase and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities were measured at various time points before and after calving. Four groups of mixed general linear models were fitted to the data using MIXED procedure of SAS. Injectable trace mineral-supplemented cows had increased serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Zn. Conversely, ITMS did not affect energy metabolites or immune and oxidative stress parameters. Serum concentration of Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mo, Ps, Pt, Se, and Zn varied according to days relative to parturition. Cows with RP had reduced serum concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mo, and Zn when compared with cows without RP. Cows affected with metritis had significantly lower serum concentrations of Ca, Mo, soluble P, total P, Se, and Zn than nonaffected cows. Serum concentration of Ca, Cu, Mo, and
Ward, A I; Judge, J; Delahay, R J
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a serious disease of cattle in the UK in terms of the economic impact on the farming industry. The disease has proven difficult to control in the cattle population and the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is a source of infection. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential to employ farm husbandry and biosecurity practices to reduce bTB transmission risks. Here we review the potential routes of bTB transmission between badgers and cattle and explore the options for managing cattle and badger behaviour with a view to reducing the risks of inter-species transmission at pasture and within farm buildings. We discuss the relative merits of different cattle grazing regimes, habitat manipulations and badger latrine management in reducing the potential for badger-cattle contact at pasture. The physical exclusion of badgers from farm buildings is suggested as the simplest, and potentially most effective, method of reducing contact and opportunities for disease transmission between badgers and cattle. However, more research is required on the effectiveness, practicalities and costs of implementing such measures before specific guidance can be developed. PMID:19846226
Ifeoma Nancy Obijiaku
Full Text Available Background: Sarcocystis infection is a parasitic zoonosis, which may cause acute and fatal clinical diseases in susceptible cattle. When raw or undercooked infected beef is consumed by man, it could result in intestinal sarcocystosis. Aim: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in slaughtered cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in which oesophagus and diaphragm samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle and analysed by pepsin-hydrochloric acid digestion and stained with Giemsa. Histological sections of tissues were prepared and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: Eighty-five (42.5 % were positive for Sarcocystis species. Sarcocysts ranged from 228.8 to 1215 μm in length and 46.93 to 114.40 μm in width. Sarcocysts were all microscopic in nature and 99.0 % had thin cyst wall ( 0.05. Seventy-five (88.2 % and 56 (65.9 % cattle had sarcocysts in the oesophagus and diaphragm respectively. There was a significant difference in the distribution of sarcocysts between the oesophagus and diaphragm (p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study has established in the study area the prevalence of Sarcocystis infection in cattle using tissue digestion method and histology. The identified species were of veterinary and public health importance. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 346-349
Full Text Available Abstract Background Livestock movements can affect the spread and control of contagious diseases and new data recording systems enable analysis of these movements. The results can be used for contingency planning, modelling of disease spread and design of disease control programs. Methods Data on the Swedish cattle and pig populations during the period July 2005 until June 2006 were obtained from databases held by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Movements of cattle and pigs were investigated from geographical and temporal perspectives, births and deaths of cattle were investigated from a temporal perspective and the geographical distribution of holdings was also investigated. Results Most movements of cattle and pigs were to holdings within 100 km, but movements up to 1200 km occurred. Consequently, the majority of movements occurred within the same county or to adjacent counties. Approximately 54% of the cattle holdings and 45% of the pig holdings did not purchase any live animals. Seasonal variations in births and deaths of cattle were identified, with peaks in spring. Cattle movements peaked in spring and autumn. The maximum number of holdings within a 3 km radius of one holding was 45 for cattle and 23 for pigs, with large variations among counties. Missing data and reporting bias (digit preference were detected in the data. Conclusion The databases are valuable tools in contact tracing. However since movements can be reported up to a week after the event and some data are missing they cannot replace other methods in the acute phase of an outbreak. We identified long distance transports of cattle and pigs, and these findings support an implementation of a total standstill in the country in the case of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The databases contain valuable information and improvements in data quality would make them even more useful.
Graham C Smith
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, continues to be a serious economic problem for the British cattle industry. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles is partly responsible for maintenance of the disease and its transmission to cattle. Previous attempts to manage the disease by culling badgers have been hampered by social perturbation, which in some situations is associated with increases in the cattle herd incidence of bTB. Following the licensing of an injectable vaccine, we consider the relative merits of management strategies to reduce bTB in badgers, and thereby reduce cattle herd incidence. We used an established simulation model of the badger-cattle-TB system and investigated four proposed strategies: business as usual with no badger management, large-scale proactive badger culling, badger vaccination, and culling with a ring of vaccination around it. For ease of comparison with empirical data, model treatments were applied over 150 km(2 and were evaluated over the whole of a 300 km(2 area, comprising the core treatment area and a ring of approximately 2 km. The effects of treatment were evaluated over a 10-year period comprising treatment for five years and the subsequent five year period without treatment. Against a background of existing disease control measures, where 144 cattle herd incidents might be expected over 10 years, badger culling prevented 26 cattle herd incidents while vaccination prevented 16. Culling in the core 150 km(2 plus vaccination in a ring around it prevented about 40 cattle herd breakdowns by partly mitigating the negative effects of culling, although this approach clearly required greater effort. While model outcomes were robust to uncertainty in parameter estimates, the outcomes of culling were sensitive to low rates of land access for culling, low culling efficacy, and the early cessation of a culling strategy, all of which were likely to lead to an overall increase in cattle disease.
Preliminary experiments were carried out using 51Cr-labelled red cells and 121I-labelled albumin on cattle infected with F. gigantica and on control worm-free animals. In most cases the parasite burden in the infected cattle was too small to produce marked differences between them and the controls. It was clear however that very rapid elution of 51Cr from the bovine red cells took place in vivo and for this reason the analysis of disappearance curves in the assessment of red cell loss is much less satisfactory with cattle than with other species studied so far. It would be useful to repeat the present series of experiments using animals more heavily infected with F. gigantica ou good field cases of the disease. Direct measurements based on faecal and urinary excretion of the isotope would appear to be desirable, both in the studies with labelled red cells and with labelled plasma protein. (author)
A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit for human serum ferritin was used to determine the ferritin concentration in serum or plasma of 41 calves from 0 to 106 days of age, 192 cows and 35 bulls from 2 to 11 years of age. The geometric average concentration of ferritin was 2.1, 12.6 and 4.5 ng/ml for the calves, cows and bulls, respectively. The cows were statistically different from the calves and bulls; there were no differences between the calves and bulls. Within the cows one herd was found to have lower serum ferritin levels than all the other herds (P < 0.05) but no differences in packed cell volumes were present. The data suggest that a radioimmunoassay procedure with a ferritin antibody specific for bovine ferritin could be useful in the study of iron metabolism in cattle. (author)
In a companion study, we reported that the cellular Jumonji-C Domain containing Protein 6 (JMJD6) protein is involved in an alternate integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. Here, we investigated the JMJD6 localization in animal tissues from cattle infected with either ...
Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp
Claudio S. L. Barros
adult Holstein cows from two farms in southern Brazil. In one of the farms four out of 42 cows (9.5% and in the other one out of eight cows (12.5% were affected. Clinical signs included, although not consistently, fever, pruritus, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, conjunctivitis, nasal serous discharge, loss of weight, dramatic drop in milk yield, and diarrhea. The duration of the clinical disease was approximately two weeks. All clinically affected cows died, one was euthanatized; three were necropsied. In each of these animals there was a pattern of systemic lesions consisting of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs but were particularly prominent in the myocardium, lymph nodes, spleen, adrenal gland and renal cortex. These lesions resulted in enlargement and disruption of the architecture of the invaded organ. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variabe proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophils. Eosinophils numbers were usually large. This granulomatous infiltration caused degeneration and loss of parenchymal cells of affected organs. Intensity of lesions varied among the three cows and among individual organs. This is the first documented report on a systemic granulomatous disease in cattle associated with grazing vetch in Brazil.
Agerholm, J S; Thulstrup, P W; Bjerrum, M J; Bendixen, Christian; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M
is segregating in a manner consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Biochemical analyses demonstrated accumulation of uroporphyrin, thus confirming that it is indeed insufficient activity of UROS which is the cause of the disease. We have therefore sequenced all nine exons of UROS in affected......Previous studies have shown that congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in cattle is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) encoded by the UROS gene. In this study, we have established the pedigree of an extended Holstein family in which the disease...... and non-affected individuals without detecting any potential causative mutations. However, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within the spliceosome attachment region in intron 8 of UROS is shown to segregate with the disease allele. Our study supports the hypothesis that CEP in cattle is...
Bajardi, Paolo; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria; 10.1371/journal.pone.0019869
Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displ...
Maria de Lourdes Adrien
Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.
Maloo, S H; Thorpe, W; Kioo, G; Ngumi, P; Rowlands, G J; Perry, B D
A cross-sectional study was carried out from July to September 1989 in Kaloleni Division, Coast Province, Kenya to estimate the prevalence of vector-transmitted diseases in small-holder dairy cattle and to identify the risk factors associated with different management systems. One hundred and thirty of the 157 herds with dairy cattle in Kaloleni Division were surveyed. These were from three agro-ecological zones (coconut-cassava, cashew nut-cassava and livestock-millet), comprised two management systems (stall-feeding and herded grazing) and were herds with either dairy cattle only or with Zebu and dairy cattle. A formal questionnaire sought answers to questions on cattle health and management practices. A total of 734 dairy and 205 Zebu cattle in 78 dairy and 52 mixed (dairy and Zebu) herds were sampled and screened for haemoparasites (Trypanosoma, Anaplasma, Babesia, and Theileria infections). Sera were tested for antibodies to Theileria parva, using the schizonts-antigen indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) test and to antibodies for Babesia bigemina and antigens to Anaplasma marginale by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Packed-cell volume (PCV) also was measured. Tick-control measures were practised by all except three of the farmers. Despite this, overall seroprevalence to T. parva was >70%--suggesting either that control practices were not strictly implemented or they were ineffective. The seroprevalence of T. parva in adult cattle kept in stall-feeding systems in the coconut-cassava zone was significantly lower (57+/-8% (S.E.)) than in herded-grazing systems (79+/-3%) and there was no association between antibody prevalence and age of cattle in this zone. Antibody prevalences in cattle in the cashew nut-cassava and the drier livestock-millet zone increased with age. Cattle in herded-grazing systems had an overall lower seroprevalence of T. parva infection in the livestock-millet zone (45+/-6%) than in the other two zones. Analysis was confined to
Suteeraparp, P; Pholpark, S; Pholpark, M; Charoenchai, A; Chompoochan, T; Yamane, I; Kashiwazaki, Y
A total of 904 sera from dairy cattle in 11 provinces of central Thailand were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum employing the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Fifty four (6%) cattle were positive in IFAT, titres of 1:200 (16 cattle), 1:400 (9 cattle), 1:800 (14 cattle), 1:1600 (7 cattle), 1:3200 (6 cattle) and two positives. No significant difference was observed among the provinces. The seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii by a commercial latex agglutination test was 4% (2 out of 50) in positive sera, 2.9% (2 out of 69) in negative sera for anti-Neospora antibodies and 3.4% (4 out of 119) in total. The results of the IFAT were not associated with the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in bovine sera. Furthermore, the cause of abortions experienced in neighbouring three areas in the northeast, where pregnant heifers were newly introduced into small-scale farms from the central region, was investigated. The positive rates for anti-N. caninum antibody were 12, 28 and 44% at a cut-off titre of 1:200, and cattle were suspected to be infected after the introduction. In the area with the highest rate, seven out of eight aborting cattle were positive for antibodies to N. caninum while other two areas had similar abortion rates in both negative and positive cattle. However, in the latter two areas, positive rates for Trypanosoma evansi antigen along with parasitaemic animals were observed by an antigen-detection ELISA, but not for the former area. Considering the endemic diseases of the areas, Neospora was presumed to be responsible for the abortions in the former area while the examination results pointed out T. evansi as the most probable cause in the latter two areas. This is the first report of Neospora-associated abortion in Southeast Asia. PMID:10489202
... directly to slaughter from a State designated as a Class Free State in 9 CFR 78.41; (vi) Cattle exported to... age; (iii) Steers and spayed heifers; (iv) Cattle exported directly to slaughter in a country that...
Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Wotton, S B; Gregory, N G; Whittington, P E; Parkman, I D
Cattle are normally stunned electrically by three sequential cycles, first a three-second head-only cycle, to stun the animal, secondly a 15-second cardiac cycle, to induce ventricular fibrillation (cardiac arrest), and thirdly a four-second discharge cycle, to reduce convulsions after death. An effective and immediate stun was produced when > or =1.15 amps sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz was applied between the nose and neck electrodes for less than one second. However, when applied for three seconds, head-only currents of >0.46 amp sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz were sufficient to induce epileptiform activity in the brain, identified as high amplitude low frequency activity in the electroencephalogram. The induction of effective head-only electrical stunning resulted in an average interval of 50 seconds before the return of rhythmic breathing movements, and positive corneal and palpebral reflexes. The cardiac arrest cycle successfully induced ventricular fibrillation when >1.51 amps sinusoidal AC at 50 Hz was applied for five seconds between the nose and brisket electrodes. PMID:11132673
Zuhura I. Kimera; Robinson H. Mdegela; Consolatha J.N. Mhaiki; Esron D. Karimuribo; Faith Mabiki; Hezron E. Nonga; James Mwesongo
Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liqu...
RODRIGUES da SILVA Andréa de Cássia; Caporale, Graciane Maria Medeiros; GONÇALVES Celso Alberto; TARGUETA Mosar Couteiro; Fabiano COMIN; Carlos Roberto ZANETTI; Kotait, Ivanete
Despite the absence of current official reports showing the number of cattle infected by rabies, it is estimated that nearly 30,000 bovines are lost each year in Brazil. In order to minimize the important economic losses, control of the disease is achieved by eliminating bat colonies and by herd vaccination. In this study, we compare the antibody response in cattle elicited by vaccination with an attenuated ERA vaccine (AEvac) and an inactivated-adjuvanted PV (IPVvac) vaccine. The antibody ti...
Kamal M. Alsaad,; H. I. Al-Sadi,; Osama A.Abdulla
Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%), abnormal skin...
Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT caused by tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma is a major constraint on livestock and agricultural production in Africa and is among the top ten global cattle diseases impacting on the poor. Here we show that a functional genomics approach can be used to identify temporal changes in host peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC gene expression due to disease progression. We also show that major gene expression differences exist between cattle from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible breeds. Using bovine long oligonucleotide microarrays and real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course. Results Trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle displayed a rapid and distinct transcriptional response to infection, with a ten-fold higher number of genes differentially expressed at day 14 post-infection compared to trypanosusceptible Boran cattle. These analyses identified coordinated temporal gene expression changes for both breeds in response to trypanosome infection. In addition, a panel of genes were identified that showed pronounced differences in gene expression between the two breeds, which may underlie the phenomena of trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. Gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrate that the products of these genes may contribute to increased mitochondrial mRNA translational efficiency, a more pronounced B cell response, an elevated activation status and a heightened response to stress in trypanotolerant cattle. Conclusion This study has revealed an extensive and diverse range of cellular processes that are altered temporally in response to trypanosome infection in African cattle. Results indicate that the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle respond more rapidly and with a
Lawrence, Paul; Pacheco, Juan; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Arzt, Jonathan; Rai, Devendra K; Rieder, Elizabeth
A companion study reported Jumonji-C domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is involved in an integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. JMJD6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type A24-FMDV (A24-WT) or mutant FMDV (JMJD6-FMDV) carrying E95K/S96L and RGD to KGE mutations in VP1. Additionally, pathogenesis of mutant JMJD6-FMDV was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculation. Interestingly, JMJD6-FMDV pathogenesis was equivalent to A24-WT administered by IEL route. In contrast, JMJD6-FMDV aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest signs of FMD and animals showed no detectable viremia. Immunofluorescent microscopy of post-mortem tissue revealed JMJD6-FMDV exclusively co-localized with JMJD6(+) cells while A24-WT was occasionally found in JMJD6(+) cells. In vitro, chemical uptake inhibitors demonstrated JMJD6-FMDV entered cells via clathrin-coated pit endocytosis. In vivo, JMJD6-FMDV exhibited preference for JMJD6(+) cells, but availability of this alternative receptor likely depends on route of inoculation. PMID:26914509
Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first r...
World population growth is causing a trend for less-developed countries to become food importers because of short-sighted agricultural practices and land-use policies. Honduras illustrates how population growth pushes farming onto marginal lands. The land used to grow tropical fruit for export is shifting to pasture where cattle are raised for export. Improved transportation links are accelerating this shift. The results of slash-and-mulch cultivation has been to diminish forest and fallow land. Although the short-term effects benefit the landless as well as the land owners, a new class of migrant worker is finding unemployment on the rise, and local populations must compete with cattle for food because the cattle are sold to international meat processors. 17 references. (DCK)
, 2 ME and brucella and coombs wright have been observeol in the anti brucella antibody in cattle owners serum (r= 0.667. Conclusion: The fining of this research indicated that Brucellosis is still part of common diseases in the studied region. The Training necessity of transmission routes, effects, preventation methods and environment health control and Veterinary is necessary to reduce this disease.
Olive, Marie-Marie; Chevalier, Véronique; Grosbois, Vladimir; Tran, Annelise; Andriamandimby, Soa-Fy; Durand, Benoit; Ravalohery, Jean-Pierre; Andriamamonjy, Seta; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Rogier, Christophe; Heraud, Jean-Michel
Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008–2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i) to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii) to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human) as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior) as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001). Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6). Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6). Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle. Conclusions/Significance Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts.First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001. Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6. Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6. Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle.Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution
Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.
Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva
The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers. PMID:25054492
Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.
Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...
S. Jegaveera Pandian
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.
Ribeiro-Lima, Joao; Schwabenlander, Stacey; Oakes, Michael; Thompson, Beth; Wells, Scott J
OBJECTIVE To develop a cattle herd risk-profiling system that could potentially inform risk-based surveillance strategies for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and provide information that could be used to help direct resource allocation by a state agency for this purpose. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Records for any size movement (importation) of cattle into Minnesota from other US states during 2009 (n = 7,185) and 2011 (8,107). PROCEDURES Data from certificates of veterinary inspection were entered into a spreadsheet. Movement data were summarized at premises and county levels, and for each level, the distribution of cattle moved and number of movements were evaluated. Risk profiling (assessment and categorization of risk for disease introduction) for each import movement was performed on the basis of known risk factors. Latent class analysis was used to assign movements to risk classifications with adjustment on the basis of expert opinions from personnel knowledgeable about bovine tuberculosis; these data were used to classify premises as very high, high, medium, or low risk for disease introduction. RESULTS In each year, approximately 1,500 premises imported cattle, typically beef and feeder types, with the peak of import movements during the fall season. The risk model identified 4 risk classes for cattle movements. Approximately 500 of the estimated 27,406 (2%) cattle premises in Minnesota were in the very high or high risk groups for either year; greatest density of these premises was in the southeast and southwest regions of the state. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A risk-profiling approach was developed that can be applied in targeted surveillance efforts for bovine tuberculosis, particularly in disease-free areas. PMID:27270064
Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Eythorsdottir, Emma
Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...
Blackall, P.J.; Angen, Øystein; Fegan, N.; Blackall, L.L.; Mutters, R.; Bisgaard, M.
Objective To characterise eight isolates of a Gram-negative organism obtained from the upper respiratory tract of cattle showing evidence of mild upper respiratory tract disease. Design The isolates were compared with the five recognised species within the genus Mannheimia - M haemolytica, M gluc...... are performed, we are unwilling to propose a name for this taxon, preferring to refer to this possible new species as Bisgaard taxon 39 of cluster V of Mannheimia....
Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki
To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002
Over, Ken; Crandall, Philip G; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes the disease of cattle, Johne's. The economic impact of this disease includes early culling of infected cattle, reduced milk yield, and weight loss of cattle sold for slaughter. There is a possible link between MAP and Crohn's disease, a human inflammatory bowel disease. MAP is also a potential human food borne pathogen because it survives current pasteurization treatments. We review the current knowledge of MAP, Johne's disease and Crohn's disease and note directions for future work with this organism including rapid and economical detection, effective management plans and preventative measures. PMID:21254832
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.
Umer Farooq*, Zaka Saeed1, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Iftikhar Ali1 and Muhammad Fiaz Qamar
Full Text Available The present investigation was executed to study the sero-surveillance of hemorrhagic septicemia (HS in buffaloes and cattle in district Dera-Ghazi-Khan, Punjab, Pakistan. The average geometric mean titers (GMT recorded against HS in diseased buffaloes and cattle were 5.7 and 6.1, respectively. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 57.58, 52.30 and 90.83% in young buffalo calves; and 3.17, 1.92 and 60.65%, in adult buffaloes, respectively. Whereas, in case of young cattle calves, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 8.63, 5.27 and 61.11%, respectively. While in adult cattle, morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 4.83, 2.18 and 45.23%, respectively. The present study revealed that the mortality, morbidity and case fatality rates due to HS were greater in young calves than the adults both in buffaloes and cattle. Furthermore, buffaloes were found to be more susceptible to the disease than the cattle.
Objective-To summarize the radiographic and clinical findings, treatment, and outcome in cattle with osteochondrosis diagnosed radiographically. Design-Retrospective case series. Sample Population-29 cattle with radiographic evidence of osteochondrosis. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed, and owners or referring veterinarians were contacted for outcome assessment. Data were analyzed for potential interactions between osteochondrosis classification (osteochondritis dessicans vs subchondral cyst-like lesions), clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome, using Fisher's exact test and descriptive statistics. Results-Osteochondrosis was associated with young, male, purebred cattle, clinical evidence of lameness, and radiographic evidence of concurrent degenerative joint disease. Osteochondritis dissecans and subchondral cyst-like lesions had similar clinical findings and outcomes but varied significantly in their radiographic distribution among joints. Osteochondrosis often manifests clinically as a unilateral condition, but bilateral lesions were often found (88%) when limbs were radiographically examined. Cattle managed conservatively tended to be culled (within 6 months of diagnosis because of lameness) more often than those managed surgically, despite the lack of treatment bias. ClinicalImplications-Osteochondrosis in cattle is often associated with lameness or degenerative joint disease. Conservative management does not result in a favorable clinical prognosis for long-term, lameness-free survival, and more studies need to be completed to evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of osteochondrosis in cattle
Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever in Indonesia is caused by Ovine herpes virus 2 and considered as a disease with high mortality rate causing degeneratif and lymphoproliferative disease in cattle, buffalo and other ruminants. A total number of fifteen Bali cattle were naturally infected by Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF. Those cattle were meant to be experimental animals of research on infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, Septicaemia epizootica (SE, and bovine brucellosis. The clinical signs of those animals were sudden high fever, depression, anorexia, corneal opacity, mucopurulent oculo-nasal discharges and diarrhoea. Six of them were dead and the remaining cattle were slaughtered at extremis. On the basis of clinical, gross-pathological and histopathological findings, all cases were shown to be consistent and pathognomonic of MCF cases. These cases were regarded as an outbreak of MCF affecting Bali cattle which occurred during wet season and while in other paddock in that area there were a number of lambing sheep. This result confirms that Bali cattle is a very susceptible animal of MCF and the cases were very likely due to the spread of MCF virus from lambing sheep.
Hamad, Mohammed A; Al-Shammari, Ahmed M; Odisho, Shoni M; Yaseen, Nahi Y
This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma. BPV-1 DNA was detected in 121 of the samples (86.42%) in Iraqi cattle as the main causative agent for the disease. A partial sequence for the E2, L2 genes, and complete sequence for the E5 gene were deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of BPV-1 and showed that the origin of infection may be imported European cattle. Obtaining a complete E5 gene sequence enabled us to perform structural predictions. This study presents the first report of BPV-1 infection in the Iraqi cattle and contributes to extending the knowledge of the origin of the spread of this disease. The results of this study will aid in the development of appropriate control measures and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27413374
Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morphology and genealogy of the syndrome in Simmental to establish the basis for an effective management of the disease. Results The first pathologically confirmed arachnomelia syndrome-cases in the current Simmental population appeared in the year 2005. By 2007, an additional 140 calves with the arachnomelia syndrome were identified. The major pathological findings were malformed bones affecting the head, long bones of the legs and the vertebral column. It could be shown that, with the exception of two cases that were considered as phenocopies, all of the paternal and about two-third of the maternal pedigrees of the affected calves could be traced back to one common founder. Together with the data from experimental matings, the pedigree data support an autosomal recessive mutation being the etiology of the arachnomelia syndrome. The frequency of the mutation in the current population was estimated to be 3.32%. Conclusion We describe the repeated occurrence of the arachnomelia syndrome in Simmental calves. It resembles completely the same defect occurring in the Brown Swiss breed. The mutation became relatively widespread amongst the current population. Therefore, a control system has to be established and it is highly desirable to map the disease and develop a genetic test system.
Harhay, Gregory P; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam M; Mcvey, D. Scott; Kuszak, Jennifer; Michael L Clawson; Harhay, Dayna M.; Heaton, Michael P.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Smith, Timothy P L
Mannheimia haemolytica is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. M. haemolytica is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present the first two complete closed genome sequences of this species, determined using an automated assembly pipeline requiring no manual finishing.
Harhay, Gregory P; Mcvey, D. Scott; Koren, Sergey; Phillippy, Adam M; Bono, Jim; Harhay, Dayna M.; Michael L Clawson; Heaton, Michael P.; Chitko-McKown, Carol G.; Korlach, Jonas; Smith, Timothy P L
Bibersteinia trehalosi is a respiratory pathogen affecting cattle and related ruminants worldwide. B. trehalosi is closely related to Mannheimia haemolytica and is often associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), a polymicrobial multifactorial disease. We present three complete closed genome sequences of this species generated using an automated assembly pipeline.
Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio D; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel; Quiroz-Castañeda, Rosa Estela
We present here the draft genome sequence of the first "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" strain found in cattle in Mexico. This hemotropic mycoplasma causes acute and chronic disease in animals. This genome is a starting point for studying the role of this mycoplasma in coinfections and synergistic mechanisms associated with the disease. PMID:27389272
Mehdi, Youcef; Dufrasne, Isabelle
This review article examines the role of selenium (Se) and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter) for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism's use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se. PMID:27120589
Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.
Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.
Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.
Akinseye, Victor O; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ogugua, Akwoba J; Adedoyin, Folashade J; Otu, Patricia I; Kwaghe, Ayi V; Kolawole, Noah O; Okoro, Oyinye J; Agada, Charity A; Tade, Adeniyi O; Faleke, Olufemi O; Okeke, Anyanwu L; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Ibitoye, Mofoluwake M; Dipeolu, Morenike O; Dale, Emma J; Lorraine, Perrett; Taylor, Andrew V; Awosanya, Emmanuel A; Cadmus, Eniola O; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105) was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.22). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04) and sex ( p £ 0.0001) of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries. PMID:27247065
Victor O. Akinseye
Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria
Arbab Sikandar*, AH Cheema1, M Younus2, A Aslam1, MA Zaman2 and T Rehman3
Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan. Acid-fast smear staining, gross/histopathology and indirect ELISA were done for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Total 134 samples illustrating gross pathological lesions were collected, only 11.19% (cattle: 6.67%, buffaloes: 12.5% showed acid fast bacilli through smear staining and were taken as confirmed cases. Thickening of intestines alone was not a reliable indicator of Johne’s disease. Tissue sections from intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from these acid fast positive animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN methods. Sum of (15/134 impression smear staining as well as (15/15 tissue sections of the intestines were found ZN positive, and only 6.7% of impression smears and 100% of tissue sections of mesenteric lymph nodes showed acid fast bacilli. Through ELISA, two cattle and five buffaloes (07/134 gave positive optical densities, while one cattle and seven buffaloes (08/134 were judged as doubtful. It is concluded that infection of MAP can be identified by histopathology and ELISA. The present study was the first record of paratuberculosis among the dairy animals slaughtered at Jhang abattoirs. The objective was to compare different methods for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease.
Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I
marketing system is semi-subsistence, cows have other functions more important than milk production. Fertility, disease resistance and strength of the calves they bear are as much or more important than milk. The breed concept, which is very much associated in Ethiopia with the area where the animal is brought from, was found to be less important as such and it appears that farmers are interested in obtaining animals from the district or locations in which they live in. This is essentially because cattle buyers, who are mostly farmers, are more concerned about adaptability and therefore give high value to the fact that they know the pedigree of the cattle they buy. The results of the CE for bulls indicate that cattle buyers assign high values for good traction potential, disease resistance, calf vigour, and for places of origin when choosing bulls in the market. The preferences cattle buyers have for these attributes do vary essentially due to differences in occupation, education and age. The primary objective of the rural community to produce sufficient food for the family for each year was manifested through the value assigned to traction potential which is more than twice that of disease resistance. These results are consistent with the basic reasons why animals are kept in the area, but appear to be incoherent with the government funded interventions of livestock development. Given the importance of livestock, bulls in particular, for the livelihoods of the communities in rural Ethiopia, such consistent valuation of the traits show that the objectives of the agrarian life are quite clear among the community - farmers, farmer traders, traders, and others - that production and marketing decisions are made on broader considerations than just milk and meat production. The government of Ethiopia needs to revise the structure of the livestock improvement programs still running and needs to make note of the important details that influence the production, marketing and
Clinical signs, causative factors, radiographic findings, type and duration of treatment or reason for killing were evaluated in 53 cattle (mean age: 5.3 years) suffering from toe ulcer and/or apical pedal bone necrosis. A total of 78 claws were affected. Four cattle suffered from a toe ulcer in one claw, 35 cattle showed osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx in a single claw and 14 cattle in two or three claws per cow. Overtrimming by means of a grinding disc and/or perforation of the sole was diagnosed as the major cause in 27 cattle (49%), laminitis in 30.2% and traumatic injuries in 11.3%. Radiography revealed a varying degree of osteolysis involving up to two-thirds of the pedal bone. Twenty-one cattle (39.6%) showing multiple toe disorders or involvement of one single claw with concurrent internal diseases were destroyed. In 23 cattle, the osteolytic bone was resected using a bone curette or hammer and chisel. Of these, the treatment was successful in 20 animals. The healing period ranged from 16-60 days when one claw was affected and from 43-53 days when two claws were affected. In five cattle, the digit was amputated
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... score from first three lactations were studied for association with SNP markers in 4,200 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls. Single trait breeding values were used as phenotypes. All the individuals were genotyped with BovineSNP50 Beadchip. Part of this population was also genotyped with the Bovine...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance of the...
Wei LEI; Liang, Qinglong; Jing, Luo; Wang, Chengmin; Wu, Xiaobing; He, Hongxuan
For the further characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-induced foot-and-mouth disease, we investigated the association between polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3 gene and FMD resistance/susceptibility of Wanbei cattle challenged with FMDV. One hundred cattle were challenged with FMDV and exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 genes was amplified by hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction from asymptomatic animals and from animals with FMD. PCR products were characterized by the RFLP technique using restri...
Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.
Mašić Zoran; Adamović Milan; Đilas Sandra M.; Mihaljev Željko A.
Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also pres...
De Lorenzi, Lisa; Morando, Paola; Planas Cuchi, Jordi; Zannotti, Michele; Molteni, Luciano; Parma, Pietro
Chromosomal anomalies, like Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations represent a big problem in cattle breeding as their presence induces, in the carrier subjects, a well documented fertility reduction. In cattle reciprocal translocations (RCPs, a chromosome abnormality caused by an exchange of material between nonhomologous chromosomes) are considered rare as to date only 19 reciprocal translocations have been described. In cattle it is common knowledge that the Robertson...
Chiba, Shiori; FUNATO, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu
Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic ...
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.
E. SZÜCS; GulyÁs, L.; L.T. CZISZTER; I. Demirkan
Findings of research and experiences gained in commercial practice reveal needs for efforts in order to reinforce further development in the subject matter of calving difficulty and stillbirth in dairy cattle with special emphasis on causes and effects. Direct costs such as loss of calf, death of dam, labour, veterinary assistance and other ones influencing economics in longer term e.g. higher culling rate, reduced milk yield and fertility have to be evaluated and interpreted. The effects of ...
Zdenko Lončarić; Meri Engler; Krunoslav Karalić; Gordana Bukvić; Ružica Lončarić; Davor Kralik
Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus) is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida). Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32...
Podkówka Zbigniew; Čermák Bohuslav; Podkówka Witold; Brouček Jan
Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG) which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted...
Murtaugh, M P; Lin, G F; Haggard, D L; Weber, A F; Meiske, J C
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is widely distributed in U.S. cattle herds. It infects B lymphocytes and causes neoplastic disease in 5-10% of infected animals. Direct economic losses are incurred as a result of death, reduced milk production and condemnation at slaughter. Thus the identification of cattle infected with BLV is of significant concern to the U.S. cattle industry. For this reason, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was used to examine seropositive and seronegative cattle for the presence of BLV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Using an amplification protocol able to detect 1 viral genome in 100,000 cells, BLV was not detected in 7 seronegative cattle in an infected herd. BLV sequences were detected in 13 of 18 seropositive animals with various levels of infection as determined by in vitro lymphocyte culture and electron microscopy. An active infection was demonstrated in one animal, based on the presence of viral RNA. These findings indicate that PCR is a sensitive method for the detection of BLV in cattle and provides new information regarding the dynamics of the infection. PMID:1658030
Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.
Rini I Damayanti; Sudarisman
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis is a disease of cattle characterised by clinical signs of the upper respiratory tract, reproductive tract and nervous system. A study to define the pathogenicity of four BHV-1 local isolates has been conducted. Fourteen Bali cattle that were free of BHV-1 has been selected and divided into four treatment groups. Each group of three was infected with virus isolate I, II, III and IV respectively with approximately a dose of 108TCID50 /10 ml and two cattle were ...
Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.
Seabury Christopher M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular
Background Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease, and animals such as poultry, pigs and cattle may act as reservoirs for Campylobacter spp. Cattle shed Campylobacter spp. into the environment and they can act as a reservoir for human infection directly via contact with cattle or their faeces or indirectly by consumption of contaminated food. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, the quantitative load and the genetic strain diversity of Campylobacter spp. in dairy cattle of different age groups. Results Faecal samples of 200 dairy cattle from three farms in the central part of Lithuania were collected and examined for Campylobacter. Cattle herds of all three farms were Campylobacter spp. positive, with a prevalence ranging from 75% (farm I), 77.5% (farm II) to 83.3% (farm III). Overall, the highest prevalence was detected in calves (86.5%) and heifers (86.2%). In contrast, the lowest Campylobacter prevalence was detectable in dairy cows (60.6%). C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari and C. fetus subsp. fetus were identified in faecal samples of dairy cattle. C. upsaliensis was not detectable in any sample. The high counts of Campylobacter spp. were observed in faecal material of dairy cattle (average 4.5 log10 cfu/g). The highest numbers of Campylobacter spp. were found in faecal samples from calves (average 5.3 log10 cfu/g), whereas, faecal samples from cows harboured the lowest number of Campylobacter spp. (average 3.7 log10 cfu/g). Genotyping by flaA PCR-RFLP analysis of selected C. jejuni isolates showed that some genotypes were present in all farms and all age groups. However, farm or age specific genotypes were also identified. Conclusions Future studies are needed to investigate risk factors related to the degree of colonisation in cattle. Based on that, possible measures to reduce the colonisation and subsequent shedding of Campylobacter in cattle could be established. It is important to further investigate the epidemiology of Campylobacter in the
Lorusso, Vincenzo; Picozzi, Kim; de Bronsvoort, Barend Mc; Majekodunmi, Ayodele; Dongkum, Charles; Balak, Gyang; Igweh, Augustine; Welburn, Susan C
Background Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria. The aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central Nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically. Methods The study was carried out in September 2010 in 9 villages belonging to three neighbouring local government areas in Plateau ...
Hamidreza Azizi; Behrouz Shiran; Arash Borjian Boroujeni; Milad Jafari
Background Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide spread disease. The present study examined the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among animals of edible meat (cattle and sheep) in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province (Southwest of Iran) in 2012. Furthermore, we attempted for the first time to identify this parasite from the meat products in the province. Methods The tongue, brain, femur muscle and liver of 50 sheep and 70 cattle as well as 50 samples of meat products were selected and collected ...
Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. PMID:25898993
Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.
Ogilvie, T. H.; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I R
A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).
Patrícia V.B. Leite
Full Text Available We evaluated the dynamics of ear infestations caused by Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp., which were correlated with animal age, intensity of clinical signs and climate factors. Sixty-four Gir cattle were distributed into three groups: GA - 23 calves with 4 to 6 months of age; GB - 18 calves with 7 to 12 months of age; and GC - 23 heifers with 13 to 33 months of age. Five samplings, defined as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 were performed every three months from August 2008 to August 2009. The ear secretion was collected using the auricular washing method for the right ear and a swab for the left ear. A clinical assessment of the animals was performed, and they were classified according to the presence and severity of otitis. The highest relative frequency of rhabditosis was 52.2% in GC at the last sampling. In the first sampling, 42.2% of the animals were infested by Raillietia spp. The older cattle were more susceptible to infestations by both parasites. No correlation of Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp. parasitism with climate factors was found. The results showed that both parasites could infest Gir cattle, and in most cases, there was no co-infestation. Only older animals parasitized by the nematode showed clinical signs of the disease.
Emmanuella N. Akange
Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67
Hill, Gary M
Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662
Jim Dyer; Darrel Cerkowniak; Dominique Maxime; Xavier P.C. Vergé; Devon E. Worth; Raymond L. Desjardins
The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO 2 e per kg of live weight (LW) depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of...
Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;
Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition of...... human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should not...... stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases. The...
Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.
The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to di
Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Apfelbaum, Ronja; Carratalá, Yanet P; Bosch, Pablo; Pötzsch, Kerstin; Grueso, Esther; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A
Genetically modified cattle are important for developing new biomedical models and for an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of zoonotic diseases. However, genome editing and genetic engineering based on somatic cell nuclear transfer suffer from a low overall efficiency. Here, we established a highly efficient one-step multiplex gene transfer system into the bovine genome. PMID:26905416
Kváč, Martin; Vítovec, J.
Roč. 50, č. 9 (2003), s. 451-457. ISSN 0931-1793 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 122200002 Keywords : cryptosporidiosis * cattle * Cryptosporidium andersoni Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.656, year: 2003
Václavek, P.; Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, David; Sedlák, K.
Roč. 115, č. 3 (2003), s. 239-245. ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Neospora caninum * abortion * cattle Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2003
Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necro...
Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Su Yeon; Hwang, Kyu Jam; Ju, Young Ran; Woo, Hee-Jong
Prion diseases, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), lead to neurological dysfunction in animals and are fatal. Infectious prion proteins are causative agents of many mammalian TSEs, including scrapie (in sheep), chronic wasting disease (in deer and elk), bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; in cattle), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD; in humans). BSE, better known as mad cow disease, is among the many recently discovered zoonotic diseases. BSE cases were first reported in the United Kingdom in 1986. Variant CJD (vCJD) is a disease that was first detected in 1996, which affects humans and is linked to the BSE epidemic in cattle. vCJD is presumed to be caused by consumption of contaminated meat and other food products derived from affected cattle. The BSE epidemic peaked in 1992 and decreased thereafter; this decline is continuing sharply owing to intensive surveillance and screening programs in the Western world. However, there are still new outbreaks and/or progression of prion diseases, including atypical BSE, and iatrogenic CJD and vCJD via organ transplantation and blood transfusion. This paper summarizes studies on prions, particularly on prion molecular mechanisms, BSE, vCJD, and diagnostic procedures. Risk perception and communication policies of the European Union for the prevention of prion diseases are also addressed to provide recommendations for appropriate government policies in Korea. PMID:24159531
Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan
Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19%), lack of extension services (15%), presence of diseases (12%), lack of market for cattle and their products (10%), and recurrent cycle of drought (9%). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21%). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67%), trypanosomosis (28%), and ECF (15%), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate <1%. Milk yield was affected by FMD, ECF, and trypanosomosis, while ECF was the cause of increased mortality. FMD, ECF, CBPP, and brucellosis caused increased abortion, while effect of gender and location of study was not significant. Despite CBPP being regarded as an important disease affecting cattle production in sub-Sahara Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas. PMID:23417827
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A
Cecília José Veríssimo
Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size
Daniel Guimarães Ubiali; Raquel Aparecida Sales da Cruz; Marconni Victor da Costa Lana; Yara Silva Meireles; Pedro Brandini Néspoli; Marcos Almeida Souza; Edson Moleta Colodel; Caroline Argenta Pescador
An outbreak of compressive myelopathy in cattle associated with the improper use of an oil vaccine is described. Neurological signs were observed in 25 out of 3,000 cattle after 60 days of being vaccinated against foot and mouth disease. The clinical picture was characterized by progressive paralysis of the hind limbs, difficulty in standing up, and sternal recumbency during the course of 2-5 months. A filling defect between the L1 and L3 vertebrae was seen through myelography performed in on...
Lankester, F.; Russell, G.C.; Lugelo, A.; Ndabigaye, A.; Mnyambwa, N.; Keyyu, J.; Kazwala, R.; Grant, D.; Percival, A.; Deane, D.; Haig, D.M.; Cleaveland, S.
Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases. PMID:26706270
Full Text Available Dermatitis digitalis is an extremely contagious disease of cattle hooves multicausal etiology, which soon turns into a problem of the whole herd. It significantly decreases the milk, which may be in the global market economy can seriously undermine the competitiveness of producers who do not suppressed adequately. Analysis of data collected in 2013. and 2014th year coincides with the findings from the literature that bacterial causes of dermatitis digitalis in conditions of high temperature and humidity raised the number of infected animals in the warm period of the year. The most economical way to control this disease is constant zoohygienic implementation of measures and procedures: Hygiene herd at the prescribed level, proper design and construction of the reservoir, the proper design of the ventilation facility and strict implementation measures of disinfection and hoof bearing animals. The most effective way suppression diseases and hoof it to reduce the losses caused by the conditions of intensive livestock production that preventive measures and procedures as well as raising the level of biotechnology thinking of all employees in cattle production, while curative repair problems in patients with animals but does not eliminate losses manufacturer.
Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Rodríguez-Camarillo, Sergio D.; Amaro-Estrada, Itzel
We present here the draft genome sequence of the first “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos” strain found in cattle in Mexico. This hemotropic mycoplasma causes acute and chronic disease in animals. This genome is a starting point for studying the role of this mycoplasma in coinfections and synergistic mechanisms associated with the disease. PMID:27389272
Genomic and biological variability of foot and mouth disease virus serotype A: Exploration of the 'quasispecies' nature of RNA viruses and characterization of A24 variants in naive and vaccinated cattle
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, systemic disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animal species and is caused by FMDV. The quasispecies nature of FMDV, and other RNA viruses is a hallmark of RNA virus genetics. Thus, investigation of the potential hypervariability of FMDV is relevant to...
Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.
Ayral, Florence C.; Bicout, Dominique J.; Pereira, Helena; Artois, Marc; Kodjo, Angeli
A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the “Laboratoire des Leptospires” between 2008 and 2011. The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs. A total of 394 cattle herds and 232 dogs were diagnosed with clinical leptospirosis, and the results suggested infection by the Leptospira serogroup Australis in 43% and 63%, respectively; by the Leptospira serogroup Grippotyphosa in 17% and 9%, respectively; and by the Leptospira serogroup Sejroe in 33% and 6%, respectively. This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. PMID:25092816
Full Text Available Abstract ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in health. Enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis and cell signaling and transduction, these effects, seem to regulate coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, psychiatric disorders and various cancer. In this context, fat-1 transgenic cattle was designed to convert ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acids could form an ideal model to study the effect of ω-3 fatty acids on the above functions. This study focuses on the total genomic difference of gene expression between fat-1 transgenic cattle and wild-type using cDNA microarrays, several genes were found to be overexpressed or suppressed in transgenic cattle relative to wild-type, these discrepancy genes related with lipid metabolism, immunity, inflammation nervous development and fertility.
Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M
The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector. PMID:25727141
Shahabeddin Sarvi; Ahmad Daryani; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi; Mohsen Aarabi; Azar Shokri; Ehsan Ahmadpour; Azadeh Mizani; Mahdi Sharif
Objective:To analyze and review the overall seroprevalence rate ofToxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) infection in cattle fromIran.Methods:In the current study, data collection(published and unpublished papers, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations) using particular terms was carried out systematically on the following electronic databases like PubMed,GoogleScholar,Ebsco,ScienceDirect,Scopus,Magiran,Irandoc,IranMedex andSID (ScientificInformationDatabase).Results:A total of22 studies since1983 to2012 reporting the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from different regions ofIran met our eligibility criteria.The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis, using random effect model, among cattle inIran from over the30-year period was estimated18.1%(95%CI:9.9% to28.2%) .Conclusions:This study firstly establishes a crude seroprevalence rate ofToxoplasmainfection in cattle which can lead us to understand the condition of cattle toxoplasmosis, which have to take into accounted for an appropriate and effective prevention and controls.Secondly, it compares and discusses elaborately the role of risk factors including sex, age and breed in the epidemiology of the disease.Thus, it determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies which are greatly useful to design more accurate investigations in the future.
Wang, M D; Dzama, K; Rees, D J G; Muchadeyi, F C
Africa is host to diverse and locally adapted cattle breeds that are expected to survive the harsh and extreme tropical environments associated with diseases and parasite infections, heat stress and episodes of feed and water scarcity. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) are considered to be primary role players in cattle breed formation and adaptation where isolation and genetic drift together with subsequent mutations have created an enormous diversity of local populations. CNVs are modifications in DNA structure comprising deletions, duplications and insertions that are >1 kb in size. Despite attracting much attention, the frequency and pattern of bovine CNV events, especially in African cattle breeds, are for the most part largely unknown. Characterization of genetic variation in the indigenous cattle of Africa will be a vital step toward dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation and local adaptation. This review therefore aims to describe the current knowledge regarding bovine CNVs and the implications and potentials they encompass for dissecting genetic adaptation and the genotypic skeleton of tropical African cattle populations. PMID:26644080
W David Walter
Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles, brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula, and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research on M. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type. Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovis identified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd
Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping
In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334
Register, Karen B; Thole, Luke; Rosenbush, Ricardo F; Minion, F Chris
Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex. Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necrotic pharyngitis, pneumonia, dystocia and abortion. Whether isolates from cattle and bison comprise genetically distinct populations is unknown. This study describes the development of a highly discriminatory multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) method for M. bovis and its use to investigate the population structure of the bacterium. Genome sequences from six M. bovis isolates were used for selection of gene targets. Seven of 44 housekeeping genes initially evaluated were selected as targets on the basis of sequence variability and distribution within the genome. For each gene target sequence, four to seven alleles could be distinguished that collectively define 32 sequence types (STs) from a collection of 94 cattle isolates and 42 bison isolates. A phylogeny based on concatenated target gene sequences of each isolate revealed that bison isolates are genetically distinct from strains that infect cattle, suggesting recent disease outbreaks in bison may be due to the emergence of unique genetic variants. No correlation was found between ST and disease presentation or geographic origin. MLST data reported here were used to populate a newly created and publicly available, curated database to which researchers can contribute. The MLST scheme and database provide novel tools for exploring the population structure of M. bovis and tracking the evolution and spread of strains. PMID:25433454
Boichard, D; Brochard, M
Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen
Buddle, B M; Livingstone, P G; de Lisle, G W
The tuberculin skin test is effective in the early detection of pre-clinical cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. This allows the rapid removal of infected animals, thus limiting transmission of the disease, and has resulted in the eradication of bovine tuberculosis (Tb) from many countries. This test is very likely to remain the primary screening test for M. bovis infection in cattle as it is a simple, robust and inexpensive test. However, a number of ancillary tests are being used, or are currently being validated. These ancillary tests are likely to provide a more accurate diagnosis following skin-testing. The blood-based BOVIGAM interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) test is a cellular immune assay which can detect early infection, and has become the main ancillary test in New Zealand. It can be used for re-testing skin test-positive animals, to improve specificity and minimise wastage from slaughtering animals with false-positive tests. Alternatively, it can be used in locations of increased risk of infection in parallel with skin-testing, for examining skin test-negative animals for pre-movement testing or in problem herds to identify M. bovis-infected animals that do not respond to the skin test. Several modifications of the test are now being used to improve specificity by altering the cut-off or using specific antigens present in virulent mycobacteria such as the 6 kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10). While antibody based tests generally lack sensitivity, as high levels of antibodies tend to occur late in the disease process, they may have unique desirable properties such as the ability to be used as a cow-side test. The use of these new ancillary tests in association with skin-testing will improve the detection of M. bovis-infected cattle and reduce the unnecessary slaughter of false-positive reactors. PMID:19649010
Chase Chad C
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E and lysine (K codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp coding sequence. A bovine E211K mutation is important because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease, an autosomal dominant form of prion disease. The present report describes a high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle. Results The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior. Conclusion No groups or breeds of U.S. cattle are presently known to harbor the Prnp K211 allele. Because a carrier was not detected, the number of additional atypical BSE cases with K211 will also be vanishingly low.
Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk
Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (PUSD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (P<0.01). The losses due to rabies in cattle are relatively high for pastoral households, due to their complete dependency on livestock for their livelihoods. Although the current estimates only account for the direct losses resulting from cattle mortality, the estimates already indicate the potential
Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.
Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys
Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organizat...
李前勇; 张德志; 徐蓉; 吴艳秋; 詹飞; 吴润彪
奶牛布氏杆菌病、传染性鼻气管炎、病毒性腹泻-黏膜病及新孢子虫病是导致我国奶牛流产发病比例升高的主要疾病，有效防控这四种疾病一直是世界关注的重点之一。本文对上述四种疾病的流行现状及疫苗研究进展进行了综述。%The four diseases including Bovine brucellosis, Bovine infection rhinotracheitis, Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine neosporiasis are the main diseases that causing cow′s abortion. Pre-vention and control of these four diseases effectively have become one of the focuses. In this paper, research progress on the vaccine and epidemic situation of these four diseases had been reviewed.
李前勇; 张德志; 徐蓉; 吴艳秋; 詹飞; 吴润彪
奶牛布氏杆菌病、传染性鼻气管炎、病毒性腹泻-黏膜病及新孢子虫病是导致我国奶牛流产发病比例升高的主要疾病，有效防控这四种疾病一直是世界关注的重点之一。本文对上述四种疾病的流行现状及疫苗研究进展进行了综述。%The four diseases including Bovine brucellosis, Bovine infection rhinotracheitis, Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine neosporiasis are the main diseases that causing cow′s abortion. Pre-vention and control of these four diseases effectively have become one of the focuses. In this paper, research progress on the vaccine and epidemic situation of these four diseases had been reviewed.
Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.
Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar
In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible
Weppert Myriam; Reichenbach Horst-Dieter; Emmerling Reiner; Luntz Bernhard; Buitkamp Johannes; Schade Benjamin; Meier Norbert; Götz Kay-Uwe
Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morp...
Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .
Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.
Takeshima, S N; Miyasaka, T; Polat, M; Kikuya, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mingala, C N; Villanueva, M A; Salces, A J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y
Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401
Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequence-based typing (SBT. Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle. A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle.
Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian
Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145
Alessandro Russo Frattasi
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate different aspects regarding culled cattle and to suggest operating procedures for their correct management. Information collected in Piedmont region allowed for an assessment of the number of cattle put down on the farm, a quantification of slaughters performed in urgency and emergency (SUS/SES and a headcount of those which died during farming. The survey highlighted the limited use of euthanasia or putting down compared to the number of cases of SUS/SES which were approximately ten times higher. If cattle displays severe health problems, such as a multifactorial disease like downer cow, the farmer has to decide rapidly the treatment to avoid cattle distress. A checklist has been developed and a flow chart has been revised to assist farmers and vets to quicken the decision-taking process and to manage the cattle in a more efficient manner. During this study a number of different problems have been stressed out. Particularly, the shortcomings in the training of operators commissioned to manage the animals, the inadequacy of structures used for the sheltering and slaughter of bovines on the farm, and differences in the operating procedures for culled cattle across the territory. From the obtained results, we can conclude that it is necessary to adopt a transversal approach, so that the information regarding these animals (welfare, health status, drug treatments and destination will be uniform and adequate during all the steps of production, to ensure animal welfare and food safety.
von Son-de Fernex, Elke; Alonso-Díaz, Miguel Ángel; Mendoza-de-Gives, Pedro; Valles-de la Mora, Braulio; Liébano-Hernández, Enrique; López-Arellano, María Eugenia; Aguilar-Marcelino, Liliana
Mecistocirrus digitatus is a hematophagous abomasal nematode which causes significant blood and production losses in cattle. The objectives of the present study were to: (1) report the reappearance of M. digitatus in cattle from the Mexican tropics using microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and molecular identification, and (2) determine the prevalence of M. digitatus in slaughtered adult cattle from the Mexican tropics. Gastroinestinal nematodes (GIN) were recovered from the abomasum of an 8-yr-old cow (Holstein × Zebu) previously diagnosed with Johne's disease. Of 1,254 GIN, 98.8% were identified as M. digitatus and 1.2% as Haemonchus sp. SEM was used to identify ultrastructure features of M. digitatus (oral cavity, cervical papillae, bursa, bursa lobes papillae, male spicules, anus, and female vulva). A conventional PCR method was used to corroborate the morphological findings. The prevalence of adult cattle infected with M. digitatus and Haemonchus sp., determined from 68 adult cattle from different grazing tropical herds, was 38.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of animals infected with M. digitatus presented lesions in their abomasum such as mucosal inflammation, hemorrhage, and ulcers; some of them had necrosis. The current reappearance of M. digitatus in a Mexican herd suggests the possibility of an underestimated prevalence of this nematode amongst grazing cattle. PMID:24433062
A survey of cattle dip facilities and current practices employed was done. Coumaphos and ethion were the commonly used acaricides in the four respondent stock farms. The behavior of coumaphos in a simulated model cattle dip was monitored using radiotracer techniques. Degradation was rapid, resulting in the formation of potasan metabolite and bound residues in the sediment. A rapid field method for the detection of organophosphate pesticides was used in monitoring the degradation of coumaphos in a cattle dip. The sensitivity of the method is comparable to the conventional HPLC method employed. This rapid field method can easily be used by cattle ranch owners to monitor coumaphos content of the vat facility so that recharging could be made in order to prevent the onset of resistance development in cattle tick. (author)
Ndondo, A M; Munganga, J M W; Mwambakana, J N; Saad-Roy, C M; van den Driessche, P; Walo, R O
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) and Nagana in cattle, commonly called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosome protozoa transmitted by bites of infected tsetse flies. We present a deterministic model for the transmission of HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense between human hosts, cattle hosts and tsetse flies. The model takes into account the growth of the tsetse fly, from its larval stage to the adult stage. Disease in the tsetse fly population is modeled by three compartments, and both the human and cattle populations are modeled by four compartments incorporating the two stages of HAT. We provide a rigorous derivation of the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text]. For [Formula: see text], the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, thus HAT dies out; whereas (assuming no return to susceptibility) for [Formula: see text], HAT persists. Elasticity indices for [Formula: see text] with respect to different parameters are calculated with baseline parameter values appropriate for HAT in West Africa; indicating parameters that are important for control strategies to bring [Formula: see text] below 1. Numerical simulations with [Formula: see text] show values for the infected populations at the endemic equilibrium, and indicate that with certain parameter values, HAT could not persist in the human population in the absence of cattle. PMID:27296784
Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys
Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512
Holm, D.M.; Bobbett, R.E.; Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.; Sanders, W.M.; Depp, S.W.; Seawright, G.L.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have been supporting an electronic identification and temperature monitoring project at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since early 1973. The development, so far, indicates that a subdermally-implanted, electronic transponder (having no batteries) can be remotely activated and transmit temperature and identification information back to a receiver in a few tenths of a second. If this electronic identification and temperature monitoring system is developed into a commercially available product line, and is widely accepted by the cattle industry, it will enable them to carry out more extensive management practices. Better management can result in greater efficiency and productivity. The system will also enable regulatory agencies to trace the movements of diseased animals through commerce, and thus assist in disease control measures. Work so far has been concentrated primarily on determining the technical feasibility of the electronic concepts. (auth)
Wüthrich, Daniel; Boujon, Céline L; Truchet, Laura; Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Oevermann, Anna; Bouzalas, Ilias G; Bruggmann, Rémy; Seuberlich, Torsten
Non-suppurative encephalitis is one of the most frequent pathological diagnosis in cattle with neurological disease, but there is a gap in the knowledge on disease-associated pathogens. In order to identify viruses that are associated with non-suppurative encephalitis in cattle, we used a viral metagenomics approach on a sample set of 16 neurologically-diseased cows. We detected six virus candidates: parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV-5), bovine astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 (BoAstV-CH13/NeuroS1), bovine polyomavirus 2 (BPyV-2 SF), ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), bovine herpesvirus 6 (BHV-6) and a novel bovine betaretrovirus termed BoRV-CH15. In a case-control study using PCR, BoAstV-CH13 (p=0.046), BoPV-2 SF (p=0.005) and BoHV-6 (p=4.3E-05) were statistically associated with the disease. These data expand our knowledge on encephalitis-associated pathogens in cattle and point to the value of NGS in resolving complex infection scenarios in a clinical disease setting. PMID:26994586
Garcia, A B; Shalloo, L
Paratuberculosis (also called Johne's disease) is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects ruminants and other animals. The epidemiology of paratuberculosis is complex and the clinical manifestations and economic impact of the disease in cattle can be variable depending on factors such as herd management, age, infection dose, and disease prevalence, among others. Additionally, considerable challenges are faced in the control of paratuberculosis in cattle, such as the lack of accurate and reliable diagnostic tests. Nevertheless, efforts are directed toward the control of this disease because it can cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industry mainly due to increased premature culling, replacement costs, decreased milk yield, reduced feed conversion efficiency, fertility problems, reduced slaughter values, and increased susceptibility to other diseases or conditions. The variability and uncertainty surrounding the estimations of paratuberculosis prevalence and impact influence the design, implementation, and efficiency of control programs in diverse areas of the world. This review covers important aspects of the economic impact and control of paratuberculosis, including challenges related to disease detection, estimations of the prevalence and economic effects of the disease, and the implementation of control programs. The control of paratuberculosis can improve animal health and welfare, increase productivity, reduce potential market problems, and increase overall business profitability. The benefits that can derive from the control of paratuberculosis need to be communicated to all industry stakeholders to promote the implementation of control programs. Moreover, if the suspected link between Johne's disease in ruminants and Crohn's disease in humans was established, significant economic losses could be expected, particularly for the dairy industry, making the control of this disease a priority across
Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu and 34 composites, genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule-Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P=0.15. Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding activities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity.
Michael P. Combrink
Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.
Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C
This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media. PMID:27179876
Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna
A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.
刘宏社; 赵稳刚; 冯晓鹏; 孙新刚
布鲁氏菌病（以下简称布病）和牛结核病为人畜共患病,我国将＂两病＂规定为二类动物疫病。尤其是布病对人畜普遍易感,且经接触、空气、黏膜多途径传播、感染,疫情发生后,按照＂检、杀、免、消＂的防治原则,进行科学的果断处置,使疫情得到控制,对提高人口质量,促进畜牧业健康发展具有极为重要的意义。在扑杀过程中,静松灵（Xylazine Hydrochloride Injection）和敌敌畏（DD-VP）的联合应用,成本低,省时省力,符合动物福利原则,虽不是完全的安乐死,但使动物痛苦得到了降低,值得推广。%Brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis are diseases of zoonosis,these two kinds of diseases were stipulated to Grade 2 by Chines Government.Brucella are susceptible to humans and animals and could spread through multi-channel,like contact,air,mucous membranes and others ways.The control of the disease is depended on the comprehensive prevention principle as quarantine,culling,immunization,disinfection.Deal with scientifically,the disease was under control,it is meaningful for improve population quality,promote animal husbandry development healthy.During culling process,combination of Xylazine Hydrochloride Injection and DDVP,lower cost,save time and labour,meet animal welfare principle,it it not fully euthanasia,however,it relieved animal pain to lowest point,and worth to popularize.
殷涛; 屈勇刚; 罗玉江; 李岩; 翟新验; 范伟兴; 剡根强; 李静; 张鲁安; 苏贵成; 原霖
对新疆南、北疆的6个规模化奶牛场繁殖障碍类疫病进行调查，采集流产、产死胎、弱胎的成年母牛血清155份，应用血清学方法检测牛病毒性腹泻等5种疫病的感染性抗体。结果表明，5种疫病在各牛场不同程度存在，感染性抗体平均阳性率分别为：牛病毒性腹泻75.5%、牛衣原体38.1%、牛传染性鼻气管炎88.4%、牛布鲁氏菌病25.7%、弓形体病26.5%。本研究为规模化奶牛场开展疫病防控提供了依据。%In this study, the epidemiological investigation of infectious reproductive diseases were conducted in six large scale dairy farms located in the southern Xinjiang or the northern Xinjiang. A total of 155 serum samples were collected from adult cows, which happened abortion, gave stillbirth or weak young. The antibodies of bovine viral diarrhoea and the other four diseases were detected by serological test. Results showed that the five reproductive diseases were prevalent more or less in the six dairy farms. The antibody positive rate of bovine viral diarrhoea, chlamydia bovis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, brucellosis, toxoplasmosis were 75.5%, 38.1%, 88.4%, 25.7%, 26.5%, respectively. It provided epidemiological evidence for the diseases control in large scale dairy farm.
Aebi, M; Wiedemar, N; Drögemüller, C; Zanolari, R
During the years 2012 to 2014, a total of 5 affected Simmental cattle showing persistent bleeding after minor or unknown trauma, were presented at the Clinic for Ruminants or at the Institute for Genetics of the Vetsuisse-Faculty, University of Berne. The homozygous mutation RASGRP2, initially reported in 2007, was present in all these cases and all available parents were heterozygous carriers thus confirming the recessive mode of inheritance. Three affected animals died as a result of persistent bleeding. One animal was stabilized at the Clinic for Ruminants and was slaughtered one month later. Another case showing persistent bleeding and several hematomas was euthanized after genotyping. A frequency of 10% carriers for the associated mutation was detected in a sample of 145 Simmental sires which were used 2013 for artificial insemination in Switzerland. These bulls are designated as TP carriers and should not be used uncontrolled. Breeding organizations in Switzerland make use of the gene test to select bulls which do not carry the mutation. PMID:27145685
Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.
Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.
Andréa de Cássia RODRIGUES da SILVA; Caporale, Graciane Maria Medeiros; GONÇALVES Celso Alberto; TARGUETA Mosar Couteiro; Fabiano COMIN; Carlos Roberto ZANETTI; Kotait, Ivanete
Despite the absence of current official reports showing the number of cattle infected by rabies, it is estimated that nearly 30,000 bovines are lost each year in Brazil. In order to minimize the important economic losses, control of the disease is achieved by eliminating bat colonies and by herd vaccination. In this study, we compare the antibody response in cattle elicited by vaccination with an attenuated ERA vaccine (AEvac) and an inactivated-adjuvanted PV (IPVvac) vaccine. The antibody ti...
Schärrer, Sara; Widgren, Stefan; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Lindberg, Ann; Vidondo, Beatriz; Zinsstag, Jakob; Reist, Martin
BACKGROUND: This study focused on the descriptive analysis of cattle movements and farm-level parameters derived from cattle movements, which are considered to be generically suitable for risk-based surveillance systems in Switzerland for diseases where animal movements constitute an important risk pathway. METHODS: A framework was developed to select farms for surveillance based on a risk score summarizing 5 parameters. The proposed framework was validated using data from the b...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a method to assess the function of the autonomic nervous system. Brainstem nuclei that influence HRV are affected by vacuolar changes and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE resulting in clinical signs suggestive of an increased parasympathetic tone. It was hypothesised that BSE in cattle causes changes in the autonomic nervous system; this was tested by comparing HRV indices derived from 1048 electrocardiograms, which were recorded from 51 naturally or experimentally infected cattle with BSE confirmed by postmortem tests, 321 clinical suspect cases or cattle inoculated with potentially infectious tissue without disease confirmation and 78 BSE-free control cattle. Findings Statistically significant differences were found for low or high frequency power, their normalised values and ratio when the last recording prior to cull or repeated recordings were compared but only between male and female cattle of the three groups and not between groups of the same gender, even though BSE cases of each gender appeared to be more nervous during the recording. The same findings were made for heart rate, deviation from the mean RR interval and vasovagal tonus index when repeated recordings were compared. BSE cases with severe vacuolar changes in the parasympathetic nucleus of the vagus nerve had a significantly lower low:high frequency power ratio but not a lower heart rate than BSE cases with mild vacuolation, whereas severity of vacuolar changes in the solitary tract nucleus or intensity of PrPd accumulation in both nuclei did not appear to have any affect on either index. Abnormalities in the electrocardiogram were detected in 3% of the recordings irrespective of the BSE status; sinus arrhythmia was present in 93% of the remaining recordings. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful to distinguish BSE-positive from BSE-negative cattle
Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib
Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...
Cattle are kept worldwide in various environments and play many different roles in our society. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of cattle by combining zoological, archaeological, historical, topographical, agricultural and molecular-genetic data, This provides context and arguments for answering our main question: how do individual breeds contribute to the cattle genetic resources? This question is most relevant for the conservation of the cattle genetic resources In Chapter 2 we revie...
Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...
Bilgiç, Huseyin B.; KARAGENÇ, Tülin; Simuunza, Martin; Shiels, Brian; Tait, Andy; Eren, Hasan; Weir, William
Tropical theileriosis, bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis are tick-borne protozoan diseases that impose serious constraints on the health and productivity of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A common feature of these diseases is that, following recovery from primary infection, animals become persistent carriers of the pathogen and continue to play a critical role in disease epidemiology, acting as reservoirs of infection. This study describes development and ...
Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J
This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....
McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M
Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Mexico. 93.427 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.427 Cattle from Mexico. (a) Cattle and other ruminants imported from Mexico, except animals being transported in bond for immediate return to Mexico...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.
Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W
Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712
Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic form of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is generally considered to have been caused by a single prion strain but at least two strain variants of cattle prion disorders have recently been recognized. An additional neurodegenerative condition, idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and hippocampal sclerosis (IBNC, a rare neurological disease of adult cattle, was also recognised in a sub-set of cattle submitted under the BSE Orders in which lesions of BSE were absent. Between the years of 1988 and 1991 IBNC occurred in Scotland with an incidence of 7 cases per 100,000 beef suckler cows over the age of 6 years. Results When the brains of 15 IBNC cases were each tested by immunohistochemistry, all showed abnormal labelling for prion protein (PrP. Immunohistological labelling for PrP was also present in the retina of a single case available for examination. The pattern of PrP labelling in brain is distinct from that seen in other ruminant prion diseases and is absent from brains with other inflammatory conditions and from normal control brains. Brains of IBNC cattle do not reveal abnormal PrP isoforms when tested by the commercial BioRad or Idexx test kits and do not reveal PrPres when tested by Western blotting using stringent proteinase digestion methods. However, some weakly protease resistant isoforms of PrP may be detected when tissues are examined using mild proteinase digestion techniques. Conclusion The study shows that a distinctive neurological disorder of cattle, which has some clinical similarities to BSE, is associated with abnormal PrP labelling in brain but the pathology and biochemistry of IBNC are distinct from BSE. The study is important either because it raises the possibility of a significant increase in the scope of prion disease or because it demonstrates that widespread and consistent PrP alterations may not be confined to prion diseases. Further studies, including transmission
Insecticide wastes generated from livestock dipping operations are well suited for biodegradation processes since these wastes are concentrated, contained, and have no other significant toxic components. About 400,000 L of cattle dip wastes containing approximately 1500 mg/L of the organophosphate coumaphos are generated yearly along the Mexican border from a USDA program designed to control disease carrying cattle ticks. Use of unlined evaporation pits for the disposal of these wastes has resulted in highly contaminated soils underlying these sites. Previous work has shown that microbial consortia present in selected dip wastes can be induced to mineralize coumaphos. Our laboratory results show that these consortia are able to colonize plastic fibers in trickling biofilters and can be used in these filters to quickly metabolize coumaphos from dip wastes. A field scale biofilter capable of treating 15,000 litre batches of dip waste was used to reduce the coumaphos concentration in two successive 11,000 litre batch trials from 2000 mg/L to 10 mg/L in approximately 14 d. (author)
Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-tao; Liu, Ding Xiang
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 ...
Selwyn A. Headley
Full Text Available Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis with vasculitis and thrombosis of small vessels that contained discrete neutrophilic and/or lymphocytic infiltrates admixed with fibrin at the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and trigeminal nerve ganglion of all animals. All tissues from the central nervous system used during this study were previously characterized as negative for rabies virus by the direct immunofluorescence assay. PCR and RT-PCR assays investigated the participation of infectious agents associated with bovine neurological disease by targeting specific genes of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, bovine herpesvirus -1 and -5, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and ovine herpesvirus-2. PCR and subsequent sequencing resulted in partial fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of H. somni from brain sections of all animals with histopathological diagnosis of TME; all other PCR/RT-PCR assays were negative. These findings confirmed the participation of H. somni in the neuropathological disease observed in these animals, extend the geographical distribution of this disease, and support previous findings of H. somni from Brazil.
Ouma, Emily Awuor; Obare, Gideon A.; Staal, Steven J.
This paper uses data from a survey of two hundred and fifty cattle households in three cattle keeping systems; intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems to estimate the value of non-market, socio-economic benefits of cattle in Kenya. These benefits of cattle keeping are of special importance in developing countries, where financial markets function poorly and opportunities for risk management through formal insurance generally absent. However, when estimating the total contribution of l...
Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.
Barré, N; Uilenberg, G
Like all parasites, ticks can be spread easily along with their hosts. Ticks are obligate parasites of vertebrates, to which they attach themselves for varying periods of time, and are well-adapted to this mode of transport. Once the transport stage is complete and they have detached at destination, they are also able to wait several months for the arrival of a new host on which they will continue their life cycle. This leads to the establishment of a secondary tick population. Two tropical cattle tick species, Rhipicephalus microplus and Amblyomma variegatum, have perfected this strategy of colonisation and occupation of favourable zones. Rhipicephalus microplus, which originated from South and Southeast Asia, is highly specific for ungulates, and thanks to cattle movements it has spread throughout the tropical belt, apart from the remotest areas. Amblyomma variegatum, which originated in Africa, was transported to Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands, as well as to the West Indies, during the time of the Atlantic triangular trade. These two ticks are vectors of particularly serious cattle diseases: babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the case of R. microplus, and heartwater (cowdriosis) in the case of A. variegatum. Anticipated climate changes are likely to modify the potential geographical range of these two parasite species and numerous others. Even now there are still many areas of the Americas, Asia and Oceania into which A. variegatum has not yet spread, but which it would find favourable. It could be spread not only by the transport of cattle, but also by the migration of some of its other hosts, such as birds. Surveillance--and know-how--is needed to identify these parasites when they first appear and to rapidly contain new outbreaks. Efforts should be made to raise the awareness of livestock professionals about the risks of transporting cattle. Regulations should be implemented and precautions taken to avoid such artificial expansion of the range of ticks and
Schweitzer, D; Kimberling, C; Spraker, T; Sterner, F E; McChesney, A E
Of 1,994 yearling and 2-year-old cattle in a winter feeding program, 117 died within 42 days of being fed toxic amounts of monensin sodium in a liquid protein supplement. Death losses commenced on the third day after ingestion of a toxic amount in the feed. Clinical signs in cattle that died in less than 9 days included anorexia, pica, diarrhea, depression, mild hindlimb ataxia, and dyspnea. Gross necropsy findings in cattle dying in the acute phase of the illness included hydrothorax, ascites, and pulmonary edema, as well as petechial hemorrhages, edema, and yellow streaking in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Cattle dying after 9 days had gray streaks in heart and skeletal muscle, generalized ventral edema, enlarged, firm, bluish discolored liver, and enlarged heart. Microscopic changes in cattle dying in the acute phase (less than 9 days) consisted of pulmonary edema, congestion, and hemorrhage. Cardiac and skeletal muscle had localized areas of edema, hemorrhage, and coagulative necrosis. In cattle dying after 9 days of illness, the changes included lymphocytic infiltration, sarcolemmal nuclear proliferation, and fibrosis in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Lungs contained increased alveolar macrophages and a few neutrophils. Centrilobular necrosis and mild fibrosis were found in the liver. Changes varied somewhat according to the area of heart or skeletal muscle that was affected. Active muscles, eg, those in the heart ventricles and diaphragm, were altered most severely. Intoxication appeared to be a result of sedimentation of monensin in the molasses carrier to give remarkable concentrations of the substance at the bottom of the holding tank. PMID:6735846
Truscott, R. B.
A brief definition and classification of the organisms is followed by a history of their isolation and general role in disease. Diseases associated with various types of mycoplasma are discussed under respiratory tract, mastitis, arthritis and keratoconjunctivitis. Descriptions include methods of infection, clinical signs, lesions and prognosis.
Neospora caninum is now recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but there is no report of N. caninum infection in cattle in India. Serum samples from 427 dairy cattle and 32 dairy water buffaloes from 7 organized dairy farms located in Punjab, India, were tested for N. caninum a...
Robert F Kelly
Full Text Available Control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB and zoonotic tuberculosis (zTB has relied upon surveillance and slaughter of infected cattle, milk pasteurisation and public health education. In Cameroon, like many other sub-Saharan African countries, there is limited understanding of current cattle husbandry or milk processing practices or livestock keepers awareness of bTB. This paper describes husbandry and milk processing practices within different Cameroonian cattle keeping communities and bTB awareness in comparison to other infectious diseases.A population based cross-sectional sample of herdsmen and a questionnaire were used to gather data from pastoralists and dairy farmers in the North West Region and Vina Division of Cameroon.Pastoralists were predominately male Fulanis who had kept cattle for over a decade. Dairy farmers were non-Fulani and nearly half were female. Pastoralists went on transhumance with their cattle and came into contact with other herds and potential wildlife reservoirs of bTB. Dairy farmers housed their cattle and had little contact with other herds or wildlife. Pastoralists were aware of bTB and other infectious diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and fasciolosis. These pastoralists were also able to identify clinical signs of these diseases. A similar proportion of dairy farmers were aware of bTB but fewer were aware of foot-and-mouth and fasciolosis. In general, dairy farmers were unable to identify any clinical signs for any of these diseases. Importantly most pastoralists and dairy farmers were unaware that bTB could be transmitted to people by consuming milk.Current cattle husbandry practices make the control of bTB in cattle challenging especially in mobile pastoralist herds. Routine test and slaughter control in dairy herds would be tractable but would have profound impact on dairy farmer livelihoods. Prevention of transmission in milk offers the best approach for human risk mitigation in Cameroon but requires
El-Jakee, Jakeen K; Ali, Samah Said; El-Shafii, Soumaya Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan M; Al-Arfaj, Abdullah A; Mohamed, Moussa I
Haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida is a major epizootic disease in cattle and buffaloes in developing countries with high morbidity and mortality rate. In the present study, a total of 88 P. multocida isolates were isolated from 256 nasopharyngeal swabs and lung tissues samples (34.4%) during the period from January, 2013 to March, 2014 from different governorates located in Egypt. Dead calves showed the highest percentage of P. multocida isolation followed by the emergency slaughtered calves, diseased calves then apparently healthy ones. These isolates were confirmed as P. multocida microscopically, biochemically by traditional tests and by API 20E commercial kit then by PCR. The percentages of positive serum samples using somatic antigen and micro-agglutination test at 1/1280 diluted serum were 10%, 54.49% and 0% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively whereas, the percentages using capsular antigen and indirect haemagglutination test were 40%, 60.89% and 60% in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered samples, respectively. The ELISA showed the highest sensitivity for diagnosing P. multocida in apparently healthy, diseased and emergency slaughtered animals with percentages of 42%; 92.9% and 80%, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the ELISA using capsular antigen of P. multocida is a more sensitive and specific serological test for diagnosis of haemorrhagic septicaemia. PMID:26858538
O. Franci; Forabosco, F.; F. Sirtori; Bozzi, R.
Trend in inbreeding is the most frequently used method to quantify the rate of genetic drift but, as pointed out by Maignel et al. (1996), it relies on some assumption that could be not fully satisfied in cattle populations. In fact, trend in inbreeding is very sensitive to the quality of the available pedigree information and some beef cattle populations might have a large amount of missing information. An alternative way to quantify the genetic drift is to utilise the method based on probab...
Last, R D; Hill, J H; Theron, G
Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle. PMID:18237043
Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.
Loretti Alexandre Paulino
Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a disease caused by liver fluck of the genus of fasciola. Diagnosis of fasciolosis has been challenging for a long period due to low sensitivity of the coprological diagnostic method. In this study, an in-house Dot-ELISA method; using excretion–secretory (ES Ag and Crude (Cr Ag antigens of fasciola was described for diagnosis of fasciolosis in cattle. For this purpose, the sera specimens of slaughtered cattle were taken and examined for fasciola infection. Sera from two groups of cattle, one infected with fasciola (n = 60 and the other non-infected with fasciola (n = 60, were used in the Dot- ELISA test. All sera were tested and evaluated. Except specificity, other parameters such as, sensitivity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values of Dot- ELISA with ES Ag were better than those of Dot- ELISA with Cr Ag. In conclusion, excretory–secretory antigen dependent Dot-ELISA can be used as a reliable sero-diagnostic test for fasciola infection in cattle.
Full Text Available Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus, Boran (Bos indicus and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50 % mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05 between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100 %, five out of nine Borans (55.6 % and two out of five Zebus (40 %. Three of the Friesians (37.5 %, and two of the Borans (22.2 % died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis.
Olds, Cassandra; Mwaura, Stephen; Crowder, David; Odongo, David; van Oers, Monique; Owen, Jeb; Bishop, Richard; Daubenberger, Claudia
Commercial vaccines based on the tick gut protein Bm86 have been successful in controlling the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and provide heterologous protection against certain other non-target ixodid tick species. This cross protection, however, does not extend to the three-host tick R. appendiculatus, the vector of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva. When transmitted to cattle, T. parva causes the often fatal disease East Coast fever. Here, we used insect cell-expressed recombinant versions of the R. appendiculatus homologs of Bm86, named Ra86, to vaccinate cattle. We measured multiple fitness characteristics for ticks that were fed on cattle Ra86-vaccinated or unvaccinated. The Ra86 vaccination of cattle significantly decreased the molting success of nymphal ticks to the adult stage. Modeling simulations based on our empirical data suggest that repeated vaccinations using Ra86 could reduce tick populations over successive generations. Vaccination with Ra86 could thus form a component of integrated control strategies for R. appendiculatus leading to a reduction in use of environmentally damaging acaricides. PMID:22658857
Boué, O; Redondo, M; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J
Recent developments in cattle tick control have incorporated the use of recombinant Bm86 vaccines against this ectoparasite. The vaccine developed by our group (Gavac) contains an antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris, and has been successfully employed for the control of tick infestations and transmission of tick-borne diseases. Here, we examined the safety and effect of the Gavac vaccine on reproductive parameters in cattle. Toxicity tests in mice and guinea pigs demonstrated the safety of Gavac. To study the adverse effects of vaccination on reproduction, a field trial involving 9,500 animals in Cuba was conducted. The cattle at 3 farms were vaccinated while those on a fourth farm were left unvaccinated and served as the control. Following vaccination, the control of tick infestation and the transmission of babesiosis were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed in any of the reproductive parameters studied when comparing the data before and after vaccination with Gavac and between the vaccinated farms and the control farm. These results demonstrate that under the conditions of our study vaccination with Gavac is safe for use on cattle. PMID:10729081
Generally taken, breeds of Bos taurus ancestry are considered more productive, in comparison with Bos indicus derived breeds that present enhanced hardiness and disease resistance, low nutritional requirements and higher capability of feed utilization. While breeds of B. taurus have been mostly selected for intensive production systems, indigenous cattle, developed mostly from indicine and African taurines, flourish in extensive habitats. Worldwide demographic and economic processes face animal production with new challenges - the increasing demand for animal food products. Intensification of animal husbandry is thus a desired goal in stricken parts of the world. An introduction of productive traits to indigenous breeds might serve to generate improved biological and economic efficiencies. For this to succeed, the genetic merit of traits like efficiency of feed utilization and product quality should be revealed, encouraging the conservation initiatives of indigenous cattle populations, many of which are already extinct and endangered. Moreover, to overcome potential genetic homogeneity, controlled breeding practices should be undertaken. The Baladi cattle are a native local breed found throughout the Mediterranean basin. Purebred Baladi animals are rapidly vanishing, as more European breeds are being introduced or used for backcrosses leading to improved production. The superiority of Baladi over large-framed cattle, in feedlot and on Mediterranean pasture, with respect to adaptability and efficiency, is highlighted in the current review. PMID:26025652
Shahabeddin; Sarvi; Ahmad; Daryani; Mohammad; Taghi; Rahimi; Mohsen; Aarabi; Azar; Shokri; Ehsan; Ahmadpour; Azadeh; Mizani; Mahdi; Sharif
Objective:To analyze and review the overall seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii(T.gondii) infection in cattle from Iran.Methods:In the current study,data collection(published and unpublished papers,abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations) using particular terms was carried out systematically on the following electronic databases like PubMed,Google Scholar,Ebsco,Science Direct,Scopus,Magiran,Irandoc,IranMedex and SID(Scientific Information Database).Results:A total of 22 studies since 1983 to 2012 reporting the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from different regions of Iran met our eligibility criteria.The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis,using random effect model,among cattle in Iran from over the 30-year period was estimated 18.1%(95%CI:9.9%to 28.2%).Conclusions:This study firstly establishes a crude seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in cattle which can lead us to understand the condition of eattle toxoplasmosis,which have to take into accounted fur an appropriate and effective prevention and controls.Secondly,it compares and discusses elaborately the role of risk factors including sex,age and breed in the epidemiology of the disease.Thus,it determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies which are greatly useful to design more accurate investigations in the future.
Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C
Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle. PMID:26174108
Steenberg, Tove; Jespersen, Jørgen B.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Humber, R A
Cattle flies, including Musca autumnalis, Haematobia irritans, and Hydrotaea irritans, are pests of pastured cattle. A 2-year study of the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in adult cattle flies and other flies associated with pastures showed that the four species included in the...... Entomophthora muscae species complex (E. muscae sensu lato) caused high infection levels in several species of flies. However, only a few specimens of cattle flies were infected by E. muscae sensu stricto despite the fact that cattle flies were observed to perch on spear thistles, which acted as transmission...
Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...
Background Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is an acquired prion disease that is invariably fatal in cattle and has been implicated as a significant human health risk. Polymorphisms that alter the prion protein of sheep or humans have been associated with variations in transmissibl...
Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth-disease (FMD) include the use of a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (Ad5) that contains the capsid encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). An Ad5.A24 has proven effective as a vaccine against FMD in swine and cattle. However, ther...
Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te
Winden, van, F.A.A.M.; Kuiper, R.
The research with respect to displacement of the abomasum (DA) in dairy cattle is reviewed. Evaluated articles describe epidemiological and experimental studies. The occurrence is elevated with regard to breed, gender, age, concurrent diseases, environmental aspects and production levels as contributing factors and emphasis is placed on the effects of nutrition and metabolism. Reviewing the experimental work, distinction is made between the research into gas production in the abomasum and hyp...
A.L. Gazzonis; G. Alvarez Garcia; S.A. Zanzani; G. Garippa; Rossi, L.; Maggiora, M.; V. Dini; A. Invernizzi; Luini, M.; V.M. Tranquillo; L. Ortega Mora; Manfredi, M.T.
Background Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan Besnoitia besnoiti, is a chronic and debilitating disease considered as emerging in Europe. In Spain, Portugal and France it is endemic and foci of infection were recorded in Germany, Switzerland, Hungary, Greece and Italy. In Italy, cases of bovine besnoitiosis were registered both in imported and autochthonous cattle, and mostly in central regions; high seroprevalence was also revealed by an epidemiological survey performed in the s...
Taylor, J F; Abbitt, B.; Walter, J P; Davis, S. K.; Jaques, J. T.; Ochoa, R. F.
β-Mannosidosis is a lethal lysosomal storage disease inherited as an autosomal recessive in man, cattle and goats. Laboratory assay data of plasma β-mannosidase activity represent a mixture of homozygous normal and carrier genotype distributions in a proportion determined by genotype frequency. A maximum likelihood approach employing data transformations for each genotype distribution and assuming a diallelic model of inheritance is described. Estimates of the transformation and genotype dist...
Gastrointestinal nematode parasites of first-season grazing cattle (FSGC) are ubiquitous and practically not feasible to eradicate. Heavy infections result in clinical parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) characterized by diarrhoea, inappetence and weight loss. However, subclinical disease without obvious symptoms constitutes the majority of infections and may cause economic losses due to sub-optimal performance. This thesis is based on 4 separate publications that focus on epidemiology and contro...
Charles O. Ebojei; Gyang C. Davou; Blessing A. Salman; Victoria O. Mosimabale
Mastitis is a major disease that infects the mammary gland of dairy cattle and adverselyaffects the quantity and quality of milk produced by cows. This study described the socio-economiccharacteristics of herdsmen and examined the prevalence rate of mastitis in White Fulani cows in KanamLocal Government Area (LGA) of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. Four districts were randomlyselected from the LGA (among 10 districts) and twenty herdsmen were randomly selected from each ofthese four dis...
HR Shahbazkia; A Jafari Dehkordi; Ronagh, N
Background and objectives: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira interrogans. Leptospirosis leads to economical losses in dairy farm industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic serovars of Leptospira interrogans in dairy cattle herds of Shahrekord by PCR.Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples (100 urine and 100 blood) were collected from 100 cows randomly and delivered to the laboratory. Samples were stored at -20 °C. DNA was extracte...
Bendele Kylie G; Guerrero Felix D; Dowd Scot E; Pérez de León Adalberto A; Andreotti Renato; Scoles Glen A
Abstract Background Ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. Tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore the R. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) technique to cha...
Irmak, K; Turgut, K
The purpose of the study was to evaluate haemostatic function in cattle with abomasal displacement (AD) and to reflect the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Ten adult cattle with left displacement of abomasum (LDA) (group I), 10 adult cattle with right displacement of abomasum with volvulus (RDA) (group II) and 10 clinically healthy adult cattle (control group) were used as material. Numbers of platelets (PLT) and coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), serum fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs), fibrinogen) were measured before the surgical treatment of cattle with LDA and RDA. APTT was prolonged only in group II compared with the control and group I (pcattle in group I and three cattle in group II had at least three abnormal coagulation profiles, which reflect the occurrence of DIC. These cattle died after surgical treatment. The two cattle with LDA had abnormal APTT, FDPs and PLT values; three cattle with RDA had abnormal APTT, PT, TT, FDPs and PLT values. APTT (5 cases), FDPs (5 cases) and thrombocytopenia (5 cases) were the three most common abnormal tests on coagulation profile in the cattle with LDA and RDA. The results of the study indicate that cattle with AD had a spectrum of haemostatic dysfunction and that DIC was a significant risk factor for mortality. PMID:15727292
M A Islam; Alam, M.K.; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.
The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components...
Treatment of cystic ovarian disease in dairy cattle. Comparative observation of the effects of an intramuscular injection of corticosteroids and an intravenous injection of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin and progesterone.
Nakao, T; Ono, H
Of 67 cows with cystic ovarian disease (COD), 34 were injected intramuscularly with 20 mg of betamethasone of 10 mg of dexamethasone (CC) and 33 intravenously with a combination of 3,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin and 125 mg of progesterone (HCG -P). Pregnancy rates and intervals between treatment and conception were 32.4% and 32.1 +/- 30.5 days, respectively, in the CC-treated cows and 30.3% and 51.6 +/- 29.5 days in the HCG -P-treated ones. Cows which had not responded to gonadotropin treatment showed a considerably higher pregnancy rate when treated with CC and a lower pregnancy rate when administered with HCG -P than those which had received no treatment before. There was a trend that the earlier a cow was treated, the more readily she recovered. CC injection gave a satisfactory result even when performed long after calving. The estrous behaviour seemed to be related with prognosis in cows with COD. In both CC-treated and HCG -P-treated cows, the pregnancy rate was the highest in cows showing anestrus and the lowest in those exhibiting irregular estrus. PMID:64331
Phepa, Patrick B; Chirove, Faraimunashe; Govinder, Keshlan S
A mathematical model that describes the transmission dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both buffalo and cattle populations is proposed. The model incorporates cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. A full analysis of the model is undertaken. The reproduction number of the entire model is comprised of cross-infection and contaminated parameters. This underscores the importance of including both cross-infection and contaminated environment transmission routes. Crucially our simulations suggest that the disease has a more devastating effect on cattle populations than on buffalo populations when all transmission routes are involved. This has important implications for agriculture and tourism. PMID:27105864
Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.
Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa
Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928
Poolkhet, C; Kasemsuwan, S; Seng, S; Keartha, C; Sokmao, C; Shin, M; Kalpravidh, W; Hinrichs, J
The aim of this study is to provide insight the network of cattle movement in Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2014 to August 2014, using questionnaires. It was implemented with 435 interviewees (24.4%, 24.6% and 51.0% from Kampong Cham, Kampong Speu and Takeo, respectively) using one-step snowball sampling. The findings suggest that the key players in all three provinces are producers who raise their cattle as backyard animals. In all three provinces the key players in spreading disease are probably the middlemen, collectors, brokers or traders. The network of cattle movement is presented as a strong component of varying size in each location. In this network we found three cut-points in both Kampong Cham and Kampong Speu. The network in each province indicates a random pattern of node distribution. The results of our study are useful to relevant authorities and researchers to understand the spread of infectious diseases into different areas. The middlemen, collectors, brokers and traders need to be controlled as first priority in order to reduce the magnitude of the spread of disease. PMID:27012718
Lewis, I M; French, A J; Tecirlioglu, R T;
A range of potential commercial applications of cloning and genetic modification in cattle has been suggested over the last decade. It includes the rapid multiplication of elite genotypes, production of valuable human proteins, altered production characteristics, increased disease resistance and...... milk with improved nutritional value and processing capabilities. However, an economic return from the sale of product is far from reality in any of these areas. One impediment to achieving economic sustainability is the extremely low efficiency in producing healthy offspring from transferred cloned...... embryos. Other significant impediments are societal concerns surrounding such technologies, animal welfare issues and regulatory requirements. This review will focus on current biological limitations and technical capabilities in commercial settings, the changes required to allow the production and sale...
Willham, R L
The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds. PMID:7085522
Sørensen, M K; Norberg, E; Pedersen, J;
The value of crossbreeding in livestock species has been known for a long time; it has been used heavily within beef cattle, pig, and poultry production systems for several decades. This has not been the case for dairy production but lately there has been increased interest in crossbreeding dairy...
We assessed the content, structure, and distribution of segmental duplications (> or =90% sequence identity, > or =5 kb length) within the newest public version of the Bos taurus genome assembly (bta_3.1). The overall fraction of duplicated sequence within the cattle assembly is approximately equiva...
This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...
Pasture-based finishing systems for meat goats, sheep and cattle are growing rapidly in the eastern USA. Increasing demand for pasture-raised meat and dairy products requires renewed efforts to communicate the best practical information in order to initiate mixed grazing with goats, sheep, and beef...
Wahlquist, Åsa K
A number of prominent people have advocated eating less meat or becoming a vegetarian to reduce global warming, because cattle produce the greenhouse gas methane. This raises a number of questions including: what will happen to the grasslands that much of the world's cattle currently graze; how will alternate protein be produced, and what will the greenhouse consequences of that production be? It comes down to production systems. About 70 per cent of the world's agricultural land is grassland, and the only way to produce food from grasslands is to graze ruminants on it. If domesticated animals do not graze the grasslands, native or feral ruminants, which also produce methane, tend to move in. Feeding high quality grain to cattle is much less defensible. Replacing animal protein with plant proteins like soybeans necessitates more cropping land, water, fuel and chemicals being used. A more rational food system would raise cattle on grasslands but not feed them high quality grains. Instead more of the currently grown crop could be devoted to human consumption. PMID:23353606
Full Text Available Water intoxication is a condition that is common in cattle, and has also been reported in other domestic animals and man. A comprehensive description of the condition is lacking. For a better understanding of the condition, this paper reviews work that has been reported previously by various authors.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.
Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...
Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...
Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura
The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101
Selective harvesting of manure can benefit cattle producers by creating a product of value. A tool that identifies locations of manure accumulation has been developed and demonstrated. A dual geometry sub-surface sensor (Dualem-1S, Milton, ON) was used with software designed for salt mapping (ESAP...
Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...
Sinovec Zlatan J.
Full Text Available Inadequate diet can result in a series of undesired occurrences in cattle production, marked as nutritive diseases. In a certain number of cases there is a clearly defined deficiency of certain nutritive matter, with a typical clinical picture and recognizable symptoms. In a far greater number of cases, chronic conditions occur as a result of so-called graphic deficits, when the deficiency of certain components is so small that signs of deficiency develop over a longer time period. Such cases are at first accompanied by non-specific symptomatology, detection and prevention are much more difficult, while resulting damages in cattle production are substantial. The work gives a brief survey of the most important microelements added to cattle diet - iron, copper, manganese, zinc, iodine selenium, cobalt, and chromium. In addition to elementary data in connection with the contents of certain microelements in the organism of the animal the physiological role, natural sources, manner and place of resorption in the organism, and mechanisms of elimination, special attention is paid to symptoms of deficiency and sufficiency, and daily requirements in the ruminant diet. The conclusions direct the reader to several possible sources of mineral matter, with special emphasis on organically - bound microelements in the form of chelates - complexes swith one or more stable heterocyclic amino acid rings. Commercial mineral additives are described as proteinates, and bioplexes are mixes of amino acids and peptides. Chelate forms have been demonstrated aas very successful in stress situations and in diseased animals, when the organism exhibits increased needs, and the ability of feed utilization is reduced. Contrary to non-organic forms, which only temporarely increase concentration in blood, chelate forms secure considerably longer maintenance of the necessary concentration. Having in mind also the increased need of damaged tissue for certain amino acids their
Babiuk, S; Bowden, T R; Boyle, D B; Wallace, D B; Kitching, R P
Capripoxviruses are the cause of sheeppox, goatpox and lumpy skin disease (LSD) of cattle. These diseases are of great economic significance to farmers in regions in which they are endemic and are a major constraint to international trade in livestock and their products. Although the distribution of capripoxviruses is considerably reduced from what it was even 50 years ago, they are now expanding their territory, with recent outbreaks of sheeppox or goatpox in Vietnam, Mongolia and Greece, and outbreaks of LSD in Ethiopia, Egypt and Israel. Increased legal and illegal trade in live animals provides the potential for further spread, with, for instance, the possibility of LSD becoming firmly established in Asia. This review briefly summarizes what is known about capripoxviruses, including their impact on livestock production, their geographic range, host-specificity, clinical disease, transmission and genomics, and considers current developments in diagnostic tests and vaccines. Capripoxviruses have the potential to become emerging disease threats because of global climate change and changes in patterns of trade in animals and animal products. They also could be used as economic bioterrorism agents. PMID:18774991
Kim, Yun-Mi; Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun
There are no accurate reference ranges for hematology parameters and lymphocyte subsets in Korean native beef cattle (Hanwoo). This study was performed to establish reliable reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets using a large number of Hanwoo cattle (n = 350) and to compare differences between Hanwoo and Holstein dairy cattle (n = 334). Additionally, age-related changes in lymphocyte subsets were studied. Bovine leukocyte subpopulation analysis was performed using mono or dual color flow cytometry. The leukocyte subpopulations investigated in healthy cattle included: CD2(+) cells, sIgM(+) cells, MHC class II(+) cells, CD3(+) CD4(+) cells, CD3(+) CD8(+) cells, and WC1(+) cells. Although Hanwoo and Holstein cattle are the same species, results showed several differences in hematology and lymphocyte subsets between Hanwoo and Holstein cattle. This study is the first report to establish reference ranges of hematology and lymphocyte subsets in adult Hanwoo cattle. PMID:26419947
De Deken, R; Martin, V; Saido, A; Madder, M; Brandt, J; Geysen, D
In 2003 and 2004, a severe epidemic decimated the cattle population on Grand Comore, the largest island of the Union of Comoros. Fatalities started soon after the import of cattle from Tanzania. Theileria parva and its vector, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, could be identified as the main culprits of the epidemic. Characterisation by multilocus genotyping revealed that the T. parva parasites isolated on the Comoros were identical to the components of the Muguga cocktail vaccine used in Tanzania to immunise cattle. Therefore, it is believed that East Coast Fever reached the Comoros while some of the imported livestock got infected in Tanzania by ticks of which the immature stadia fed on Muguga cocktail vaccinated animals. Since the Comorian government neither has the financial means nor the competent staff to pursue an adequate epidemiosurveillance, the danger exists that without external assistance and in a context of continuing globalisation more transboundary diseases will affect the Comorian livestock sector in the future. PMID:16996692
Nourollahi-Fard, Saeid R; Kheirandish, Reza; Sattari, Saeid
Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Sarcocystis spp. with obligatory two host life cycle generally alternating between an herbivorous intermediate host and a carnivorous definitive host. Some species of this coccidian parasite can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in cattle. The present study was set to investigate the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. and type of cyst wall in slaughtered cattle of Karaj abattoir, Iran. For this purpose 125 cattle (88 males and 37 females) were investigated for the presence of macroscopic and microscopic Sarcocystis cysts in muscular tissues. No macroscopic Sarcocystis cysts were found in any of the samples. In light microscopy, 121 out of 125 cattle (96.8 %) had thin-walled cysts of Sarcocystis cruzi, while 43 out of them (34.4 %) had thick-walled Sarcocystis cyst. In this survey, the most infected tissue was esophagus and heart and the less was diaphragm. Thin-walled cysts (S. cruzi) mostly found in heart and skeletal muscle showed the less. However, thick-walled cyst (S. hominis or S. hirsuta) mostly were detected in diaphragm, heart muscle showed no thick-walled cyst. No significant relation was observed between age and sex and the rate of infection. The results showed that Sarcocystis cyst is prevalent in cattle in the North part of Iran and the evaluation of infection potential can be useful when considering control programs. PMID:26064016
Jeroen De Buck
Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics
Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E
The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas. PMID:27270395
Bedeković Tomislav; Lemo Nina; Lojkić Ivana; Beck Ana; Lojkić Mirko; Madić Josip
Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One...
G. K. Bruckner
Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.
Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani
Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126
Sullivan, L E; Evans, N J; Blowey, R W; Grove-White, D H; Clegg, S R; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an infective foot disease commonly reported in dairy cattle where Treponema are considered as the primary causative infectious agents. There still remains little definitive information on the etiology of BDD in beef cattle suggesting further investigations are warranted. Beef BDD lesions (n=34) and healthy beef foot tissues (n=38) were analysed by PCR for three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and also for Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. Spirochete culture was attempted on all BDD lesion samples. One or more BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups were detected in 100% of beef BDD lesions. "Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like", "Treponema phagedenis-like" and Treponema pedis spirochetes were identified in 27/34 (79%), 31/34 (91%) and 24/34 (71%) of BDD lesions, respectively. No BDD-associated treponeme DNA was amplified from beef healthy foot tissues. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum were present in 24/34 (71%) and 15/34 (44%) of lesions and 10/38 (26%) and 12/38 (32%) of healthy foot tissues, respectively. Twenty spirochetes were isolated from beef BDD lesions; 19 were representatives of the three BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups. One spirochete isolate shared less than 97% 16S rRNA gene similarity to the three cultivable BDD-associated Treponema phylogroups and therefore may represent a novel taxa of Treponema. Upon comparison, sheep contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD), dairy cattle and beef cattle BDD lesions appear to have extremely similar bacteriological data and therefore provides evidence of a shared etiopathogenesis posing concerns for cross-species transmission. PMID:25937315
Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288
Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.
Moya, D; Silasi, R; McAllister, T A; Genswein, B; Crowe, T; Marti, S; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S
Two groups of cattle were used to develop (model data set: 384 heifers, 228 ± 22.7 kg BW, monitored over a 225-d feeding period) and to validate (naïve data set: 384 heifers, 322 ± 34.7 kg BW, monitored over a 142-d feeding period) the use of feeding behavior pattern recognition techniques to predict morbidity in newly arrived feedlot cattle. In the model data set, cattle were defined as morbid (MO) if they were removed from their pen to be treated due to visual observation of clinical signs of bovine respiratory disease and healthy (HL) if they remained within their pen and lacked lung lesions at slaughter. Individual feeding behavior parameters collected with a GrowSafe automated feeding behavior monitoring system were reduced via principal component analysis to 5 components that captured 99% of the variability in the data set. Combinations of clustering and cluster classification strategies applied to those components, along with pattern recognition techniques over different time windows, produced a total of 105 models from which precision, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated by comparing its predictions with the actual health status of individual cattle as determined by visual assessment. When the models with the best specificity (models 79 and 87), sensitivity (models 33 and 66), and accuracy (models 3 and 14) in the model data set were used in a naïve data set, models 79 and 87 were not able to predict any MO heifers (0%), with all animals (100%) being predicted as HL. Model 33 predicted 58.3% of the HL and 66.7% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers identified 3.1 ± 1.64 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 66 predicted 50.0% of the HL and 75.0% of the MO heifers, with MO heifers predicted 3.1 ± 1.76 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 3 predicted 100% of the HL and 50.0% of the MO cattle, with MO cattle predicted 1 d earlier than by visual observation. Model 14 predicted 83.3% of the HL and 58
Cardoso, F F; Gomes, C C G; Sollero, B P; Oliveira, M M; Roso, V M; Piccoli, M L; Higa, R H; Yokoo, M J; Caetano, A R; Aguilar, I
One of the main animal health problems in tropical and subtropical cattle production is the bovine tick, which causes decreased performance, hide devaluation, increased production costs with acaricide treatments, and transmission of infectious diseases. This study investigated the utility of genomic prediction as a tool to select Braford (BO) and Hereford (HH) cattle resistant to ticks. The accuracy and bias of different methods for direct and blended genomic prediction was assessed using 10,673 tick counts obtained from 3,435 BO and 928 HH cattle belonging to the Delta G Connection breeding program. A subset of 2,803 BO and 652 HH samples were genotyped and 41,045 markers remained after quality control. Log transformed records were adjusted by a pedigree repeatability model to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values (EBV) and subsequently used to obtain deregressed EBV. Estimated heritability and repeatability for tick counts were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.29 ± 0.01, respectively. Data were split into 5 subsets using k-means and random clustering for cross-validation of genomic predictions. Depending on the method, direct genomic value (DGV) prediction accuracies ranged from 0.35 with Bayes least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to 0.39 with BayesB for k-means clustering and between 0.42 with BayesLASSO and 0.45 with BayesC for random clustering. All genomic methods were superior to pedigree BLUP (PBLUP) accuracies of 0.26 for k-means and 0.29 for random groups, with highest accuracy gains obtained with BayesB (39%) for k-means and BayesC (55%) for random groups. Blending of historical phenotypic and pedigree information by different methods further increased DGV accuracies by values between 0.03 and 0.05 for direct prediction methods. However, highest accuracy was observed with single-step genomic BLUP with values of 0.48 for -means and 0.56, which represent, respectively, 84 and 93% improvement over PBLUP. Observed random
Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J
This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198
Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison; Katholi, Charles R.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Machang'u, Robert R.; Portaels, Francoise; Leirs, Herwig
The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania....
Judith E Allen
Full Text Available River blindness is a seriously debilitating disease caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, which infects millions in Africa as well as in South and Central America. Research has been hampered by a lack of good animal models, as the parasite can only develop fully in humans and some primates. This review highlights the development of two animal model systems that have allowed significant advances in recent years and hold promise for the future. Experimental findings with Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice and Onchocerca ochengi in cattle are placed in the context of how these models can advance our ability to control the human disease.
Radiation and isotopic techniques have been used in a number of ways to study Babesia and Theileria parasites (piroplasms), and in attempts to vaccinate animals against diseases induced by these agents. Work involving the piroplasm infections of cattle is reviewed in this paper. Some success has been achieved by using radiation to modify tick or bovine stages of parasites, for use as potential vaccines. Radiation has also been used to induce immuno-suppression in laboratory animals, in an effort to render them susceptible to bovine piroplasms, particularly Theileria. Isotope tracer techniques have been used for labelling parasites, and for studying metabolic pathways. Encouraging results, particularly with regard to vaccine development, indicate the importance of radiation techniques in the study and control of piroplasms of cattle. (Auth.)
Hill, F I
Three inherited diseases of cattle seen in the past 2 years were described. Familial acantholysis of Angus cattle was seen in 9/54 calves born to cows inadvertently mated to a full sibling bull. Sloughing skin from the joints, nose and palate were seen at 1 day of age, confirmed as suprabasilar clefts on histopathology. A 2-year-old Charolais steer was noted at ante-mortem slaughter inspection with a whole body tremor and nystagmus. Histopathologically, eosinophilic plaques expanded white matter throughout the brain, consistent with a syndrome of 'progressive ataxia' of Charolais cattle. Two calves born from Red Devon cattle had marked hyperkeratosis, microtia and periocular reddening with deep fissuring of the keratin, characteristic of congenital ichthyosis. PMID:16032297
Garedaghi, Y.; A. P.R. Saber; M. S. Khosroshahi
Problem statement: The occurrence of the larvae of Taenia saginata (T. saginata) in cattle musculature causes T. saginata cysticercosis or bovine cysticercosis while the adult worms in human small intestines cause taeniasis. Approach: In this study, the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered for meat in Meshkinshahr Abattoir, Iran between September 2010 and August 2011 was reported. Results: The examination of various organs of 500 cattle in Meshkinshahr Abattoir sh...
Saravanajayam, M.; Kumanan, K.; Balasubramaniam, A.
Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...
Castrillón Peláez, Leonor; Fernández Nava, Yolanda; Marañón Maison, María Elena; Ormaechea, P.; Quiroga, G.; S. Valero
Research into alternative renewable energy sources is a global objective aimed at sustaining the current standard of living in developed countries. Biogas production offers a very promising option for generating renewable energy. Asturias, a region in the north of Spain, has a large population of dairy cattle. The industrialization of cattle farming in the region has led to surplus manure, around 696400 t/year. The objective of this research was to study the co-digestion of cattle manure with...
This diploma thesis is focused on responses of cattle on olfactory stimuli. The investigation was conducted on Experimental Station for Fodder Production, Animal Nutrition and Dairy Science – Gut Grunschweige, Eiting, Germany, belonging to Munich Technican University. Animals were bred in farm conditions on pasture and there were observed 2 herds of Limousine cattle. The objective of this paper was to determine whether cattle respond to different smells in terms of motivation conflict between...
Laha, R.; Das, M.; Goswami, A
Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25%) faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found...
Nguyen Quoc Chinh
As anyone who has stood in a field of cows will tell you, cattle manure can be a particularly unpleasant pollution problem. In many countries across Southeast Asia, it has become a significant environmental challenge because cattle are being reared in ever-larger ' numbers close to human habitation. In an effort to improve the situation, this study from Vietnam has looked at several pollution control options available to farmers. It finds that pollution caused by cattle husbandry is having a ...
Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher
Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.
Francisco de A.L. Souza
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to characterize the epidemiological situation and the factors involved in the prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle in the dairy basin of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil. The study was conducted in 22 farms, and collected blood samples from 202 cattle to study serological, molecular and determination of the packed cell volume (PCV. On the farms were applied surveys involving epidemiological aspects. Seroprevalence rates were: Babesia bigemina 52.5%, B. bovis 68.8%, and Anaplasma marginale 89.1%. Of the samples analyzed, 73.3% were reactive for Babesia spp. and A. marginale, showing co-infection. In PCR, B. bigemina and B. bovis were positive in 52.0% and 33.2% respectively, and A. marginale in 76.2%. Of these, 51.5% amplified DNA of Babesia spp. and A. marginale. The semi-intensive management predominated in 68.0% of the farms studied. The clinical history of babesiosis and anaplasmosis, was reported from 73% of the farms. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 between age groups and for the PCV of positive compared with negative animals. The study indicates that in this region is enzootic instability for babesiosis and enzootic stability for anaplasmosis, reinforcing the fact that in Brazil there are areas of enzootic instability, even in tropical regions of the country. The PCR technique was a valuable tool for the diagnosis of these diseases and may be used to characterize a geographic region.
Ultrasonography is an ideal diagnostic tool for the investigation of bovine gastrointestinal disorders, the most common of which are traumatic reticuloperitonitis, left and right displacement of the abomasum, ileus of the small intestine, and dilatation and displacement of the cecum. An ultrasonographic examination is performed on nonsedated, standing cattle using a 3.5 MHz to 5.0 linear or convex transducer. When a tentative diagnosis has been made based on the clinical findin...
This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementation of such a selection strategy is hindered by limited knowledge on procedures for data recording and genetic evaluation. The aim of this thesis was to study the possibilities and economic relevan...
Maiga, Mouslim A.
Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...
Sanjoy Kumar Pal
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...
Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; HÃ€nninen, Laura
The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to assess the effect on pain assessment of veterinariansâ skills, attitudes, education and empathy, and to examine how these factors influence disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinion...
Nygrén, A. (Antti)
Abstract A simple solution to the classical Archimedes' cattle problem is given. Unlike the previous ones, this is mainly based on elementary mathematics which, at least in principle, would have been available to the mathematicians of the classical era. The solution applies linear transformation and infinite descent in solving quadratic Diophantine equations in a manner which does not explicitly take advantage of continued fractions. The idea is to create a sequence of tran...
Leavens, Teresa L; Tell, Lisa A; Kissell, Lindsey W; Smith, Geoffrey W; Smith, David J; Wagner, Sarah A; Shelver, Weilin L; Wu, Huali; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E
Frequent violation of flunixin residues in tissues from cattle has been attributed to non-compliance with the USFDA-approved route of administration and withdrawal time. However, the effect of administration route and physiological differences among animals on tissue depletion has not been determined. The objective of this work was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict plasma, liver and milk concentrations of flunixin in cattle following intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) administration for use as a tool to determine factors that may affect the withdrawal time. The PBPK model included blood flow-limited distribution in all tissues and elimination in the liver, kidney and milk. Regeneration of parent flunixin due to enterohepatic recirculation and hydrolysis of conjugated metabolites was incorporated in the liver compartment. Values for physiological parameters were obtained from the literature, and partition coefficients for all tissues but liver and kidney were derived empirically. Liver and kidney partition coefficients and elimination parameters were estimated for 14 pharmacokinetic studies (including five crossover studies) from the literature or government sources in which flunixin was administered i.v., i.m. or s.c. Model simulations compared well with data for the matrices following all routes of administration. Influential model parameters included those that may be age or disease-dependent, such as clearance and rate of milk production. Based on the model, route of administration would not affect the estimated days to reach the tolerance concentration (0.125 mg kg(-1)) in the liver of treated cattle. The majority of USDA-reported violative residues in liver were below the upper uncertainty predictions based on estimated parameters, which suggests the need to consider variability due to disease and age in establishing withdrawal intervals for drugs used in food animals. The model predicted
Cláudio E. F. Cruz
Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.
Rasali Hakim Matondang
Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.
Mycoplasma bovis isolates recovered from cattle and bison (Bison bison) show differential in vitro effects on PBMC proliferation, alveolar macrophage apoptosis and invasion of epithelial and immune cells.
Suleman, Muhammad; Prysliak, Tracy; Clarke, Kyle; Burrage, Pat; Windeyer, Claire; Perez-Casal, Jose
In the last few years, several outbreaks of pneumonia, systemically disseminated infection, and high mortality associated with Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) in North American bison (Bison bison) have been reported in Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Nebraska, New Mexico, Montana, North Dakota, and Kansas. M. bovis causes Chronic Pneumonia and Polyarthritis Syndrome (CPPS) in young, stressed calves in intensively-managed feedlots. M. bovis is not classified as a primary pathogen in cattle, but in bison it appears to be a primary causative agent with rapid progression of disease with fatal outcomes and an average 20% mature herd mortality. Thus, there is a possibility that M. bovis isolates from cattle and bison differ in their pathogenicity. Hence, we decided to compare selected cattle isolates to several bison isolates obtained from clinical cases. We show differences in modulation of PBMC proliferation, invasion of trachea and lung epithelial cells, along with modulation of apoptosis and survival in alveolar macrophages. We concluded that some bison isolates showed less inhibition of cattle and bison PBMC proliferation, were not able to suppress alveolar macrophage apoptosis as efficiently as cattle isolates, and were more or less invasive than the cattle isolate in various cells. These findings provide evidence about the differential properties of M. bovis isolated from the two species and has helped in the selection of bison isolates for genomic sequencing. PMID:27016754
Ní Bhuachalla D
Full Text Available Deirdre Ní Bhuachalla,1 Leigh AL Corner,1 Simon J More,1,2 Eamonn Gormley1 1School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (TB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a persistent problem in cattle herds in Ireland and the United Kingdom, resulting in hardship for affected farmers and substantial ongoing national exchequer expenditure. There is irrefutable scientific evidence that badgers are a reservoir of M. bovis infection and are implicated in the transmission of infection to cattle. A range of options for the control of TB in badgers is currently available or under development including culling of badgers, vaccination of badgers and cattle, and improved biosecurity to limit contact between the two species. It is unlikely that the eradication of TB from cattle will be achieved without the reservoir of M. bovis infection in badgers being controlled. The chances of success will, however, improve with greater knowledge of the disease in both species and an understanding of the epidemiological drivers of the transmission of infection between badgers and cattle. Keywords: Mycobacterium bovis, badgers, tuberculosis, cattle, vaccination, culling
Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.;
A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...... characterize the Agersoe cattle, using microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and mtDNA markers, and analyse the genetic variability within the breed and the genetic relationship to 14 European breeds with focus on the Red Danish and Jutland breed. The results show diversity in nuclear...... breeds. Several arguments based on this survey have been put forward in favour of characterizing the Agersoe cattle as being the last remnants of the Danish Island Cattle...
McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini
Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797
Pandit, Pranav; Hoch, Thierry; Ezanno, Pauline; Beaudeau, François; Vergu, Elisabeta
Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a looming concern for livestock and public health. Epidemiological features of inter-herd transmission of C. burnetii in cattle herds by wind and trade of cows are poorly understood. We present a novel dynamic spatial model describing the inter-herd regional spread of C. burnetii in dairy cattle herds, quantifying the ability of airborne transmission and animal trade in C. burnetii propagation in an enzootic region. Among all the new herd infections, 92% were attributed to airborne transmission and the rest to cattle trade. Infections acquired following airborne transmission were shown to cause relatively small and ephemeral intra-herd outbreaks. On the contrary, disease-free herds purchasing an infectious cow experienced significantly higher intra-herd prevalence. The results also indicated that, for short duration, both transmission routes were independent from each other without any synergistic effect. The model outputs applied to the Finistère department in western France showed satisfactory sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.80) in predicting herd infection statuses at the end of one year in a neighbourhood of 3 km around expected incident herds, when compared with data. The model developed here thus provides important insights into the spread of C. burnetii between dairy cattle herds and paves the way for implementation and assessment of control strategies. PMID:27048416
Deregt, D; Loewen, K G
Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...
Ocorrência de Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. em surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba Occurrence of Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. in outbreak of reproductive disease in cattle herds, State of Paraíba, Brazil
Sandra B. dos Santos
Full Text Available Em março de 2012 foi diagnosticado um surto de doença reprodutiva em rebanho bovino no Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinadas 32 vacas e dois touros da raça Girolando. As vacas apresentaram sinais de doença reprodutiva como repetição de cio, vulvovaginite granular, infertilidade e abortos. As amostras de suabes vaginais e prepuciais foram colhidas e submetidas a isolamento bacteriano e PCR. As reações da PCR para Mollicutes e Ureaplasma spp. foram realizadas com os iniciadores MGSO-GPO3 e UGP'F-UGP'R, respectivamente. Na Nested PCR para Ureaplasma diversum, os iniciadores usados foram UD1, UD2, UD3 e UD4. Para isolamento bacteriano, as amostras foram diluídas de 10-1 até 10-5, semeadas em meio "UB", líquido e placa, sendo incubadas por até 21 dias a 37ºC em jarra de microaerofilia. A frequência de Mollicutes detectada na PCR foi de 65,6% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 50,0%, enquanto que para U. diversum foi de 15,6%. No isolamento a frequência de Mollicutes foi de 57,1% e para Ureaplasma spp. foi de 28,6%. No ágar "UB" foi visualizado o crescimento misto de Mycoplasma spp. e Ureaplasma spp. em seis amostras. Foi confirmado o envolvimento de micro-organismos da Classe Mollicutes em surto de doença reprodutiva em vacas no sertão paraibano.In March of 2012 was investigated a reproductive disease outbreak in cattle herds from Paraíba State, Brazil. Were examined 32 cows and two bulls Giroland breed. The cows showed signs and symptoms of reproductive failure such as repeat breeding, granular vulvovaginitis, infertility and abortions. Vaginal and preputial mucous samples were collected for analysis by PCR and isolation. The PCR reactions for Mollicutes and Ureaplasma spp. were realized with primers MGSO and GPO3, and UGP'F and UGP'R respectively. The nested PCR assay for Ureaplasma diversum was realized with primers UD1, UD2, UD3 and UD4. For bacteriologic isolation, obtained samples were diluted up to 10-1 at 10-5, inoculated
Neibergs, Holly L.; Seabury, Christopher M.; Wojtowicz, Andrzej J.; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Kiser, Jennifer N; Neupane, Mahesh; Womack, James E.; Van Eenennaam, Alison; Hagevoort, Gerald Robert; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Taylor, Jeremy F; ,
Background Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is an infectious disease of cattle that is caused by a combination of viral and/or bacterial pathogens. Selection for cattle with reduced susceptibility to respiratory disease would provide a permanent tool for reducing the prevalence of BRDC. The objective of this study was to identify BRDC susceptibility loci in pre-weaned Holstein calves as a prerequisite to using genetic improvement as a tool for decreasing the prevalence of BRDC. High ...
Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect o...