WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattle diseases

  1. Nonrespiratory diseases of stocker cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Step, Douglas L; Smith, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the most common health issue affecting stocker cattle. There are several nonrespiratory diseases that affect stockers. The more common diseases include rumen tympany, infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, coccidiosis, photosensitization, and foot rot. Accurate diagnosis, early treatment, and incorporating appropriate preventive measures can assist cattle production.

  2. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  3. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  4. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  5. Control methods for bovine respiratory disease for feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T A

    2010-07-01

    Vaccines and antibiotics are still relied upon as the standard methods of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) prevention, control, and therapy. Success in building disease resistance begins with genetic selection and continues with colostrum management and reducing pathogen exposure. Purchasing single-source cattle with a history of pre- and post-weaning procedures will minimize pathogen exposure and enhance immunity. Using cattle-handling techniques and facilities that promote low stress will allow host immune defenses to remain effective against bacterial and viral colonization. Lastly, controlling BRD must be managed through a comprehensive herd health immunization and management program that effectively addresses disease challenges common to the operation.

  6. Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose

    "Control and eradication of endemic infectious diseases in cattle" provides the key elements that should be addressed in the establishment of bovine disease control and eradication programmes. The book aims to reach a broad group of readers, including: students; professionals in veterinary practi......, industry and governmental institutions; researchers; and others involved in control and eradication of endemic diseases in livestock. Key elements range from socioeconomic aspects such as motivation; veterinary science (including assessment of biosecurity and establishment of test...

  7. Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Schibrowski, M L; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Exposure variables were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow estimation of effects of interest. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Animals that were yard weaned were at reduced risk (OR: 0.7, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.0) of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals immediately returned to pasture after weaning. Animals that had previously been fed grain (OR: 0.6, 95% credible interval: 0.3-1.1) were probably at reduced risk of BRD at the feedlot compared to animals not previously fed grain. Animals that received prior vaccinations against Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.5-1.1) or Mannheimia haemolytica (OR: 0.8, 95% credible interval: 0.6-1.0) were also probably at reduced risk compared to non-vaccinated animals. The results of this study confirm that on-farm management before feedlot entry can alter risk of BRD after beef cattle enter feedlots.

  8. Campylobacter as a venereal disease in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Visser, I.J.; Bergen, van M.A.P.; Pastoor, P.W.; Strampel, J.; Kock, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of AI, venereal diseases caused by Tritrichomonas fetus and Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis haved been eradicated in The Netherlands. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus can cause sporadic abortion and early embryonic death. When natural breeding is practised, venereal dise

  9. Vaccine Induced Antibody Response to Foot and Mouth Disease in Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Seropositive Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) are two important infectious diseases of cattle. Inactivated FMD vaccines are the most powerful tools to protect animals against FMD. Previous studies showed that recombinant IBR-FMD viruses protected cattle from virulent BHV-1 challenge and induced protective levels of anti-FMDV antibodies. FMD is considered to be endemic in Turkey and inactivated oil adjuvanted vaccines are used for the immunization of cattle. Previous...

  10. Metaphylactic antimicrobial therapy for bovine respiratory disease in stocker and feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Jason S; White, Brad J

    2010-07-01

    This article provides an overview of implementing metaphylactic antimicrobial protocols to certain classes of cattle on arrival to stocker and feedlot production systems. The goal of this management practice is to reduce the negative health and performance effects induced by bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This article emphasizes the multiple factors that influence the decision for mass medication, including weight (age) of the cattle, distance traveled, environmental conditions, previous health history, visual inspection of the cattle at arrival, and prediction of the risk of disease. Current data suggest that metaphylactic programs significantly reduce negative health effects and improve feed performance that can be observed in cattle stricken with BRD.

  11. Prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases in cattle population of chittagong division, Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alim, Md. Abdul; Das, Shubhagata; Roy, Krisna;

    2012-01-01

    A one year (2009-10) prevalence study on hemoprotozoan diseases was conducted in crossbred and indigenous cattle, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected randomly from 216 crossbred and 432 indigenous cattle of four representative areas in three consecutive seasons. Samples were...

  12. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  13. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. 73.4... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.4 Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined...

  14. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr) on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial inseminat...

  15. The nasopharyngeal microbiota of feedlot cattle that develop bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward; Wright, André-Denis G; Alexander, Trevor W

    2015-10-22

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. The objective of this study was to compare the nasopharyngeal bacterial microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle treated for BRD in a commercial feedlot setting using a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (Phylochip). Samples were taken from both groups of animals (n=5) at feedlot entry (day 0) and ≥60 days after placement. Cattle diagnosed with BRD had significantly less bacterial diversity and fewer OTUs in their nasopharynx at both sampling times. The predominant phyla in both groups were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of the phylum Actinobacteria was lower in cattle treated for BRD. At the family-level there was a greater relative abundance (Pcattle compared to BRD-affected cattle. The community structure of the BRD-affected and healthy cattle were also significantly different from each other at both sampling times as measured using unweighted UniFrac distances. All entry samples of cattle diagnosed with BRD had 16S rRNA gene sequences representative of the BRD-associated bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida, although 3/5 healthy cattle were also positive for M. haemolytica at this time point. The results also indicate that the bovine nasopharyngeal microbiota is relatively unstable during the first 60 days in the feedlot.

  16. Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Dean

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transboundary animal movements facilitate the spread of pathogens across large distances. Cross-border cattle trade is of economic and cultural importance in West Africa. This study explores the potential disease risk resulting from large-scale, cross-border cattle trade between Togo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria for the first time. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based survey of livestock movements of 226 cattle traders was conducted in the 9 biggest cattle markets of northern Togo in February-March 2012. More than half of the traders (53.5% operated in at least one other country. Animal flows were stochastically simulated based on reported movements and the risk of regional disease spread assessed. More than three quarters (79.2%, range: 78.1-80.0% of cattle flowing into the market system originated from other countries. Through the cattle market system of northern Togo, non-neighbouring countries were connected via potential routes for disease spread. Even for diseases with low transmissibility and low prevalence in a given country, there was a high risk of disease introduction into other countries. CONCLUSIONS: By stochastically simulating data collected by interviewing cattle traders in northern Togo, this study identifies potential risks for regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. The findings highlight that surveillance for emerging infectious diseases as well as control activities targeting endemic diseases in West Africa are likely to be ineffective if only conducted at a national level. A regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control is essential.

  17. Vaccine Induced Antibody Response to Foot and Mouth Disease in Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Seropositive Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şevik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot and mouth disease (FMD and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR are two important infectious diseases of cattle. Inactivated FMD vaccines are the most powerful tools to protect animals against FMD. Previous studies showed that recombinant IBR-FMD viruses protected cattle from virulent BHV-1 challenge and induced protective levels of anti-FMDV antibodies. FMD is considered to be endemic in Turkey and inactivated oil adjuvanted vaccines are used for the immunization of cattle. Previous studies showed that seroprevalence of IBR in the Turkey’s dairy herd more than 50%. In this study, antibody response in IBR seropositive cattle following vaccination against FMD was investigated. IBR seropositive (n=208 and IBR seronegative (n=212 cattle were vaccinated with oil-adjuvanted bivalent vaccine (containing O1 Manisa, A22 Iraq FMDV strains. Solid-phase competitive ELISA (SPCE was used to measure antibodies produced in cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O was detected in 77.4% and serotypes A in 83.6% of IBR seropositive cattle. Protective level of antibody against serotype O antibody was detected in 49% and serotypes A in 66.9% of IBR seronegative cattle. The differences between the protection rates against both serotype O (P=0.0001 and serotype A (P=0.0001 in IBR seropositive and seronegative animals were statistically important (Fisher’s exact test, P<0.01. Results showed that after FMD vaccination, IBR seropositive animals produced high titres of antibodies than seronegative animals.

  18. Cattle trade and the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Dopfer, D.D.V.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands through livestock trade. It presents projections of Dutch cattle imports until 2010, and applies quantitative epidemiology to estimate the related probabilities of importing three animal diseases (foot and mouth disease,

  19. Prediction of flunixin tissue residue concentrations in livers from diseased cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Baynes, R E; Tell, L A; Riviere, J E

    2013-12-01

    Flunixin, a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was a leading cause of violative residues in cattle. The objective of this analysis was to explore how the changes in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters that may be associated with diseased animals affect the predicted liver residue of flunixin in cattle. Monte Carlo simulations for liver residues of flunixin were performed using the PK model structure and relevant PK parameter estimates from a previously published population PK model for flunixin in cattle. The magnitude of a change in the PK parameter value that resulted in a violative residue issue in more than one percent of a cattle population was compared. In this regard, elimination clearance and volume of distribution affected withdrawal times. Pathophysiological factors that can change these parameters may contribute to the occurrence of violative residues of flunixin.

  20. Different prion disease phenotypes result from inoculation of cattle with two temporally separated sources of sheep scrapie from Great Britain

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    Hawkins Steve AC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the theoretical proposal that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE could have originated from sheep scrapie, this study investigated the pathogenicity for cattle, by intracerebral (i.c. inoculation, of two pools of scrapie agents sourced in Great Britain before and during the BSE epidemic. Two groups of ten cattle were each inoculated with pools of brain material from sheep scrapie cases collected prior to 1975 and after 1990. Control groups comprised five cattle inoculated with sheep brain free from scrapie, five cattle inoculated with saline, and for comparison with BSE, naturally infected cattle and cattle i.c. inoculated with BSE brainstem homogenate from a parallel study. Phenotypic characterisation of the disease forms transmitted to cattle was conducted by morphological, immunohistochemical, biochemical and biological methods. Results Disease occurred in 16 cattle, nine inoculated with the pre-1975 inoculum and seven inoculated with the post-1990 inoculum, with four cattle still alive at 83 months post challenge (as at June 2006. The different inocula produced predominantly two different disease phenotypes as determined by histopathological, immunohistochemical and Western immunoblotting methods and biological characterisation on transmission to mice, neither of which was identical to BSE. Whilst the disease presentation was uniform in all scrapie-affected cattle of the pre-1975 group, the post-1990 inoculum produced a more variable disease, with two animals sharing immunohistochemical and molecular profile characteristics with animals in the pre-1975 group. Conclusion The study has demonstrated that cattle inoculated with different pooled scrapie sources can develop different prion disease phenotypes, which were not consistent with the phenotype of BSE of cattle and whose isolates did not have the strain typing characteristics of the BSE agent on transmission to mice.

  1. A cross sectional study of several diseases in cattle at Chandanaish Upazilla of Chittagong district, Bangladesh

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    M. M. Uddin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of several diseases is one of the most economically important matters for maintaining a good treatment schedule of an area. This study detects the prevalence of several diseases and to evaluate the disease condition of cattle population in the selected area. Records of 306 clinical cases of cattle (120 dairy cows, 89 bulls and 97 calves treated at the Chandanaish Upazila Veterinary Hospital during the month from December 2010 to February 2011 were analyzed to assess the importance of existing diseases. The recorded clinical cases were classified into seven major diagnostic groups, of which the highest prevalence was recorded with digestive disorders (47.05%, followed by parasitic infection (26.79%, infectious diseases (7.84%, respiratory disorder (6.2%, surgical affections (5.22%, metabolic disorder (4.24%, ectoparasitic infection (1.96% and others (0.65%. The percentage of occurrence of major diagnostic groups of disease constituted infectious disease, (cows 41.66%, bulls 33.33%, calves 25%, parasitic disease (cows 37.80%, bulls 19.05% and calves 42.68%, digestive disorders (cows 41.66% , bulls 35.41% and calves 22.91%, respiratory disorders (cows 21.05%, bulls 26.31% and calves 52.63%, ectoparasitic infection (cows 16.66%, bulls 33.33% and calves 50%,metabolic diseases ( cows 46.15%, bulls 38.46% and calves 15.38% and surgical affections( cows 50%, bulls 12.5% and calves 37.5%. Though each of all the diagnostic groups of diseases is significant but the digestive disorder, parasitic and infectious diseases were the most pressing constraint for improvement of cattle at the Chandanaish Upazila in Bangladesh. Key words: Cattle, diseases, prevalence, Bangladesh. 

  2. Economic effects of foot and mouth disease outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Disease outbreaks increase the cost of animal production; reduce milk and beef yield, cattle sales, farmers’ incomes, and enterprise profitability. The study assessed the economic effects of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks along the cattle marketing chain in selected study districts in Uganda. Materials and Methods: The study combined qualitative and quantitative study designs. Respondents were selected proportionally using simple random sampling from the sampling frame comprising of 224, 173, 291, and 185 farmers for Nakasongola, Nakaseke, Isingiro, and Rakai, respectively. Key informants were selected purposively. Data analysis combined descriptive, modeling, and regression analysis. Data on the socio-economic characteristics and how they influenced FMD outbreaks, cattle markets revenue losses, and the economic cost of the outbreaks were analyzed using descriptive measures including percentages, means, and frequencies. Results: Farmers with small and medium herds incurred higher control costs, whereas large herds experienced the highest milk losses. Total income earned by the actors per month at the processing level reduced by 23%. In Isingiro, bulls and cows were salvage sold at 83% and 88% less market value, i.e., a loss of $196.1 and $1,552.9 in small and medium herds, respectively. Conclusion: All actors along the cattle marketing chain incur losses during FMD outbreaks, but smallholder farmers are most affected. Control and prevention of FMD should remain the responsibility of the government if Uganda is to achieve a disease-free status that is a prerequisite for free movement and operation of cattle markets throughout the year which will boost cattle marketing. PMID:27397974

  3. An influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine r...

  4. The burden of mycobacterial disease in ethiopian cattle: implications for public health.

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    Stefan Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a comprehensive investigation of the prevalence of bTB in Ethiopia based on cases identified at slaughterhouses. Out of approximately 32,800 inspected cattle, approximately 4.7% showed suspect tuberculous lesions. Culture of suspect lesions yielded acid-fast bacilli in approximately 11% of cases, with M. bovis accounting for 58 of 171 acid-fast cultures, while 53 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Strikingly, M. tuberculosis was isolated from eight cattle, an unusual finding that suggests human to animal transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis has revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at a low prevalence, and provides underpinning evidence for public health policy formulation.

  5. Seroprevalence of some bovine viral respiratory diseases among non vaccinated cattle in Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4

  6. Cattle farmer awareness and behavior regarding prevention of zoonotic disease transmission in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebug, Stanly Fon; Kamga-Waladjo, Alain Richi; Ema, Patrick Jolly Ngono; Muyeneza, Celestin; Kane, Ousmane; Seck, Abdourakhmanne; Ly, Mor Talla; Lo, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    Livestock farmers are known to be at high risk of exposure to zoonosis. A convenience survey to assess Senegalese traditional cattle farmers' knowledge and attitudes regarding zoonotic diseases with reference to bovine brucellosis was conducted. A total of 222 cattle farmers were interviewed. Just over a quarter (30.1%) of the study participants knew or had heard of zoonotic diseases, whereas 6.8% knew at least one mode of transmission. Rabies was the most named zoonotic disease by farmers who knew zoonosis. Meanwhile, no farmer had heard of bovine brucellosis. Identification of zoonotic disease varied significantly by farmer's main activity. All farmers reported that they drink milk produced on their cattle farms, and 95.0% drank fresh milk without prior heat treatment. A majority of farmers (70.3%) regularly assist animals during parturition and abortion without protective gloves. Farmers were less likely to assist animals if they had attended formal education. This study reports low knowledge of zoonotic infections and low compliance to control practices. Investigations on possible zoonotic infections, tailored zoonotic disease control programs including disease awareness creation and improved farm management are strongly recommended.

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease in British deer: transmission of virus to cattle, sheep and deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E P; Herniman, K A; Lawman, M J; Sellers, R F

    1975-06-28

    After exposure for two hours to cattle with foot-and-mouth disease, each of the five species of deer found in the British countryside became infected. Clinical disease was typical and severe in the roe and muntjac deer, with some animals dying, less severe in the sika deer and usually subclinical in the fallow and red deer. Each species transmitted disease to its own species and to cattle and sheep. The amounts of virus present in the blood, and in oesophageal/pharyngeal samples and excreted as an aerosol during the course of the infection in the deer were similar to those recorded for the sheep and cattle in the same experiment. The fallow and sika deer commonly carried virus in the pharynx beyond 28 days after exposure; some red deer also became carriers. In epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK, it is likely that deer would have such intimate contact with farm animals as occurred in this study. The natural behavior of free-living deer in the UK suggests that, although the five species are susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, they are unlikely to be an important factor in the maintenance and transmission of the virus during an epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease in domestic livestock.

  8. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (Ibr on Cattle in Indonesia and The Strategy For Disease Control

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    R.M. Abdul Adjid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR caused by Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 infects cattle and widely spreads in Indonesia. The disease infected cattle in breeding centers, artificial insemination centers and also holderfarmers. This infectious disease may cause economical losses primarily due to reproductive failure of infected animals. Recommended strategy for disease control is step by step control with priorities, started from upper to downstream, from breeding and artificial insemination (AI centers as the first priority, then village breeding centers as the second priority, and the last priority is in cattle owned by smallholders. In the breeding and AI centers, eradication of the disease is carried out by surveilance, excluding reactors, and applying biosecurity. In the village breeding centers, the use of semen for AI should come from centers that free from IBR, the use of bull that free from IBR, surveilance and application of biosecurity. At the farmer levels, IBR control is bone by using semen from AI centers free from IBR and routine vaccination. The final step is performed after evaluating the successful rate and economic impact of the disease control.

  9. Characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle that were healthy or treated for bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Cassidy L; Alexander, Trevor W; Hendrick, Steve; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is the principal bacterial pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). As an opportunistic pathogen, M. haemolytica is also frequently isolated from the respiratory tract of healthy cattle. This study examined the characteristics of M. haemolytica collected using deep nasal swabs from healthy cattle (n = 49) and cattle diagnosed with BRD (n = 41). Isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), serotyped, and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to screen isolates for virulence [leukotoxin C (lktC), putative adhesin (ahs), outer-membrane lipoprotein (gs60), O-sialoglycoprotease (gcp), transferring-binding protein B (tbpB) and UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-2-epimerase (nmaA)] and antimicrobial resistance [tet(H), bla ROB-1, erm(X), erm(42), msr(E)-mph(E) and aphA-1] genes. Isolates were genetically diverse but in three instances, M. haemolytica with the same pulsotype, resistance phenotype, and genotype were collected from cattle with BRD. This occurred once between cattle located in two different feedlots, once between cattle in the same feedlot, but in different pens, and once among cattle from the same feedlot in the same pen. Isolates from healthy cattle were primarily serotype 2 (75.5%) while those from individuals with BRD were serotype 1 (70.7%) or 6 (19.5%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic occurred more frequently (P bovine respiratory disease in western Canadian feedlots.

  10. Spontaneous lysosomal storage disease caused by Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, F H; Lucioli, J; Veronezi, L O; Medeiros, A L; Barros, S S; Traverso, S D; Gava, A

    2009-03-01

    Clinical and pathologic findings for the spontaneous poisoning by Sida carpinifolia in cattle are described in this study. A survey on field cases of S. carpinifolia in cattle was carried out on farms of Alto Vale do Itajaí, State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Sixteen affected animals were clinically evaluated and 9 were subjected to postmortem examination. The main clinical signs consisted of marching gait, alert gaze, head tremors, and poor growth. Histologic and ultrastructural lesions consisted of vacuolization and distension of neuronal perikarya, mainly from Purkinje cells, and of the cytoplasm of acinar pancreatic and thyroid follicular cells. Clinical signs and lesions varied from mild to severe. Improvement of the clinical signs was observed in cattle after a period of up to 90 days without consuming the plant; however, residual lesions, mainly characterized by axonal spheroids and absence of Purkinje neurons in some areas of the cerebellum, were observed in these cases. It is concluded that the natural chronic consumption of S. carpinifolia was the etiologic cause of storage disease in cattle in this study.

  11. Seroepidemiological investigation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes in cattle around Lake Mburo National Park in South-Western Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, Frank Norbert; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Alexandersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle occur annually in Uganda. In this study the authors investigated antibodies against FMD virus (FMDV) in cattle in surrounding areas of Lake Mburo National Park in South-western Uganda. Two hundred and eleven serum samples from 23 cattle herds were...

  12. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

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    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  13. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  14. Validation of Nordic dairy cattle disease recording databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ann-Kristina; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases. Completen......The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases....... Completeness figures for farmer-recorded disease events were calculated on two different levels: the first refers to disease events that were observed on the farm regardless of whether a veterinarian had been involved (FARMER); the second refers to farmer records of cases attended by a veterinarian, i......-month periods in 2008 these farmers recorded the disease events they observed on the farm. Data from the four national databases were extracted in May 2009. The two data sources, farmer recordings and national databases, were managed in a comparable way in all four countries, and common diagnostic codes...

  15. Detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Sales, Érica Bravo; Gasparini, Marcela Ribeiro; de Souza, Natália Mendes; da Silva, Josiane Aparecida Gonçalina; Souza, Giovana Gonçalves; Carani, Fernanda Rezek; Dos Santos, Alyane Figueiredo; Rivetti Júnior, Anselmo Vasconcelos; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto

    2016-07-01

    Vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. Other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of FMD. We report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle with suspected vesicular disease in the Brazilian states of Amazonas (AM), Mato Grosso (MT), and Roraima. Thirty-seven epithelial samples from cattle and 1 sample from a buffalo were sent to the laboratory for testing for FMDV and similar disease agents. All samples from MT were positive for parapoxvirus (Pseudocowpox virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus). In addition, 3 samples were positive for Bluetongue virus, and 5 samples were positive for Bovine herpesvirus 1 Among these samples, 1 was positive for all of these 3 agents. Only 2 samples from AM were negative for parapoxvirus. The molecular tests conducted in this study detected multiple infections, with a high prevalence of parapoxvirus.

  16. Frequent occurrence of stomach and intestinal diseases in cattle caused by iron containing flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henneman, J.

    1931-01-01

    Farmers near the magnesium factory in Veitsch, Styria, Austria, complained about stomach and intestinal troubles of their cattle accompanied by a lower milk production. While the disease spread up to 4 or 5 km along the valley in the direction of the wind, it did not occur beyond 500 to 800 m from the factory in the opposite direction of the wind. Moreover, the disease worsened in dry weather and improved in rainy weather. The cattle recovered rapidly after the operation of the kiln was halted for some time. One farmer claimed that the quality of the milk also changed, while four other farmers could not confirm this observation. Veterinary examinations determined that in all cases heavy diarrhea occurred. The mucous tissue in the mouth was rather dry. Except for one case no fever was measured. The cow most seriously affected by the disease showed an enlargement of the liver. The respiratory organs of all examined cases showed no abnormality. Samples of the fodder and the excreta as well as of the mucous tissue of the stomach were sent to a chemical laboratory for examination. Substantial amounts of iron were found in all these samples. In the fodder it was found in the form of rust particles. An examination of the flue gas from the magnesium factory confirmed the assumption that it discharged the iron. The disease was found to afflict the digestive tract only, no respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, or osteomalacia was observed.

  17. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisembele, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

  18. Heterogeneity in a communal cattle-farming system in a zone endemic for foot and mouth disease in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ockert Louis van Schalkwyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, communal livestock farming is predominant in the foot and mouth disease control zone adjacent to the Greater Kruger National Park (KNP, where infected African buffaloes are common. During routine veterinary inspections of cattle in this area, a large amount of production and demographic parameters were being recorded. These data were collated for a five-year period (2003-2007 in three study sites to better understand the temporal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in this system. A decreasing gradient from South to North with respect to both human and cattle population densities was observed. Rainfall and human population density alone could explain 71% of the variation in cattle density. Northern and central sites showed an overall decrease in total cattle numbers (15.1 and 2.9%, respectively, whereas a 28.6% increase was recorded in the South. The number of cattle owners in relation to cattle numbers remained stable during the study period. Only 4.0% of households in the South own cattle, compared to 13.7 and 12.7% in the North and Centre. The overall annual calving rate was 23.8%. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.4 to 3.2%. Low calf mortality (2.1% was recorded in the North compared to the South (11.6%. Annual off-take in the form of slaughter averaged 0.2, 11.7, and 11.0% in the North, Central and South sites, respectively. These figures provide valuable baseline data and demonstrate considerable spatial heterogeneity in cattle demography and production at this wildlife-livestock interface, which should be taken into consideration when performing disease risk assessments or designing disease control systems.

  19. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.

    2017-01-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links. PMID:28266589

  20. Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Paolo; Porphyre, Thibaud; Handel, Ian; Hamman, Saidou M.; Ngu Ngwa, Victor; Tanya, Vincent; Morgan, Kenton; Christley, Rob; Bronsvoort, Barend M. Dec.

    2017-03-01

    Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective surveillance and control strategies. In West and Central Africa some of the most rapid urbanization globally is expected to increase the demand for animal-source foods and the need for safer and more efficient animal production. Livestock trading points represent a strategic contact node in the dissemination of multiple pathogens. From October 2014 to May 2015 official transaction records were collected and a questionnaire-based survey was carried out in cattle markets throughout Western and Central-Northern Cameroon. The data were used to analyse the cattle trade network including a total of 127 livestock markets within Cameroon and five neighboring countries. This study explores for the first time the influence of animal trade on infectious disease spread in the region. The investigations showed that national borders do not present a barrier against pathogen dissemination and that non-neighbouring countries are epidemiologically connected, highlighting the importance of a regional approach to disease surveillance, prevention and control. Furthermore, these findings provide evidence for the benefit of strategic risk-based approaches for disease monitoring, surveillance and control, as well as for communication and training purposes through targeting key regions, highly connected livestock markets and central trading links.

  1. Proactive dairy cattle disease control in the UK: veterinary surgeons' involvement and associated characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, H M; Huxley, J N; Wapenaar, W; Green, M J

    2013-09-14

    Characteristics of 94 veterinary surgeons associated with delivering preventive herd-level strategies to control mastitis, lameness and Johne's disease were investigated using two multinomial models. The response variables were 'Gold Standard Monitoring' (including on-going data analysis, risk assessments and laboratory testing), and a lower level of involvement called 'Regular Control Advice'. Although the sample was biased towards those who spend the majority of their time with dairy cows, 69 per cent currently had no involvement in Gold Standard Monitoring for lameness, 60 per cent no involvement with Johne's, and 52 per cent no involvement with mastitis. The final model predicted that an assistant without a postgraduate cattle qualification, who had spent no time on dairy cattle continuous professional development (CPD) in the last year, had an 88 per cent chance of having no involvement with Gold Standard Monitoring for any disease, versus Gold Standard Monitoring of all three diseases on one or more farms, versus a 58 per cent chance for this partner. CPD and employment status were also associated with markedly different probabilities for delivering Regular Control Advice. Increased postgraduate education may further veterinary involvement of this nature.

  2. Genetic relationships between internal diseases diagnosed at slaughter and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Honda, T; Oyama, K

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the genetic parameters of certain internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver [MNL], bovine abdominal fat necrosis [BFN], and inflammation of the large intestine [ILI]) and to investigate relationships between the internal diseases and carcass traits (carcass weight [CW], rib eye area [REA], rib thickness [RT], subcutaneous fat thickness, and beef marbling score [BMS]). Records of the internal diseases and the carcass traits of 5,788 Japanese Black cattle were used for this study. The data for all the diseases were recorded as binary data as to whether the disease was observed (1) or not (0). Genetic parameters were estimated using linear and threshold animal models. The prevalence rates of MNL, BFN, and ILI were 16.1, 23.0, and 6.8%, respectively, and heritability estimates ± posterior SD were 0.18 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.06, and 0.18 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlations of MNL with BFN and ILI were -0.23 (P = 0.19) and -0.49 (P genetic correlations of MNL with the carcass traits were all weak and not significant. In contrast, the genetic correlations of BFN and ILI with CW, REA, and RT were all negative and significant (P genetic correlations for BFN and ILI with BMS were all positive at 0.21 P( = 0.16) and 0.39 (P genetically improved. Genetic relationships of BFN and ILI with meat quantity traits were favorable for beef cattle breeding, because lower disease liabilities were associated with improved CW, REA, and RT for BFN and ILI. However, rather strong and unfavorable genetic relationships were found between BFN or ILI and BMS, which is related to meat quality. This suggests that selection for animals with superior BMS would increasingly lead to animals with higher liability to the internal diseases.

  3. Serotype Specificity of Antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Selected Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F.N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Uganda had an unusually large number of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in 2006, and all clinical reports were in cattle. A serological investigation was carried out to confirm circulating antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) by ELISA for antibodies against non...

  4. Comparison of three methods of surveillance with application to the detection of Johne's disease seropositivity in Texas cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Brielle H; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Ward, Michael P; Roussel, Allen J; Norby, Bo; Tavornpanich, Saraya; Ellis, Dee

    2008-08-15

    Surveillance and monitoring are important for measuring the level of disease in a population, documenting changes in prevalence over time, determining high-risk areas for implementation of control measures, eradicating disease, and documenting freedom from disease. The documentation of freedom from disease has importance for international trade and the resumption of production after an outbreak. Johne's disease (JD) is an example of an endemic disease of cattle that has variable prevalence related to environmental and animal-level factors. Three methods of sample collection were used to describe the prevalence and distribution of JD seropositivity in Texas. Sampled cattle were: (1) extensively managed herds, (2) market cattle, and (3) clinically ill cattle examined by practicing veterinarians throughout Texas. Samples were evaluated for JD using a commercially available serum ELISA. Proportion of seropositive samples was compared and spatial distributions were evaluated for clustering. Difference of JD seropositivity was observed among the three sample populations suggesting that estimation of disease prevalence is dependant upon the source of samples.

  5. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Gubbins, S; Bulut, A N; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2016-02-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged 1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤ 6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (< 70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6-12 month old cattle with low titres by 20-30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain.

  6. Associations between feedlot management practices and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J; Barnes, T S

    2016-06-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between factors related to feedlot management and risk of BRD. In total, 35,131 animals in 170 pens (cohorts) inducted into 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building to allow separate estimation of total and direct effects. Multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. The placement of pen water troughs such that they could be accessed by animals in adjoining pens was associated with markedly increased risk of BRD (OR 4.3, 95% credible interval: 1.4-10.3). Adding animals to pens over multiple days was associated with increased risk of BRD across all animals in those pens compared to placing all animals in the pen on a single day (total effect: OR 1.9, 95% credible interval: 1.2-2.8). The much attenuated direct effect indicated that this was primarily mediated via factors on indirect pathways so it may be possible to ameliorate the adverse effects of adding animals to pens over multiple days by altering exposure to these intervening factors (e.g. mixing history). In pens in which animals were added to the pen over multiple days, animals added ≥7 days (OR: 0.7, credible interval: 0.5-0.9) or 1-6 days (OR: 0.8, credible interval: 0.7-1.0) before the last animal was added were at modestly reduced risk of BRD compared to the animals that were added to the pen on the latest day. Further research is required to disentangle effects of cohort formation patterns at animal-level and higher levels on animal-level risk of BRD. Vaccination against Bovine herpesvirus 1 at feedlot entry was investigated but results were inconclusive and further research is required to evaluate vaccine efficacy. We conclude that there are practical interventions available to

  7. Evaluation of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' against bovine Johne's disease in endemically infected native cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shoor Vir; Singh, Pravin Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Singh, Brajesh; Srivastav, Abhishek; Yadav, Sharad; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    'Indigenous vaccine' prepared from 'Indian Bison Type' a native bio-type of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis strain 'S5' of goat origin (goat based) was evaluated in indigenous cattle herds located in gaushalas (cow shelters), endemic for Bovine Johne's disease. Cows (893) were randomly divided into vaccinated (702 = 626 adults + 76 calves) and control (191 = 173 adults + 18 calves) groups. Response to vaccination was evaluated on the basis of health (mortality, morbidity), productivity (growth rate, reproductive performance, total milk yield), immunological parameters (LTT, ELISA titer), survivability of animals naturally infected with MAP, bacterimia (by specific blood PCR), seroconversion (by indigenous ELISA) and status of shedding of MAP in feces (by microscopy) in the two groups before and after vaccination. Reduction in MAP shedding [to the extent of 100% in Herd A; and from 82.1% (0 DPV) to 10.7% (270 DPV) in Herd C] was the major finding in vaccinated cows. Whereas, the control group cows have shown no improvement. As the first indicator of vaccine efficacy, MAP bacilli disappeared from the blood circulation as early as 15 days post vaccination, however, peak titers were achieved around 90 DPV. Peak titers initially declined slightly but were maintained later throughout the study period. Control animals did not show any pattern in antibody titers. Mortality was low in vaccinated as compared to the control groups. Vaccination of endemically infected native cattle herds with inactivated whole-cell bacterin of novel 'Indian Bison Type' bio-type of goat origin strain 'S5' effectively restored health and productivity and reduced clinical BJD. Application of goat based 'indigenous vaccine' for therapeutic management of BJD in native cattle herds (gaushalas) is the first of its kind.

  8. Use of genomic tools to improve cattle health in the context of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolaj Marek Raszek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although infectious diseases impose a heavy economic burden on the cattle industry, the etiology of many disorders that affect livestock is not fully elucidated, and effective countermeasures are often lacking. The main tools available until now have been vaccines, antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs. Although these have been very successful in some cases, the appearance of parasite and microbial resistance to these treatments is a cause of concern. This review describes the rapid gains achieved to track disease progression, identify the pathogens involved, and map pathogen interactions with the host. Next-generation sequencing provides important opportunities to tackle problems associated with pathogenic illnesses. Use of novel genomic tools subsequently aids in treatment development, as well as successful creation of breeding programs aimed towards less susceptible livestock. These may be important tools for mitigating the long term effects of combating infection and helping reduce the reliance on antibiotic treatment.

  9. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    in persistence of FMD in cattle are not fully known. A series of animal experiments, with the aim of investigating the innate immune response, and possible implications for the development of persistently infected FMD carrier-animals in cattle has been performed. Bull calves of 4-5 months of age were infected...... spreads rapidly amongst susceptible animals. The host response involves initial activation of the innate immune response, followed by subsequent production of high titres of anti-FMDV antibodies in the circulation. Antibodies are effective in clearing virus from the circulation, but in a proportion......Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a viral disease with severe financial implications for agricultural industries and the trade of animal products in affected countries. Any cloven hoofed animal species may become infected, and ruminants, especially cattle and buffalo, may develop into persistently...

  10. Network analysis of cattle movements in Uruguay: Quantifying heterogeneity for risk-based disease surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWaal, Kimberly L; Picasso, Catalina; Enns, Eva A; Craft, Meggan E; Alvarez, Julio; Fernandez, Federico; Gil, Andres; Perez, Andres; Wells, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock between premises is one of the foremost factors contributing to the spread of infectious diseases of livestock. In part to address this issue, the origin and destination for all cattle movements in Uruguay are registered by law. This information has great potential to be used in assessing the risk of disease spread in the Uruguayan cattle population. Here, we analyze cattle movements from 2008 to 2013 using network analysis in order to understand the flows of animals in the Uruguayan cattle industry and to identify targets for surveillance and control measures. Cattle movements were represented as seasonal and annual networks in which farms represented nodes and nodes were linked based on the frequency and quantity of cattle moved. At the farm level, the distribution of the number of unique farms each farm is connected to through outgoing and incoming movements, as well as the number of animals moved, was highly right-skewed; the majority of farms had few to no contacts, whereas the 10% most highly connected farms accounted for 72-83% of animals moved annually. This extreme level of heterogeneity in movement patterns indicates that some farms may be disproportionately important for pathogen spread. Different production types exhibited characteristic patterns of farm-level connectivity, with some types, such a dairies, showing consistently higher levels of centrality. In addition, the observed networks were characterized by lower levels of connectivity and higher levels of heterogeneity than random networks of the same size and density, both of which have major implications for disease dynamics and control strategies. This represents the first in-depth analysis of farm-level livestock movements within South America, and highlights the importance of collecting livestock movement data in order to understand the vulnerability of livestock trade networks to invasion by infectious diseases.

  11. Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Gravel, J L; Commins, M A; Horwood, P F; Ambrose, R C; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), and to combinations of these viruses, were investigated. Based on weighted seroprevalences at induction (when animals were enrolled and initial samples collected), the percentages of the project population estimated to be seropositive were 24% for BoHV-1, 69% for BVDV-1, 89% for BRSV and 91% for BPIV-3. For each of the four viruses, seropositivity at induction was associated with reduced risk of BRD (OR: 0.6-0.9), and seroincrease from induction to second blood sampling (35-60 days after induction) was associated with increased risk of BRD (OR: 1.3-1.5). Compared to animals that were seropositive for all four viruses at induction, animals were at progressively increased risk with increasing number of viruses for which they were seronegative; those seronegative for all four viruses were at greatest risk (OR: 2.4). Animals that seroincreased for one or more viruses from induction to second blood sampling were at increased risk (OR: 1.4-2.1) of BRD compared to animals that did not seroincrease for any viruses. Collectively these results confirm that prior exposure to these viruses is protective while exposure at or after feedlot entry increases the risk of development of BRD in feedlots. However, the modest increases in risk associated with seroincrease for each virus separately, and the progressive increases in risk with multiple viral exposures highlights

  12. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  13. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  14. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Hause

    Full Text Available Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2 and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1 was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4% were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations.

  15. Pathogenesis of primary foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A time-course pathogenesis study was performed to compare and contrast primary foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle following simulated-natural virus exposure. FMDV genome and infectious virus were detected during the initial phase of infection from b...

  16. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle in Kasese and Bushenyi Districts in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwiine, F. N.; Ayebazibwe, C.; Olaho-Mukani, W.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and serotype-specificity of the circulating antibodies against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) in cattle in K asese and Bushenyi districts in Uganda. A total of 309 serum samples were collected and tested for antibodies against...

  17. Infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intra-nasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated-natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. Antemortem infecti...

  18. The effect of genetic selection for Johne's disease resistance n dairy cattle: Results of a genetic-epidemiological model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Nielen, M.; Heuven, H.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to model genetic selection for Johne’s disease resistance and to study the effect of different selection strategies on the prevalence in the dairy cattle population. In the Netherlands, a certification-and-surveillance program is in use to reduce prevalence and presen

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the FMDV carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. Eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant FMDV A vac...

  20. Network analysis of Danish cattle industry trade patterns as an evaluation of risk potential for disease spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigras-Poulin, M.; Thompson, R.A.; Chriél, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    the transmission risks. A network of animal movements should provide information about pathogen transmission and disease spread. The network of the Danish cattle industry network was a directed scale-free graph (the direction of a movement was known), with an in-degree power of 2 an out-degree power of 1...... of heterogeneity. This heterogeneity in movements between farms should be used to evaluate the risk potential of disease transmission for each premise and must be considered when modelling disease spread between premises. The objective of this research was to describe the network of animal movements and not just......Trade patterns of animal movements in a specific industry are complex and difficult to study because there are many stakeholders, premises that are heterogeneously spread over the country, and a highly dynamic flow of animals exists among them. The Danish cattle industry was defined as a network...

  1. Rescue of foot-and-mouth disease viruses that are pathogenic for cattle from preserved viral RNA samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foot and mouth disease is an economically important disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep and pigs. It is caused by a picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which has a positive sense RNA genome which, when introduced into cells, can initiate virus...... replication. Principal Findings: A system has been developed to rescue infectious FMDV from RNA preparations generated from clinical samples obtained under experimental conditions and then applied to samples collected in the ‘‘field’’. Clinical samples from suspect cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were...

  2. Spatial Trend of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) Serotypes in Cattle and Buffaloes, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abubakar; Muhammad Javed Arshed; Qurban Ali; Manzoor Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the frequency of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) virus serotypes (O,A and Asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of Pakistan using Indirect Sandwich ELISA.Also,spatial distribution of various FMD serotypes and their comparison is discussed.A total of 590 samples (Epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009).Out of 590 samples,180 were found positive,giving an overall confirmation of FMDV about 33.2 %.Of the prevalent serotypes,FMDV ‘O’ serotype caused most outbreaks (20.7 %),followed by serotype A (6.6 %) and serotype Asia-1 (4.6 %) while there was no positive case of type ‘C’.The study clearly showed that the disease was more frequent in the agro-climatic zones than in hilly areas.Based on the data of 590 samples (>50 outbreaks),the overall prevalence of FMDV in cattle and buffaloes in Pakistan was 33.2 %,while in cattle alone,it was 37.1%,higher than in buffalo (28.7 %).There were eight cases of mixed serotypes infection,indicating the presence of endemic state of disease.Another significant feature was the change over time.In phase-I (2005-2007),there was an overall prevalence of 29.4 %,while the occurrence of the serotype O,A and Asia-1 was 20.4 %,2.9 % and 4.7 %,respectively.During phase-II (2008-2009),the overall prevalence was 59.21%,while those of serotype O,A and Asia-1 were 22.4 %,31.6 % and 4.0 %,respectively.This clearly indicated a shift from serotype O to A,which may help to explain the occurrence of more severe outbreaks,despite vaccination.

  3. Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloster John

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermal imagers have been used in a number of disciplines to record animal surface temperatures and as a result detect temperature distributions and abnormalities requiring a particular course of action. Some work, with animals infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus, has suggested that the technique might be used to identify animals in the early stages of disease. In this study, images of 19 healthy cattle have been taken over an extended period to determine hoof and especially coronary band temperatures (a common site for the development of FMD lesions and eye temperatures (as a surrogate for core body temperature and to examine how these vary with time and ambient conditions. Results The results showed that under UK conditions an animal's hoof temperature varied from 10°C to 36°C and was primarily influenced by the ambient temperature and the animal's activity immediately prior to measurement. Eye temperatures were not affected by ambient temperature and are a useful indicator of core body temperature. Conclusions Given the variation in temperature of the hooves of normal animals under various environmental conditions the use of a single threshold hoof temperature will be at best a modest predictive indicator of early FMD, even if ambient temperature is factored into the evaluation.

  4. Evidence-based effectiveness of vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni in feedlot cattle for mitigating the incidence and effect of bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R L; Step, D L

    2012-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. A number of vaccines against bacterial respiratory pathogens are commercially available and researchers have studied their impact on morbidity, mortality, and other disease outcome measures in feedlot cattle. A systematic review will provide veterinarians with a rigorous and transparent evaluation of the published literature to estimate the extent of vaccine effect. Unfortunately, the published body of evidence does not provide a consistent estimate of the direction and magnitude of effectiveness in feedlot cattle vaccination against Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, or Histophilus somni.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe: the VetPath study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anno; Thomas, Valérie; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; El Garch, Farid; Maher, Kirsty; Morrissey, Ian; Butty, Pascal; Klein, Ulrich; Marion, Hervé; Rigaut, Delphine; Vallé, Michel

    2014-08-06

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme collecting pathogens from diseased antimicrobial non-treated cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 1001 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 11 countries during 2002-2006. Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MICs of 16 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI recommendations. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. P. multocida (231) and M. haemolytica (138) isolates were all susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to florfenicol and spectinomycin was 0.4% and 3.5% in P. multocida, respectively, and absent in M. haemolytica isolates. Tetracycline resistance was 5.7% and 14.6% for P. multocida and M. haemolytica. In pigs, 230 P. multocida, 220 A. pleuropneumoniae and 182 S. suis isolates were recovered. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or cattle and pigs. Since for approximately half of the antibiotics in this panel no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available, setting of the missing veterinary breakpoints is important.

  6. Defining Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Mechanisms of Infection and Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract in Cattle 1

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines and anti-microbial peptides. Chemokines attract...

  7. Differential expression of genes encoding CD30L and P-selectin in cattle with Johne's disease: Progress toward a diagnostic gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Grell, S. N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis), the causative agent of paratuberculosis (paraTB) or Johne's disease in ruminants, is a health problem for the global cattle industry with significant economic losses related to decreased milk production and reduced...... fertility. Commonly paraTB in cattle is diagnosed by antibody detection by serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by detection of the pathogen by cultivation of individual faecal samples, or by in vitro measurement of cell mediated immune responses using the IFN-gamma test. There is an ongoing...... included cattle (Holstein) from two locations (Denmark and USA) for the microarray experiment. Our results indicate that expression profiles of at least 52 genes are different in leukocytes from M. paratuberculosis infected cattle compared to control cattle. Gene expression differences were verified...

  8. Evaluation of a Fiber-Modified Adenovirus Vector Vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Gisselle N; Montiel, Nestor; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Sturza, Diego; Ramirez-Medina, Elizabeth; Grubman, Marvin J; de los Santos, Teresa

    2015-11-25

    Novel vaccination approaches against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include the use of replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors that contain the capsid-encoding regions of FMD virus (FMDV). Ad5 containing serotype A24 capsid sequences (Ad5.A24) has proved to be effective as a vaccine against FMD in livestock species. However, Ad5-vectored FMDV serotype O1 Campos vaccine (Ad5.O1C.2B) provides only partial protection of cattle against homologous challenge. It has been reported that a fiber-modified Ad5 vector expressing Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) enhances transduction of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in mice. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of a fiber-modified Ad5 (Adt.O1C.2B.RGD) in cattle. Expression of FMDV capsid proteins was superior in cultured cells infected with the RGD-modified vector. Furthermore, transgene expression of Adt.O1C.2B.RGD was enhanced in cell lines that constitutively express integrin αvβ6, a known receptor for FMDV. In contrast, capsid expression in cattle-derived enriched APC populations was not enhanced by infection with this vector. Our data showed that vaccination with the two vectors yielded similar levels of protection against FMD in cattle. Although none of the vaccinated animals had detectable viremia, FMDV RNA was detected in serum samples from animals with clinical signs. Interestingly, CD4(+) and CD8(+) gamma interferon (IFN-γ)(+) cell responses were detected at significantly higher levels in animals vaccinated with Adt.O1C.2B.RGD than in animals vaccinated with Ad5.O1C.2B. Our results suggest that inclusion of an RGD motif in the fiber of Ad5-vectored FMD vaccine improves transgene delivery and cell-mediated immunity but does not significantly enhance vaccine performance in cattle.

  9. Survey of marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacteria isolated from cattle with respiratory disease and mastitis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, S; Galland, D; Guérin-Faublée, V; Giboin, H; Woehrlé-Fontaine, F

    2012-01-01

    A monitoring programme conducted in Europe since 1994 to survey the marbofloxacin susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from cattle has established the susceptibility of bacterial strains isolated before any antibiotic treatment from bovine mastitis and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases between 2002 and 2008. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by a standardised microdilution technique. For respiratory pathogens, Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica isolates (751 and 514 strains, respectively) were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (MIC≤0.03 µg/ml for 77.39 per cent of the strains) and only 1.75 per cent of M haemolytica strains were resistant (MIC≥4 µg/ml). Histophilus somni isolates (73 strains) were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (0.008 to 0.06 µg/ml). Mycoplasma bovis MIC (171 strains) ranged from 0.5 to 4 µg/ml. For mastitis pathogens, the majority of Escherichia coli isolates were highly susceptible to marbofloxacin (95.8 per cent of 617 strains). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (568 and 280 strains) had a homogenous population with MIC centred on 0.25 µg/ml. Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (660 and 217 strains) were moderately susceptible with MIC centred on 1 µg/ml. Marbofloxacin MIC for these various pathogens appeared stable over the seven years of the monitoring programme and was similar to previously published MIC results.

  10. The presence of disease-associated prion protein in skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Fukuda, Shigeo; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Fujii, Takashi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in the skeletal muscle of cattle infected with classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE). The study was carried out systematically in 12 different muscle samples from 43 (3 field and 40 experimental) cases of C-BSE; however, muscle spindles were not available in many of these cases. Therefore, analysis became restricted to a total of 31 muscles in 23 cattle. Even after this restriction, low levels of PrP(Sc) were detected in the muscle spindles of the masseter, intercostal, triceps brachii, psoas major, quadriceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles from 3 field and 6 experimental clinical-stage cases. The present data indicate that small amounts of PrP(Sc) are detectable by immunohistochemistry in the skeletal muscles of animals terminally affected with C-BSE.

  11. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime

    2016-02-01

    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  12. Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sechi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts. Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6% were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claimed by the manufacturer of the ELISA kit, the true prevalence in Umbria dairy cattle overall was calculated as 9.7% (99% CI, 7.0%, 12.4%.

  13. Structured literature review of responses of cattle to viral and bacterial pathogens causing bovine respiratory disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissett, G P; White, B J; Larson, R L

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is an economically important disease of cattle and continues to be an intensely studied topic. However, literature summarizing the time between pathogen exposure and clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion is minimal. A structured literature review of the published literature was performed to determine cattle responses (time from pathogen exposure to clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion) in challenge models using common BRD viral and bacterial pathogens. After review a descriptive analysis of published studies using common BRD pathogen challenge studies was performed. Inclusion criteria were single pathogen challenge studies with no treatment or vaccination evaluating outcomes of interest: clinical signs, shedding, and seroconversion. Pathogens of interest included: bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma bovis, Pastuerella multocida, and Histophilus somni. Thirty-five studies and 64 trials were included for analysis. The median days to the resolution of clinical signs after BVDV challenge was 15 and shedding was not detected on day 12 postchallenge. Resolution of BHV-1 shedding resolved on day 12 and clinical signs on day 12 postchallenge. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus ceased shedding on day 9 and median time to resolution of clinical signs was on day 12 postchallenge. M. haemolytica resolved clinical signs 8 days postchallenge. This literature review and descriptive analysis can serve as a resource to assist in designing challenge model studies and potentially aid in estimation of duration of clinical disease and shedding after natural pathogen exposure.

  14. An attempt to correlate cattle breed origins and diseases associated with or transmitted by the tick Amblyomma variegatum in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, J C; Kemp, S J; Naves, M; Palin, C; Demangel, C; Accipe, A; Maillard, N; Bensaid, A

    1993-01-01

    By using biological data and historical research, we have tried to explain the difference between resistance and susceptibility to the diseases transmitted (cowdriosis) or associated (dermatophilosis) with the tick Amblyomma variegatum, in two cattle breeds of the French West Indies: the Creole crossbred cattle of Guadeloupe and the Brahman zebu cattle of Martinique. Have been studied the polymorphisms of 5 independent genetic systems (erythrocytic haemoglobin, serum albumin and transferrin, the class I region of the BoLA complex and the gamma S crystallin gene) in different breeds comprising Bos taurus cattle of Europe and Africa, Bos indicus of West and East Africa, as well as the Brahman of Martinique and the Creole crossbred of Guadeloupe. By comparing the different allele frequencies of these 5 non related polymorphic loci and by using the two different mathematical matrices of NEI and of CAVALLI-SFORZA, have been established the genetic distances between these breeds. It appears clearly that the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe are in an intermediate position between the Bos taurus N'Dama breed of West Africa and two Bos indicus zebu breeds, namely the West African Sudan zebu and the Brahman. Thanks to studies of different archieves in the Caribbean and in Europe, historical evidence have been accumulated on the geographical origins and on the chronology of the establishment of Creole and Brahman cattle in the French West Indies. The high resistance of the Creole cattle of Guadeloupe to diseases associated with or transmitted by the "Senegalese" tick Amblyomma variegatum seems to be due to the inheritance of a pool of genes from West African cattle and more particularly from the N'Dama breed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Distribution of cow-calf producers' beliefs regarding gathering and holding their cattle and observing animal movement restrictions during an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Scott, H Morgan; Dean, Wesley; McIntosh, W Alex; Bush, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The voluntary cooperation of producers with disease control measures such as movement restrictions and gathering cattle for testing, vaccination, or depopulation is critical to the success of many disease control programs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Texas in order to determine the distribution of key beliefs about obeying movement restrictions and gathering and holding cattle for disease control purposes. Two questionnaires were developed and distributed to separate representative samples of Texas cow-calf producers, respectively. The context for each behavior was provided through the use of scenarios in the questionnaire. Belief strength was measured using a 7-point Likert-like scale. Producers surveyed were unsure about the possible negative consequences of gathering and holding their cattle when requested by authorities, suggesting a key need for communication in this area during an outbreak. Respondents identified a lack of manpower and/or financial resources to gather and hold cattle as barriers to their cooperation with orders to gather and hold cattle. Producers also expressed uncertainty about the efficacy of movement restrictions to prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease and concern about possible feed shortages or animal suffering. However, there are emotional benefits to complying with movement restrictions and strong social expectations of cooperation with any movement bans put in place.

  16. MAP1272c encodes an NlpC/P60 protein, an antigen detected in cattle with Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannantine, John P; Lingle, Cari K; Stabel, Judith R; Ramyar, Kasra X; Garcia, Brandon L; Raeber, Alex J; Schacher, Pascal; Kapur, Vivek; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2012-07-01

    The protein encoded by MAP1272c has been shown to be an antigen of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis that contains an NlpC/P60 superfamily domain found in lipoproteins or integral membrane proteins. Proteins containing this domain have diverse enzymatic functions that include peptidases, amidases, and acetyltransferases. The NlpC protein was examined in comparison to over 100 recombinant proteins and showed the strongest antigenicity when analyzed with sera from cattle with Johne's disease. To further localize the immunogenicity of NlpC, recombinant proteins representing defined regions were expressed and evaluated with sera from cattle with Johne's disease. The region from amino acids 74 to 279 was shown to be the most immunogenic. This fragment was also evaluated against a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two monoclonal antibodies were produced in mice immunized with the full-length protein, and each recognized a distinct epitope. These antibodies cross-reacted with proteins from other mycobacterial species and demonstrated variable sizes of the proteins expressed from these subspecies. Both antibodies were further analyzed, and their interaction with MAP1272c and MAP1204 was characterized by a solution-based, luminescent binding assay. These tools provide additional means to study a strong antigen of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

  17. Seroepidemiological study of Johne's-disease in dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Sechi; Paolo Paolotto; Cheryl M.E. McCrindle; Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2013-01-01

    A total of 788 serum samples from dairy cattle in Umbria, Italy, were tested for the presence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The sampled animals came from 19 herds representative of the central area of the Umbria county (Perugia and Assisi districts). Using the manufacturer suggested cut-off for a positive test, 44 animals (5.6%) were positive. Using the sensitivity and specificity claime...

  18. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of reproductive diseases in cattle and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyörälä, S; Taponen, J; Katila, T

    2014-09-01

    Use of antimicrobials for veterinary indications related to reproduction in cattle and horses is reviewed. Antimicrobial compounds are widely used to treat and prevent infections of reproductive organs. Total amounts of antimicrobials for such purposes, estimated by weight, are low compared with major uses in food animals. The most common reproduction-related indication in cattle is mastitis. The number of intramammary products available for treatment of mastitis in the European Union is high. Metritis and endometritis also require antimicrobial treatment of cattle and specific products for intrauterine administration are available. The traditions and practices associated with the use of these products vary considerably among different countries. Parenteral antimicrobial treatment is used to treat acute clinical mastitis and puerperal metritis. Pharmacological characteristics of the antimicrobial administered parenterally are critical to achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations in the target organs. In mares, the most common indications associated with reproduction are endometritis, retained placenta and placentitis. The number of authorized antimicrobial products for horses is limited. Horses are treated individually and off-label use of antimicrobials is very common. In veterinary indications related to reproduction, treatment practices exist that cannot be considered to be evidence-based or responsible use of antimicrobials. Not all products for local treatment have proven efficacy data. Examples of unnecessary uses are routine treatment of cows with retained placenta and use of post-breeding antibiotic treatments in mares.

  19. Temporal characterisation of the network of Danish cattle movements and its implication for disease control: 2000–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mweu, Marshal M.; Fournié, Guillaume; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis provides a valuable framework for understanding the dynamics of diseases on networks as well as a means for defining effective control measures. An understanding of the underlying contact pattern for a susceptible population is advisable before embarking on any strategy...... for disease control. The objective of this study was to characterise the network of Danish cattle movements over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 with a view to understanding: (1) cohesiveness of the network, (2) influential holdings and (3) structural vulnerability of the network.Network analyses of data......-world properties in March–April 2001 as well as in 24 other months during the period October 2006 to December 2009. The network was sparsely connected with markets being the key influential holdings. Its vulnerability to removal of markets suggests that targeting highly connected holdings during epidemics should...

  20. The effect of vaccination on undetected persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds and sheep flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, D; Paton, D J; Cox, S J; Parida, S; Gubbins, S

    2009-10-01

    The importance of carrier animals (those in whom virus persists after recovery from disease or acute infection) and their potential role in the spread of disease remain open questions within foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. Using simple probabilistic models we attempt to quantify the effect of emergency vaccination--and especially the time of application--on the likely number of such animals, using data from challenge experiments on both cattle and sheep to determine the probability of persistence in diseased and subclinically infected animals. We show that the number of persistently infected animals in a group is predominantly determined by the number of animals initially infected on premises--the high variability of which ultimately limits the accuracy of any predictions of carrier numbers based upon transmission models. Furthermore, results suggest that, within a cattle herd, carrier numbers may be increased if challenge occurs shortly after vaccination. We show that the quality of inspection is the principal factor influencing whether or not carrier herds occur and that, by reducing clinical signs, the application of vaccination in regularly checked stock also results in an increase in undetected persistently infected animals. Where clinical detection would be poor regardless of the use of vaccination (i.e. particularly in sheep), vaccination will result in a reduction in the probability of a group containing undetected carriers: otherwise there is a benefit only if vaccination is applied sufficiently far in advance of any challenge. The implications of the results for serosurveillance are discussed, including the requisite test sensitivity and practices for successful implementation.

  1. Intra-serotype SAT2 chimeric foot-and-mouth disease vaccine protects cattle against FMDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F; Nsamba, Peninah; Mutowembwa, Paidamwoyo; Rotherham, Lia S; Esterhuysen, Jan; Scott, Katherine

    2015-06-09

    The genetic diversity of the three Southern African Territories (SAT) types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) reflects high antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccines targeting each SAT-specific topotype may be needed. This has serious implications for control of FMD using vaccines as well as the choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. Here, we investigated an intra-serotype chimeric virus, vSAT2(ZIM14)-SAT2, which was engineered by replacing the surface-exposed capsid-coding region (1B-1D/2A) of a SAT2 genome-length clone, pSAT2, with that of the field isolate, SAT2/ZIM/14/90. The chimeric FMDV produced by this technique was viable, grew to high titres and stably maintained the 1B-1D/2A sequence upon passage. Chemically inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccines of both the chimeric and parental immunogens were used to vaccinate cattle. The serological response to vaccination showed the production of strong neutralizing antibody titres that correlated with protection against homologous FMDV challenge. We also predicted a good likelihood that cattle vaccinated with an intra-serotype chimeric vaccine would be protected against challenge with viruses that caused recent outbreaks in southern Africa. These results provide support that chimeric vaccines containing the external capsid of field isolates induce protective immune responses in FMD host species similar to the parental vaccine.

  2. Genomic signatures of Mannheimia haemolytica that associate with the lungs of cattle with respiratory disease, an integrative conjugative element, and antibiotic resistance genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system ...

  3. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Selimovic-Hamza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections.

  4. Frequency and Pathological Phenotype of Bovine Astrovirus CH13/NeuroS1 Infection in Neurologically-Diseased Cattle: Towards Assessment of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimovic-Hamza, Senija; Boujon, Céline L.; Hilbe, Monika; Oevermann, Anna; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven. Aiming at making a step forward towards assessing the causality, we collected brain samples of 97 cases of cattle diagnosed with unresolved non-suppurative encephalitis, and analyzed them by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, to determine the frequency and neuropathological distribution of the BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and its topographical correlation to the pathology. We detected BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 RNA or proteins in neurons throughout all parts of the central nervous system (CNS) in 34% of all cases, but none were detected in cattle of the control group. In general, brain lesions had a high correlation with the presence of the virus. These findings show that a substantial proportion of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis are infected with BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 and further substantiate the causal relationship between neurological disease and astrovirus infections. PMID:28106800

  5. The comparative utility of oral swabs and probang samples for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in cattle and pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Lohse, Louise; Belsham, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays in oralswab and probangsamples collected from cattle and pigs during experimental infections with serotype O FMDV. During acute infection, FMDV RNA was measurable in oralswabs as well...

  6. Characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Veronica; Bashiruddin, John B.; Belsham, Graham;

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine...

  7. Multiple efficacy studies of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A24 subunit vaccine in cattle using direct homologous challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The safety and efficacy of an experimental, replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A24 Cruzeiro capsid-based subunit vaccine (AdtA24) was examined in eight independent cattle studies. AdtA24 non-adjuvanted vaccine was administered intramuscularl...

  8. Persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the nasopharynx of cattle: tissue-specific distribution and local cytokine expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 st...

  9. Evaluation of the RapID NH system for identification of Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolated from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Salmon, S A; Watts, J L; Yancey, R J

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus somnus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae from cattle and pigs with respiratory disease were used to evaluate the RapID NH system (Innovative Diagnostics, Atlanta, Ga.). Minor modifications of the RapID NH system to include animal source and growth requirements would permit the identification of all isolates tested.

  10. Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN...

  11. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: Evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda’s cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab sampl...

  12. Use of Antimicrobial Metaphylaxis for the Control of Bovine Respiratory Disease in High-Risk Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Samuel E; Richeson, John T

    2015-11-01

    Despite research and increased availability of antimicrobials, the prevalence and challenges associated with BRD in stocker and feedlot operations remain. Preconditioned calves can better handle the transition from the origin ranch to the feedlot, yet there is incentive for buyers to purchase high-risk cattle at a reduced cost, and this is influenced by the proven efficacy and availability of antimicrobial metaphylaxis. The poor sensitivity of current BRD field diagnostic methods, typical pathogenesis of BRD, and labor issues are additional reasons to use metaphylaxis. Nevertheless, practitioners should consider comprehensive and novel approaches to judiciously guide decisions on metaphylactic use of antimicrobials.

  13. Use of Online Records for Detection of Diseases and Heat in Dairy Cattle Stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv

    2008-01-01

    In recent years management of cattle herds has become a much more automated process and machinery for measuring a number of biological entities online has been developed. Analysis of such online data can be helpful to the farmer in the management of the herd. This thesis is a contribution to the ongoing research in analysing online data. The focus here is on using state space models, which are a class of models suited for analysing time series. In the thesis the developed techniques are appli...

  14. Coexisting with wildlife in transfrontier conservation areas in Zimbabwe: cattle owners' awareness of disease risks and perceptions of the role played by wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; Miguel, E; Mukamuri, B; Garine-Wichatitsky, E; Wencelius, J; Pfukenyi, D M; Caron, A

    2013-05-01

    Diseases transmitted between wildlife and livestock may have significant impacts on local farmers' health, livestock health and productivity, overall national economies, and conservation initiatives, such as Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa. However, little is known on local farmers' awareness of the potential risks, and how they perceive the role played by wildlife in the epidemiology of these diseases. We investigated the knowledge base regarding livestock diseases of local cattle owners living at the periphery of conservation areas within the Great Limpopo TFCA and the Kavango-Zambezi TFCA in Zimbabwe, using free-listing and semi-structured questionnaires during dipping sessions. The results suggest that information related to cattle diseases circulates widely between cattle farmers, including between different socio-cultural groups, using English and vernacular languages. Most respondents had an accurate perception of the epidemiology of diseases affecting their livestock, and their perception of the potential role played by wildlife species was usually in agreement with current state of veterinary knowledge. However, we found significant variations in the cultural importance of livestock diseases between sites, and owners' perceptions were not directly related with the local abundance of wildlife. As the establishment of TFCAs will potentially increase the risk of Transboundary Animal Diseases, we recommend an increased participation of communities at a local level in the prioritisation of livestock diseases control and surveillance, including zoonoses.

  15. A Systematic Review of Bovine Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Focused on Diagnostic Confirmation, Early Detection, and Prediction of Unfavorable Outcomes in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Timsit, Edouard; White, Brad J; Orsel, Karin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of newly arrived feedlot cattle are affected with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Economic losses could be reduced by accurate, early detection. This review evaluates the available literature regarding BRD confirmatory diagnostic tests, early detection methods, and modalities to estimate post-therapeutic prognosis or predict unfavorable or fatal outcomes. Scientific evidence promotes the use of haptoglobin to confirm BRD status. Feeding behavior, infrared thermography, and reticulorumen boluses are promising methods. Retrospective analyses of routinely collected treatment and cohort data can be used to identify cattle at risk of unfavorable outcome. Other methods have been reviewed but require further study.

  16. G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptor Gene in Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolates from Cattle and Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tholoth, M; El-Kenawy, A A

    2016-12-01

    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheep poxvirus (SPV) and goat poxvirus (GPV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of LSDV isolates from cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt during the summer of 2011. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the water buffalo LSDV isolate differed from the cattle isolate at four nucleotide positions, and both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations from the reference strain, Egyptian tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain. Compared with the GPCR sequences of SPV and GPV strains, a 21 nucleotide insertion and a 12 nucleotide deletion were identified in the GPCR genes of our used isolates and other LSDVs. The amino acid sequences of GPCR genes of our isolates contained the unique signature of LSDV (A11 , T12 , T34 , S99 and P199 ). Phylogenetic analyses showed that the GPCR genes of cattle and water buffalo LSDVs were closest genetically, indicating a potential transmission of cattle LSDV to water buffalo.

  17. Clinical efficacy of meloxicam (Metacam) and flunixin (Finadyne) as adjuncts to antibacterial treatment of respiratory disease in fattening cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friton, Gabriele M; Cajal, Carlos; Ramirez Romero, Rafael; Kleemann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), meloxicam (Metacam 20 mg/ml) and flunixin meglumine (Finadyne), as adjuncts to antibacterial therapy in the treatment of acute febrile respiratory disease in cattle was compared. The randomised blind, positive controlled study was conducted under feedlot conditions in Mexico. Overall, 201 female cattle (weighing 220-250 kg) diagnosed with bronchopneumonia at the feedlot were recruited into the study. On Day 0 all animals were treated with 20 mg oxytetracycline/kg body-weight (Bivatop 200) by subcutaneous injection, in conjunction with either meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously, Metacam 20 mg/ml, n = 100), or flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg intravenously, Finadyne, n = 101). According to label instructions, meloxicam was administered as a single dose, whereas flunixin meglumine could be administered daily for up to 3 consecutive days depending on the rectal temperature (with re-administration, if rectal temperature > or = 40.0 degrees C). Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, appetite, dyspnoea, coughing, nasal discharge and general condition were recorded on Days 0 (prior to treatment), 1, 2, 3 and 7 using a weighted numerical score. Scores were summed to generate a 'Clinical Sum Score' (CSS, range 7 to 24 points). Individual animal body weights were measured on Days 0 and 7. Nasal swabs were collected from 10 animals per treatment group on Day 0 for microbiological culture. Clinical parameters and the mean CSS showed no significant differences between treatment groups with mean CSS on Days 0 and 7 of 16.18 and 10.55 in the meloxicam group and 16.41 and 10.88 in the flunixin meglumine group. However, a significantly lower mean rectal temperature was measured in the meloxicam group on Day 2 (p flunixin meglumine was performed in 45% of the animals. No suspected adverse drug events related to treatments were reported. It is concluded that a single subcutaneous dose of meloxicam was as

  18. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Associated Abortion and Vertical Transmission following Acute Infection in Cattle under Natural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra K.; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Singh, Karam Pal; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic and wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. The current study was an opportunistic investigation of these naturally occurring bovine abortions to assess causality of abortion and vertical transmission of FMDV from infected cows to fetuses. For this purpose, fetal tissue samples of eight abortuses (heart, liver, kidney, spleen, palatine tonsil, umbilical cord, soft palate, tongue, lungs, and submandibular lymph node) were collected and screened by various detection methods, including viral genome detection, virus isolation, and immunomicroscopy. Amongst these cases, gross pathological changes were observed in 3 abortuses. Gross pathological findings included blood-tinged peritoneal and pleural effusions and myocarditis. Hearts of infected calves had mild to moderate degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium with moderate infiltration by mixed inflammatory cells. Localization of FMDV antigen was demonstrated in lungs and soft palate by immunomicroscopy. FMDV serotype O viral genome was recovered from 7 of 8 cases. Infectious FMDV serotype O was rescued by chemical transfection of the total RNA extracted from three soft palate samples and was sequenced to confirm 100% identity of the VP1 (capsid) coding region with isolates collected from infected cattle during the acute phase of infection. Based upon these findings, it may be concluded that FMDV-associated abortion occurred among the infected pregnant cows included within this study and FMDV was subsequently transmitted vertically to fetuses. This is the first documentation of FMDV-associated abortions in cattle. PMID:27977708

  19. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.

  20. Limited amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in the peripheral tissues of intracerebrally inoculated cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, classified as a prion disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) similar to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Cervids affected by CWD accumulate an abnormal protease resistant prion protein throughout the central...

  1. Cattle with increased severity of bovine respiratory disease complex exhibit decreased capacity to protect against histone cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, J A; Wilson, B K; Hernandez Gifford, J A; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R; Gifford, C A

    2015-04-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in feedlot cattle. Significant inflammation and lesions are often observed in lungs of infected cattle. During acute inflammatory responses, histones contribute to mortality in rodents and humans and serum proteins can protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity. We hypothesized that cattle experiencing chronic or fatal cases of BRDC have reduced ability to protect against cytotoxic effects of histones. Serum samples were collected from 66 bull calves at the time of normal feedlot processing procedures. Animals were retrospectively assigned to groups consisting of calves never treated for BRDC (control [CONT]; n = 10), calves treated with antimicrobials once for BRDC (1T; n = 16), calves treated twice for BRDC (2T; n = 13), calves treated 3 times for BRDC (3T; n = 14), or calves treated 4 times for BRDC (4T; n = 13). Samples were also collected each time animals received antimicrobial treatment; animals within a group were further sorted by calves that recovered and calves that died to test histone cytotoxicity. Bovine kidney cells were cultured in duplicate in 96-well plates and exposed to 0 or 50 μg/mL of total histones for 18 h with 1% serum from each animal. Cell viability was assessed by the addition of resazurin for 6 h followed by fluorescent quantification. Fluorescent values from serum alone were subtracted from values obtained for histone treatment for each animal. Serum from CONT, 1T, and 2T at initial processing all exhibited a similar (P > 0.10) response to histone treatment with fluorescent values of -312 ± 557, -1,059 ± 441, and -975 ± 489, respectively. However, 3T and 4T demonstrated an impaired capacity (P < 0.05) to protect against histones (-2,778 ± 471 and -3,026 ± 489) at initial processing when compared to the other groups. When sorted by mortality within group, calves that were treated twice and recovered (-847 ± 331) demonstrated a greater (P

  2. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  3. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on weight gain, immune competence, and disease incidence in barley-fed beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, B; Hakkarainen, J; Törnquist, M; Edfors, K; Fossum, C

    1991-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether vitamin E supplements in larger amounts than recommended could reduce incidence of disease, improve immune competence, and increase rate of weight gain of conventionally barley-fed beef cattle. Mean daily intake of vitamin E by individual calves in the experimental group was 200 mg during the first 2 mo, 400 mg during the next 2 mo, and 600 mg during the rest of the period. Corresponding daily intakes of vitamin E for the control group were 50, 100, and 150 mg. Mean plasma vitamin E of the experimental group increased from .49 mg/L at the start of the trial to 2.03 mg/L at the end, but that of the control group was lower at the end (.36 mg/L) than at the beginning (.53 mg/L). No significant differences were observed between the groups concerning incidence of disease or magnitude of lymphocyte stimulation. The results indicated that there was a surprisingly poor biological availability of the dietary vitamin. Therefore, a comparison in reality was made between calves with inadequate and normal vitamin E status. The differences in daily BW gain and time to reach slaughter weight thus probably were effects of the low vitamin E status rather than positive effects of additional vitamin in the diet.

  4. Prevention of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle using a prime-boot-vaccination strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Lohse, Louise; Bøtner, Anette

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. Vaccination can help to control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. They are made using chemically inactivated FMD virus (FMDV) that is produced in mammalian...... disease and no FMDV RNA was detected in their sera. Initial inoculation with empty capsids followed by the rSFV-FMDV was much less effective at combating the FMDV challenge and a large post-challenge boost to the level of anti-FMDV antibodies was observed and clinical disease occurred. This prime...

  5. Changes in interleukin-6 concentration in peripheral blood of pre- and post-partum dairy cattle and its relationship to postpartum reproductive diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yukikazu; Nakada, Ken; Hagiwara, Katsuro; Kirisawa, Rikio; Iwai, Hiroshi; Moriyoshi, Masaharu; Sawamukai, Yutaka

    2004-11-01

    Reproductive diseases after parturition are a serious problem in dairy cattle. It is important to predict postpartum reproductive diseases early and to develop prophylaxis. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate changes in the peripheral blood concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) before parturition, which was mainly produced by T helper 2 type (Th2) cells, and to investigate a correlation between the IL-6 concentration and the occurrence of the postpartum retained placenta, endometritis and/or follicular cyst in dairy cattle. Twenty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows were used for this study. Thirteen had no clinical disease, 8 had retained placenta, 4 were diagnosed with endometritis by vaginal inspection, and 2 were diagnosed with follicular cyst by rectal palpation at 1 and 2 months after parturition. Blood samples were collected 60 days pre- and post-partum. They used for IL-6, progesterone (P(4)) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) concentration determination. This study showed that the IL-6 concentration prepartum was higher than postpartum. Low levels of IL-6 and P(4) in peripheral blood prepartum tended to affect retained placenta and a high level of IL-6 prepartum tended to affect endometritis. These results indicate that measurement of change in the IL-6 concentration during pregnancy is one useful tool for predicting crisis in postpartum reproductive diseases in dairy cattle.

  6. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  7. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-02-15

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  8. Brucella abortus surveillance of cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and a case for active disease surveillance as a training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukana, Andrew; Hedlefs, Robert; Gummow, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    There have been no surveys of the cattle population for brucellosis in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs) for more than 15 years. This study used disease surveillance as a capacity building training tool and to examine some of the constraints that impede surveillance in PICTs. The study also developed and implemented a series of surveys for detecting antibodies to B. abortus in cattle in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands contributing to OIE requirements. The findings indicated lack of funds, lack of technical capacity, shortage of veterinarians, high turnover of in-country officials and lack of awareness on the impacts of animal diseases on public health that were constraining active disease surveillance. During the development and implementation of the surveys, constraints highlighted were outdated census data on farm numbers and cattle population, lack of funds for mobilisation of officials to carry out the surveys, lack of equipment for collecting and processing samples, lack of staff knowledge on blood sampling, geographical difficulties and security in accessing farms. Some of the reasons why these were constraints are discussed with likely solutions presented. The detection surveys had the objectives of building capacity for the country officials and demonstrating freedom from brucellosis in cattle for PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. PNG, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands all demonstrated freedom from bovine brucellosis in the areas surveyed using the indirect ELISA test. Fiji had an outbreak of brucellosis, and the objective was to determine its distribution and prevalence on untested farms. The Muaniweni district surveyed during the training had a 95 % confidence interval for true prevalence between 1.66 and 5.45 %. The study showed that active disease surveillance could be used as a tool for training officials thus, improves surveillance capacity in resource poor countries.

  9. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Cattle Using Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...

  10. Effect of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection on the Frequency, Phenotype and Function of Circulating Dendritic Cells in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Janet J; Waters, Ryan A; Kenney, Mary; Barlow, John W; Golde, William T

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. Therefore, investigating their role during FMDV infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. In this study, following infection of cattle with FMDV, we investigated the frequency and function of conventional (cDC) and plasmacytoid DC (pDC) in blood by using multi-color flow cytometry. We show that the frequency of cDC and pDC increased following FMDV infection and peaked 3 to 4 days post-infection. During peak viremia, the cattle became lymphopenic, the expression of MHC class II molecules on cDC and pDC was dramatically down-regulated, the processing of exogenous antigen by cDC and pDC was impaired, and there was an increase in IL-10 production by DC and monocytes. Notably, after clearance of FMDV from the blood, MHC class II expression returned to pre-infection levels. Altogether, our study demonstrates that in cattle, FMDV inhibits the function of DC, thereby retarding the initiation of adaptive immune responses, potentially enhancing virus shedding during the acute phase of infection.

  11. Neuroanatomical distribution of disease-associated prion protein in experimental bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle after intracerebral inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shigeo; Onoe, Sadao; Nikaido, Satoshi; Fujii, Kei; Kageyama, Soichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Matsuura, Yuichi; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Kasai, Kazuo; Yoshioka, Miyako; Murayama, Yuichi; Mohri, Shirou; Yokoyama, Takashi; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The pathologic disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) has been shown to be expressed in the central nervous system of Holstein cattle inoculated intracerebrally with 3 sources of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) isolates. Several regions of the brain and spinal cord were analyzed for PrP(Sc) expression by immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. Animals euthanized at 10 months post-inoculation (mpi) showed PrP(Sc) deposits in the brainstem and thalamus, but no vacuolation; this suggested that the BSE agent might exhibit area-dependent tropism in the brain. At 16 and 18 mpi, a small amount of vacuolation was detected in the brainstem and thalamus, but not in the cerebral cortices. At 20 to 24 mpi, when clinical symptoms were apparent, heavy PrP(Sc) deposits were evident throughout the brain and spinal cord. The mean time to the appearance of clinical symptoms was 19.7 mpi, and the mean survival time was 22.7 mpi. These findings show that PrP(Sc) accumulation was detected approximately 10 months before the clinical symptoms of BSE became apparent. In addition, the 3 sources of BSE prion induced no detectable differences in the clinical signs, incubation periods, neuroanatomical location of vacuoles, or distribution and pattern of PrP(Sc) depositions in the brain.

  12. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  13. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Durand, Benoît; Gay, Emilie; Ducrot, Christian; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Hénaux, Viviane

    2015-01-01

    We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle) according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity) whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value). The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  14. Simulation-Based Evaluation of the Performances of an Algorithm for Detecting Abnormal Disease-Related Features in Cattle Mortality Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Perrin

    Full Text Available We performed a simulation study to evaluate the performances of an anomaly detection algorithm considered in the frame of an automated surveillance system of cattle mortality. The method consisted in a combination of temporal regression and spatial cluster detection which allows identifying, for a given week, clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths in comparison with their own historical fluctuations. First, we simulated 1,000 outbreaks of a disease causing extra deaths in the French cattle population (about 200,000 herds and 20 million cattle according to a model mimicking the spreading patterns of an infectious disease and injected these disease-related extra deaths in an authentic mortality dataset, spanning from January 2005 to January 2010. Second, we applied our algorithm on each of the 1,000 semi-synthetic datasets to identify clusters of spatial units showing an excess of deaths considering their own historical fluctuations. Third, we verified if the clusters identified by the algorithm did contain simulated extra deaths in order to evaluate the ability of the algorithm to identify unusual mortality clusters caused by an outbreak. Among the 1,000 simulations, the median duration of simulated outbreaks was 8 weeks, with a median number of 5,627 simulated deaths and 441 infected herds. Within the 12-week trial period, 73% of the simulated outbreaks were detected, with a median timeliness of 1 week, and a mean of 1.4 weeks. The proportion of outbreak weeks flagged by an alarm was 61% (i.e. sensitivity whereas one in three alarms was a true alarm (i.e. positive predictive value. The performances of the detection algorithm were evaluated for alternative combination of epidemiologic parameters. The results of our study confirmed that in certain conditions automated algorithms could help identifying abnormal cattle mortality increases possibly related to unidentified health events.

  15. Inferring biomarkers for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection and disease progression in cattle using experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombedze, Gesham; Shiri, Tinevimbo; Eda, Shigetoshi; Stabel, Judy R.

    2017-03-01

    Available diagnostic assays for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) have poor sensitivities and cannot detect early stages of infection, therefore, there is need to find new diagnostic markers for early infection detection and disease stages. We analyzed longitudinal IFN-γ, ELISA-antibody and fecal shedding experimental sensitivity scores for MAP infection detection and disease progression. We used both statistical methods and dynamic mathematical models to (i) evaluate the empirical assays (ii) infer and explain biological mechanisms that affect the time evolution of the biomarkers, and (iii) predict disease stages of 57 animals that were naturally infected with MAP. This analysis confirms that the fecal test is the best marker for disease progression and illustrates that Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/ELISA antibodies) assays are important for infection detection, but cannot reliably predict persistent infections. Our results show that the theoretical simulated macrophage-based assay is a potential good diagnostic marker for MAP persistent infections and predictor of disease specific stages. We therefore recommend specifically designed experiments to test the use of a based assay in the diagnosis of MAP infections.

  16. The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S.M. Tuppurainen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Lumpy skin disease (LSD is a disease of cattle, primarily in Africa and Madagascar and rarely in the Middle East. It is caused by a capripoxvirus that belongs to the family Poxviridae. The disease is of economic importance in endemic areas. Effective control of LSD requires accurate and rapid laboratory techniques to confirm a tentative clinical diagnosis. Comparative studies on different diagnostic tests used at different stages of the disease have not been done. The aim of this study was to compare several of these tests. Six seronegative bulls, between 11 and 20 months of age, were infected intravenously and kept in an insect-free facility. The course of the infection was monitored. During a 3-month period blood samples and skin biopsies were collected for virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Skin biopsies were also examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The incubation period in infected animals varied from 4-5 days. The length of the viraemic period did not correlate with the severity of clinical disease. Viraemia was detected from 1-12 days using virus isolation and from 4-11 days using the PCR, which is longer than has previously been reported. Virus was isolated from skin biopsies until Day 39 post infection (p.i. and PCR could demonstrate viral DNA until Day 92 p.i. Transmission electron microscopy of negatively stained skin biopsies detected LSD virus only in one of the four bulls that developed skin lesions until Day 33 p.i. The PCR was a fast and sensitive method to demonstrate viral DNA in blood and skin samples. It could detect viral nucleic acid in skin lesions 53 days longer than virus isolation. Virus isolation from blood and skin samples was sensitive and reliable, but as a single test it may be too time-consuming to use although this depends on how rapidly the diagnosis must be confirmed. In conclusion, this study showed the PCR to be superior in detecting LSD virus from blood and skin samples

  17. Coexistence of two forms of disease-associated prion protein in extracerebral tissues of cattle infected with H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (H-BSE) is an atypical form of BSE in aged cattle. H-BSE is characterized by the presence of two proteinase K-resistant forms of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)), identified as PrP(Sc) #1 and PrP(Sc) #2, in the brain. To investigate the coexistence of different PrP(Sc) forms in the extracerebral tissues of cattle experimentally infected with H-BSE, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses were performed by using N-terminal-, core-region- and C-terminal-specific anti-prion protein antibodies. Our results demonstrated that two distinct forms of PrP(Sc) coexisted in the various extracerebral tissues.

  18. Validation of Nordic dairy cattle disease recording databases – completeness for locomotor disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Ann-Kristina; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic countries Denmark (DK), Finland (FIN), Norway (NO) and Sweden (SE) all have unique national databases holding the disease records of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare completeness for locomotor disorders in the four Nordic national databases. Completen...

  19. Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral infection of significant financial importance to the export and trade of agricultural products. The occurrence of persistently infected ‘‘carriers’’ of FMD-virus (FMDV) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control....... There have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. In this study, collection of small biopsy samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of live animals...

  20. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  1. A survey of zoonotic diseases in trade cattle slaughtered at Tanga city abattoir:a cause of public health concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swai ES; Schoonman L

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis, cysticercosis, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, brucellosis and toxoplasmosis in slaughtered bovine stock (aged ≥3 years) at Tanga city abattoir, Tanzania. Methods: Prevalence estimation of the five zoonotic diseases was undertaken through an active abattoir and sero-survey was carried out in Tanga city, during the period of January 2002 and March 2004. Serum samples collected from a sub-sample (n=51) of the slaughter stock were serologically screened for antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis using Rose Bengal plate test, microscopic agglutination test (for 5 serovars of Leptospira interrogans) and Eiken latex agglutination test, respectively. The same animals were tested for tuberculosis using the single intradermal tuberculin test. Results: Post mortem examination of 12 444 slaughter cattle (10 790 short horn zebu and 1 654 graded) over a period of twenty two months, showed a prevalence of 1.56% (194) for hydatidosis, 1.49% (185) for cysticercosis and 0.32% (40) for tuberculosis. In all three zoonoses, a statistically significant difference in infection rates was noted between the short horn zebu and graded breeds (P<0.05). The overall seroprevalences of animals with brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis antibodies were found to be 12%, 12% and 51%, respectively. The most common leptospiral antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars Leptospirahardjo (29%), Leptospira tarassovi (18%), Leptospira bataviae (4%) and Leptospira pomona (0%). With regard to tuberculosis, 10% (n=5) of the animals tested were classified as non-specific reactors or inconclusive. Conclusions: The study findings suggest that brucellosis, toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis are prevalent in Tanga and provide definitive evidence of slaughtered stock exposure to these zoonotic agents with concurrent public health consequences.

  2. Comparison of tulathromycin and tilmicosin on the prevalence and severity of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in association with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, T C; Ives, S E; Harper, L B; Renter, D G; Lawrence, T E

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify effects of metaphylactic treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and lung lesion prevalence and severity; 2) evaluate the association of lung lesion prevalence and severity with carcass characteristics; and 3) evaluate effects of therapeutic treatment on carcass characteristics and lung lesion prevalence and severity. The study was conducted at a commercial feedlot in the Texas Panhandle in which steers (n = 2,336) initially weighing 312.1 ± 9.6 kg were sourced from auction markets and allocated in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 treatments (no metaphylactic [no antimicrobial drug {ND}] treatment, tilmicosin at 10 mg/kg BW [TIL], and tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg BW [TUL]). Lungs of all steers were evaluated during harvest to assess presence and severity of pneumonic lesions in the anteroventral lobes and the presence and severity of pleural adherences. Compared to the ND treatment, steers treated via metaphylactic therapy had greater (P cattle, cumulatively resulting in greater financial returns. Lung lesions were present in 64.3% of lungs and were distributed similarly between metaphylactic treatments (63.9%) and ND (65.1%) cattle. Steers with advanced lung lesions present at harvest were associated with reduced (P cattle improved financial returns primarily driven by reductions in cost of death loss and railers.

  3. Immune response in cattle inoculated with the recombinant complete polyprotein of foot-and-mouth disease virus from Bombyx mori larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The intact open reading frame (ORF) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) Asia I/XJ strain was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted into the transfer vector pVL1393 to generate plasmid pVL-ORF. Bm-N cells were transfected with pVL-ORF and linearized Bm-BacPAK6 DNA, and the recombinant silkworm baculovirus Bm-ORF containing the full ORF of FMDV was obtained. The results of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that Bm-ORF could be expressed efficiently in Bm-N cell. After inoculating the early 5th instar larvae of silkworm, the polyprotein of FMDV could be detected by sandwich ELISA and empty capsid-like particles could be observed under the electron microscope. Expression products from silkworm were used as the antigen to immunize the cattle. The specific antibody was induced in all vaccinated animals. The immunized cattle were challenged with the virulent FMDV Asia I/XJ strain, two of the four cattle were completely protected and clinical symptoms were alleviated and delayed in the others. The results suggest that this strategy might be used to develop the new subunit FMDV vaccine.

  4. Detection of disease-associated prion protein in the optic nerve and the adrenal gland of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using highly sensitive immunolabeling procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive immunohistochemical procedure, the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) system, was applied to detect the localization of immunolabeled disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in cattle affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). In this procedure, immunolabeling could be visualized in the optic nerve and the adrenal medulla. In the optic nerve, the dual immunofluorescent technique showed that the granular PrP(Sc) was occasionally detected in the astrocytes, microglia, and myelin sheath adjacent to the axon. Clustered PrP(Sc) was also scattered in association with microglial cells and astrocytes of the optic nerve. In the adrenal gland, PrP(Sc) immunolabeling was confined within the sympathetic nerve fibers and endings. The results suggest that (1) PrP(Sc) might centrifugally spread within and between glial cells and/or the non-axonal (also known as ad-axonal) region of nerve fibers, rather than the axonal and/or extracellular space pathway in the optic nerve, and (2) the sympathetic innervations might be important for the trafficking of BSE agent in the adrenal glands of cattle. This study also suggests that tyramide-based immunochemical analysis should be performed to detect immunolabeled PrP(Sc) in the extracerebral tissues of BSE-affected cattle.

  5. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.;

    1996-01-01

    Crossbred dairy heifers on a farm in an East Coast fever (ECF) endemic area in Malawi were immunised against Theileria parva, Anaplasma spp., Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Cowdria ruminantium. They were treated at infrequent intervals with chlorfenvinphos to limit infestation with adult ticks......, without providing complete tick control. In one trial, which tested a threshold dipping regimen, 20 heifers were dipped only once in 6 months to control a flush of Boophilus microplus. Unimmunised controls showed serological evidence of exposure to T. parva and B. bigemina, and one died of ECF......, but there were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically...

  6. Monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility of respiratory tract pathogens isolated from diseased cattle and pigs across Europe, 2009-2012: VetPath results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Garch, Farid; de Jong, Anno; Simjee, Shabbir; Moyaert, Hilde; Klein, Ulrich; Ludwig, Carolin; Marion, Hervé; Haag-Diergarten, Silke; Richard-Mazet, Alexandra; Thomas, Valérie; Siegwart, Ed

    2016-10-15

    VetPath is an ongoing pan-European antibiotic susceptibility monitoring programme that collects pathogens from diseased cattle, pigs and poultry. In the current study, 996 isolates from cattle and pig respiratory tract infections were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Non-replicate lung samples or nasopharyngeal/nasal swabs were collected from animals with acute clinical signs in 10 countries during 2009-2012. Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni from cattle and P. multocida, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Streptococcus suis from pigs were isolated by standard methods. S. suis was also isolated from meningitis cases. MIC values of 16 or 17 antibiotics were assessed centrally by broth microdilution following CLSI standards. Results were interpreted using CLSI breakpoints where available. Cattle isolates were generally highly susceptible to most antibiotics, except to tetracycline (3.0-12.0% resistance). Low levels of resistance (0-4.0%) were observed for the macrolide antibiotics. Resistance to spectinomycin varied from 0 to 6.0%. In pig isolates similar observations were made. Resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, tulathromycin, tiamulin and tilmicosin was absent or <2%. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance varied from 1.9 to 5.3%, but tetracycline resistance varied from 20.4% in P. multocida to 88.1% in S. suis. For most antibiotics and pathogens the percentage resistance remained unchanged or only increased numerically as compared to that of the period 2002-2006. In conclusion, absence or low resistance to antibiotics with defined clinical breakpoints, except for tetracycline, was observed among the major respiratory tract pathogens recovered from livestock. Comparison of all antibiotics and organisms was hampered since for almost half of the antibiotics no CLSI-defined breakpoints were available.

  7. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marnie L; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N; O'Connor, Heather M

    2016-10-11

    Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if disease was diagnosed on the farm already, or was occurring on other farms. Farmers described undertaking a form of personal risk assessment when deciding if practices were worth doing, which did not always involve building in disease specific factors or opinions from veterinarians or other advisors. These results indicate that further guidance about the intricacies of control and prevention principles in relation to specific animal diseases may be required, with an obvious role for veterinarians. There appears to be an opportunity for farm advisors and herd health professionals to further understand farmer beliefs behind certain attitudes and target communication and advice accordingly to further enhance dairy cattle health and welfare.

  8. The bovine model for elucidating the role of γδ T cells in controlling infectious diseases of importance to cattle and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia L; Telfer, Janice C

    2015-07-01

    There are several instances of co-investigation and related discoveries and achievements in bovine and human immunology; perhaps most interesting is the development of the BCG vaccine, the tuberculin skin test and the more recent interferon-gamma test that were developed first in cattle to prevent and diagnosis bovine tuberculosis and then applied to humans. There are also a number of immune-physiological traits that ruminant share with humans including the development of their immune systems in utero which increases the utility of cattle as a model for human immunology. These are reviewed here with a particular focus on the use of cattle to unravel γδ T cell biology. Based on the sheer number of γδ T cells in this γδ T cell high species, it is reasonable to expect γδ T cells to play an important role in protective immune responses. For that reason alone cattle may provide good models for elucidating at least some of the roles γδ T cells play in protective immunity in all species. This includes fundamental research on γδ T cells as well as the responses of ruminant γδ T cells to a variety of infectious disease situations including to protozoan and bacterial pathogens. The role that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) play in the activation of γδ T cells may be unique relative to αβ T cells. Here we focus on that of the γδ T cell specific family of molecules known as WC1 or T19 in ruminants, which are part of the CD163 scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) family that includes SCART1 and SCART2 expressed on murine γδ T cells. We review the evidence for WC1 being a PRR as well as an activating co-receptor and the role that γδ T cells bearing these receptors play in immunity to leptospirosis and tuberculosis. This includes the generation of memory responses to vaccines, thereby continuing the tradition of co-discovery between cattle and humans.

  9. Simultaneous immunization of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and live anthrax vaccines do not interfere with FMD booster responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrian Trotta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous application of a Bacillus anthracis live vaccine with a commercial tetravalent oil-based FMD vaccine (FMD-vac used in Argentina, modifies the antibody booster responses against FMD virus (FMDV in cattle. Two groups of 16 heifers with comparable liquid phase blocking ELISA (LPBE titers were immunized with the FMD-vac alone or simultaneously with a commercial attenuated bovine anthrax Sterne strain vaccine (ABV. Serum samples were obtained at 0, 25, 60 and 90 days post vaccination (dpv and specific antibodies against two FMDV vaccine strains were assessed by LPBE, avidity and IgG-isotype ELISAs. Bovines immunized with FMD-vac or FMDV-V + ABV responded with a boost in the LPBE antibody titers and avidity at 25 dpv, and remained within similar levels up to the end of the study. Animals vaccinated with FMD-vac + ABV had significantly higher LPBE titers at 25 dpv, compared to those immunized with FMD-vac alone; which was due to an increase in IgG2 titers. Overall, antibody titers elicited in both groups were similar and followed comparable kinetics over time. We conclude that the simultaneous application of a live anthrax vaccine with the current FMD tetravalent vaccine used in Argentina in cattle previously immunized against FMD, did not counteract the serological response induced by FMD vaccination.

  10. Using participatory epidemiology to investigate management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases amongst transhumant zebu cattle in Karamoja Region, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byaruhanga, C; Oosthuizen, M C; Collins, N E; Knobel, D

    2015-12-01

    A participatory epidemiological (PE) study was conducted with livestock keepers in Moroto and Kotido districts, Karamoja Region, Uganda, between October and December 2013 to determine the management options and relative importance of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) amongst transhumant zebu cattle. Data collection involved 24 focus group discussions (each comprising 8-12 people) in 24 settlement areas (manyattas), key informant interviews (30), direct observation, a review of surveillance data, clinical examination, and laboratory confirmation of cases of TBDs. Methods used in group discussions included semi-structured interviews, simple ranking, pairwise ranking, matrix scoring, proportional piling and participatory mapping. The results of pairwise comparison showed the Ngakarimojong-named diseases, lokit (East Coast fever, ECF), lopid (anaplasmosis), loukoi (contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, CBPP), lokou (heartwater) and lokulam (babesiosis), were considered the most important cattle diseases in Moroto in that order, while ECF, anaplasmosis, trypanosomosis (ediit), CBPP and nonspecific diarrhoea (loleo) were most important in Kotido. Strong agreement between informant groups (Kendall's coefficient of concordance W=0.568 and 0.682; panimals that suffered from ECF, anaplasmosis, heartwater and babesiosis died, as the respective median scores for case fatality rates (CFR) were 89.5% (42, 100), 82.8% (63, 100), 66.7% (20, 100) and 85.7% (0, 100). In Kotido, diseases with high incidence scores were ECF (21% [6,32]), anaplasmosis (17% [10,33]) and trypanosomosis (8% [2,18]). The CFRs for ECF and anaplasmosis were 81.7% (44, 100) and 70.7% (48, 100), respectively. Matrix scoring revealed that disease indicators showed strong agreement (W=0.382-0.659, pimportant diseases in this pastoral region. Results from this study may assist in the design of feasible control strategies.

  11. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenfeldt Carolina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through measurements of the concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs serum amyloid A (SAA and haptoglobin (HP, as well as the bioactivity of type 1 interferon (IFN in serum of infected animals. Results were based on measurements from a total of 36 infected animals of which 24 were kept for observational periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals. There was a significant increase in serum concentrations of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD. There was a statistically significant difference in the HP response between carriers and non-carriers with a lower response in the animals that subsequently developed into FMDV carriers. It was concluded that the induction of SAA, HP and type 1 IFN in serum can be used as markers of acute infection by FMDV in cattle.

  12. Risk factors for bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle: use of a causal diagram-informed approach to estimate effects of animal mixing and movements before feedlot entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Barnes, T S; Morton, J M; Clements, A C A; Mahony, T J

    2014-11-01

    A nationwide longitudinal study was conducted to investigate risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in cattle in Australian feedlots. After induction (processing), cattle were placed in feedlot pens (cohorts) and monitored for occurrence of BRD over the first 50 days on feed. Data from a national cattle movement database were used to derive variables describing mixing of animals with cattle from other farms, numbers of animals in groups before arrival at the feedlot, exposure of animals to saleyards before arrival at the feedlot, and the timing and duration of the animal's move to the vicinity of the feedlot. Total and direct effects for each risk factor were estimated using a causal diagram-informed process to determine covariates to include in four-level Bayesian logistic regression models. Mixing, group size and timing of the animal's move to the feedlot were important predictors of BRD. Animals not mixed with cattle from other farms prior to 12 days before induction and then exposed to a high level of mixing (≥4 groups of animals mixed) had the highest risk of developing BRD (OR 3.7) compared to animals mixed at least 4 weeks before induction with less than 4 groups forming the cohort. Animals in groups formed at least 13 days before induction comprising 100 or more (OR 0.5) or 50-99 (OR 0.8) were at reduced risk compared to those in groups of less than 50 cattle. Animals moved to the vicinity of the feedlot at least 27 days before induction were at reduced risk (OR 0.4) compared to cattle undergoing short-haul transportation (factors could potentially be used to inform management decisions to reduce the risk of BRD in feedlot cattle.

  13. Exploring Attitudes and Beliefs towards Implementing Cattle Disease Prevention and Control Measures: A Qualitative Study with Dairy Farmers in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marnie L.; Wright, Nick; Wapenaar, Wendela; Jarratt, Susanne; Hobson-West, Pru; Richens, Imogen F.; Kaler, Jasmeet; Buchanan, Heather; Huxley, Jonathan N.; O’Connor, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Further understanding of why dairy farmers do not engage in disease prevention and control strategies (biosecurity) is required. Using semi-structured interviews informed by a health psychology approach with 25 dairy farmers, a number of barriers, such as disease testing inaccuracies, types of disease transmission, perceived lack of risk and effectiveness of measures, were identified. Motivators included being advised to undertake measures by veterinarians, and the increased threat and severity of the disease in focus. These results suggest there is an advantage to farm advisors and herd health professionals understanding and working with the beliefs of individual dairy farmers to target appropriate communication and advice strategies relating to biosecurity recommendations. Abstract Disease prevention and control practices are frequently highlighted as important to ensure the health and welfare of farmed animals, although little is known as to why not many practices are carried out. The aim of this study was to identify the motivators and barriers of dairy cattle farmers towards the use of biosecurity measures on dairy farms using a health psychology approach. Twenty-five farmers on 24 farms in Great Britain (GB) were interviewed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Results indicated that farmers perceived they had the ability to control what happened on their farms in terms of preventing and controlling disease, and described benefits from being proactive and vigilant. However, barriers were cited in relation to testing inaccuracies, effectiveness and time-efficiency of practices, and disease transmission route (e.g., airborne transmission). Farmers reported they were positively influenced by veterinarians and negatively influenced by the government (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA)) and the general public. Decisions to implement practices were influenced by the perceived severity of the disease in question, if

  14. Differential expression of small non-coding RNAs in serum from cattle challenged with viruses causing bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MicroRNAs and tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are the two most abundant groups of small non-coding RNAs. The potential for microRNAs and tRFs to be used as pathogen exposure indicators is yet to be fully explored. Our objective was to identify microRNAs and tRFs in cattle challenged with a non-cy...

  15. Haemorrhagic bowel syndrome in dairy cattle: possible role of Clostridium perfringens type A in the disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, L; Paradies, P; Sasanelli, M; de Caprariis, D; Guarda, F; Capucchio, M T; Carelli, G

    2006-12-01

    A survey based on clinical, pathological and microbiological investigations was performed on 11 Brown Swiss cattle affected with depression, anorexia, agalaxia, ruminal hypomotility, abdominal pain and melaena. In eight animals, macroscopical lesions consisted in haemorrhagic enteritis in the small intestine. Seven of eight isolates from tissue samples were identified as Clostridum perfringens type A, and four were identified as C. perfringens type A with the beta2 toxin gene. Based on these observations, animals were considered affected with haemorrhagic bowel syndrome.

  16. Estimation of nasal shedding and seroprevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease in Australian live export cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of organisms known to be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was investigated in cattle prior to export. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect nucleic acids from the following viruses and bacteria in nasal swab samples: Bovine coronavirus (BoCV; Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. Between 2010 and 2012, nasal swabs were collected from 1,484 apparently healthy cattle destined for export to the Middle East and Russian Federation. In addition, whole blood samples from 334 animals were tested for antibodies to BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The nasal prevalence of BoCV at the individual animal level was 40.1%. The nasal and seroprevalence of BoHV-1, BRSV, BVDV-1, and BPIV-3 was 1.0% and 39%, 1.2% and 46%, 3.0% and 56%, and 1.4% and 87%, respectively. The nasal prevalence of H. somni, M. bovis, M. haemolytica, and P. multocida was 42%, 4.8%, 13.4%, and 26%, respectively. Significant differences in nasal and seroprevalence were detected between groups of animals from different geographical locations. The results of the current study provide baseline data on the prevalence of organisms associated with BRD in Australian live export cattle in the preassembly period. This data could be used to develop strategies for BRD prevention and control prior to loading.

  17. Analysis of the acute phase responses of Serum Amyloid A, Haptoglobin and Type 1 Interferon in cattle experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2011-01-01

    periods exceeding 28 days in order to determine the carrier-status of individual animals. The systemic host response to FMDV in infected animals was evaluated in comparison to similar measurements in sera from 6 mock-inoculated control animals.There was a significant increase in serum concentrations...... of both APPs and type 1 IFN in infected animals coinciding with the onset of viremia and clinical disease. The measured parameters declined to baseline levels within 21 days after inoculation, indicating that there was no systemically measurable inflammatory reaction related to the carrier state of FMD......A series of challenge experiments were performed in order to investigate the acute phase responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle and possible implications for the development of persistently infected "carriers". The host response to infection was investigated through...

  18. Association of BoLA-DRB3 alleles with tick-borne disease tolerance in dairy cattle in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjinda, M; Jindatajak, Y; Tipvong, W; Sriwarothai, J; Pattarajinda, V; Katawatin, S; Boonkum, W

    2013-09-23

    Tick-borne disease is one of the most harmful tropical diseases in dairy production. Selection of dairy cows for tolerance to tick-borne disease is a challenging concept for dairy breeders in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect specific tick-borne pathogen in cattle of different genetics and (2) to examine the polymorphisms of DRB3.2 alleles in Thai dairy cattle and find the allelic association with tick-borne disease tolerance. Specific primers to Anaplasma marginale (AM), Babesia bigemina (BG) and Babesia bovis (BB) were used to detect the infections by PCR. The results showed that the high proportion of infections were found in Bos indicus (Sahiwal, n=95) and crossbred Holstein × Zebu (75:25 Holstein:Zebu, n=101), compared to high Holstein fraction crossbreed (≥ 87.5% Holstein, n=187). The proportion of triple infections was also highly found in high Holstein fractions crossbreed. This study confirmed that Zebuine (Bos indicus) had a higher degree of tolerance, even when infected by tick-borne pathogens, compared to high Holstein fraction crossbred. The associated alleles of DRB3.2 for tick-borne pathogen infection tolerance were found: DRB3*14 and *41 were found to be tolerant to A. marginale; *14 to B. bovis; and *10 and *51 to B. bigemina. These tolerance alleles could be used as potential markers for selection in dairy genetic evaluation. The associated alleles for susceptibility were also found: *2 was found to be susceptible to A. marginale; *3 and *16 to B. bovis; and *20 to B. bigemina. These susceptibility alleles could be used as markers for culling, and selection favoring susceptibility alleles should be considered to maintain heterozygote advantage and pathogen-specific memories in the herd.

  19. A stochastic model to determine the economic value of changing diagnostic test characteristics for identification of cattle for treatment of bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, M E; White, B J; Larson, R L; Schroeder, T C

    2015-03-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is an economically important syndrome in the beef industry, and diagnostic accuracy is important for optimal disease management. The objective of this study was to determine whether improving diagnostic sensitivity or specificity was of greater economic value at varied levels of respiratory disease prevalence by using Monte Carlo simulation. Existing literature was used to populate model distributions of published sensitivity, specificity, and performance (ADG, carcass weight, yield grade, quality grade, and mortality risk) differences among calves based on clinical respiratory disease status. Data from multiple cattle feeding operations were used to generate true ranges of respiratory disease prevalence and associated mortality. Input variables were combined into a single model that calculated estimated net returns for animals by diagnostic category (true positive, false positive, false negative, and true negative) based on the prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity for each iteration. Net returns for each diagnostic category were multiplied by the proportion of animals in each diagnostic category to determine group profitability. Apparent prevalence was categorized into low (diagnostic specificity, perhaps through a confirmatory test interpreted in series or pen-level diagnostics, can increase diagnostic value more than improving sensitivity. Mortality risk was the primary driver for net returns. The results from this study are important for determining future research priorities to analyze diagnostic techniques for bovine respiratory disease and provide a novel way for modeling diagnostic tests.

  20. Persistent Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infection in the Nasopharynx of Cattle; Tissue-Specific Distribution and Local Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pacheco

    Full Text Available Tissues obtained post-mortem from cattle persistently infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV were analyzed to characterize the tissue-specific localization of FMDV and partial transcriptome profiles for selected immunoregulatory cytokines. Analysis of 28 distinct anatomic sites from 21 steers infected with FMDV serotype A, O or SAT2, had the highest prevalence of overall viral detection in the dorsal nasopharynx (80.95% and dorsal soft palate (71.43%. FMDV was less frequently detected in laryngeal mucosal tissues, oropharyngeal mucosal sites, and lymph nodes draining the pharynx. Immunomicroscopy indicated that within persistently infected mucosal tissues, FMDV antigens were rarely detectable within few epithelial cells in regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT. Transcriptome analysis of persistently infected pharyngeal tissues by qRT-PCR for 14 cytokine genes indicated a general trend of decreased mRNA levels compared to uninfected control animals. Although, statistically significant differences were not observed, greatest suppression of relative expression (RE was identified for IP-10 (RE = 0.198, IFN-β (RE = 0.269, IL-12 (RE = 0.275, and IL-2 (RE = 0.312. Increased relative expression was detected for IL-6 (RE = 2.065. Overall, this data demonstrates that during the FMDV carrier state in cattle, viral persistence is associated with epithelial cells of the nasopharynx in the upper respiratory tract and decreased levels of mRNA for several immunoregulatory cytokines in the infected tissues.

  1. A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

    2009-12-01

    Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

  2. Doenças de bovinos no Sul do Brasil: 6.706 casos Diseases of cattle in southern Brazil: 6.706 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As doenças que acometem bovinos na região Sul do Brasil foram analisadas através de um estudo dos protocolos de necropsia de 6.706 bovinos examinados pelo Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Santa (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, de 1964-2008. Desses, 20,9% foram necropsias realizadas no LPV-UFSM e 79,1% foram amostras de tecidos submetidos por veterinários de campo. Dos 6.706 exames, 62,9% tinham diagnóstico conclusivo. A autólise ou material insuficiente foram as principais razões para a ocorrência de casos com diagnóstico inconclusivo. A intoxicação por Senecio spp. foi a principal causa de morte de bovinos neste estudo. As plantas tóxicas e as toxiinfecções juntas, responderam por 22,8% dos casos com diagnóstico conclusivo. As doenças inflamatórias e as parasitoses juntas contribuíram com mais de 30% das doenças de bovinos e a tristeza parasitária bovina foi a principal doença nessa categoria. As demais categorias distribuíram-se na seguinte ordem: neoplasmas e lesões tumoriformes (13,87%, doenças causadas por agentes físicos (2,7%, doenças metabólicas e nutricionais (2,46%, distúrbios circulatórios (1,4%, doenças degenerativas (1,1%, distúrbios do desenvolvimento (0,54%, distúrbios iatrogênicos (0,16%, distúrbios imunogênicos (0,19% e, outros distúrbios (0,21%. A alta prevalência de tumores em bovinos foi atribuída a ingestão crônica de Pteridium aquilinum, uma toxicose comum na região. As principais doenças de bovinos na região estudada estão relacionadas a fatores ambientais resultante do manejo característico de criação predominantemente extensiva adotado na região.The diseases affecting cattle in southern Brazil were studied through a review of the necropsy reports filed at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LPV-UFSM, Rio Grande do Sul, and pertaining to the examination of 6.076 cattle during 1964-2008. Of those

  3. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamal, S.M.; Bouma, A.; Broek, van den J.; Stegeman, J.A.; Chenard, G.; Dekker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of PD50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, typ

  5. Association of BoLA DRB3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Sankar, M; Narayanan, K; Das, Biswajit; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B

    2013-08-01

    Polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. Accordingly, we investigated the association of DRB3 Exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. Antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut off value to distinguish the protected (≥ 1.8) and unprotected (DRB3 alleles 0201, 0801 and 1501 always ranked high for protective immune response whereas alleles 0701, 1103 and 1101 consistently ranked low for unprotected immune response for all the three serotypes. Rank correlation of DRB3 alleles among the three serotypes was positive, high in magnitude and statistically significant (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that odds of protection from the vaccine were highest for all the three serotypes if allele (∗)1501 was present and strengthened the results of allele ranking. Predicted amino acid substitution in the peptide binding pockets revealed that all the important sites had high Wu-Kabat index. Similarly, specific residues in pockets were crucial for immune response to FMD vaccine. There were specific substitutions in un-protected alleles such as absence of acidic amino acids substituted by basic amino acid at β71, presence of non-polar cysteine or basic histidine at β30 and presence of polar tyrosine at β37. From the observations, we hypothesize that the substitutions lead to unique conformational changes in the protein products of the studied alleles that would associate with the protective or unprotective antibody response to FMDV vaccine. The knowledge has potential implications in future selection programs if integrated with the complete BoLA haplotype details and production traits of the herd.

  6. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from experimentally infected Indian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to in-contact naïve and vaccinated Indian buffalo and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhanmohan, M; Yuvaraj, S; Nagendrakumar, S B; Srinivasan, V A; Gubbins, Simon; Paton, David James; Parida, Satya

    2014-09-03

    This study investigated the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) from experimentally infected Indian buffalo to in-contact naïve and vaccinated cattle and buffalo. In each of six rooms, two donor buffalo that had been inoculated with FMDV were housed for five days with four recipient animals, comprising one vaccinated buffalo, one vaccinated calf, one unvaccinated buffalo and one unvaccinated calf. Vaccination was carried out with current Indian vaccine strain (O/IND/R2/75) and challenged on 28 days post-vaccination with an antigenically similar strain (O/HAS/34/05). All 12 donor buffalo and the six unvaccinated cattle and six unvaccinated calves developed clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). In contrast, all six vaccinated cattle (100%) and four out of six vaccinated buffalo (66.6%) were protected from disease but all became infected with FMDV. This confirms that buffalo have the potential to spread FMD by direct contact and that vaccination can block this spread. The numbers of animals in the study were too small to determine if the differences in clinical protection afforded by vaccination of cattle and buffalo are significant and warrant a different dose regime.

  7. Tuberculosis-resistant transgenic cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is a devastating disease that affects humans and many animal species. In humans, tuberculosis (TB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while most cases in cattle are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, Mb can also cause, albeit rarely, human TB. In this issue, Wu et al. ...

  8. Estimating the comparative clinical and economic consequences of tulathromycin for treatment of present or anticipated outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup, B Poulsen; Van Vlaenderen, I; Gasper, S M; Holland, R E

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of using tulathromycin as first line treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) compared with other commonly used antimicrobials. Two decision trees were developed simulating the consequences of treating cattle at high risk of developing BRD [control model (CM)] or cattle with first clinical BRD episode [treatment model (TM)]. As comparators florfenicol and tilmicosin were considered in both models whereas enrofloxacin was included in the TM because it was only labeled for treatment of BRD at the time of development of the calculators. A total of 5 (CM) and 10 (TM) comparative clinical studies that reported efficacy data for the selected drugs and indications were identified as suitable for model population. The following outcomes were considered: first treatment success, number of subsequent BRD treatments, chronics, and mortalities. Cost parameters were considered from the perspective of the producer and included treatment costs (first treatment and retreatments) and costs of chronics and deaths derived from published sources for 2010 (default). The models allowed the estimation of clinical and economic consequences according to each individual trial outcomes. Treatment with tulathromycin resulted in more first treatment successes and fewer removals (chronics and deaths) in all comparisons. The average total number of antimicrobial treatments required for the management of BRD was also least with tulathromycin as first treatment option. Because of better efficacy, total costs over the entire study periods were always lowest with tulathromycin. Depending on the study selected as the basis for the efficacy evaluation, cost savings with tulathromycin were calculated in the CM between US$21.00 and $47.86 (vs. florfenicol) and $11.37 and $72.64 (vs. tilmicosin); cost savings in the TM ranged between $28.47 and $143.87 (vs. florfenicol) and $7.75 and $84.91 (vs. tilmicosin) as well as between

  9. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) from Ugandan cattle outbreaks during 2012-2013: evidence for circulation of multiple serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namatovu, Alice; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Belsham, Graham J; Dhikusooka, Moses T; Wekesa, Sabenzia N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Siegismund, Hans R; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in Uganda's cattle population, both serological and virological analyses of samples from outbreaks that occurred during 2012-2013 were performed. Altogether, 79 sera and 60 oropharyngeal fluid (OP)/tissue/oral swab samples were collected from herds with reported FMD outbreaks in seven different Ugandan districts. Overall, 61/79 (77%) of the cattle sera were positive for antibodies against FMDV by PrioCHECK FMDV NS ELISA and solid phase blocking ELISA detected titres ≥ 80 for serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 in 41, 45, 30 and 45 of these 61 seropositive samples, respectively. Virus neutralisation tests detected the highest levels of neutralising antibodies (titres ≥ 45) against serotype O in the herds from Kween and Rakai districts, against SAT 1 in the herd from Nwoya district and against SAT 2 in the herds from Kiruhura, Isingiro and Ntungamo districts. The isolation of a SAT 2 FMDV from Isingiro was consistent with the detection of high levels of neutralising antibodies against SAT 2; sequencing (for the VP1 coding region) indicated that this virus belonged to lineage I within this serotype, like the currently used vaccine strain. From the Wakiso district 11 tissue/swab samples were collected; serotype A FMDV, genotype Africa (G-I), was isolated from the epithelial samples. This study shows that within a period of less than one year, FMD outbreaks in Uganda were caused by four different serotypes namely O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2. Therefore, to enhance the control of FMD in Uganda, there is need for efficient and timely determination of outbreak virus strains/serotypes and vaccine matching. The value of incorporating serotype A antigen into the imported vaccines along with the current serotype O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 strains should be considered.

  10. Induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Pan,1,2 Zhongwang Zhang,1,2 Jianliang Lv,1,2 Peng Zhou,1,2 Wenfa Hu,1,2 Yuzhen Fang,1,2 Haotai Chen,1,2 Xinsheng Liu,1,2 Junjun Shao,1,2 Furong Zhao,1,2 Yaozhong Ding,1,2 Tong Lin,1,2 Huiyun Chang,1,2 Jie Zhang,1,2 Yongguang Zhang,1,2 Yonglu Wang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD. In this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type A FMD were designed: (1 chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with plasmid DNA (Chi-PLGA-DNA and (2 chitosan-trehalose and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV (Chi-Tre-Inactivated. Cattle were immunized by an intranasal route with nanoparticles and then challenged for 48 hours by direct contact with two infected donor cattle per pen. Donors were inoculated intradermally in the tongue 48 hours before challenge, with 0.2 mL cattle-passaged FMDV. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were evaluated, and virus excretion and the number of contact infections were quantified. FMDV-specific secretory immunoglobulin (IgA (sIgA antibodies in nasal washes were initially detected at 4 days postvaccination (dpv with two kinds of nanoparticles. The highest levels of sIgA expression were observed in nasal washes, at 10 dpv, from animals with Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles, followed by animals immunized once by intranasal route with

  11. Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sharma, S; Shukla, N; Misra, S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Kumar, H; Patil, P K; Misra, P; Sandhu, K S

    2008-09-01

    Present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Punjab) of Hariana cattle and Murrah buffaloes in North India. Indigenous and in-house plate ELISA kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison type' strain of goat origin), originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in bovines and used for screening. For this study, 33 villages of south and west UP were randomly selected and surveyed from 2001 to 2003. There were 7943 farmer's families having 38,251 livestock, including cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep (per family 4.8% livestock). Numerically, buffaloes and cattle were 54.7% and 22.1%, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 726 animals (4.2% of 16, 981 livestock with 4375 farmer's families) located in 33 randomly surveyed villages. Serum samples (699), submitted to Epidemiology Department of Veterinary College (Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana), in the year 2004 by farmer's and organized farm herds (Buffaloes, 372, Cattle, 327), were screened by this ELISA kit. Soluble protoplasmic antigen was prepared from Map (S 5) 'Bison type' strain isolated from a terminally sick goat with Johne's disease. Of the total 1425 bovine (Buffaloes and cattle) serum samples screened using indigenous ELISA kit, sero-prevalence of Johne's disease was 29.0% (28.6% in buffalo and 29.8% in cattle) in Northern India. State-wise sero-prevalence was 31.9% and 23.3% in UP and Punjab, respectively. In UP, of the 601 randomly sampled buffaloes, sero-prevalence was 40.3% (16.6% in young and 40.9% adults) and 25.5% (10.5% in young and 26.3% adults) in south and west UP, respectively. Of the 125 cattle screened, sero-prevalence was 42.6% (nil in young and 44.4% adults) and 30.0% (nil in young and 30.6% adults

  12. A questionnaire-based survey on the uptake and use of cattle vaccines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cresswell, E.; Brennan, Marnie L; Barkema, H. W.; Wapenaar, Wendela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is a widely used strategy for disease control in cattle in the UK and abroad. However, there has been limited research describing the uptake and use of cattle vaccines on UK farms. Aim: To describe the current uptake and usage of cattle vaccines in the UK. Design: A questionnaire, available in paper and online format, was distributed to cattle farmers by convenience sampling. Participants: All UK cattle farmers were eligible to participate in the study. Res...

  13. Effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. Disease symptoms in FMDV-infected animals appear within 2 to 3 days of exposure. Dendritic cells (DC) play an essential role in protective immune responses agai...

  14. Doenças do sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid of Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco J.N. Galiza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar as doenças que ocorrem no sistema nervoso de bovinos no semiárido nordestino, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em 411 necropsias de bovinos realizadas no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2008. Dos 411 casos analisados 139 (33,81% apresentaram alterações clínicas do sistema nervoso e as fichas foram revisadas para determinar os principais achados referentes à epidemiologia, aos sinais clínicos e às alterações macroscópicas e microscópicas. Em 28 (20,14% casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. As principais enfermidades foram raiva (48,7% dos casos com sinais nervosos, abscessos cerebrais (7,2% incluindo três casos de abscesso da pituitária, febre catarral maligna (6,3%, botulismo (6,3%, alterações congênitas (4,5%, traumatismo (4,5%, tuberculose (2,7%, tétano (2,7%, infecção por herpesvírus bovino-5 (2,7%, encefalomielite não supurativa (2,7%, intoxicação por Prosopis juliflora (2,7%, status spongiosus congênito de causa desconhecida (1,8% e polioencefalomalacia (1,8%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (0,9% foram criptococose, listeriose, encefalite tromboembólica, linfossarcoma, tripanossomíase e babesiose por Babesia bovis.Diseases of the nervous system of cattle in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil were evaluated by a retrospective study of 411 cattle necropsies performed in the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Patos, Paraíba, from January 2000 to December 2008. Of the 411 cases analyzed, 139 (33.81% were from cattle that presented nervous signs and the records were reviewed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and macroscopic and histologic main features. Diagnosis was inconclusive in 28 cases (20.14%. In cases with diagnosis the main diseases were rabies (48.7% of the cases with nervous signs, brain abscesses (7.2% including three cases of

  15. Cattle experimentally infected by Anaplasma marginale: Influence of splenectomy on disease pathogenesis, oxidative profile, and antioxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rovaina L; França, Raqueli T; Oliveira, Camila B; Rezer, João F P; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João R; Santos, Andrea P; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Mesick, Joanne B; Lopes, Sonia T A; Leal, Daniela B R; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2016-06-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is caused by the obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria Anaplasma marginale. These bacteria are transmitted by tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, blood-sucking insects, and fomites (needles, clippers, and other blood contaminated equipment). During the acute phase of infection, animals may develop fever, anemia, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly. The aims of this study are to quantify the bacteremia by quantitative PCR in eight naïve calves experimentally infected by A. marginale [splenectomized (n = 4), and intact/non-splenectomized (n = 4)], and to correlate these findings with markers of oxidative stress on days 0, 8, 15, 21 and 23 post-infection. Complete blood counts (CBC) were performed in both groups. Lipid peroxidation was estimated by quantifying thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); and non-enzymatic antioxidants were assessed by erythrocyte content of non-protein thiols (NPSH). There were no significant differences in complete blood counts (CBC) between the two groups. However, both groups had a slight decrease on packet cell volume (PCV), erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration, as well as an increase in total leukocyte counts due to elevated lymphocytes when comparing pre and post-infection with A. marginale. Progressive increase on TBARS levels and concomitant decrease on NPSH content were observed in all animals, without significant differences between splenectomized and intact animals. A positive correlation between bacteremia and TBARS, and a negative correlation between bacteremia and NPSH were observed in both groups with higher correlation for NPSH in splenectomized animals. A negative correlation between TBARS and NPSH levels was observed in both groups indicating lipid peroxidation without a non-enzymatic antioxidant response. The results of experimental infection by A. marginale in cattle showed that bacteremia has an impact on lipid peroxidation regardless of the splenectomy.

  16. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  17. Fine mapping of Loci on BTA2 and BTA26 Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Persistent Infection and Linked with Bovine Respiratory Disease in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eZanella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf performance. Loci associated with persistently infected animals (BVD-PI and linked with BRD have previously been identified near 14 Mb on bovine chromosome 2 (BTA2 and 15.3 Mb on bovine chromosome 26 (BTA26. The objective of this study was to refine the loci associated with BVD-PIand linked with BRD. Association testing for BVD-PI was performed on a population of 65 BVD-PI calves, 51 of their dams, and 60 unaffected calves (controls with 175 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on BTA2 and 209 SNPs on BTA26. Comparisons were made between BVD-PI calves and controls calves and the dams of BVD-PI calves and controls calves. For the linkage analysis of BRD, the same markers were used to genotype 2 half sib-families consisting of the sires and 72 BRD positive and 148 BRD negative offspring. Using an allelic chi-square test, 11 loci on BTA2 and 8 loci on BTA26 were associated with the dams of the BVD-PI calves (P < 0.05 and 5 loci on BTA2 and 10 loci on BTA26 were associated with BVD-PI calves. One locus on BTA2 and two loci on BTA26 were found to be linked (P < 0.05 with BRD. These results further refined the loci associated and linked with BVD-PI and BRD, respectively.

  18. Histophilus somni IbpA Fic cytotoxin is conserved in disease strains and most carrier strains from cattle, sheep and bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekarias, B; O'Toole, D; Lehmann, J; Corbeil, L B

    2011-04-21

    Histophilus somni causes bovine pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis and arthritis, as well as a genital or upper respiratory carrier state in normal animals. However, differences in virulence factors among strains are not well studied. The surface and secreted immunoglobulin binding protein A (IbpA) Fic motif of H. somni causes bovine alveolar type 2 (BAT2) cells to retract, allowing virulent bacteria to cross the alveolar monolayer. Because H. somni IbpA is an important virulence factor, its presence was evaluated in different strains from cattle, sheep and bison to define whether there are syndrome specific markers and whether antigenic/molecular/functional conservation occurs. A few preputial carrier strains lacked IbpA by Western blotting but all other tested disease or carrier strains were IbpA positive. These positive strains had either both IbpA DR1/Fic and IbpA DR2/Fic or only IbpA DR2/Fic by PCR. IbpA Fic mediated cytotoxicity for BAT2 cells and sequence analysis of IbpA DR2/Fic from selected strains revealed conservation of sequence and function in disease and IbpA positive carrier strains. Passive protection of mice against H. somni septicemia with antibody to IbpA DR2/Fic, along with previous data, indicates that the IbpA DR1/Fic and/or DR2/Fic domains are candidate vaccine antigens for protection against many strains of H. somni. Since IbpA DR2/Fic is conserved in most carrier strains, they may be virulent if introduced to susceptible animals at susceptible sites. Conservation of the protective IbpA antigen in all disease isolates tested is encouraging for development of protective vaccines and diagnostic assays.

  19. Changes in retinal function and morphology are early clinical signs of disease in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heather West Greenlee

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc throughout the central nervous system (CNS, which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, and retinal pathology in TSE affected animals has been previously reported. Here we describe antemortem changes in retinal function and morphology that are detectable in BSE inoculated animals several months (up to 11 months prior to the appearance of any other signs of clinical disease. We also demonstrate that differences in the severity of these clinical signs reflect the amount of PrPSc accumulation in the retina and the resulting inflammatory response of the tissue. These results are the earliest reported clinical signs associated with TSE infection and provide a basis for understanding the pathology and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  20. Changes in retinal function and morphology are early clinical signs of disease in cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, M Heather West; Smith, Jodi D; Platt, Ekundayo M; Juarez, Jessica R; Timms, Leo L; Greenlee, Justin J

    2015-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous system, and retinal pathology in TSE affected animals has been previously reported. Here we describe antemortem changes in retinal function and morphology that are detectable in BSE inoculated animals several months (up to 11 months) prior to the appearance of any other signs of clinical disease. We also demonstrate that differences in the severity of these clinical signs reflect the amount of PrPSc accumulation in the retina and the resulting inflammatory response of the tissue. These results are the earliest reported clinical signs associated with TSE infection and provide a basis for understanding the pathology and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  1. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs...... from the O/UKG/34/2001 or A/Turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the O1K B64 cDNA, and viable viruses (O1K/O-UKG and O1K/A-Tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in each case. These viruses grew well in primary bovine thyroid cells but grew less efficiently in BHK...

  2. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Isihaka J. Haji; Imna Malele; Boniface Namangala

    2014-01-01

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% – 16.3%), involving singl...

  3. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccine potency testing: the influence of serotype, type of adjuvant, valency, fractionation method, and virus culture on the dose-response curve in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Syed M; Bouma, Annemarie; van den Broek, Jan; Stegeman, Arjan; Chénard, Gilles; Dekker, Aldo

    2008-11-25

    The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between vaccine potency (amount of PD50 per dose) and fraction of clinically protected cattle following homologous challenge with infectious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, and to determine the effect of method of fractionation, serotype, type of adjuvant, valency and type of virus culture on the dose-response curve. Data from 297 potency tests of FMD vaccines, comprising 4004 vaccinated cattle, performed at the FMD vaccine production facility in the Netherlands, were used for the present study. A generalised linear mixed effect model was used to analyse the results. Our study showed that the relation between FMD vaccine potency and fraction protected was also affected by the serotype and type of adjuvant. No common level of protection could be assigned to all FMD vaccines with the same amount of PD50 per dose, this information is essential when designing a new standard FMD vaccines control.

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of disease-associated prion protein in the intestine of cattle naturally affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy by using an alkaline-based chemical antigen retrieval method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiroyuki; Iwamaru, Yoshihumi; Imamura, Morikazu; Masujin, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Takashi; Mohri, Shirou

    2010-11-01

    An alkaline-based chemical antigen retrieval pretreatment step was used to enhance immunolabeling of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from cattle naturally affected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The modified chemical method used in this study amplified the PrP(Sc) signal by unmasking PrP(Sc) compared with the normal cellular prion protein. In addition, this method reduced nonspecific background immunolabeling that resulted from the destruction of the residual normal cellular form of prion protein, and reduced the treatment time compared with the usual autoclave pretreatment step. Immunolabeled PrP(Sc) was thereby clearly detected in the myenteric plexus of the ileum in naturally occurring BSE cattle.

  6. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  7. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  8. Screening of microbial volatile organic compounds for detection of disease in cattle: development of lab-scale method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quest to find unique marker volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with human, livestock and wildlife diseases (Ellis et al., 2014) requires development of diagnostic non-invasive point-of-care tools and field surveillance technologies and strategies. The objective of this research was to ...

  9. 当前奶牛重大传染病的现状及思考%The Current Status and Countermeasures of Major Dairy Cattle Infectious Diseases in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹杰; 刘英霞; 齐长明

    2011-01-01

    This article discussed some infectious diseases in dairy cattle like infectious bovine rhinotracheitis(IBR), bovine virus diarrhea (BVD), and brucellosis. The clinical signs, disease prevalence in China are reviewed, countermeasures of control and prevention are suggested.%本文就近年来奶牛养殖业中高发的牛传染性鼻气管炎、牛病毒性腹泻及布氏杆菌病的流行现状进行分析,并在诊断与综合防控方面提出建议.

  10. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, T.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial ...

  11. Spectrum of VP1 region genetic variants in the foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O populations derived from infected cattle tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, L N; Mohapatra, J K; Subramaniam, S; Pandey, L K; Das, B; Sanyal, A; Misri, J; Pattnaik, B

    2015-09-01

    RNA virus population exists as a complex distribution of non-identical but closely related sequences known as viral quasispecies. Variant strains are selected from this quasispecies population in response to changing environment. The quasispecies dynamics of a virus existing within an infected host differs from that in a cell culture-adapted population. This study was carried out to explore the genetic variations present in the VP1 coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus serotype O derived directly from infected cattle tongue epithelium. Molecular clonal populations of two serotype O strains belonging to lineages Ind2001 (IND 30/2011) and PanAsia2 (IND 5/2011) were sequenced at VP1 coding region. For IND 30/2011, 19 clones were sequenced and analysis showed variations at 12 nucleotide positions (nt) resulting in 8 amino acid (aa) replacements. Similarly, for IND 5/2011 virus, 18 clones were sequenced, of which six showed nt variations leading to 3 aa replacements. Most of the variable positions mapped to the surface-exposed loops and some of them were found in the neutralizing antigenic sites (position 81, 149, 169, 186 and 202 of IND 30/2011 and 141 of IND 5/2011), which potentially could be beneficial in rapid adaptive evolution of the virus by giving rise to antigenic variants to overcome neutralizing antibodies. These findings encourage further research into the landscape of the viral quasispecies population in vivo and its implication for viral ecology.

  12. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles produced by a SUMO fusion protein system in Escherichia coli induce potent protective immune responses in guinea pigs, swine and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Sun, Shi-Qi; Jin, Ye; Yang, Shun-Li; Wei, Yan-Quan; Sun, De-Hui; Yin, Shuang-Hui; Ma, Jun-Wu; Liu, Zai-Xin; Guo, Jian-Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Yin, Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2013-07-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious infection in cloven-hoofed animals. The format of FMD virus-like particles (VLP) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising alternative to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines. In this study, we explored a prokaryotic system to express and assemble the FMD VLP and validated the potential of VLP as an FMDV vaccine candidate. VLP composed entirely of FMDV (Asia1/Jiangsu/China/2005) capsid proteins (VP0, VP1 and VP3) were simultaneously produced as SUMO fusion proteins by an improved SUMO fusion protein system in E. coli. Proteolytic removal of the SUMO moiety from the fusion proteins resulted in the assembly of VLP with size and shape resembling the authentic FMDV. Immunization of guinea pigs, swine and cattle with FMD VLP by intramuscular inoculation stimulated the FMDV-specific antibody response, neutralizing antibody response, T-cell proliferation response and secretion of cytokine IFN-γ. In addition, immunization with one dose of the VLP resulted in complete protection of these animals from homologous FMDV challenge. The 50% protection dose (PD50) of FMD VLP in cattle is up to 6.34. These results suggest that FMD VLP expressed in E. coli are an effective vaccine in guinea pigs, swine and cattle and support further development of these VLP as a vaccine candidate for protection against FMDV.

  13. Analysis of a multi patch dynamical model about cattle brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of cattle brucellosis in Zhejiang province of China can be attributed to the transport of cattle between cities within the province. In this paper,an n-patch dynamical model is proposed to study the effect of cattle dispersal on brucellosis spread. Theoretically,we analyze the dynamical behavior of the muti-patch model. For the 2-patch submodel,sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number R0 and the number of the infectious cattle in term of model parameters are carried out. By numerical analysis,it is obtained that the dispersal of susceptible cattle between patches and the centralization of infected cattle to the large scale patch can alleviate the epidemic and are in favor of the control of disease in the whole region.

  14. Host response to Foot- and Mouth Disease infection in cattle; possible implications for the development of “carriers”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    to the disease. The FMDV infection is defined as persistent when live virus can be detected for more than 28 days post infection. FMD infection in ruminants involves initial viral replication in pharyngeal epithelia, from where the virus spreads systemically. Characteristic vesicular lesions develop......, as well as samples of lymphoid tissue derived from staged post mortems were analysed for the presence of viral proteins through indirect immunoflourescence. These samples have also been analysed for the presence of specific populations of immune cells such as CD8+ T-cells and Dendritic cells. Biopsy...... for the presence of viral genomes as well as FMDV-specific antibodies. Viral shedding was measured through qPCR of mouth swabs and oropharyngeal fluid (probang samples). Tissue samples derived from endoscopical collection of biopsies of the dorsal soft palate from live animals at different times post infection...

  15. A live vaccine against Neospora caninum abortions in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. caninum has emerged as a major cause of abortion in dairy and beef cattle and it is estimated to be responsible for losses in excess of a billion dollars annually, in cattle industries worldwide. Yet, after more than 25 years of research on this parasite, the control options for this disease appe...

  16. Zinc deficiency (hypozincemia in local Iraqi cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Alsaad,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical, hematological, pathological and some biochemical parameters have been studied in local cattle and calves affected naturally with hypozincemia in Mosul, Iraq. The study was conducted on 78 local Iraqi cattle and calves, among these animals, 30 calves were less than six months of age and 38 animals were more than three years old. Ten clinical healthy cattle of different ages were used as control. Affected cattle showed signs of alopecia in different body regions (73.6%, abnormal skin (rough, thickened, wrinkled, cracked and with dandruff (73.6%, paleness of mucous membranes (47.3%, intermittent diarrhoea (39.4%, decreased milk production (31.5% and loss of appetite (26.3%, whereas affected calves showed alopecia in various body regions (90%, abnormal skin (83.3%, decreased growth rate (53.3%, swelling of joints and stiff gait (43.3% and pica (36.6%. No significant difference has been detected in body temperature, whereas respiratory and heart rates were significantly increased in affected animals in comparison with control. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in the total erythrocytes (TRBCs, hemoglobin (HB and packed cell volume (PCV in diseased cattle and calves and macrocytic normochromic type of anemia was found. The results also indicated significant decrease in lymphocytes and platelets counts, however significant increase was encountered in platelets volume, platelets distribution width, prothrombine time and activated partial thromboplastine time in diseased animals. The biochemical results revealed significant decrease in serum zinc and fibrinogen and haptoglobin level was higher in diseased cattle and calves. Microscopic lesions of the skin of zinc deficient cattle and calves were in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of thickened adherent scale.

  17. Tritrichomonas foetus Prevention and Control in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Jeff D

    2016-07-01

    Bovine trichomoniasis has been recognized as a pathogen of the bovine reproductive tract for nearly 100 years. Although characteristics of the causative organism, Tritrichomonas foetus lend to control and there are examples of disease eradication, cattle producers are still faced with this disease. This article highlights the clinical presentation, magnitude of effect, risk factors, epidemiology, and sample collection and suggests applications in developing herd-level control measures for beef cattle producers including testing strategies for control, testing strategies for surveillance, strategies to eliminate trichomoniasis from infected herds, and strategies for prevention in uninfected herds.

  18. Unrecognized circulation of SAT 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle herds around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice

    2016-01-01

    understand the epidemiology of FMD at the livestock-wildlife-interface, samples were collected from young, unvaccinated cattle from 24 pastoral herds that closely interact with wildlife around Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda, and analysed for evidence of FMDV infection. In total, 37 (15 %) of 247...

  19. Experimental transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (scrapie, chronic wasting disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy) to cattle and their differentiation from bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for identification of potential host ranges of known TSEs. This report provides a synopsis of TSE (scrapie, CWD, TME) transmission studies that have been conducted in cattle and compares these findings to those seen ...

  20. Dental fluorosis in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narozny, J.

    1965-01-01

    Dental fluorosis in cattle was used as an indicator of toxic effects produced by fluorine emissions from an aluminium factory. Data are presented on the effects of a ten-year exposure to fluorides on cattle teeth. Emissions from the factory were observed in two directions from the factory, and extended as far as 16 km from the source.

  1. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-02

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO.

  2. Badgers prefer cattle pasture but avoid cattle: implications for bovine tuberculosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Donnelly, Christl A; Ham, Cally; Jackson, Seth Y B; Moyes, Kelly; Chapman, Kayna; Stratton, Naomi G; Cartwright, Samantha J

    2016-10-01

    Effective management of infectious disease relies upon understanding mechanisms of pathogen transmission. In particular, while models of disease dynamics usually assume transmission through direct contact, transmission through environmental contamination can cause different dynamics. We used Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and proximity-sensing contact-collars to explore opportunities for transmission of Mycobacterium bovis [causal agent of bovine tuberculosis] between cattle and badgers (Meles meles). Cattle pasture was badgers' most preferred habitat. Nevertheless, although collared cattle spent 2914 collar-nights in the home ranges of contact-collared badgers, and 5380 collar-nights in the home ranges of GPS-collared badgers, we detected no direct contacts between the two species. Simultaneous GPS-tracking revealed that badgers preferred land > 50 m from cattle. Very infrequent direct contact indicates that badger-to-cattle and cattle-to-badger M. bovis transmission may typically occur through contamination of the two species' shared environment. This information should help to inform tuberculosis control by guiding both modelling and farm management.

  3. Epidemiological Survey on Cattle Fasciola hepatica Disease in Midu County%弥渡县牛肝片吸虫病流行调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小九; 李石友; 李文学; 施忠芬; 申时先; 李秀枝

    2012-01-01

    为了解弥渡县牛肝片吸虫感染情况,采用粪便虫卵检查法进行牛肝片吸虫病的流行调查.结果表明,在检查的960头牛中,阳性牛220头,阳性率为22.92%.其中坝区阳性率为14.06%,半山区为28.75%,山区为25.94%;黄牛阳性率为24.58%,水牛为21.25%;阳性牛最小年龄为1.5岁,最大为13岁,阳性率随年龄增长而提高;阳性牛的每克粪便虫卵数(EPG)最高216枚,最低3枚.该调查研究揭示了肝片吸虫病在弥渡县的牛中感染较广泛,尤其是半山区、山区较高.%In order to elucidate the epidemiology of Fasciola hepatica on cattle in Midu county, Fasciola hepatica egg from feces were examined. The result showed that 220 of 960 cattle in Midu county were positive by egg examination, which positive rate was 22.92 %. Positive rate of cattle in plain terrain, semi-mountainous district and mountainous district were 14.06 % , 28.75 % and 25.94 % , respectively. Positive rate in scalper and water buffaloes were 24.58 % and 21.25 % , respectively. The youngest positive cattle was one and a half year old, the oldest positive cattle was thirteen years old. Positive rate appeared to be increased with age. The highest and lowest EPG were 216 and 3 respectively. The conclusion showed that the infection of cattle Fasciola hepatica existed more widely, especially in semi-mountainous district and mountainous district of Midu county.

  4. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease outbreak in a captive facility housing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), cattle (Bos taurus), and goats (Capra hircus) in Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Kato, Cecilia; Reeves, Will K; Rhyan, Jack; Spraker, Terry; Gidlewski, Thomas; VerCauteren, Kurt; Salman, Mo

    2010-09-01

    An ungulate research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.A., experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) because of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection from 20 August 2007 through 26 September 2007. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation from the spleen and lung tissues of two white-tailed deer. Virus neutralization tests were performed on pre- and postoutbreak sera from other species maintained in the same facility, including bison (Bison bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), domestic cattle (Bos taurus), and domestic goats (Capra hircus), as well as postoutbreak sera from the surviving white-tailed deer. Serum samples that represented all species in the facility neutralized EHDV-1 and EHDV-2 either before or after the outbreak. The animals that neutralized EHDV-1 did not neutralize EHDV-2. No clinical signs attributable to EHDV infection were noted in any of the species other than the deer during the outbreak. Although experimental EHDV infections have been reported in bison and elk, natural exposures have not been previously documented in these species in North America. The roles that elk, bison, cattle, and goats might play in the epidemiology of EHDV in a close-contact multispecies situation remain unknown.

  5. Breeding for trypanotolerance in African cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, or sleeping sickness, is one of the most important livestock diseases in Africa. Some West African cattle breeds show a degree of resistance to a trypanosome infection: they are trypanotolerant. At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Nairobi, Kenya, an F2 experim

  6. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  7. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  8. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5% was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%, postweaned juveniles (9.0%, and adult cattle (4.94%. The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease.

  9. Quantitative single serum-dilution liquid phase competitive blocking ELISA for the assessment of herd immunity and expected protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiolo, Blanca; La Torre, José; Duffy, Sergio; Leon, Emilio; Seki, Cristina; Torres, Adriana; Mattion, Nora

    2010-06-01

    A single serum-dilution liquid phase ELISA (slpELISA) was standardized to be used for serological evaluation of herd immunity against foot-and-mouth disease. The absorbance value at a dilution 1:64 of each serum sample was interpolated in a standard curve by plotting the antibody titers of six control sera determined by end point dilution liquid phase ELISA (lpELISA), against the absorbance values for the same control sera at 1:64 dilutions. A straight line was obtained by linear regression analysis (r>0.90) in the titer range of 1.40-2.40. The reliability of the antibody titers was confirmed by the simultaneous titration of 60 cattle sera by slpELISA and lpELISA, which showed an acceptable correlation (R(2)>0.87) for viral strains A24/Cruzeiro, A/Argentina/01, O1/Campos and C3/Indaial. Titers obtained by both methods were not significantly different (p>0.05), thus confirming that slpELISA could be used successfully to replace the conventional serial dilution ELISA for the assessment of protection status of cattle in epidemiological studies. In addition, this quantitative slpELISA provides an adequate method for monitoring the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns and is also suitable for the assessment of seroconversion of naive animals during early stages of infection.

  10. Transcriptome database derived from the Texas Deutsch outbreak strain population of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, vectors Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are the protozoans causing cattle fever, a disease that is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America, and Australia. We ini...

  11. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazifi, S; Razavi, S M; Kaviani, F; Rakhshandehroo, E

    2012-03-23

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the acute phase responses via the assessment of the concentration of serum sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound), inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (20%). Also, as a control group, 10 clinically healthy cattle from the same farms were sampled. Our data revealed significant decreases in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrite (PCV) and hemoglobine (Hb) in infected cattle compared to healthy ones. Conversely, the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, serum sialic acids and the circulatory IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the diseased cattle (P<0.05). In addition, it was evident that the progression of parasitemia in infected cattle did not induce any significant alterations in the hematological indices (RBCs, PCV and Hb) and the concentrations of Hp, SAA, ceruloplasmin and fibrinogen. SAA was the most sensitive factor to change in the diseased cattle. Therefore, increase in SAA concentration may be a good indicator of inflammatory process in cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale.

  12. 牛、羊口蹄疫免疫抗体监测分析%Monitoring and analysis of immune antibody against foot and mouth disease in cattle and sheep

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹤

    2016-01-01

    口蹄疫(FMD)只有通过疫苗免疫才能有效预防,因而掌握本地区牛羊口蹄疫的免疫抗体水平情况,对减少该类疫病的发生有重要意义。本文即对南平市近三年牛羊口蹄疫免疫抗体监测结果进行分析总结。%To effectively prevent the occurrence of foot and mouth disease(FMD),vaccination and evaluating the level of antibody is the main measures. Thus, constructed a complete antibody monitoring system have the vital significance in reducing the occurrence of dis-ease.This paper expounded on the monitoring results of FMD antibody level in sheep and cattle in Nanping in nearly three years.

  13. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  14. Relative virulence in bison and cattle of bison-associated genotypes of Mycoplasma bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Mycoplasma bovis is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle and the bacterium most frequently isolated from bovine respiratory disease complex. It has recently emerged as a major health problem in bison, causing pharyngitis, pneumonia, arthritis, dystocia and abortion. In cattle, M. b...

  15. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2011-01-01

    acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular...

  16. Cattle as urban planner

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hong Kong has a wide variety of habitats which contribute to the diversity of local fauna especially birds and insects. However, wild mammals are declining rapidly because of the degradation or loss of habitats caused by urbanization. For hundreds of years, bovid such as cattle and water buffalo have been an enduring presence amongst the diverse landscape of Hong Kong. Prior to the 1970’s, cattle were important to Hong Kong’s agricultural industry as a valuable labor for farming. Large popula...

  17. Evaluating wildlife-cattle contact rates to improve the understanding of dynamics of bovine tuberculosis transmission in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Michael J; Kay, Shannon L; Pepin, Kim M; Grear, Daniel A; Campa, Henry; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2016-12-01

    Direct and indirect contacts among individuals drive transmission of infectious disease. When multiple interacting species are susceptible to the same pathogen, risk assessment must include all potential host species. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an example of a disease that can be transmitted among several wildlife species and to cattle, although the potential role of several wildlife species in spillback to cattle remains unclear. To better understand the complex network of contacts and factors driving disease transmission, we fitted proximity logger collars to beef and dairy cattle (n=37), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; n=29), raccoon (Procyon lotor; n=53), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana; n=79) for 16 months in Michigan's Lower Peninsula, USA. We determined inter- and intra-species direct and indirect contact rates. Data on indirect contact was calculated when collared animals visited stationary proximity loggers placed at cattle feed and water resources. Most contact between wildlife species and cattle was indirect, with the highest contact rates occurring between raccoons and cattle during summer and fall. Nearly all visits (>99%) to cattle feed and water sources were by cattle, whereas visitation to stored cattle feed was dominated by deer and raccoon (46% and 38%, respectively). Our results suggest that indirect contact resulting from wildlife species visiting cattle-related resources could pose a risk of disease transmission to cattle and deserves continued attention with active mitigation.

  18. Significance of Neospora caninum in cattle farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which primarily causes diseases in dogs and cattle all over the world. It was first described in Norway in the mid-eighties in dogs, after which, until the present time, clinical neosporosis was proven in sheep, goats, deer, rhinoceroses, horses, and experimental rodents. Antibodies against N. caninum have been found also in the serum of water buffalo, red and gray foxes, coyotes, camels, and felines. Due to the similarity of this Coccidia with Toxoplasma gondi, the neosporosis was for a series of years incorrectly diagnozed as toxoplasmosis. Domestic canines, dogs, are the only real host for N. caninum. Its life cycle covers three stages of development: tachyzoites, tissue cysts and oocysts. Carnivores are infected by ingesting parts of infected tissue which contain tissue cysts with bradyzoites. The dominant pathway of transmission of this cause in cattle is transplacentary infection, but cattle can also be infected by ingestion of feed or water contaminated by sporulated oo-cysts of N. caninum. Bitches can be subclinical carriers of the parasite, when they pass on the cause transplacentarily, which results in more than one litter being born with the infection. Neosporosis today appears as the main cause of abortions and neonatal deaths in dairy cows and fattening cattle in almost all parts of the world, but with the highest incidence in the United States (US, New Zealand, The Netherlands, and Germany. The treatment of this disease has not been fully determined, but medicines used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis have yielded certain good results. There is no verified vaccine that would prevent undesired abortions in cattle. .

  19. Effect of age, sex, area and management practices on cattle mortality in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reazul Islam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of age, sex, location and management on cattle mortality rate in Rajshahi division of Bangladesh. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in 8 districts of Rajshahi division during July 2011 to June 2012. A total of 17,982 cattle heads were investigated based on age, sex, area. Data were collected from the cattle owners using a closed structured questionnaire. Tentative cause of cattle mortality was identified based on clinical signs, laboratory tests, history, ante-mortem and postmortem reports. Management practices of the cattle were also investigated. Results: Out of 17,982 cattle heads, 549 were found to be dead by various diseases, and an average mortality rate was 3.05%. Age-wise mortality rate of cattle revealed that the maximum mortality rate was found in the age group of 0.05 between the cattle mortality rate in Natore district (2.84% and Joypurhat districts (2.84%. Conclusion: The overall mortality rate of cattle in Rajshahi division was found comparatively low. This might be due to improved management practices, better veterinary services, and awareness among farmers. However, cattle mortality rate in the age group <2-year is alarming due to bad management practices and disease. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 13-17

  20. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamir, Amir N; Kehrli, Marcus E; Kunkle, Robert A; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Richt, Jürgen A; Miller, Janice M; Cutlip, Randall C

    2011-05-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of animals include scrapie of sheep and goats; transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME); chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk and moose; and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) of cattle. The emergence of BSE and its spread to human beings in the form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) resulted in interest in susceptibility of cattle to CWD, TME and scrapie. Experimental cross-species transmission of TSE agents provides valuable information for potential host ranges of known TSEs. Some interspecies transmission studies have been conducted by inoculating disease-causing prions intracerebrally (IC) rather than orally; the latter is generally effective in intraspecies transmission studies and is considered a natural route by which animals acquire TSEs. The "species barrier" concept for TSEs resulted from unsuccessful interspecies oral transmission attempts. Oral inoculation of prions mimics the natural disease pathogenesis route whereas IC inoculation is rather artificial; however, it is very efficient since it requires smaller dosage of inoculum, and typically results in higher attack rates and reduces incubation time compared to oral transmission. A species resistant to a TSE by IC inoculation would have negligible potential for successful oral transmission. To date, results indicate that cattle are susceptible to IC inoculation of scrapie, TME, and CWD but it is only when inoculated with TME do they develop spongiform lesions or clinical disease similar to BSE. Importantly, cattle are resistant to oral transmission of scrapie or CWD; susceptibility of cattle to oral transmission of TME is not yet determined.

  1. Clinical studies on mercury poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, M.; Nakamura, R.; Too, K.; Matsuhashi, A.; Ishimoto, H.; Sasaki, R.; Ishida, K.; Takahashi, M.

    1956-01-01

    A sporadic outbreak of an unknown disease occurred among dairy cattle, from early February to late May 1955, in Japan. The characteristic symptoms of this disease were dyspnea and depilation; out of 29 cases, 8 died while 2 were slaughtered. Clinical studies have disclosed that the symptoms were similar to those found in cases of mercury poisoning as described by others. So the animals' feed was suspected of being the cause of the sickness. It was confirmed that the incident was due to poisoning resulting from ingestion of linseed meal treated with a mercurial fungicide. From the results of the testing anamnesis, it was found that 171 cattle were fed with the meal and 29 cases were affected. In veiw of the wide use of mercurial preparations for treating seed grains against fungi infection, a further experimental study was made on the effects of the feed and fungicide upon calves.

  2. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  3. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Oliveira Luciana Oliveira de; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after...

  4. Immune Responses in Cattle Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle were inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium kansasii to compare antigen-specific immune responses to varied patterns of mycobacterial disease. Disease expression ranged from colonization with associated pathology (M. bovis), colonization without path...

  5. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagor, J.C.

    Reports of heavy metal intoxication submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory indicate that arsenic is the most common heavy metal intoxicant in Texas. The most frequent sources of arsenic are compounds used as herbicides and cotton defoliants. The misuse of these compounds and subsequent intoxication of cattle is discussed in this paper. 8 references, 1 table.

  6. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  7. Postpartum uterine health in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I M; Dobson, H

    2004-07-01

    Uterine health is often compromised in cattle because postpartum contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and pathogenic bacteria frequently persist causing clinical disease. The subfertility associated with uterine infection involves perturbation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, in addition to the direct effects on the uterus, and appears to persist even after clinical resolution of the disease. Absorption of bacterial components from the uterus can prevent the follicular phase LH surge and ovulation. In addition, the first postpartum dominant follicle has a slower growth rate and secretes less estradiol at the end of the growth phase. There are also localised ovarian effects of high uterine bacterial growth density, because fewer first dominant follicles are selected in the ovary ipsilateral than contralateral to the previously gravid uterine horn. Thus, it is important to diagnose and treat uterine disease promptly and effectively. Examination of the contents of the vagina for the presence of pus is the most useful method for diagnosis of endometritis. The character and odor of the vaginal mucus can be scored and this endometritis score is correlated with the growth density of pathogenic bacteria in the uterus, and is prognostic for the likely success of treatment. The challenge for the future is to design prevention and control programs to reduce the incidence of disease, and understand how the immune and endocrine systems are integrated.

  8. Exposure of vaccinated and naive cattle to natural challenge from buffalo-derived Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Sitt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrative management of wildlife and livestock requires a clear understanding of the diseases transmitted between the two populations. The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria parva causes two distinct diseases in cattle, East Coast fever and Corridor disease, following infection with parasites derived from cattle or buffalo, respectively. In this study, cattle were immunized with a live sporozoite vaccine containing three T. parva isolates (the Muguga cocktail, which has been used extensively and successfully in the field to protect against cattle-derived T. parva infection. The cattle were exposed in a natural field challenge site containing buffalo but no other cattle. The vaccine had no effect on the survival outcome in vaccinated animals compared to unvaccinated controls: nine out of the 12 cattle in each group succumbed to T. parva infection. The vaccine also had no effect on the clinical course of the disease. A combination of clinical and post mortem observations and laboratory analyses confirmed that the animals died of Corridor disease. The results clearly indicate that the Muguga cocktail vaccine does not provide protection against buffalo-derived T. parva at this site and highlight the need to evaluate the impact of the composition of challenge T. parva populations on vaccine success in areas where buffalo and cattle are present.

  9. Application of combined SMRT and long-read pyrosequencing to produce reference genome sequences of bacteria associated with respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of comparing complete genomes for elucidating mechanisms of virulence in pathogenic organisms has been demonstrated recently in foodborne and waterborne human disease outbreaks. We built upon this concept to investigate virulence mechanisms in bovine respiratory disease complex (B...

  10. Borna disease virus in blood of cattle infect detection in Gui Zhou and surrounding areas%贵州省及部分周边地区牛博尔纳病病毒感染的情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海军; 王长明; 谢婷婷; 王顺旺; 徐平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨贵州省及周边地区牛群博尔纳病病毒(BDV)感染状况.方法 采用荧光定量巢式逆转录聚合酶链反应(FQ-nRT-PCR)检测了120例牛的外周血单个核细胞中的BDV p24基因片段.结果 牛外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中BDV p24基因片段阳性率均为4.17%.牛BDV p24基因片段的测序结果与GeneBank提供的标准病毒株比较,同源性96.51%~97.67%;有2个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1675 C-T,nt1678 T-C突变率为2%);与马的Strain V病毒株比较,有3个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1650 T-C,nt1671 C-T,nt1674 C-T突变率为3%);与H1766病毒株比较,有2个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1675 C-T,nt1678 T-C突变率为2%);与He80/FR病毒株比较,在3个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt 1660 T-C,nt 1669 A-G,nt 1672 C-T突变率为3%);但它们所编码的氨基酸没有改变.结论 贵州及湖南省部分地区牛群中存在BDV自然感染,可能是BDV流行区域之一;人感染BDV可能具有潜在的动物源性.%Objective To investigate the infection condition in cattle infected with Borna disease virus(BDV)in Guizhou province and some surrounding areas. Methods The p24 gene fragment of BDV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)from 120 cattle was detected by fluorescence quantitative nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(FQ-nRT-PCR). Results The p24 gene fragment of BDV-RNA in PBMCs from cattle was 5 positive(4. 17%). The homology of p24 gene fragment of BDV detected to GenBank was 96. 51% - 97. 67%. 2 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with Bo/04W and huP2br isolated in heifer brain tissue by Watanabe Y(ntl675 C-T,ntl678 T-C mutation rate of 2%). 3 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with Strain V in horse (ntl650 T-C,ntl671 C-T,ntl674 C-T mutation rate of 3%). 2 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with H1766 in horse (ntl675 C-T,ntl678 T-C mutation rate of 2%). 3 situs consistency silent mutation when compared

  11. Systemic foot-and-mouth disease vaccination in cattle promotes specific antibody secreting cells at the respiratory tract and triggers local anamnestic-compatible responses upon aerosol infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting biungulate species. Commercial vaccines, formulated with inactivated whole FMD virus (FMDV) particles, are regularly used worldwide in regions recognized as free from the disease. Here, we studied the generation of antibody ...

  12. Arsenic poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, M.W.; Dodson, M.E.

    1972-06-01

    A case of acute arsenic poisoning in cattle was reported. The losses occurred on a property in the south east of South Australia. The weather had been hot for two or three days before the death occurred. The tank supplying the water trough had almost run dry. The cattle then attempted to meet their water requirements by drinking from the sheep dipping vat. A sample of rumen contents and a sample of water from the dipping vat were checked for arsenic. The rumen sample contained 45 ppM As/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and the sample of dipping fluid contained 200 ppM As. The lesions observed were similar to earlier reported arsenic poisoning. 5 references.

  13. Potential economic impact of parasites on the cattle industry of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic diseases remain an important factor affecting the productivity of cattle in Mexico. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production,...

  14. Analysis of Babesia bovis-induced gene expression changes in the cattle tick, Rhipcephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boophilus ticks are vectors of Babesia bovis, the protozoan causative agent of cattle fever, a disease which is responsible for significant production losses to cattle producers in much of Africa, Central and South America and Australia. We utilized subtractive cDNA library synthesis techniques to o...

  15. Genetic diversity, acaricide resistance status and evolutionary potential of a Rhipicephalus microplus population from a disease-controlled cattle farming area in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, Luïse; Baron, Samantha; van der Merwe, Nicolaas A; Madder, Maxime; Stoltsz, Wilhelm H; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2016-06-01

    The Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus is a hematophagous ectoparasite of great veterinary and economic importance. Along with its adaptability, reproductive success and vectoring capacity, R. microplus has been reported to develop resistance to the major chemical classes of acaricides currently in use. In South Africa, the Mnisi community in the Mpumalanga region offers a unique opportunity to study the adaptive potential of R. microplus. The aims of this study therefore included characterising acaricide resistance and determining the level and pattern of genetic diversity for R. microplus in this region from one primary population consisting of 12 communal dip-stations. The level of acaricide resistance was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that contribute to acaricide insensitivity. Additionally, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene fragments of collected individuals were sequenced and a haplotype network was constructed. A high prevalence of alleles attributed to resistance against formamidines (amitraz) in the octopamine/tyramine (OCT/Tyr) receptor (frequency of 0.55) and pyrethroids in the carboxylesterase (frequency of 0.81) genes were observed. Overall, the sampled tick population was homozygous resistant to pyrethroid-based acaricides in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGS) gene. A total of 11 haplotypes were identified in the Mnisi R. microplus population from ITS2 analysis with no clear population structure. From these allele frequencies it appears that formamidine resistance in the Mnisi community is on the rise, as the R. microplus populations is acquiring or generating these resistance alleles. Apart from rearing multi-resistant ticks to commonly used acaricides in this community these ticks may pose future problems to its surrounding areas.

  16. Feedlot Processing and Arrival Cattle Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, Tom; Lukasiewicz, Kip; Hyder, LeeAnn

    2015-11-01

    Acclimating newly arrived cattle in a feedlot setting can increase cattle confidence, reduce stress, improve immune function, and increase cattle well-being. Understanding cattle instincts and using low-stress handling techniques teaches cattle to trust their caregivers and work efficiently for them throughout the feeding period. These techniques should be applied with newly arrived cattle when they are unloaded, moved from the holding pen to the home pen, and handled inside the home pen. Low-stress handling during processing and a sound processing protocol based on cattle history and proper risk assessment can improve cattle health from the start of the feeding period.

  17. Characterisation of recent foot-and-mouth disease viruses from African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer )and cattle in Kenya is consistent with independent virus populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabalayo Wekesa, Sabenzia; Kiprotich Sangula, Abraham; Belsham, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including roles played by different hosts, is essential for improving disease control. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a reservoir for the SAT serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV). Large buffalo populations commonly...

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles and Diversity in Salmonella from Humans and Cattle, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afema, J A; Mather, A E; Sischo, W M

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of long-term anti-microbial resistance (AMR) data is useful to understand source and transmission dynamics of AMR. We analysed 5124 human clinical isolates from Washington State Department of Health, 391 cattle clinical isolates from the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and 1864 non-clinical isolates from foodborne disease research on dairies in the Pacific Northwest. Isolates were assigned profiles based on phenotypic resistance to 11 anti-microbials belonging to eight classes. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), Salmonella Newport (SN) and Salmonella Montevideo (SM) were the most common serovars in both humans and cattle. Multinomial logistic regression showed ST and SN from cattle had greater probability of resistance to multiple classes of anti-microbials than ST and SN from humans (P Salmonella may be due to greater diversity of sources entering the human population compared to cattle or due to continuous evolution in the human environment. Also, AMR diversity was greater in clinical compared to non-clinical cattle Salmonella, and this could be due to anti-microbial selection pressure in diseased cattle that received treatment. The use of bootstrapping techniques showed that although there were shared profiles between humans and cattle, the expected and observed number of profiles was different, suggesting Salmonella and associated resistance from humans and cattle may not be wholly derived from a common population.

  19. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  20. Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

  1. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Karina Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we areable to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aimof constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... of pain in dairy cattle under productionconditions....

  2. Autoantibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein in the sera of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sachiko; Miyasho, Taku; Maeda, Naoyuki; Doh-ura, Katsumi; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It is desirable to make the diagnosis in live cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and thus surrogate markers for the disease have been eagerly sought. Serum proteins from BSE cattle were analyzed by 2-D Western blotting and TOF-MS. Autoantibodies against proteins in cytoskeletal fractions prepared from normal bovine brains were found in the sera of BSE cattle. The protein recognized was identified to be glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes in the brain. The antigen protein, GFAP, was also found in the sera of BSE cattle. The percentages of both positive sera in the autoantibody and GFAP were 44.0% for the BSE cattle, 0% for the healthy cattle, and 5.0% for the clinically suspected BSE-negative cattle. A significant relationship between the presence of GFAP and the expression of its autoantibody in the serum was recognized in the BSE cattle. These findings suggest a leakage of GFAP into the peripheral blood during neurodegeneration associated with BSE, accompanied by the autoantibody production, and might be useful in understanding the pathogenesis and in developing a serological diagnosis of BSE in live cattle.

  3. Perspectives of fetal dystocia in cattle and buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Narayan Purohit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the causes of fetal dystocia in cows and buffalo. Two fetal causes are distinct fetal oversize and fetal abnormalities. Fetal oversize is common in heifers, cows of beef cattle breeds, prolonged gestations, increased calf birth weight, male calves and perinatal fetal death with resultant emphysema. Fetal abnormalities include monsters, fetal diseases and fetal maldispositions, and it is difficult to deliver such fetuses because of their altered shape. Although monsters are rare in cattle, a large number of monstrosities have been reported in river buffalo; yet also here, overall incidence is low. Diseases of the fetus resulting in dystocia include hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca and hydrothorax. The most common cause of dystocia in cattle seems to be fetal maldispositions, of which limb flexion and head deviation appear to be the most frequent. We provide a brief description of the management of dystocia from different causes in cattle and buffalo. A case analysis of 192 and 112 dystocia in cattle and buffalo, respectively, at our referral center revealed that dystocia is significantly higher (P<0.05 in first and second parity cows and buffalo, and that dystocia of fetal origin is common in cows (65.62% but less frequent (40.17% in buffalo. In buffalo, the single biggest cause of dystocia was uterine torsion (53.57%. Fetal survival was significantly (P<0.05 higher both in cows and buffalo when delivery was completed within 12 h of second stage of labor.

  4. The Genetic Architecture of Climatic Adaptation of Tropical Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C.; Chan, Eva K. F.; Johnston, David J.; Hawken, Rachel J.; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E.; Burrow, Heather M.; Henshall, John M.; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  5. Placentation in cloned cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Visintin, J A

    2007-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological differences between placentas from normal and cloned cattle pregnancies reaching term, the umbilical cord, placentomes and interplacentomal region of the fetal membranes were examined macroscopically as well as by light and scanning electron microscopy. In pregnancies...... than one primary villus, as opposed to a single villus in non-cloned placentae. Scanning electron microscopy of blood vessel casts revealed that there was also more than one stem artery per villous tree and that the ramification of the vessels failed to form dense complexes of capillary loops...

  6. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  7. Risk factors for infection with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus in a cattle population vaccinated with a non-purified vaccine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, J; Rasouli, N; McLaws, M; Bartels, C J M

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we estimated the level of Foot-and-Mouth (FMD) virus infection in a cattle-dense north-western province of Islamic Republic of Iran and analyzed putative risk factors for FMD infection. Calves (6-24 months of age) from all 17 districts of West Azerbaijan were tested for antibodies against non-structural proteins (NSP-Ab) of FMD virus. A proportional stratification with a minimum of 30 epi-units was applied for 3 different husbandry systems: villages, dairy and mixed farms. Within an epi-unit, 30 calves were sampled. For the interpretation of ELISA test results, we used the 50% inhibition (50PI) cut-off as per producer's instructions and created one at 75% inhibition (75PI) based on the lowest point of the histogram of PI results. This approach resulted in three categories of outcomes; negative (N), low-positive (LP) and high-positive (HP). A generalized mixed-effect model for binary outcomes was used for analysing putative risk factors and was run for both cut-off values. A total of 8378 calves from 202 villages, 51 dairy farms and 28 mixed farms were eligible for analysis. The percentage of calves testing positive (LP+HP) was 53.7% (95% Confidence interval (CI): 52.6%-54.8%), with 39.6% (95% CI: 38.6-40.7%) testing HP (n=3309) while 14.1% (95% CI: 13.5-15.0%) of calves tested LP (n=1188). Of 281 epi-units sampled, all calves sampled tested negative in only 2 epi-units (0.7% (95% CI: 0.1-2.5%)) and more than 25 calves tested positive in 29 epi-units (10.3% (95% CI: 7.0-14.5%)). Outcomes of regression modelling using the 50 PI cut-off indicated that, for each month increase in age, the odds of testing positive increased 1.01 times (95% CI: 1.00-1.03). The odds of calves testing NSP-positive increased 1.46 times (95% CI: 1.22-1.77) for calves residing in epi-units that had experienced clinical FMD in the 12 months preceding this study. The odds of calves owned by livestock owners who traded livestock testing positive were 1.4-1.6 times higher than

  8. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paton, D.J.; Clerq, De K.; Greiner, M.; Dekker, A.; Brocchi, E.; Bergmann, I.E.; Sammin, D.J.; Gubbins, S.; Parida, S.

    2006-01-01

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called ¿vaccinate-to-live¿ policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of ¿emergency¿ vaccination of surrounding her

  9. Infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces a natural killer (NK) cell response in cattle that is lacking following vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in innate antiviral immunity by directly lysing virus-infected cells and producing antiviral cytokines such as interferon gamma (IFNgamma). We developed a system for characterizing the bovine NK response to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a dis...

  10. Molecular networks associated with host resistance to gastrointestional nematodes in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitism by gastrointestinal nematodes is a disease severely affecting productivity in ruminants. To unravel mechanisms of host resistance to parasitic infection, we characterized the jejunal transcriptome of the cattle populations displaying resistance phenotypes in response to experimental Coope...

  11. 9 CFR 50.18 - Identification and disposal of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification and disposal of cattle. 50.18 Section 50.18 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES...

  12. Detection of lipomannan in cattle infected with bovine tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early and rapid detection of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is critical to controlling the spread of this disease in cattle and other animals. In this study, we demonstrate the development of an immunoassay for the direct detection of the bovine bTB biomarker, lipomannan (LM) in serum using a waveguide-...

  13. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  14. Constraints and efficiency of cattle marketing in semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Amimo, Joshua Oluoch; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Livestock keeping is regarded as a store of wealth for pastoralists in Kenya, besides their social and cultural functions. The objective of this study was to prioritize constraints to cattle marketing in a semiarid pastoral area of Narok in Kenya and to analyze efficiency of cattle marketing in transit markets located in Garissa, Kajiado and Narok counties. Primary data collection from traders was done through participatory interviews and market surveys, while time series market price data were obtained from secondary sources. Five focus group interviews were organized with a total of 61 traders in markets from Narok County, while a total of 187 traders who purchased cattle from transit markets provided data on a number of cattle purchased, purpose of purchase, buying prices and mode of transport. Market performance was analyzed through trader's market share, gross margins, Gini coefficient and coefficient of correlation between time series price data. The marketing constraints which were ranked high included lack of market for meat, trekking of cattle to markets, lack of price information and occurrence of diseases. About 10 % of traders purchased over 50 % of cattle which were supplied in markets, revealing a high concentration index. Further, a gross marketing margin per cattle purchased was positive in all markets revealing profitability. Moderate correlation coefficients existed between time series market price data for cattle purchased from Ewaso Ngiro and Mulot markets (r = 0.5; p markets were weak (r = 0.2; p > 0.05). The integration of markets, occurrence of diseases and trekking of cattle to markets are factors which may increase a risk of infectious disease spread. These results call for support of disease surveillance activities within markets in pastoral areas so that farms and systems which are connected are protected from threats of infectious diseases.

  15. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  16. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  17. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  18. Doença das mucosas associada à dermatite generalizada em bovinos, Mato Grosso do Sul Mucosal disease associated with generalized dermatitis in cattle, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.L. Ferreira

    2008-06-01

    . Imunoistoquímica realizada em biópsia de orelhas identificou apenas um destes animais como positivo. O rebanho apresentou redução no índice de fertilidade e taxa de desmame no ano seguinte ao nascimento dos bezerros PI, mas estes indicadores retornaram posteriormente aos valores anteriores. Os resultados apresentados demonstram a presença da infecção por BVDV em rebanhos de corte no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, e evidenciam a necessidade da inclusão dessa enfermidade no diagnóstico diferencial de causas de dermatites generalizadas.This paper reports epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratory diagnostic aspects of a form of dermatitis associated with mucosal disease (MD in cattle. It also focuses on the methods used for identifying persistently infected (PI animals and on the impact of the disease on fertility and weaning rates in the affected herd. Cases of dermatitis associated with MD were diagnosed in two 12 and 24-month-old Nelore calves belonging to a beef cattle farm that operates the full cycle of production (calving, rearing, finishing in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil. The clinical signs exhibited by affected cattle 0included slow, progressive weight loss; formation of diffuse skin crusts in multiple body areas; skin dryness; multiple ulcerations on the gums and dorsal surface of the tongue which evolved to longitudinal fissures; formation of keratinized projections; and detachment of hoof horn. In addition, diarrhea affected one animal in the late stage of the disease. Necropsies also revealed longitudinal erosions in the esophagus. Histological examination showed coagulation necrosis foci in esophageal and lingual mucosae, with neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration. Skin lesions consisted of epidermal coagulation necrosis associated with neutrophil infiltration and hyperkeratosis. In both cases, clinical diagnosis was confirmed by the isolation and identification of cytopathic and noncytopathic biotypes of the bovine viral diarrhea virus

  19. Association of trypanosomosis risk with dairy cattle production in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Mugunieri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle reared in western Kenya are exposed to medium to high levels of trypanosomosis risk. The social background, farm characteristics and dairy cattle productivity of 90 and 30 randomly selected farmers from medium- and high-risk trypanosomosis areas, respectively, were compared. All the 120 farmers were visited between July and August 2002. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. The results showed that increased trypanosomosis risk represented by an increase in disease prevalence in cattle of 1% to 20 % decreased the density of dairy cattle by 53 % and increased the calving interval from 14 to 25 months. The increased risk was also associated with a significant increase in cattle mortalities and in a lactation period of 257 to 300 days. It was concluded that removal of the trypanosomosis constraint on dairy production would lead to expansion of dairying since the domestic demand for dairy products is expected to increase.

  20. Outbreaks of vesicular disease caused by Vaccinia virus in dairy cattle from Goiás State, Brazil (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano J.F. de Sant'Ana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cases of vesicular and exanthematic disease by Vaccinia virus (VACV have been reported in dairy herds of several Brazilian regions, occasionally also affecting humans. The present article describes eight outbreaks of vesicular disease caused by VACV in dairy herds of six counties of Goiás state, Midwestern Brazil (2010-2012, involving a total of 122 cows, 12 calves and 11 people. Dairy cows (3 to 9 years old were affected in all cases and calves (2 to 9 months old were affected in five outbreaks, presenting oral lesions. The morbidity ranged between 8 and 100% in cows, and 1.5 to 31% in calves. In the cows, the clinical signs started with vesicles (2-7mm, painful and coalescent papules (3-8 mm, which resulted in ulcers (5-25mm and scabs in teats, and, occasionally, in the muzzle. The clinical course lasted from 16 to 26 days. The histopathology of bovine skin samples revealed superficial perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, macrophages and multifocal areas of acanthosis, spongiosis, hipergranulosis and parakeratotic or orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with adjacent focally extensive ulcers. Eosinophilic inclusion bodies were noted in the cytoplasm of the keratinocytes. PCR to vgf gene of Orthopoxvirus was positive in samples collected from all outbreaks, and in some cases, genomic VACV sequences were identified by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Infectious virus was isolated in cell culture from scabs from one outbreak. Antibodies to Orthopoxvirus were detected in at least 3 or 4 animals in most outbreaks, by ELISA (outbreaks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 or virus-neutralization (outbreak 6. Neutralizing titers ranging from 8 to 64 in outbreak 6. In all outbreaks, VACV infection was suspected based on the clinical and pathological findings and it was confirmed by laboratory tests. Upon the etiological confirmation, other agents associated with vesicular disease were discarded. In all outbreaks, at least

  1. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paton, D.J.; de Clercq, K.; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding...... herds, reducing the need for large-scale pre-emptive culling of at-risk animals. Since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with FMDV following challenge exposure, it is necessary to either remove all vaccinates (vaccinate-to-kill) or to detect and remove vaccinates in which virus...... is circulating or has established persistent infections (vaccinate-to-live), in order to rapidly regain the most favoured trading status of FMD-free without vaccination. The latter approach can be supported by testing vaccinated animals for the presence of antibodies to certain non-structural proteins (NSP...

  2. First confirmation of foot and mouth disease virus serotype SAT-1 in cattle and small ruminants in Ethiopia in 2007/08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, Yoseph; Asfaw, Yilkal; Sahle, Mesfin; Ayelet, Gelagay; Jenberie, Shiferaw; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted in three regional states of Ethiopia: Amhara, Oromia, and the Southern Nations Nationalities and people regional state from August 2007 to April 2008 with the objective of identifying the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes circulating in the region. Two serotypes were recorded from epithelial tissue and oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid that were taken from outbreaks in study regions of Ethiopia. Serotype O FMDV was identified in Girar Jarso, Yabello, and Ankesha Guagusa districts while SAT-1 was isolated in Surma and Maji districts from tissue samples and this was the first report of the FMDV serotype in Ethiopia. Similarly, the OP fluid samples were found positive for SAT-1 FMDV in Maji and Surma districts.

  3. Application of non-structural protein antibody tests in substantiating freedom from foot-and-mouth disease virus infection after emergency vaccination of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, David J; de Clercq, Kris; Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo; Brocchi, Emiliana; Bergmann, Ingrid; Sammin, Donal J; Gubbins, Simon; Parida, Satya

    2006-10-30

    There has been much debate about the use of the so-called "vaccinate-to-live" policy for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe, according to which, spread of the FMD virus (FMDV) from future outbreaks could be controlled by a short period of "emergency" vaccination of surrounding herds, reducing the need for large-scale preemptive culling of at-risk animals. Since vaccinated animals may become subclinically infected with FMDV following challenge exposure, it is necessary to either remove all vaccinates (vaccinate-to-kill) or to detect and remove vaccinates in which virus is circulating or has established persistent infections (vaccinate-to-live), in order to rapidly regain the most favoured trading status of FMD-free without vaccination. The latter approach can be supported by testing vaccinated animals for the presence of antibodies to certain non-structural proteins (NSP) of FMDV, which are induced by infection with the virus, but not by vaccination with purified FMD vaccines. Using test sensitivity and specificity data established at a recent workshop on NSP assays [Brocchi E, Bergmann I, Dekker A, Paton DJ, Sammin DJ, Greiner M, et al. Comparative performance of six ELISAs for antibodies to the non-structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease. Vaccine, in press], this paper examines the ways in which serological testing with NSP ELISAs can be used and interpreted and the effect that this will have on the confidence with which freedom from infection can be demonstrated within guidelines specified by the World Animal Health Organisation and the European Commission.

  4. Spatial and temporal investigations of reported movements, births and deaths of cattle and pigs in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindström Tom

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Livestock movements can affect the spread and control of contagious diseases and new data recording systems enable analysis of these movements. The results can be used for contingency planning, modelling of disease spread and design of disease control programs. Methods Data on the Swedish cattle and pig populations during the period July 2005 until June 2006 were obtained from databases held by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Movements of cattle and pigs were investigated from geographical and temporal perspectives, births and deaths of cattle were investigated from a temporal perspective and the geographical distribution of holdings was also investigated. Results Most movements of cattle and pigs were to holdings within 100 km, but movements up to 1200 km occurred. Consequently, the majority of movements occurred within the same county or to adjacent counties. Approximately 54% of the cattle holdings and 45% of the pig holdings did not purchase any live animals. Seasonal variations in births and deaths of cattle were identified, with peaks in spring. Cattle movements peaked in spring and autumn. The maximum number of holdings within a 3 km radius of one holding was 45 for cattle and 23 for pigs, with large variations among counties. Missing data and reporting bias (digit preference were detected in the data. Conclusion The databases are valuable tools in contact tracing. However since movements can be reported up to a week after the event and some data are missing they cannot replace other methods in the acute phase of an outbreak. We identified long distance transports of cattle and pigs, and these findings support an implementation of a total standstill in the country in the case of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The databases contain valuable information and improvements in data quality would make them even more useful.

  5. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) affects cattle from all breeds living in all regions. However, different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to developing BRDC. The causes of BRDC are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Infec...

  6. Cytokine profiles from shipping through sickness and recovery in cattle either mass-medicated with gamithromycin or sham-treated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is estimated to be responsible for 75% of morbidity and 50% of mortality in beef cattle feeding operations, and mass medication of cattle upon arrival at feeding facilities is a common practice to control BRD. Our objectives were to determine if cytokine profiles di...

  7. Differential expression of miRNA-423-5p in serum from cattle challenged with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an RNA virus that causes respiratory disease in cattle. MicroRNAs have been proposed as indicators of exposure to respiratory pathogens. However, microRNA profiles in cattle exposed to BVDV are currently nonexistent and few studies have been reported; therefore,...

  8. Pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: impact of the Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and route of innoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a companion study, we reported that the cellular Jumonji-C Domain containing Protein 6 (JMJD6) protein is involved in an alternate integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. Here, we investigated the JMJD6 localization in animal tissues from cattle infected with either ...

  9. Acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Adrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the epidemiological and pathological aspects of an outbreak of acute fasciolosis in cattle in southern Brazil. Fifteen out of 70 three-year-old pregnant cows lost weight in the 30-40 days prior to calving. Clinical signs included diarrhea, weakness, mild anemia and jaundice. Dark yellow fluid in the abdominal cavity was observed at necropsy. Fibrin and clotted blood were adhered to the pericardium and lung, primarily in the diaphragmatic lobes. The liver was enlarged, and the capsular surface was irregular with clear areas and petechiae. At the cut surface, the liver was irregular, firm and edematous, and several hemorrhagic channels could be observed. Areas of fibrosis through the parenchyma and whitish thrombi occluding the great vessels were also observed. The livers of 10 cows that not died were condemned at slaughter for lesions of fasciolosis similar to those observed at necropsy. Microscopically, the liver showed areas of coagulation necrosis, extensive hemorrhages in the streaks or foci and disruption of the parenchyma with neutrophil and eosinophil infiltration. Fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were also observed. Immature Fasciola hepatica flukes were observed in the parenchyma surrounded by degenerated hepatocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and hemorrhages. The outbreak occurred on a farm located in an area endemic for fasciolosis, although the acute form of the disease is not common in cattle in this region. It is likely that the cows were infected by F. hepatica metacercariae released in the late fall or early spring in the rice stubble where the herd was grazing prior to calving. Although mortality due to fasciolosis in cattle is infrequent, outbreaks can occur and treatments that are effective in both the immature and adult forms of the parasite should be administered to prevent economic losses.

  10. A molecular study of congenital erythropoietic porphyria in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerholm, J S; Thulstrup, P W; Bjerrum, M J; Bendixen, C; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in cattle is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) encoded by the UROS gene. In this study, we have established the pedigree of an extended Holstein family in which the disease is segregating in a manner consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Biochemical analyses demonstrated accumulation of uroporphyrin, thus confirming that it is indeed insufficient activity of UROS which is the cause of the disease. We have therefore sequenced all nine exons of UROS in affected and non-affected individuals without detecting any potential causative mutations. However, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within the spliceosome attachment region in intron 8 of UROS is shown to segregate with the disease allele. Our study supports the hypothesis that CEP in cattle is caused by a mutation affecting UROS; however, additional functional studies are needed to identify the causative mutation.

  11. A molecular study of congenital erythropoietic porphyria in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in cattle is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) encoded by the UROS gene. In this study, we have established the pedigree of an extended Holstein family in which the disease...... is segregating in a manner consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. Biochemical analyses demonstrated accumulation of uroporphyrin, thus confirming that it is indeed insufficient activity of UROS which is the cause of the disease. We have therefore sequenced all nine exons of UROS in affected and non......-affected individuals without detecting any potential causative mutations. However, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located within the spliceosome attachment region in intron 8 of UROS is shown to segregate with the disease allele. Our study supports the hypothesis that CEP in cattle is caused by a mutation...

  12. Dynamical Patterns of Cattle Trade Movements

    CERN Document Server

    Bajardi, Paolo; Natale, Fabrizio; Savini, Lara; Colizza, Vittoria; 10.1371/journal.pone.0019869

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displ...

  13. The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers The cattle crush strategy: trading opportunities for cattle producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Acevedo Vélez

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This research shows that it is possible for U.S. cattle feeders to obtain additional profits if a consistent technical strategy for trading is applied to the cattle crush spread. However, when trading costs are introduced, the likelihood of obtaining profit from trading the crush reduces considerably. It also shows that the level of gains from the cattle crush is related to the month the cattle are marketed. When the crush is used as a hedging strategy it decreases the profit from the feeding operation and reduces the volatility of those returns, helping producers to transfer part of the price risk associated with their production. To provide evidence of these findings, this study utilizes daily prices for 1995 to 2006 of the futures contracts of corn, feeder and live cattle to construct the daily cattle crush spread for two different combinations of futures contracts traded in the Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange. These contract combinations suppose that cattle are fed in feedlots for 170 days before being marketed in April and in October. Two different scenarios are also evaluated using the cattle crush spread: one in which the crush is employed as a pre-placement hedging tool and another in which the crush is used as a post-placement hedging method.En este estudio se muestra que es posible para un productor de ganado de carne en EE.UU obtener utilidades adicionales cuando estrategias de operación en el mercado financiero de futuros de Chicago son utilizadas (i.e. la estrategia “cattle crush”. No obstante, los costos de transacción presentes reduce la probabilidad de obtener utilidades mediante la estrategia de análisis técnico. También se muestra que el nivel de ganancia derivado del uso del “cattle crush” está relacionado con el ciclo ganadero en el cual se realice la operación. Cuando el “cattle crush” se utiliza como alternativa para cubrir riesgo, se reduce considerablemente la volatilidad de los

  14. Assessment of the probability of introducing Mycobacterium tuberculosis into Danish cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Krogh, Kaspar; Alban, Lis

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium spp. International trade in cattle is regulated with respect to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), despite that cattle can become infected with both species. In this study we estimated the annual probability (PIntro) of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population, by the import of cattle and/or by immigrants working in Danish cattle herds. Data from 2013 with date, number, and origin of imported live cattle were obtained from the Danish cattle database. Information on immigrants working in Danish cattle herds was obtained through a questionnaire sent to Danish cattle farmers. The gained inputs were fed into three stochastic scenario trees to assess the PIntro for the current and alternative test-and-manage strategies, such as testing of imported animals and/or testing immigrant workers with the tuberculin skin test. We considered the population of Danish farmers and practitioners free of tuberculosis, because in Denmark, the incidence of the disease in humans is low and primarily related to immigrants and socially disadvantaged people. The median annual probability of introducing M. tuberculosis into the Danish cattle population due to imported live cattle was 0.008% (90% P.I.: 0.0007%; 0.03%), while the probability due to immigrant workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.1%). The median combined probability (PIntro) due to imported cattle plus workers was 4.1% (90% P.I.: 0.8%; 12.6%). Hence, on average at least one introduction each 24 (90% P.I.: 8; 125) years could be expected. Imported live cattle appeared to play a marginal role on the overall annual PIntro, because they represented only approximately 0.2% of the median annual probability. By testing immigrant workers the overall annual PIntro could be reduced to 0.2% (90% P.I.: 0.04%; 0.7%). Thus, testing of immigrant workers could be considered as a risk mitigation strategy to markedly reduce

  15. Comparative clinicopathological changes in buffalo and cattle following infection by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jesse, F F A; Zunita, Z

    2015-11-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute, septicaemic disease of cattle and buffalo of Asia and Africa caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 or E:2. Buffaloes are believed to be more susceptible than cattle. In this study, 9 buffaloes of 8 months old were divided equally into 3 groups (Groups 1, 3, 5). Similarly, 9 cattle of 8 months old were equally divided into 3 groups (Groups 2, 4, 6). Animals of Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with PBS while Groups 3 and 4 were inoculated subcutaneously with 10(5) cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2. Animals of Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum. Both buffaloes and cattle that were inoculated subcutaneously succumbed to the infection at 16 h and 18 h, respectively. Two buffaloes that were inoculated intranasally (Group 5) succumbed at 68 h while the remaining cattle and buffaloes survived the 72-h study period. Endotoxin was detected in the blood of infected cattle (Group 4) and buffaloes (Groups 3 and 5) prior to the detection of P. multocida B:2 in the blood. The endotoxin was detected in the blood of buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 at 0.5 h post-inoculation while buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6 at 1.5 h. On the other hand, bacteraemia was detected at 2.5 h in buffaloes of Group 3 and cattle of Group 4 and at 12 h in buffaloes of Group 5 and cattle of Group 6. Affected cattle and buffaloes showed lesions typical of haemorrhagic septicaemia. These included congestion and haemorrhages in the organs of respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts with evidence of acute inflammatory reactions. The severity of gross and histopathology lesions in cattle and buffalo calves that succumbed to the infection showed insignificant (p > 0.05) difference. However, inoculated buffalo and cattle that survived the infection showed significantly (p cattle are more resistant to intranasal infection by P. multocida B:2 than buffaloes.

  16. Survey of Ticks Collected from Tennessee Cattle and Their Pastures for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompo, K; Mays, S; Wesselman, C; Paulsen, D J; Fryxell, R T Trout

    2016-02-01

    Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent for bovine anaplasmosis (BA) and Ehrlichia ruminantium is the causative agent for heartwater, 2 devastating diseases of cattle. BA is common in the United States and frequently reported in western Tennessee cattle; however, cases of heartwater are not yet established in the continental United States. Because both pathogens are transmitted via the bites of infected ticks, the objective of this study was to survey cattle and pastures for ticks and for each pathogen. University of Tennessee AgResearch has 7 research and education centers (REC) located throughout the state at which they manage cattle. Ticks were collected from selected cattle (every fourth to sixth animal) and pastures (via dragging) associated with the herd from each REC during the summer of 2013. A total of 512 ticks were collected from cattle (n = 386) and pastures (n = 126) and were PCR-screened for Anaplasma and Ehrlichia using genus-specific primers. Collections consisted of 398 (77.7%) Amblyomma americanum, 84 (16.4%) Amblyomma maculatum, and 30 (5.9%) Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were not recovered from pastures or cattle east of the Tennessee Plateau. The North American vectors for An. marginale and E. ruminantium were identified (D. variabilis and A. maculatum, respectively), but neither pathogen was recovered. A large proportion of ticks were collected from cattle and, of these, a majority were attached to their host (compared to questing on their host or engorged on the host). Four A. americanum were positive for Ehrlichia spp. (Ehrlichia ewingii, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Panola Mountain Ehrlichia), all in western Tennessee. With the identification of a few Ehrlichia infections in cattle-associated ticks and current A. marginale rates in Tennessee beef cattle nearing 11%, additional research is needed to establish baseline tick, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia data for future management studies.

  17. The first cases of Bartonella bovis infection in cattle from Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Grono, Krzysztof

    2013-03-23

    Bartonella bovis was recently identified as a cause of bovine endocarditis, although Bartonella infections in natural hosts are usually asymptomatic. The disease is often misdiagnosed and is only discovered during the slaughtering process. In Europe B. bovis infections in cattle were reported only in France and Italy, nothing is known about the occurrence of B. bovis in cattle for the northern and eastern parts of Europe. The aim of our study was to search for Bartonella DNA in cattle in Central Europe (Poland) using three different loci (rpoB, ITS 16-23S rRNA, gltA). Our study resulted in the first detection of the asymptomatic B. bovis infection in 6.8% (12/177) of cattle in Central Europe. The potential role of B. bovis as a zoonotic agent for domestic animals and human diseases creates the need for further studies of these bacteria in natural and accidental hosts.

  18. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine...

  19. Bayesian kriging of seroprevalence to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James A; Scott, H Morgan

    2007-12-01

    Identifying spatial patterns of risk is important in the study of diseases with ecologic causes. Furthermore, relatively complex hierarchical modeling is required to determine how factors that are organized across levels interact, such as how an ecologic cause interacts with farm management and with animal characteristics. The objective of this study was to map the risk for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP - the causative agent of Johne's disease) and Neospora caninum (NC - the cause of neosporosis) infections in Alberta beef and dairy cattle. This objective utilized Bayesian generalized linear kriging to partition herd effects into a portion attributable to location and a portion that was independent of location. Seropositivity to NC in beef cattle showed strong support for spatial covariance, suggesting that ecologic causes were important for beef cattle but not dairy cattle. There was little evidence of spatial covariance for MAP seropositivity in either beef or dairy cattle.

  20. Epidemiologival, clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of botulism in cattle in the State of Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Orbem Veronezi

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out through the epidemiological, clinical, pathological and laboratory findings of botulism in cattle in the state of Santa Catarina, during the period from 1987 to 2008. The data were obtained through information from the files of the Department of Animal Pathology CAV/UDESC and in the properties which the disease continued to occur. In properties with the botulism associated phosphorus deficiency cattle, the animals were kept on native pastures, in most ...

  1. Transcriptional profiling of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense highlights gene expression signatures underlying trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessens Jan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT caused by tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma is a major constraint on livestock and agricultural production in Africa and is among the top ten global cattle diseases impacting on the poor. Here we show that a functional genomics approach can be used to identify temporal changes in host peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC gene expression due to disease progression. We also show that major gene expression differences exist between cattle from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible breeds. Using bovine long oligonucleotide microarrays and real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course. Results Trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle displayed a rapid and distinct transcriptional response to infection, with a ten-fold higher number of genes differentially expressed at day 14 post-infection compared to trypanosusceptible Boran cattle. These analyses identified coordinated temporal gene expression changes for both breeds in response to trypanosome infection. In addition, a panel of genes were identified that showed pronounced differences in gene expression between the two breeds, which may underlie the phenomena of trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. Gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrate that the products of these genes may contribute to increased mitochondrial mRNA translational efficiency, a more pronounced B cell response, an elevated activation status and a heightened response to stress in trypanotolerant cattle. Conclusion This study has revealed an extensive and diverse range of cellular processes that are altered temporally in response to trypanosome infection in African cattle. Results indicate that the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle respond more rapidly and with a

  2. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    adult Holstein cows from two farms in southern Brazil. In one of the farms four out of 42 cows (9.5% and in the other one out of eight cows (12.5% were affected. Clinical signs included, although not consistently, fever, pruritus, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, conjunctivitis, nasal serous discharge, loss of weight, dramatic drop in milk yield, and diarrhea. The duration of the clinical disease was approximately two weeks. All clinically affected cows died, one was euthanatized; three were necropsied. In each of these animals there was a pattern of systemic lesions consisting of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs but were particularly prominent in the myocardium, lymph nodes, spleen, adrenal gland and renal cortex. These lesions resulted in enlargement and disruption of the architecture of the invaded organ. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variabe proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophils. Eosinophils numbers were usually large. This granulomatous infiltration caused degeneration and loss of parenchymal cells of affected organs. Intensity of lesions varied among the three cows and among individual organs. This is the first documented report on a systemic granulomatous disease in cattle associated with grazing vetch in Brazil.

  3. Definition of the Cattle Killer Cell Ig–like Receptor Gene Family: Comparison with Aurochs and Human Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas D.; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Ellis, Shirley A.; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D. E.; Magee, David A.; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G.; MacHugh, David E.; Parham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig–like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. PMID:25398326

  4. Bovine herpesvirus 5 detection by virus isolation in cell culture and multiplex-PCR in central nervous system from cattle with neurological disease in Brazilian herds Detecção do herpesvírus bovino 5 por isolamento viral e multiplex-PCR em SNC de bovinos com doença neurológica em rebanhos brasileiros

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    Marlise Pompeo Claus

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 is an important cause of meningoencephalitis in young and adult cattle. The multiple etiology of neurological disturbances in cattle makes the quick and conclusive diagnosis of BoHV-5 infection important for animal and public health, mainly because of herbivore rabies that is endemic in Brazilian cattle herds. The objective of this retrospective study was to use a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex-PCR for BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 glycoprotein C gene detection from stored central nervous system (CNS tissue fragments of cattle with neurological clinical signs. Forty-seven frozen CNS samples of young and adult cattle from 31 herds in three Brazilian geographical regions (South, Southeast, and Center-west were evaluated. Eighteen (38.3% of these CNS samples were BoHV-positive by virus isolation in cell culture. By multiplex-PCR 30 (63.8% CNS samples were BoHV-5 positive. All 18 positive samples by virus isolation were confirmed as BoHV-5 by the multiplex-PCR, that provided a increase of 25.5% (12/47 in the BoHV-5 diagnosis rate. BoHV-1 was not detected in any CNS sample. This retrospective study demonstrated the wide regional distribution of BoHV-5 infection in Brazilian cattle herds since positive results were obtained in CNS samples of cattle with neurological disease from Paraná, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul States.O herpesvírus bovino 5 (BoHV-5 é um importante agente etiológico de meningoencefalite em bovinos jovens e adultos. A etiologia múltipla dos distúrbios neurológicos em bovinos torna o diagnóstico conclusivo do BoHV-5 importante tanto em termos de sanidade animal quanto de saúde pública, principalmente pela característica endêmica da raiva dos herbívoros nos rebanhos bovinos brasileiros. O objetivo desse estudo retrospectivo foi utilizar a reação em cadeia da polimerase (multiplex-PCR para a detecção do gene da glicoproteína C do BoHV-5 e do BoHV-1 em

  5. Cattle drive Salmonella infection in the wildlife-livestock interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaberre, G; Porrero, M C; Navarro-Gonzalez, N; Serrano, E; Domínguez, L; Lavín, S

    2013-11-01

    The genus Salmonella is found throughout the world and is a potential pathogen for most vertebrates. It is also the most common cause of food-borne illness in humans, and wildlife is an emerging source of food-borne disease in humans due to the consumption of game meat. Wild boar is one of the most abundant European game species and these wild swine are known to be carriers of zoonotic and food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella. Isolation of the pathogen, serotyping and molecular biology are necessary for elucidating epidemiological connections in multi-host populations. Although disease management at population level can be addressed using a number of different strategies, such management is difficult in free-living wildlife populations due to the lack of experience with the wildlife-livestock interface. Herein, we provide the results of a 4-year Salmonella survey in sympatric populations of wild boar and cattle in the Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (NE Spain). We also evaluated the effects of two management strategies, cattle removal and increased wild boar harvesting (i.e. by hunting and trapping), on the prevalence of the Salmonella serovar community. The serovars Meleagridis and Anatum were found to be shared by cattle and wild boar, a finding that was confirmed by 100% DNA similarity patterns using pulse field gel electrophoresis. Cattle removal was more efficient than the culling of wild boar as a means of reducing the prevalence of shared serotypes, which underlines the role of cattle as a reservoir of Salmonella for wild boar. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manage Salmonella in the wild, and the results have implications for management.

  6. Integrated Analysis of Environment, Cattle and Human Serological Data: Risks and Mechanisms of Transmission of Rift Valley Fever in Madagascar.

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    Marie-Marie Olive

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants and humans. Madagascar was heavily affected by RVF in 2008-2009, with evidence of a large and heterogeneous spread of the disease. The identification of at-risk environments is essential to optimize the available resources by targeting RVF surveillance in Madagascar. Herein, the objectives of our study were: (i to identify the environmental factors and areas favorable to RVF transmission to both cattle and human and (ii to identify human behaviors favoring human infections in Malagasy contexts.First, we characterized the environments of Malagasy communes using a Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA. Then, we analyzed cattle and human serological data collected at national level using Generalized Linear Mixed Models, with the individual serological status (cattle or human as the response, and MFA factors, as well as other potential risk factors (cattle density, human behavior as explanatory variables. Cattle and human seroprevalence rates were positively associated to humid environments (p<0.001. Areas with high cattle density were at risk (p<0.01; OR = 2.6. Furthermore, our analysis showed that frequent contact with raw milk contributed to explain human infection (OR = 1.6. Finally, our study highlighted the eastern-coast, western and north-western parts as high-risk areas for RVF transmission in cattle.Our integrated approach analyzing environmental, cattle and human datasets allow us to bring new insight on RVF transmission patterns in Madagascar. The association between cattle seroprevalence, humid environments and high cattle density suggests that concomitant vectorial and direct transmissions are critical to maintain RVF enzootic transmission. Additionally, in the at-risk humid environment of the western, north-western and the eastern-coast areas, suitable to Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, vectorial transmission probably occurs in both cattle and human. The relative contribution

  7. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  8. Surveillance of cattle health in the Netherlands: Monitoring trends and developments using routinely collected cattle census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Brouwer-Middelesch, H; Van Wuijckhuise, L; de Bont-Smolenaars, A J G; Van Schaik, G

    2016-11-01

    Since 2002, a national cattle health surveillance system (CHSS) is in place that consists of several surveillance components. The CHSS combines enhanced passive reporting, diagnostic and post-mortem examinations, random surveys for prevalence estimation of endemic diseases and quarterly data analysis. The aim of the data-analysis component, which is called the Trend Analysis Surveillance Component (TASC), is to monitor trends and developments in cattle health using routine census data. The challenges that were faced during the development of TASC and the merits of this surveillance component are discussed, which might be of help to those who want to develop a monitoring and surveillance system that includes data analysis. When TASC was developed, there were process-oriented challenges and analytical related issues that had to be solved. Process-oriented challenges involved data availability, confidentiality, quality, uniformity and economic value of the data. Analytical issues involved data validation, aggregation and modeling. Eventually, the results had to provide information on cattle health that was intuitive to the stakeholders and that could support decision making. Within TASC, both quarterly analysis on census data and, on demand, additional in-depth analysis are performed. The key monitoring indicators that are analyzed as part of TASC all relate to cattle health and involve parameters such as mortality, fertility, udder health and antimicrobial usage. Population-Averaged Generalized Estimating Equations, with the appropriate distribution (i.e. Gaussian, Poisson, Negative Binomial or Binomial) and link function (independent, log or logit), are used for analysis. Both trends in time and associations between cattle health indicators and potential confounders are monitored, discussed and reported to the stakeholders on a quarterly level. The flexibility of the in-depth analyses provides the possibility to conduct additional analyses when anomalies in trends

  9. Reassessment of the potential economic impact of cattle parasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisi, Laerte; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de; Andreotti, Renato; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; León, Adalberto Angel Pérez de; Pereira, Jairo Barros; Villela, Humberto Silva

    2014-01-01

    The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers.

  10. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

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    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  11. Comparison between three techniques for videosinuscopy in cattle

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    Fernando Zanlorenzi Basso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cattle have extensive paranasal sinuses that are susceptible to disease, most commonly sinusitis. The sinuscopy can be used to evaluate these structures, although there are no descriptions of this region for endoscopic anatomy, especially regarding the trocar position and the most appropriate type of endoscope. This study aimed to standardize the surgical approaches to sinuscopy in cattle by comparing the use of three endoscopes. Four accesses by trephination (one hole for each of the maxillary and frontal sinuses were made in eight heads of slaughtered cattle. Each hole was inspected with three endoscopes: a 10mm flexible colonoscope with up to 180º of angulation, a 10mm 0° laparoscope and a 4mm 30º arthroscope. It was observed that all regions of the maxillary sinus were better visualized with the 4mm endoscope, and the structures of this sinus were less well visualized with the 10mm laparoscope. The frontal sinus was difficult to evaluate due to the tortuosity of its bony projections, and the cranial portion was not observed by the proposed accesses. The caudal regions of the frontal sinus such as the nuchal diverticulum and the back of the orbit had the greatest number of structures visualized by the 4mm endoscope, followed by the colonoscope. The comparative analysis showed that the 4mm endoscope was most efficient and could be adapted to sinuscopy in cattle.

  12. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania

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    Isihaka J. Haji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% – 16.3%, involving single and mixed infections with Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. The highest haemoparasite occurrence was recorded in Lake Manyara (18.3%; 95% CI: 8.5% – 28.1%, and the lowest was recorded in Nanja (6.5%; 95% CI: 0.4% – 12.6%. This preliminary study, furthermore, provided evidence of the possible arthropod vectors (ticks and tsetse flies that may be involved in the transmission of haemoparasites to cattle in the Monduli district. It is envisaged that this survey will stimulate more studies to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in livestock by using more sensitive molecular techniques.

  13. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Isihaka J; Malele, Imna; Namangala, Boniface

    2014-11-13

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% - 16.3%), involving single and mixed infections with Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma brucei. The highest haemoparasite occurrence was recorded in Lake Manyara (18.3%; 95% CI: 8.5% - 28.1%), and the lowest was recorded in Nanja (6.5%; 95% CI: 0.4% - 12.6%). This preliminary study, furthermore, provided evidence of the possible arthropod vectors (ticks and tsetse flies) that may be involved in the transmission of haemoparasites to cattle in the Monduli district. It is envisaged that this survey will stimulate more studies to determine the prevalence of haemoparasites in livestock by using more sensitive molecular techniques.

  14. Pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: Impact of the Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) and route of inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paul; Pacheco, Juan; Stenfeldt, Carolina; Arzt, Jonathan; Rai, Devendra K; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    A companion study reported Jumonji-C domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) is involved in an integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. JMJD6 localization was investigated in animal tissues from cattle infected with either wild type A24-FMDV (A24-WT) or mutant FMDV (JMJD6-FMDV) carrying E95K/S96L and RGD to KGE mutations in VP1. Additionally, pathogenesis of mutant JMJD6-FMDV was investigated in cattle through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculation. Interestingly, JMJD6-FMDV pathogenesis was equivalent to A24-WT administered by IEL route. In contrast, JMJD6-FMDV aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest signs of FMD and animals showed no detectable viremia. Immunofluorescent microscopy of post-mortem tissue revealed JMJD6-FMDV exclusively co-localized with JMJD6(+) cells while A24-WT was occasionally found in JMJD6(+) cells. In vitro, chemical uptake inhibitors demonstrated JMJD6-FMDV entered cells via clathrin-coated pit endocytosis. In vivo, JMJD6-FMDV exhibited preference for JMJD6(+) cells, but availability of this alternative receptor likely depends on route of inoculation.

  15. Does the Bluetongue virus circulates in cattle population of Mat district, Albania?

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    KLODIAN DEDOLLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue is a viral, infectious, non-contiguous, vector transmitted disease of ruminants animals, caused by an Orbivurus. Despite the disease is not zoonoses, it is with high economic importance and as other OIE listed disease, significantly interfere with animal health and trade. Clinically, most affected species are sheep, however cattle serve as reservoir of infection and play major role on epidemiology of disease. Presence of Blue tongue disease proved only when it is based on laboratory tests.

  16. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  17. Heat Stress in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if supplementing the diet of near-finished beef cattle with a yeast product would mitigate the negative impact of a controlled HS on the physiological and endocrine responses. Crossbred beef heifers (n=111; BW=281.07 kg) were divided into 2 pens in a comm...

  18. Commercial aspects of cloning and genetic modification in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, I M; French, A J; Tecirlioglu, R T

    2004-01-01

    A range of potential commercial applications of cloning and genetic modification in cattle has been suggested over the last decade. It includes the rapid multiplication of elite genotypes, production of valuable human proteins, altered production characteristics, increased disease resistance...... embryos. Other significant impediments are societal concerns surrounding such technologies, animal welfare issues and regulatory requirements. This review will focus on current biological limitations and technical capabilities in commercial settings, the changes required to allow the production and sale...

  19. Neurological disorder in cattle associated with bovine herpesvirus 4

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A nested PCR assay was used to diagnose bovine encephalitis through herpesviruses including bovine herpesvirus 5 (BHV-5), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Aujeszky's disease virus (SHV-1), and ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) in 14 fragments of central nervous system (CNS) from cattle that died with neurological signs. In addition, as some samples of bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) have been isolated from neural tissue, it was also tested by nested PCR. The cases of encephalitis occurred in isolati...

  20. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Trevor W; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  1. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a three-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a three-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4 and again from the same cattle after ≥ 60 d on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7% entry samples and 1,038 (20.6% ≥ 60 d samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5%, 2.9%, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas 5 isolates (0.4% were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥ 89% similarity according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42, erm(A, erm(B, erm(F, erm(X and msr(E-mph(E, were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a three-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle.

  2. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  3. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

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    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.

  4. Seasonal meningoencephalitis in Holstein cattle caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Barbara M; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Read, Deryck H; Kinde, Hailu; Uzal, Francisco A; Manzer, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is a fulminant infection of the human central nervous system caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that thrives in artificially or naturally heated water. The infection usually is acquired while bathing or swimming in such waters. The portal of entry is the olfactory neuroepithelium. This report describes fatal meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in Holstein cattle that consumed untreated surface water in an area of California where summer temperatures at times exceed 42 degrees C. In the summers of 1998 and 1999, severe multifocal necrosuppurative hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis was observed in brain samples from nine 10-20-month-old heifers with clinical histories of acute central nervous system disease. Olfactory lobes and cerebella were most severely affected. Lesions were also evident in periventricular and submeningeal neuropil as well as olfactory nerves. Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in brain and olfactory nerve lesions and was isolated from one brain. Even though cultures of drinking water did not yield N. fowleri, drinking water was the likely source of the amoeba. The disease in cattle closely resembles primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Naegleria meningoencephalitis should be included among differential diagnoses of central nervous system disease in cattle during the summer season in areas with high ambient temperatures.

  5. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

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    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  6. Syndrome of arachnomelia in Simmental cattle

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    Weppert Myriam

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The syndrome of arachnomelia is an inherited malformation mainly of limbs, back and head in cattle. At present the arachnomelia syndrome has been well known mainly in Brown Swiss cattle. Nevertheless, the arachnomelia syndrome had been observed in the Hessian Simmental population during the decade 1964–1974. Recently, stillborn Simmental calves were observed having a morphology similar to the arachnomelia syndrome. The goal of this work was the characterization of the morphology and genealogy of the syndrome in Simmental to establish the basis for an effective management of the disease. Results The first pathologically confirmed arachnomelia syndrome-cases in the current Simmental population appeared in the year 2005. By 2007, an additional 140 calves with the arachnomelia syndrome were identified. The major pathological findings were malformed bones affecting the head, long bones of the legs and the vertebral column. It could be shown that, with the exception of two cases that were considered as phenocopies, all of the paternal and about two-third of the maternal pedigrees of the affected calves could be traced back to one common founder. Together with the data from experimental matings, the pedigree data support an autosomal recessive mutation being the etiology of the arachnomelia syndrome. The frequency of the mutation in the current population was estimated to be 3.32%. Conclusion We describe the repeated occurrence of the arachnomelia syndrome in Simmental calves. It resembles completely the same defect occurring in the Brown Swiss breed. The mutation became relatively widespread amongst the current population. Therefore, a control system has to be established and it is highly desirable to map the disease and develop a genetic test system.

  7. COMPARISON OF ELISA AND IFA FOR ESTIMATION OF ANTIBODY LEVELS OF CATTLE TO THEILERIA ANNULATA VACCINE

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    Fariba Golcliiiifar

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tropical Theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata is an economically important disease of cattle. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to determine antibody levels in vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, us¬ing cellular schizont as antigen and its results were compared with immunofluo-rescent assay (IFA. For this test 126 sera collected (105 vaccinated, 31 not vacci¬nated from cows and assayed with ELISA which among them 104 sera were positive and 32 sera were negative. Same sample assayed with IFA in which 99 were positive sera and 37 were negative sera. Thereby the sensitivity and speci¬ficity of this ELISA on comparsion with IFA were 95.5% and 66.6% respectively. This study revealed that ELISA could be successfully used for both differentiat¬ing vaccinated and not vaccinated cattle and obtaining the titer of vaccinated cattle.

  8. Polymorphism of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in Polish cattle affected by classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Artur; Czarnik, Urszula; Urszula, Czarnik; Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P; Strychalski, Janusz; Słota, Ewa

    2012-05-01

    Recent attempts to discover genetic factors affecting cattle resistance/susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have led to the identification of two insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms, located within the promoter and intron 1 of the prion protein gene PRNP, showing a significant association with the occurrence of classical form of the disease. Because the effect of the polymorphisms was studied only in few populations, in this study we investigated whether previously described association of PRNP indel polymorphisms with BSE susceptibility in cattle is also present in Polish cattle population. We found a significant relation between the investigated PRNP indel polymorphisms (23 and 12 bp indels), and susceptibility of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle to classical BSE (P < 0.05). The deletion variants of both polymorphisms were related to increased susceptibility, whereas insertion variants were protective against BSE.

  9. Compressão medular em bovinos associada à vacinação contra febre aftosa Spinal cord compression in cattle associated whit vaccination against foot and mouth disease

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    Ana Luisa Alves Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se aspectos etiológicos, epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de surtos de incoordenação motora observados após vacinação contra febre aftosa em bovinos nos estados da Paraíba e de Pernambuco. Os sinais de incoordenação motora foram observados em torno de 45 dias após a vacinação, realizada por via intramuscular nas regiões torácica e lombar e no local da aplicação havia aumento de volume. Um total de 24 animais foi acometido, sendo 6 no estado da Paraíba e 18 no estado de Pernambuco. Seis animais morreram e quatro foram eutanasiados. Nos animais eutanasiados, constataram-se miosite abscedativa com a presença de áreas amareladas irregulares multifocais a coalescentes com líquido esbranquiçado e leitoso na região do músculo Longissimus lumborum esquerdo (dois animais e massa amarelada firme que comprimia a medula espinhal entre as vértebras T11 e T12 (um animal e entre as vértebras L3 e L5 (um animal. Ao exame histológico, havia miosite e paquimeningite piogranulomatosa com áreas multifocais a coalescentes, contendo espaços claros e esféricos centrais de tamanhos variados que correspondem ao adjuvante lipídico da vacina da febre aftosa, removido o processamento para a histologia. Determinou-se o diagnóstico de lesão medular secundária à compressão por granuloma vacinal.This paper reports the etiological, epidemiological, clinic, and pathological features of an outbreak of incoordination observed after vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD in cattle in the states of Paraíba and Pernambuco. The signs of incoordination were observed approximately 45 days after vaccination that was applied in the toracic and lumbar region. A lump was found in the local of the vaccination.Twenty-four animals showed this signs, six in Paraíba and 18 in Pernambuco. Six animals died and four were euthanized. At necropsy exam were observed abscedative myositis with yellow irregular areas to multifocal coalescing

  10. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella and Escherichia coli from Australian Cattle Populations at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Robert S; McMillan, Kate E; Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle; Jordan, David; Mellor, Glen E

    2015-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacteria associated with diseases. Australia is the world's third largest exporter of beef; however, this country does not have an ongoing surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cattle or in foods derived from these animals. In this study, 910 beef cattle, 290 dairy cattle, and 300 veal calf fecal samples collected at slaughter were examined for the presence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and the phenotypic AMR of 800 E. coli and 217 Salmonella isolates was determined. E. coli was readily isolated from all types of samples (92.3% of total samples), whereas Salmonella was recovered from only 14.4% of samples and was more likely to be isolated from dairy cattle samples than from beef cattle or veal calf samples. The results of AMR testing corroborate previous Australian animal and retail food surveys, which have indicated a low level of AMR. Multidrug resistance in Salmonella isolates from beef cattle was detected infrequently; however, the resistance was to antimicrobials of low importance in human medicine. Although some differences in AMR between isolates from the different types of animals were observed, there is minimal evidence that specific production practices are responsible for disproportionate contributions to AMR development. In general, resistance to antimicrobials of critical and high importance in human medicine was low regardless of the isolate source. The low level of AMR in bacteria from Australian cattle is likely a result of strict regulation of antimicrobials in food animals in Australia and animal management systems that do not favor bacterial disease.

  11. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Akinseye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013 from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105 was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73–1.22. However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04 and sex ( p £ 0.0001 of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries.Keywords: Bovine brucellosis, RBT, Epidemiology, Public Health, Nigeria

  12. Histopathological and Serological Studies on Paratuberculosis in Cattle and Buffaloes

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    Arbab Sikandar*, AH Cheema1, M Younus2, A Aslam1, MA Zaman2 and T Rehman3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan. Acid-fast smear staining, gross/histopathology and indirect ELISA were done for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. Total 134 samples illustrating gross pathological lesions were collected, only 11.19% (cattle: 6.67%, buffaloes: 12.5% showed acid fast bacilli through smear staining and were taken as confirmed cases. Thickening of intestines alone was not a reliable indicator of Johne’s disease. Tissue sections from intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes from these acid fast positive animals were stained with hematoxylin & eosin (H&E and Ziehl Neelsen (ZN methods. Sum of (15/134 impression smear staining as well as (15/15 tissue sections of the intestines were found ZN positive, and only 6.7% of impression smears and 100% of tissue sections of mesenteric lymph nodes showed acid fast bacilli. Through ELISA, two cattle and five buffaloes (07/134 gave positive optical densities, while one cattle and seven buffaloes (08/134 were judged as doubtful. It is concluded that infection of MAP can be identified by histopathology and ELISA. The present study was the first record of paratuberculosis among the dairy animals slaughtered at Jhang abattoirs. The objective was to compare different methods for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease.

  13. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

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    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Akabane virus (AKAV is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184 was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73.8% of abattoir (trade cattle and 40.0% in farm cattle, while 4.3% (8/184 seropositivity was observed in sheep. All the age groups of cattle tested had seropositive animals, 0-1 year (1/7, 14.3%, 2-3 years (17/34, 50.0%, 4-5 years (92/121, 76.0%, and >5 years (19/22, 86.4%, while in sheep only the age groups of 2-3 and 4-5 years showed seropositivity of 4.1% (4/97 and 8.2% (4/49, respectively. The detection of antibody-positive animals among unvaccinated cattle and sheep provides evidence of AKAV infection in Nigeria. These findings call for continuous monitoring of the disease among ruminants in order to ascertain the actual burden and increase awareness of the disease. This will facilitate early detection and aid the development of appropriate control measures against the disease in Nigeria.

  14. Animal Diseases Caused by Orbiviruses, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Hafsa; Casal, Jordi; Alba, Anna; Allepuz, Alberto; Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Hafsi, Leila; Kount-Chareb, Houria; Bouayed-Chaouach, Nadera; Saadaoui, Hassiba

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies against bluetongue virus were detected in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels in Algeria in 2008. Antibodies against epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus were detected in cattle, but antibodies against African horse sickness virus were not detected in horses and mules. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in northern Africa poses a major risk for the European Union. PMID:22172371

  15. Simulation of the influence of Danish cattle markets on a Foot-and-Mouth epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Lastein, D. B.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq;

    through markets in Denmark has decreased and only few cattle markets are left. The purpose of this study was to investigate, whether cattle markets would influence the duration, size and economic consequences of a potential FMD epidemic in Denmark. The spread of FMD was simulated using the stochastic......During the epidemic of Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) in the United Kingdom in 2001, live animal markets had large influence on the spread of the disease. The culture of and behavior around markets are expected to be different between countries. During the last decade, the number of animals traded...... and spatial disease-spread InterSpread Plus, version 2.001.11. From Danish databases, we collected data movements of animals. These were used to model movements of animals for each individual herd. For movements of cattle to and from markets, we modeled the frequency of movements to markets for the individual...

  16. A survey on biosecurity and management practices in selected Belgian cattle farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Steven; Cay, Ann Brigitte; Laureyns, Jozef; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    The shift from cure towards prevention in veterinary medicine involves the implementation of biosecurity, which includes all measures preventing pathogens from entering a herd and reducing the spread of pathogens within a herd. In Belgium no studies have considered the implementation of biosecurity measures in the daily management of cattle farms. Therefore the aim of the study was to map the current application of biosecurity measures in Belgian cattle farms in the prevention of disease transmission within and between farms. Between March 2011 and April 2013 the data were collected as part of a larger cross-sectional study, conducted to identify risk factors for reinfection with BVDV in cattle herds assumed free from BVDV. Questionnaire data from 33 dairy farms, 16 beef farms and 25 mixed (dairy and beef cattle) farms were analyzed using a combination of a linear scoring system, a categorical principal component analysis and a two-step cluster analysis to differentiate these farms based on their biosecurity levels and visit frequencies. Further enhancement of preventive measures considering external and internal biosecurity was still possible for each farm, as none of the farms obtained an overall high biosecurity level. Three groups of cattle farms were differentiated with a biosecurity level varying from low to high-medium, of which the group with the lowest biosecurity level mainly consisted of mixed farms. Animal-to-animal contacts with cattle from other herds were frequently possible as only 12% of the farmers purchasing cattle quarantined purchased animals at least three weeks and contacts over fences on pasture were possible in 70% of the herds. Basic biosecurity measures such as farm-specific protective clothing and boots were present in the majority of the farms, but they were insufficiently or incorrectly used. Cattle farms were very often visited by professional visitors of which the herd veterinarian, the AI technician and the cattle salesman most

  17. Hypokalemia syndrome in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Nicolas; Fecteau, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    This article describes hypokalemia syndrome. Lactating dairy cows seem to be at the highest risk, but younger animals may also develop the disease. At present, except for animals treated with repeated isoflupredone acetate administration, the exact determinants causing hypokalemia syndrome remain uncertain. Affected animals are anorexic, weak to recumbent, and most often show signs of gastrointestinal stasis. Treatment is directed toward supportive care and oral potassium supplementation.

  18. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

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    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  19. Effect of calcium hydroxide application to cattle feedlot pens on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total E. coli in pen surface manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Cattle and beef products are sources of the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Lime products have a long history of use in cattle production as disinfectants for sick pens, calving pens, and muddy areas, to control the spread of diseases. Lime may also be useful as a preharvest trea...

  20. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

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    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  1. Epidemiological studies on forestomach disorders in cattle and buffaloes

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    A. K. Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study epidemiology of forestomach (reticuloruminal, omasal, and abomasal disorders in cattle and buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The 106 buffaloes and 32 cattle referred for treatment to the university large animals teaching hospital with the complaint of gastrointestinal diseases constituted the study material. The cases were diagnosed based on history, clinical examination, hematology, biochemistry, radiography, peritoneal fluid analysis and ultrasonography, rumenotomy, and postmortem. A questionnaire was prepared containing important information on housing, husbandry practices, including feeding practices and individual animal information viz. age, species, month of the year, parity, gestation (month, and recent parturition. The animals were divided into eight groups and analysis of variance was performed to study risk factors associated with each condition. Results: The forestomach disorders are widely prevalent in cattle and buffaloes between April and October, during summer and rainy season (90% and constituted a significant proportion of diseased cows and buffaloes (138/1840 at the hospital. Different forestomach disorders and their prevalence was: Diaphragmatic hernia (DH 17%, traumatic reticuloperitonitis (TRP 14%, idiopathic motility disorder or vagus indigestion (VI 22%, adhesive peritonitis (AP 13%, frank exudative peritonitis (FEP 12%, reticular abscess (RA 8%, ruminal and omasal impaction (RI 5%, and abomaso duodenal ulceration (ADU 9%. DH and RA were significantly more common in buffaloes as compared to cattle. Similarly, impactions were more in buffaloes but its incidence was very low (5%. ADU was present in buffalo as commonly as in cows. Exclusive feeding of wheat straw was present in an abysmally low number of animals and hence could not be considered the cause of these disorders. DH was significantly higher in buffaloes (>5 years of 5-8 years of age and TRP, VI and AP were observed in cattle and buffalo of 2-8 years

  2. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  3. BoLA-DRB3 gene polymorphism and FMD resistance or susceptibility in Wanbei cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Liang, Qinglong; Jing, Luo; Wang, Chengmin; Wu, Xiaobing; He, Hongxuan

    2012-09-01

    For the further characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-induced foot-and-mouth disease, we investigated the association between polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3 gene and FMD resistance/susceptibility of Wanbei cattle challenged with FMDV. One hundred cattle were challenged with FMDV and exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 genes was amplified by hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction from asymptomatic animals and from animals with FMD. PCR products were characterized by the RFLP technique using restriction enzymes Hae III. The results revealed extensive polymorphisms, 6 RFLP patterns were identified. By analyzing alleles and genotypic frequencies between healthy and infection with FMD cattle, we found that allele Hae III A was associated with susceptibility to FMD in Wanbei cattle (P DRB3 and 13.70 % of nucleotide mutated, which resulted in 14.61 % of amino acid change. One PKC, one Tyr and one CAMP phosphorylation were increased; the hydrophobicity and secondary structure of proteins produced change after amino acid substitution. These results revealed that Wanbei cattle had the ability of resistance to disease by mutation which result changes of the protein structure to perform the regulation of the cell using different signaling pathways in the long process of choice evolution.

  4. Complement component 3: characterization and association with mastitis resistance in Egyptian water buffalo and cattle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NERMIN EL-HALAWANY; ABD-EL-MONSIF A. SHAWKY; AHMED F. M. AL-TOHAMY; LAMEES HEGAZY; HAMDY ABDEL-SHAFY; MAGDY A. ABDEL-LATIF; YASSER A. GHAZI; CHRISTIANE NEUHOFF; DESSIE SALILEW-WONDIM; KARL SCHELLANDER

    2017-03-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease of the mammary gland that leads to reduced milk production and change in milk composition. Complement component C3 plays a major role as a central molecule of the complement cascade involving in killing ofmicroorganisms, either directly or in cooperation with phagocytic cells. C3 cDNA were isolated, from Egyptian buffalo and cattle, sequenced and characterized. The C3 cDNA sequences of buffalo and cattle consist of 5025 and 5019 bp, respectively. Buffalo and cattle C3 cDNAs share 99% of sequence identity with each other. The 4986 bp open reading frame in buffalo encodes a putative protein of 1661 amino acids—as in cattle—and includes all the functional domains. Further, analysis of the C3 cDNA sequences detected six novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in buffalo and three novel SNPs in cattle.The association analysis of the detected SNPs with milk somatic cell score as an indicator of mastitis revealed that the most significant association in buffalo was found in the C>A substitution (ss: 1752816097) in exon 27, whereas in cattle it was in the C>T substitution (ss: 1752816085) in exon 12. Our findings provide preliminary information about the contribution of C3 polymorphisms to mastitis resistance in buffalo and cattle.

  5. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

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    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  6. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

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    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  7. Hormonal differences in peripheral blood and gene profiling in the liver and lymphocytes in Japanese black cattle with growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Sakura; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Eirai, Sayoko; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Tomioka, Michiko; Kurose, Yohei; Hirano, Takashi; Watanabe, Daisaku

    2013-01-31

    Japanese Black cattle occasionally demonstrate growth retardation despite sufficient nutrient intake. To clarify hormonal and transcriptional characteristics, we investigated differences in blood components, including hormones, and differences in exhaustive gene expressions in the liver and peripheral lymphocytes of six cattle with growth retardation (GR cattle) and eight control cattle of the same age and pedigree with normal growth. Hematocrit values and concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thyroxine and insulin in GR cattle were significantly lower than those in controls. GR cattle also excreted higher levels of GH. We used three GR and three control cattle for a microarray analysis in the liver and found that 279 gene expressions were significantly different. However, gene expressions related to the GH-IGF-1 axis, such as the GH receptor and IGF-1, were not significantly different from those of controls. Immune-related gene expressions were significantly lower. To clarify these gene expression levels, peripheral lymphocytes were used for real-time RT-PCR. The expression rates of genes that were significantly lower in the liver, such as chemokine ligand 8, interferon gamma receptor 1 and immunoglobulin light chain VJ region were also significantly lower in three GR cattle than those in the three control cattle. These results suggest that the cause of growth retardation in the present study was due to other factors, not abnormal gene expressions of factors related to the GH-IGF-1 axis in the liver, and that GR cattle were susceptible to infectious disease.

  8. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

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    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  9. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

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    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  10. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

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    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  11. Dynamical patterns of cattle trade movements.

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    Paolo Bajardi

    Full Text Available Despite their importance for the spread of zoonotic diseases, our understanding of the dynamical aspects characterizing the movements of farmed animal populations remains limited as these systems are traditionally studied as static objects and through simplified approximations. By leveraging on the network science approach, here we are able for the first time to fully analyze the longitudinal dataset of Italian cattle movements that reports the mobility of individual animals among farms on a daily basis. The complexity and inter-relations between topology, function and dynamical nature of the system are characterized at different spatial and time resolutions, in order to uncover patterns and vulnerabilities fundamental for the definition of targeted prevention and control measures for zoonotic diseases. Results show how the stationarity of statistical distributions coexists with a strong and non-trivial evolutionary dynamics at the node and link levels, on all timescales. Traditional static views of the displacement network hide important patterns of structural changes affecting nodes' centrality and farms' spreading potential, thus limiting the efficiency of interventions based on partial longitudinal information. By fully taking into account the longitudinal dimension, we propose a novel definition of dynamical motifs that is able to uncover the presence of a temporal arrow describing the evolution of the system and the causality patterns of its displacements, shedding light on mechanisms that may play a crucial role in the definition of preventive actions.

  12. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale.

  13. Magnesium Oxide Induced Metabolic Alkalosis in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, T H; Butler, D G; Gartley, C J; Dohoo, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    A study was designed to compare the metabolic alkalosis produced in cattle from the use of an antacid (magnesium oxide) and a saline cathartic (magnesium sulphate). Six, mature, normal cattle were treated orally with a magnesium oxide (MgO) product and one week later given a comparable cathartic dose of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4).

  14. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  15. Cloning cattle: the methods in the madness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oback, Björn; Wells, David N

    2007-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is much more widely and efficiently practiced in cattle than in any other species, making this arguably the most important mammal cloned to date. While the initial objective behind cattle cloning was commercially driven--in particular to multiply genetically superior animals with desired phenotypic traits and to produce genetically modified animals-researchers have now started to use bovine SCNT as a tool to address diverse questions in developmental and cell biology. In this paper, we review current cattle cloning methodologies and their potential technical or biological pitfalls at any step of the procedure. In doing so, we focus on one methodological parameter, namely donor cell selection. We emphasize the impact of epigenetic and genetic differences between embryonic, germ, and somatic donor cell types on cloning efficiency. Lastly, we discuss adult phenotypes and fitness of cloned cattle and their offspring and illustrate some of the more imminent commercial cattle cloning applications.

  16. Doença do armazenamento lisossomal induzida pelo consumo de Sida carpinifolia em bovinos do Rio Grande do Sul Lysosomal storage disease caused by Sida carpinifolia in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul

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    Pedro M.O Pedroso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação natural por Sida carpinifolia (guanxuma, chá-da-índia em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram afetados cinco bovinos no período 2001-2008. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento, incoordenação, dificuldade de locomoção, tremores generalizados, quedas frequentes e morte. Microscopicamente, as principais alterações foram vacuolização dos neurônios de Purkinje do cerebelo, das células acinares do pâncreas e das células foliculares da tireoide. A microscopia eletrônica evidenciou vacúolos com conteúdo finamente granulado e delimitado por membrana. Na lectina-histoquímica, observou-se marcação em neurônios com as lectinas Concanavalia ensiformis (Con-A, Triticum vulgaris (WGA e Succinyl Triticum vulgaris (sWGA.This paper reports the natural poisoning by Sida carpinifolia (guanxuma, chá-da-índia in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five cattle were affected in the period 2001-2008. Clinical signs included weight loss, incoordination, walking difficulty, generalized tremors, frequent falls, and death. Microscopically, the main changes were vacuolation of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum, pancreatic acinar cells, and thyroid follicular cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed vacuoles bordered by membrane containing finely granular material. Lectin histochemistry showed positive staining in neurons with the lectins Concanavalia ensiformis (Con-A, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Succinyl Triticum vulgaris (sWGA.

  17. Clinical aspects and dynamics of auricular parasitosis in Gir cattle

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    Patrícia V.B. Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the dynamics of ear infestations caused by Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp., which were correlated with animal age, intensity of clinical signs and climate factors. Sixty-four Gir cattle were distributed into three groups: GA - 23 calves with 4 to 6 months of age; GB - 18 calves with 7 to 12 months of age; and GC - 23 heifers with 13 to 33 months of age. Five samplings, defined as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 were performed every three months from August 2008 to August 2009. The ear secretion was collected using the auricular washing method for the right ear and a swab for the left ear. A clinical assessment of the animals was performed, and they were classified according to the presence and severity of otitis. The highest relative frequency of rhabditosis was 52.2% in GC at the last sampling. In the first sampling, 42.2% of the animals were infested by Raillietia spp. The older cattle were more susceptible to infestations by both parasites. No correlation of Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp. parasitism with climate factors was found. The results showed that both parasites could infest Gir cattle, and in most cases, there was no co-infestation. Only older animals parasitized by the nematode showed clinical signs of the disease.

  18. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

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    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  19. Tick-borne Diseases in Animals and USDA Research on Tick Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne diseases represent a major threat to animal health in the United States. The cattle industry in the United States has benefited greatly from the continued USDA efforts through the Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program in preventing the re-introduction of cattle ticks and associated pathog...

  20. Evidence of Cryptococcosis in cattle in Zaria Kaduna state, Nigeria

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    Emmanuella N. Akange

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cryptococcosis is azoonotic infection caused by fungal of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex comprising of C. neoformans and C. gattii.The disease affects humans and animals worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. This work was carried out to determine the occurrence of cryptococcal antigens and factors associated with presence of antigens in cattle in Zaria, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and ninety (390 serum samples from cattle of various ages were collected from 11 farms in Zaria, Nigeria. The samples were analysed using alatex agglutination test and lateral flow assay kit which detectsthe polysaccharide capsular antigens of Cryptococcus species. Results:Out of the 390 samples tested 28 (7.17% were found to be positive using the latex agglutination test while only of these 22 (5.64% were positive using the lateral flow assay. There was a strong correlation (r=0.939, p=0.0002 between the results of the latex agglutination test and the lateral flow assay. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.005 in positivity for cryptococcal antigens between sex, age and sex, though, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in positivity between management systems i.e. semi-intensive and intensive farming systems. Conclusions: The epidemiological value of this report lies in its demonstration that the risk of cattle and humans infection with cryptococcosis exist in farms in Zaria. The presence of this pathogen among these cattle poses an economic threat to the livestock industry due to the mastitis it causes. It also poses a significant public health threat because of its zoonotic nature and the increasing population of immunocompromised individuals. Large scale studies to determine specific risk factors and the role of the environment and experimental studies to determine what governs the transition from nasal colonisation to infection are recommended. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 64-67

  1. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  2. Ribosomal RNA-based analysis of the bacterial flora from the conjunctivae of cattle with bovine keratoconjunctivitis (BKC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, William R; Hoyt, Phillip G; Hohn, Christina; Higgins, James A

    2008-10-15

    Bovine keratoconjunctivitis (BKC), colloquially referred to as 'pinkeye', is a disease affecting cattle worldwide; it costs cattle producers millions of dollars in economic loss annually. While Moraxella spp. are the primary etiologic agent of pinkeye, surveys of flora from the conjunctivae of livestock from around the world have indicated that a variety of bacterial commensals occupy this niche. We used molecular biology-based methods to determine the composition of bacterial flora in the conjunctivae of normal dairy and beef cattle from Maryland (n=113), and beef cattle with clinical BKC from Louisiana (n=42). Three regimens were used: 16S rRNA PCR and DGGE analysis of amplicons; 16S rRNA PCR and cloning of amplicons into Escherichia coli followed by screening and sequencing of clones harboring inserts; and culture of bacteria on chromogenic agar followed by 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing. Most taxa were comprised of saprophytes found in the environment, such as Bacillus, Pantoea, E. coli, and Exiguobacterium. Moraxella spp. were infrequently observed. Some species, such as Propionibacterium acnes, represent taxa not previously associated with the conjunctivae. Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis isolates from the conjunctivae of Maryland cattle were genetically distinct from isolates previously implicated in septic infections in cattle at the same location. We conclude that employing 16S rRNA-based methods for bacterial identification can be useful in defining the flora present in the conjunctivae of normal cattle, and those with BKC.

  3. The mitochondrial genome of a Texas outbreak strain of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, derived from whole genome sequencing Pacific Biosciences and Illumina reads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most significant medical veterinary pests in the world, vectoring several serious livestock diseases negatively impacting agricultural economies of tropical and subtropical countries around the world. We assembled the complete ...

  4. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

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    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  5. Incidence and economic impact of rabies in the cattle population of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Rabies is a viral disease that can cause fatal encephalomyelitis both in animals and humans. Although incidences of the disease in cattle have been reported, insight in the economic impact of the disease in livestock remains limited. By affecting cattle in subsistence systems, rabies may have extensive economic impacts at household and country levels, in addition to the effects on human health. This study presents estimates of the direct economic impact of rabies at herd level in two representative subsistence cattle-farming systems in Ethiopia, the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems. The economic impacts were assessed by a structured questionnaire administered to 532 cattle-owning households. These households were selected from four districts within two administrative zones; each zone representing a cattle production system. Rabies incidence rates of 21% and 11% at herd level were calculated for the mixed crop-livestock and pastoral production systems, respectively. The incidence rate at cattle level was the same in both systems., i.e. 2%. Herd-level incidence rates were higher in the mixed crop-livestock system than in the pastoral system (Peconomic losses per herd due to rabies were estimated at 49 USD per year for the mixed-crop livestock system, and at 52 USD per year for the pastoral system; whereas in affected herds the average losses per year were 228 USD (range 48-1016 USD) in the mixed crop-livestock system, and 477 USD (range 173-1140 USD) in the pastoral system. The average herd-level economic losses were not significantly different between the farming systems; however once the herd was affected, the losses were significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the mixed crop-livestock system (Peconomic gains from a rabies intervention in the dog population, of which the benefits can be shared by the public health sector.

  6. In situ cytokine expression in pulmonary granulomas of cattle experimentally infected by aerosolized Mycobacterium bovis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium bovis is the cause of tuberculosis in most animal species, including cattle and is a serious zoonotic pathogen. In humans, M. bovis infection can result in disease clinically indistinguishable from that caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of most tuberculosis in humans. Reg...

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of Mycoplasma bovis reveals host-specific genotypes in cattle versus bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycoplasma bovis is a primary agent of mastitis, pneumonia and arthritis in cattle and is the bacterium isolated most frequently from the polymicrobial syndrome known as bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Recently, M. bovis has emerged as a significant health problem in bison, causing necro...

  8. Presence of Gumprecht shadows (smudge cells) in bovine leukemia virus-positive cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panei, Carlos Javier; Larsen, Alejandra; González, Ester Teresa; Echeverría, María Gabriela

    2013-11-01

    Enzootic Bovine Leukosis is a chronic disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Smudge cells, also known as Gumprecht shadows, are not simple artifacts of slide preparation, but ragged lymphoid cells found mainly in peripheral blood smears from human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this study, we report the presence of Gumprecht shadows in peripheral blood from BLV-positive cattle.

  9. Optimization of RNA interference (RNAi) targeting acetylcholinesterase in the Southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphate (OP) acaricides. OP resistant strains of the Southern cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus have been identified and represent a major threat to the control of this important disease vector. R. microplus ticks possess at least three...

  10. Resistance of Fasciola hepatica against triclabendazole in cattle and sheep in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, L.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Vellema, P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    In the winter of 1998/1999, sheep on a farm in the province of North Holland, The Netherlands, died from subacute and chronic liver fluke disease despite four previous treatments with triclabendazole (TCBZ). Faecal examinations of sheep and cattle on the farm showed high number of liver fluke eggs.

  11. One-step Multiplex Transgenesis via Sleeping Beauty Transposition in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Wiebke; Talluri, Thirumala R; Apfelbaum, Ronja; Carratalá, Yanet P; Bosch, Pablo; Pötzsch, Kerstin; Grueso, Esther; Ivics, Zoltán; Kues, Wilfried A

    2016-02-24

    Genetically modified cattle are important for developing new biomedical models and for an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of zoonotic diseases. However, genome editing and genetic engineering based on somatic cell nuclear transfer suffer from a low overall efficiency. Here, we established a highly efficient one-step multiplex gene transfer system into the bovine genome.

  12. Perceptions, circumstances and motivators that influence implementation of zoonotic control programs on cattle farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis-Iversen, J.; Cook, A.J.; Watson, E.; Nielen, M.; Larkin, L.; Wooldridge, M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of disease control programs on farms requires an act of behavioral change. This study presents a theoretical framework from behavioral science, combined with basic epidemiological principles to investigate and explain the control of zoonotic agents on cattle farms. A pathway to di

  13. Genome engineering in cattle: recent technological advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2015-02-01

    Great strides in technological advancements have been made in the past decade in cattle genome engineering. First, the success of cloning cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or chromatin transfer (CT) is a significant advancement that has made obsolete the need for using embryonic stem (ES) cells to conduct cell-mediated genome engineering, whereby site-specific genetic modifications can be conducted in bovine somatic cells via DNA homologous recombination (HR) and whereby genetically engineered cattle can subsequently be produced by animal cloning from the genetically modified cells. With this approach, a chosen bovine genomic locus can be precisely modified in somatic cells, such as to knock out (KO) or knock in (KI) a gene via HR, a gene-targeting strategy that had almost exclusively been used in mouse ES cells. Furthermore, by the creative application of embryonic cloning to rejuvenate somatic cells, cattle genome can be sequentially modified in the same line of somatic cells and complex genetic modifications have been achieved in cattle. Very recently, the development of designer nucleases-such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9)-has enabled highly efficient and more facile genome engineering in cattle. Most notably, by employing such designer nucleases, genomes can be engineered at single-nucleotide precision; this process is now often referred to as genome or gene editing. The above achievements are a drastic departure from the traditional methods of creating genetically modified cattle, where foreign DNAs are randomly integrated into the animal genome, most often along with the integrations of bacterial or viral DNAs. Here, I review the most recent technological developments in cattle genome engineering by highlighting some of the major achievements in creating genetically engineered

  14. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  15. A field vaccine trial in Tanzania demonstrates partial protection against malignant catarrhal fever in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Russell, G C; Lugelo, A; Ndabigaye, A; Mnyambwa, N; Keyyu, J; Kazwala, R; Grant, D; Percival, A; Deane, D; Haig, D M; Cleaveland, S

    2016-02-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of cattle that, in East Africa, results from transmission of the causative virus, alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1), from wildebeest. A vaccine field trial involving an attenuated AlHV-1 virus vaccine was performed over two wildebeest calving seasons on the Simanjiro Plain of northern Tanzania. Each of the two phases of the field trial consisted of groups of 50 vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle, which were subsequently exposed to AlHV-1 challenge by herding toward wildebeest. Vaccination resulted in the induction of virus-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Some cattle in the unvaccinated groups also developed virus-specific antibody responses but only after the start of the challenge phase of the trial. PCR of DNA from blood samples detected AlHV-1 infection in both groups of cattle but the frequency of infection was significantly lower in the vaccinated groups. Some infected animals showed clinical signs suggestive of MCF but few animals went on to develop fatal MCF, with similar numbers in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. This study demonstrated a baseline level of MCF-seropositivity among cattle in northern Tanzania of 1% and showed that AlHV-1 virus-neutralizing antibodies could be induced in Tanzanian zebu shorthorn cross cattle by our attenuated vaccine, a correlate of protection in previous experimental trials. The vaccine reduced infection rates by 56% in cattle exposed to wildebeest but protection from fatal MCF could not be determined due to the low number of fatal cases.

  16. Mutation scanning-based analysis of Theileria orientalis populations in cattle following an outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufos, Nadia; Jabbar, Abdul; de Carvalho, Luís M; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-07-01

    Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by one or more hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. In the past, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli. However, outbreaks of theileriosis have occurred in beef and dairy cattle in subtropical climatic regions (New South Wales) of Australia. There is also one published report of a recent theileriosis outbreak in a beef farm near Seymour in the southeastern state of Victoria. In order to gain an improved insight into the genetic composition of Theileria populations following this outbreak, we undertook herein an integrated PCR-coupled mutation scanning-sequencing-phylogenetic analysis of sequence variation in part of the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene within and among samples from cattle involved in the outbreak. Theileria DNA was detected in 89.4% of 94 cattle in the Seymour farm; the genetic analysis showed that the ikeda and chitose genotypes representing the Theileria orientalis complex were detected in 75 and 4.8% of 84 infected cattle, respectively, and that mixed populations of these two genotypes were found in 20.2% of infected cattle. Given unpublished reports of a significant increase in the number of outbreaks in Victoria, future investigations should focus sharply on elucidating the epidemiology of Theileria to subvert the economic impact on the cattle industry in this state. Although used here to explore genetic variation within the T. orientalis complex in Australia, a mutation scanning-based approach has broad applicability to other species of Theileria in other countries.

  17. Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.

  19. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P bovine species.

  20. Control Strategies for Prevention of Undesirable Traits in Cattle - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle genome sequencing has a major impact on livestock breeding and provides useful information in the field biotechnology that can ultimately lead to the development of several techniques for early molecular diagnosis. These developments within molecular genetics have made possible the rapid and effective detection of lethal or mutant alleles associated with a disease-specific phenotype by DNA isolation followed by in vitro amplification techniques and enzymatic restriction. DNA tests are currently in use for the detection of heterozygotes and diagnosis of genetic diseases such as bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD, deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS and bovine citrullinemia. These genetic defects are autosomal recessive disorders which were widespread trough advanced reproductive technologies, including artificial insemination and multiple ovulation embryo transfer, as result of selection focused on desirable traits carried by elite bulls with high genetic merit. In order to prevent the risk of dissemination of inherited defects in dairy herds and to decrease the economic losses all bulls have to be tested, although the prevalence of the above mentioned recessive alleles is low. Therefore, it is advisable to use molecular markers to assess bovine health and to implement such programs for the purpose of monitoring hereditary diseases in cattle.

  1. Generation of transgenic cattle expressing human β-defensin 3 as an approach to reducing susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Guanghui; Ru, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Wu, Yongyan; Quan, Fusheng; Guo, Zekun; Zhang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis results from infection with Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis family. Worldwide, M. bovis infections result in economic losses in the livestock industry; cattle production is especially hard-hit by this disease. Generating M. bovis-resistant cattle may potentially mitigate the impact of this disease by reducing M. bovis infections. In this study, we used transgenic somatic cell nuclear transfer to generate cattle expressing the gene encoding human β-defensin 3 (HBD3), which confers resistance to mycobacteria in vitro. We first generated alveolar epithelial cells expressing HBD3 under the control of the bovine MUC1 promoter, and confirmed that these cells secreted HBD3 and possessed anti-mycobacterial capacity. We then generated and identified transgenic cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The cleavage and blastocyst formation rates of genetically modified embryos provided evidence that monoclonal transgenic bovine fetal fibroblast cells have an integral reprogramming ability that is similar to that of normal cells. Five genetically modified cows were generated, and their anti-mycobacterial capacities were evaluated. Alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages from these cattle expressed higher levels of HBD3 protein compared with non-transgenic cells and possessed effective anti-mycobacterial capacity. These results suggest that the overall risk of M. bovis infection in transgenic cattle is efficiently reduced, and support the development of genetically modified animals as an effective tool to reduce M. bovis infection.

  2. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Cattle: Possible Public Health Relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Mandeep; Katoch, Vipin C.;

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infect both animals and humans. The disease epidemiology by these agents differs in developed and developing countries due to the differences in the implementation of the prevention and control strategies. The present study describes the detection...... of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis from specimens of lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes of four cattle died in an organized herd of 183 cattle in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, with inconclusive skin test results. Identification and distinction of these closely related mycobacterial species was done...... by PCR-RFLP targeting hsp65 gene followed by spacer oligonucleotide typing. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis was detected in one cattle....

  4. A review of Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, João Paulo A; Dohoo, Ian R; VanLeewen, John A

    2005-03-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of abortion in cows. The occurrence of N. caninum infection in beef and dairy cattle has been reported worldwide, and in most provinces in Canada. The objective of this review is to summarize our current understanding of N. caninum in dairy and beef cattle for Canadian bovine practitioners. The review covers the life cycle of the agent, its mechanisms of transmission, clinical signs, and tests for diagnosing the infection. Data on the prevalence of the infection in Canadian dairy and beef cattle are reviewed and briefly compared with estimates from other parts of the world. Most importantly for Canadian bovine practitioners, the impacts of the infection, risk factors for its occurrence, and methods of control are also discussed. By reviewing the scientific literature on N. caninum from a Canadian perspective, culling decisions based on the interpretation of diagnostic tests are more effectively made in the control of N. caninum-associated disease.

  5. Molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in peripheral blood of Iranian cattle, camel and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoei, S; Hafshejani, T Taktaz; Doosti, A; Khamesipour, F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus which infects and induces proliferation of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood circulation and in lymphoid organs primarily of cattle, leading to leukemia/lymphoma. This study was carried out to investigate the presence of BLV in cattle, sheep and camels from the Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary and Isfahan provinces in Iran. A total of 874 blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and camels were used in this study to detect BLV using a nested-PCR. The results from this study indicated that 17.2% (n=874) of all blood samples collected were positive for BLV. The percentages of blood samples positive for BLV from cattle, sheep and camels were 22.1 (n=657), 5.3 (n=95) and 0 (n=122) respectively. The results from this study showed that BLV infected cattle and sheep. Camels seemed to be resistant to BLV infection. This study contributes to the nationwide effort to obtain baseline information on the prevalence of BLV, which will assist in planning the control strategy for the disease in Iran.

  6. Tropically adapted cattle of Africa: perspectives on potential role of copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M D; Dzama, K; Rees, D J G; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-04-01

    Africa is host to diverse and locally adapted cattle breeds that are expected to survive the harsh and extreme tropical environments associated with diseases and parasite infections, heat stress and episodes of feed and water scarcity. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) are considered to be primary role players in cattle breed formation and adaptation where isolation and genetic drift together with subsequent mutations have created an enormous diversity of local populations. CNVs are modifications in DNA structure comprising deletions, duplications and insertions that are >1 kb in size. Despite attracting much attention, the frequency and pattern of bovine CNV events, especially in African cattle breeds, are for the most part largely unknown. Characterization of genetic variation in the indigenous cattle of Africa will be a vital step toward dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation and local adaptation. This review therefore aims to describe the current knowledge regarding bovine CNVs and the implications and potentials they encompass for dissecting genetic adaptation and the genotypic skeleton of tropical African cattle populations.

  7. Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection among cattle in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Drapała, Dorota; Dominiak-Górski, Bartosz; Kur, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a significant disease in livestock and humans. Because of medical and veterinary importance it is essential to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among human and animals in various parts of the word. In this study, 4033 cattle from eight provinces of Northern Poland (belonging to 190 herds) were tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii by an in-house ELISA technique based on native Toxoplasma lysate antigen. The diagnostic sensitivity of test used in this study was 96.3%, and specificity was 98% for the group of 77 cattle sera (27 seropositive and 50 seronegative) previously characterized with the use of agglutination and immunofluorescence methods. A 127 (3.15%) out of all tested animals belonging to 72 (37.9%) out of 190 herds were founded as positive. Furthermore, our results showed that the way of feeding and farming, the size of the herd and the age of animals have the influence on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis among cattle. The percentage of infected cattle was the highest for old animals which belongs to the small herds with the traditional way of farming. These results indicate that T. gondii infection in cattle from Northern Poland is relatively low and consumption of beef and milk can be regarded as a poor source of infection for humans.

  8. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  9. Cattle toxoplasmosis in Iran:a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahabeddin Sarvi; Ahmad Daryani; Mohammad Taghi Rahimi; Mohsen Aarabi; Azar Shokri; Ehsan Ahmadpour; Azadeh Mizani; Mahdi Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and review the overall seroprevalence rate ofToxoplasma gondii(T. gondii) infection in cattle fromIran.Methods:In the current study, data collection(published and unpublished papers, abstracts of national scientific congresses and dissertations) using particular terms was carried out systematically on the following electronic databases like PubMed,GoogleScholar,Ebsco,ScienceDirect,Scopus,Magiran,Irandoc,IranMedex andSID (ScientificInformationDatabase).Results:A total of22 studies since1983 to2012 reporting the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from different regions ofIran met our eligibility criteria.The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis, using random effect model, among cattle inIran from over the30-year period was estimated18.1%(95%CI:9.9% to28.2%) .Conclusions:This study firstly establishes a crude seroprevalence rate ofToxoplasmainfection in cattle which can lead us to understand the condition of cattle toxoplasmosis, which have to take into accounted for an appropriate and effective prevention and controls.Secondly, it compares and discusses elaborately the role of risk factors including sex, age and breed in the epidemiology of the disease.Thus, it determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies which are greatly useful to design more accurate investigations in the future.

  10. Postal survey of contacts between cattle farms on the Isle of Lewis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, M C; Webb, C R; Heath, M F

    2010-01-09

    The British Cattle Movement Service (BCMS) database contains an unprecedented quantity of data on the movement of cattle within the UK. These data may be used to construct models of the contact structure of the UK cattle herd, for epidemiological purposes. There are two significant potential sources of inaccuracy within such models: movements that are not reported or are reported inaccurately to the BCMS, and contacts between farms that might transmit infection, but are not animal movements. This field study addressed these issues. Cattle farmers on the Isle of Lewis were recruited with the assistance of the local veterinary surgeon, and asked to record a range of potential risk behaviours for a one-month period. They were also asked questions about husbandry practices on their farm. Comparison of the BCMS contact data with that reported by Lewis' farmers highlighted use of common grazing land as a significant source of contact, and potential disease transmission, between cattle that currently goes unreported; around half of responding holdings on Lewis use common grazing land at some point during the year, and these movements are not reported to the BCMS.

  11. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle and African buffaloes in the Tsavo conservation area, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K. Kariuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer. So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.

  12. Slaughterhouse survey of cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep from the Republic of Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihai, O; Umhang, G; Erhan, D; Boué, F; Tălămbuţă, N; Rusu, Ş; Zamornea, M

    2016-05-01

    The Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is responsible for cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The life cycle of the parasite is mainly domestic and takes place between dogs and livestock species. A slaughterhouse survey was conducted in 2012 in the Republic of Moldova in order to estimate the prevalence of CE. A total of 1525 cattle, 5580 sheep and 12,700 pigs were surveyed. No CE infection was observed in pigs, while prevalence was estimated at 59.3% in cattle and 61.9% in sheep. Infection was significantly higher in animals raised in private households than in those from collective farms. The frequency of infection increased with age in both species. In cattle and in sheep, infection of both the liver and lungs was the most common, while infection in the lungs only was much less frequent. Farm type appears to be an important factor in CE infection in Moldova, due to the extensive farming and the home-slaughtering undertaken in the majority private sector, despite a high prevalence of CE also recorded in the public sector. The low fertility of cysts in cattle (1.1%) compared to sheep (47.6%) confirmed the maintenance of E. granulosus sensu stricto in a dog-sheep life cycle which excludes cattle. Further studies are needed to obtain a complete overview of the parasite's epidemiology in its intermediate and definitive hosts, in order to implement control and preventive measures, with specific attention given to farms in the private sector.

  13. Meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in cattle of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Luciano A; Dantas, Antônio Flávio M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2012-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is an acute disease of the central nervous system of humans and animals caused by Naegleria fowleri. This report describes a case of meningoencephalitis caused by N. fowleri in a crossbred, one-year-old bovine with progressive neurological signs. At necropsy there was thickening of the meninges and multifocal areas of malacia in the thalamus, caudal and rostral colliculi, parietal and occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Histologically there was multifocal necrosupurative meningoencephalitis associated with areas of malacia containing amoebic trophozoites. Immunohistochemistry of the brain was positive for N. fowleri. The disease should be included among the differential diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system in cattle in areas where animals are exposed to hot, stagnant water.

  14. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  15. International genomic evaluation methods for dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. Economies of scale in genomics promote cooperation across country borders. Genomic information can be transferred across countries using simple conversion equations, by modifying mult...

  16. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichard, D; Brochard, M

    2012-04-01

    Cattle production faces new challenges regarding sustainability with its three pillars - economic, societal and environmental. The following three main factors will drive dairy cattle selection in the future: (1) During a long period, intensive selection for enhanced productivity has deteriorated most functional traits, some reaching a critical point and needing to be restored. This is especially the case for the Holstein breed and for female fertility, mastitis resistance, longevity and metabolic diseases. (2) Genomic selection offers two new opportunities: as the potential genetic gain can be almost doubled, more traits can be efficiently selected; phenotype recording can be decoupled from selection and limited to several thousand animals. (3) Additional information from other traits can be used, either from existing traditional recording systems at the farm level or from the recent and rapid development of new technologies and precision farming. Milk composition (i.e. mainly fatty acids) should be adapted to better meet human nutritional requirements. Fatty acids can be measured through a new interpretation of the usual medium infrared spectra. Milk composition can also provide additional information about reproduction and health. Modern milk recorders also provide new information, that is, on milking speed or on the shape of milking curves. Electronic devices measuring physiological or activity parameters can predict physiological status like estrus or diseases, and can record behavioral traits. Slaughterhouse data may permit effective selection on carcass traits. Efficient observatories should be set up for early detection of new emerging genetic defects. In the near future, social acceptance of cattle production could depend on its capacity to decrease its ecological footprint. The first solution consists in increasing survival and longevity to reduce replacement needs and the number of nonproductive animals. At the individual level, selection on rumen

  17. Carrier status of leptospirosis among cattle in Sri Lanka: a zoonotic threat to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, C D; Koizumi, N; Perera, A K C; Muto, M; Nwafor-Okoli, C; Ranasinghe, S; Kularatne, S A M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Kanda, K; Lee, R B; Obayashi, Y; Ohnishi, M; Tamashiro, H

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Recent studies on human leptospirosis have suggested that the cattle could be one of the important reservoirs for human infection in the country. However, there is a dearth of local information on bovine leptospirosis, including its implications for human transmission. Thus, this study attempted to determine the carrier status of pathogenic Leptospira spp in cattle in Sri Lanka. A total of 164 cattle kidney samples were collected from the meat inspection hall in Colombo city during routine inspection procedures conducted by the municipal veterinary surgeons. The DNA was extracted and subjected to nested PCR for the detection of leptospiral flaB gene. Amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenic distances were calculated. Of 164 samples, 20 (12.2%) were positive for flaB-PCR. Sequenced amplicons revealed that Leptospira species were deduced to L. borgpetersenii (10/20, 50%), L. kirschneri (7/20, 35%) and L. interrogans (3/20, 15%). The results indicate that a high proportion of the sampled cattle harbour a variety of pathogenic Leptospira spp, which can serve as important reservoirs for human disease.

  18. Advances and prospects for management of TB transmission between badgers and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gavin J; Carter, Stephen P; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is the most serious endemic disease facing the livestock industry in the United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (RoI), where its management has been confounded by the presence of persistent infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles). Field evidence suggests that the social structure of badger populations can have an important influence on disease dynamics, and on the outcome of management interventions. Recent, large-scale badger culling experiments in the UK and RoI had complex epidemiological outcomes. In the UK, proactive culling led to reduced bTB incidence in cattle herds inside culled areas, but a temporary increase in adjacent areas. Reactive culling in response to herd breakdowns was associated with an increase in the incidence of bTB in cattle. In contrast, badger culling in RoI was reported to have only beneficial effects on bTB incidence in cattle. The reasons for these differences are not clear. The complexity of the evidence base for culling is highlighted by the different management approaches currently being adopted by the different authorities of the UK and RoI. It is generally accepted that a holistic approach to bTB management, which targets both cattle and wildlife, is necessary. Consequently recent research activities have also focussed on cattle and badger vaccines, and biosecurity on farms. This paper describes recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of bTB in badgers and the consequences of culling, and current research to develop approaches for the vaccination of badgers, and methods of managing the risks of contact between badgers and cattle in farm buildings.

  19. Prevalence of the prion protein gene E211K variant in U.S. cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Chad C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, an atypical U.S. case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE was discovered in Alabama and later reported to be polymorphic for glutamate (E and lysine (K codons at position 211 in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp coding sequence. A bovine E211K mutation is important because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt – Jakob disease, an autosomal dominant form of prion disease. The present report describes a high-throughput matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay for scoring the Prnp E211K variant and its use to determine an upper limit for the K211 allele frequency in U.S. cattle. Results The K211 allele was not detected in 6062 cattle, including those from five commercial beef processing plants (3892 carcasses and 2170 registered cattle from 42 breeds. Multiple nearby polymorphisms in Prnp coding sequence of 1456 diverse purebred cattle (42 breeds did not interfere with scoring E211 or K211 alleles. Based on these results, the upper bounds for prevalence of the E211K variant was estimated to be extremely low, less than 1 in 2000 cattle (Bayesian analysis based on 95% quantile of the posterior distribution with a uniform prior. Conclusion No groups or breeds of U.S. cattle are presently known to harbor the Prnp K211 allele. Because a carrier was not detected, the number of additional atypical BSE cases with K211 will also be vanishingly low.

  20. Comparative analysis of the Shadoo gene between cattle and buffalo reveals significant differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN gene may relate to these species-specific differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (~4.4 kb, including the putative promoter, coding and 3' regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1 a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2 two fixed missense mutations (102Ser→Gly and 119Thr→Ala, and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05 genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3 functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove

  1. Assessment of redox markers in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Nathaniel Caleb

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic redox status may have important implications to cattle health and production. Antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated in cattle under three phases of management. Each phase stood alone as a treatment model, and managerial aspects during the phase were evaluated as potential moderators of redox balance. Yearling heifers were used to assess the impact of fescue toxicosis and heat stress on selected markers in study 1. Intravaginal temperatures, ADG, serum prolac...

  2. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  3. Assessment of biodiversity in Chilean cattle using the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II BoLA-DRB3 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S-N; Miyasaka, T; Matsumoto, Y; Xue, G; Diaz, V de la Barra; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Giovambattista, G; Ortiz, M; Oltra, J; Kanemaki, M; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) are used extensively as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. In this study, we estimated BoLA-DRB3 allele frequencies using 888 cattle from 10 groups, including seven cattle breeds and three crossbreeds: 99 Red Angus, 100 Black Angus, 81 Chilean Wagyu, 49 Hereford, 95 Hereford × Angus, 71 Hereford × Jersey, 20 Hereford × Overo Colorado, 113 Holstein, 136 Overo Colorado, and 124 Overo Negro cattle. Forty-six BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified, and each group had between 12 and 29 different BoLA-DRB3 alleles. Overo Negro had the highest number of alleles (29); this breed is considered in Chile to be an 'Old type' European Holstein Friesian descendant. By contrast, we detected 21 alleles in Holstein cattle, which are considered to be a 'Present type' Holstein Friesian cattle. Chilean cattle groups and four Japanese breeds were compared by neighbor-joining trees and a principal component analysis (PCA). The phylogenetic tree showed that Red Angus and Black Angus cattle were in the same clade, crossbreeds were closely related to their parent breeds, and Holstein cattle from Chile were closely related to Holstein cattle in Japan. Overall, the tree provided a thorough description of breed history. It also showed that the Overo Negro breed was closely related to the Holstein breed, consistent with historical data indicating that Overo Negro is an 'Old type' Holstein Friesian cattle. This allelic information will be important for investigating the relationship between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and disease.

  4. Optic pathway degeneration in Japanese black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shiori; Funato, Shingo; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2015-02-01

    Degeneration of the optic pathway has been reported in various animal species including cattle. We experienced a case of bilateral optic tract degeneration characterized by severe gliosis in a Japanese black cattle without any obvious visual defects. To evaluate the significance, pathological nature and pathogenesis of the lesions, we examined the optic pathway in 60 cattle (41 Japanese black, 13 Holstein and 6 crossbreed) with or without ocular abnormalities. None of these animals had optic canal stenosis. Degenerative changes with severe gliosis in the optic pathway, which includes the optic nerve, optic chiasm and optic tract, were only observed in 8 Japanese black cattle with or without ocular abnormalities. Furthermore, strong immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the retinal stratum opticum and ganglion cell layer in all 5 cattle in which the optic pathway lesions could be examined. As etiological research, we also examined whether the concentrations of vitamin A and vitamin B12 or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection was associated with optic pathway degeneration. However, our results suggested that the observed optic pathway degeneration was probably not caused by these factors. These facts indicate the presence of optic pathway degeneration characterized by severe gliosis that has never been reported in cattle without bilateral compressive lesions in the optic pathway or bilateral severe retinal atrophy.

  5. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  6. Characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus originated from cattle in Gansu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Shao, Junjun; Du, Junzheng; Lin, Tong; Cong, Guozheng; Zhao, Furong; Chang, Huiyun; Yin, Hong

    2013-08-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea disease virus (BVDV) GS-4 was isolated in Western China form dairy cattle with respiratory disease. Genomic comparison analysis with the 5' half genome sequence encompassing the coding region of N(pro), capsid, and envelope glycoproteins showed that the GS-4 should be classified into BVDV-1b1, which is considered as one of the predominant subgenotypes found in China. This classification was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis based on E2 coding region.

  7. "Cara inchada" of cattle, an infectious, apparently soil antibiotics-dependant periodontitis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Döbereiner Jürgen; Dutra Iveraldo S.; Rosa Ivan V.; Blobel Hans

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this review on the investigation of "cara inchada" in cattle (CI), pursued over the last 30 years, was to elucidate the pathogenicity of the disease and come to proper conclusions on its etiology. CI has been widely considered to be of nutritional origin, caused primarily by mineral deficiency or imbalance. However, the disease consists of a rapidly progressive periodontitis, affecting the periodontal tissues at the level of the premolars and molars during the period of tooth...

  8. Physiological level Production of Antigen-Specific Human Immunoglobulin in Cloned Transchromosomic Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Akiko Sano; Hiroaki Matsushita; Hua Wu; Jin-An Jiao; Poothappillai Kasinathan; Eddie J. Sullivan; Zhongde Wang; Yoshimi Kuroiwa

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies (hpAbs) derived from pooled plasma from human donors are Food and Drug Administration approved biologics used in the treatment of a variety of human diseases. Powered by the natural diversity of immune response, hpAbs are effective in treating diseases caused by complex or quickly-evolving antigens such as viruses. We previously showed that transchromosomic (Tc) cattle carrying a human artificial chromosome (HAC) comprising the entire unrearranged human...

  9. Renitelo cattle dermatophilosis and PCR-RFLP analysis of MHC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindraibe, Hanta; Raliniaina, Modestine; Maillard, Jean-Charles; Rakotondravao

    2006-10-01

    Renitelo breed is a cattle breed created at Kianjasoa station (Madagascar) by a triple crossing Malagasy Zebu x Limousine x Afrikander. This breed besides many valuable advantages, such as rapid growth and drought power, presents a huge disadvantage which is sensitivity to skin disease, dermatophilosis, previously known as streptotrichosis. This disease caused by Dermatophilus congolensis is one of the major threats for the population of Renitelo cattle. An allele of MHC gene has been shown to be dramatically associated to hypersensitivity to the disease in other cattle breed. To bring further information to tick borne disease clinical survey, mainly dermatophilosis, we wanted to verify if such allele could be found in this breed. Renitelo cattle included in this study were chosen for the presence of dermatophilosis lesions in more or less severe form (N = 17). These animals were blood sampled and a genetic analysis on the MHC gene BoLA-DRB3 was performed, by PCR amplification using BOD 31 & BOD 32 primers. Amplified products were analyzed by RFLP using enzymes. Restriction band profiles were characterized according to previously defined patterns. Three cows out of the 17 cattle analyzed for MHC gene presented the hypersensitive allele FDA. Two out of the three hypersensitive cows were pure breed while one was half breed. All the cows presented dermatophilosis lesions at least during rainy season but one of them particularly suffered from severe lesions covering all its body and died of the illness. This study shows that hypersensitivity allele found in other bovine breeds can be found in Renitelo breed. This result seemed to suggest that this characterization could be utilized in breeding program for this breed.

  10. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Takeshima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequence-based typing (SBT. Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle. A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle.

  11. Design and Formative Evaluation of an Information Kiosk on Cattle Health for Landless Cattle Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, S.; Garforth, C.; Rao, S. V. N.; Heffernan, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the experience of designing, installing and evaluating a farmer-usable touch screen information kiosk on cattle health in a veterinary institution in Pondicherry. The contents of the kiosk were prepared based on identified demands for information on cattle health, arrived at through various stakeholders meetings.…

  12. Outbreak of arsenic and toxaphene poisoning in Kenyan cattle. [Arsenic was detected in cattle dips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitai, C.K.; Kamau, J.A.; Gacuhi, D.M.; Njoroge, S.

    1975-02-15

    In a case of poisoning involving 70 cattle analysis of specimens obtained during post mortem examination showed that the toxic substances were arsenic and toxaphene. This was consistent with both the clinical and post mortem findings. Arsenic was detected in water from an abandoned cattle dip in the farm. Soil samples collected in the vicinity of the dip contained both arsenic and toxaphene.

  13. Leptospirosis in Cattle From Markets of Almaty Province, Kazakhstan

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    Kirkimbayeva Zhumagul

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first study of the prevalence of leptospirosis in the cattle at slaughter from a rural area of Kazakhstan. Five hundred and seventy three samples of serum, urine, and kidneys from cattle of Alatau, Kazakh white and Auliyekol breed, aged from 2 to 5 years (unknown vaccination status, from the province of Almaty in the South-Eastern region were collected during four years (March 2010 to October 2013. The serological, bacteriological, and molecular analyses were performed. Serum samples were tested with 14 reference Leptospira serovars by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. MAT results showed that 89 (15.53% serum samples had detectable antibodies against seven serovars of L. interrogans at a dilution of ≥1:100. Serovars: Pomona (38.2%, Tarassovi (27.2%, and Kabula (18.8% were the most prevalent and their titres ranged from 100 to 1200. The spirochetes were detected in 11 samples of urine and nine samples of kidneys under dark-field microscope observation. The pure cultures were obtained from three samples. PCR technique confirmed leptospirosis in 23 out of 89 urine samples from cows, which showed the presence of leptospiral antibodies in microagglutination test. The high disease prevalence in cows indicates the high Leptospira contamination in this area. It was concluded that the bovine leptospirosis is an endemic and locally widespread disease in Kazakhstan, and that it may play a role in zoonotic transmission to humans.

  14. Revisiting QTL Affecting Clinical Mastitis by High-Density GWAS and Resequencing in the Finnish Ayrshire Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilkki, Johanna; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Schulman, Nina F;

    Mastitis is the most common disease of dairy cattle, causing high economic losses each year. Studies to locate QTL affecting clinical mastitis and milk somatic cell counts have been carried out to increase our understanding of the disease. As part of the EU FP7 Quantomics project, we have used most...... recent genomic tools to characterize QTL affecting mastitis incidence in the Finnish Ayrshire cattle. Clinical mastitis diagnoses from -15 to 50 days and 51 to 300 days of first lactation and SCC (geometric mean of SCS observations between 5 to 170 days of first lactation) were included. In total, 1920...

  15. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  16. Alimentary and respiratory tract lesions in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M R; Kehrli, M E; Laufer, J A; Nusz, L T

    1996-05-01

    Lesions in the alimentary tract were studied in eight medically fragile Holstein cattle homozygous for the bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) allele as determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis. These cattle received institutional medical care but died or were euthanatized because of chronic debilitation associated with diarrhea (6/8) and pneumonia (4/8). The six cattle with diarrhea had acute (n = 3) or chronic (n = 3) intestinal ulcers, but the other two remained relatively healthy for 3 years and did not develop intestinal tract ulcers. Ulcerated areas were present in the small intestine in six animals, and two of these also had ulcers in the large intestine. Ulcers were covered by thick exudates that, in chronic lesions, partially occluded the intestinal lumen. Intramural and serosal fibrosis also contributed to lumen constriction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the intestine of four cattle. Bovine viral disease virus and Salmonella were not isolated from the five cattle that were tested. Respiratory tract lesions consisted of dense infiltrates of neutrophils in bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. This study suggests that intestinal lesions are integral to the demise of BLAD cattle that receive intensive medical care and that neutrophils do infiltrate the lung and enter airway lumina, despite the adhesion deficiency.

  17. Research Progress in the Relationship of Polymorphism of Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) with Disease Resistance for Sheep and Cattle%牛羊朊蛋白基因(PRNP)多态性与抗病性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席冬梅; 刘情; 于虹漫; 杨玉艾; 毛华明; 邓卫东

    2011-01-01

    朊蛋白(PRNP)是近年来造成人和部分哺乳动物传染性海绵状脑病(TSE)的主要根源,该基因的多态性显著影响了人和动物对TSE的易感性或抗病性.本文分析了朊蛋白基因及其编码蛋白的结构与功能;简要介绍了绵羊基因编码区突变与致病性的关系;系统分析了牛科动物启动子区域内23bp的插入/缺失、第一内含子区域内12bp的插入/缺失及其与疯牛病(BSE)抗病性的作用机制;全面总结了全球已经报道的牛科动物12和23bp插入/缺失的等位基因与单倍体频率,评价了其发病的可能性.该研究将为牛的分子育种提供指导.%The prion protein is the pathogenesis agent for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) of human being and some mammal.The polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) are significantly affect the susceptibility or resistance to TSE for human being and mammal.In this paper, we analyzed the structure and function of the gene and coding protein.The relationship of mutations in coding region with pathogenicity for sheep was introduced briefly.The molecular mechanism of the insertion-deletion (Indel) in the promoter (23 bp) and the first intron (12 bp) of PRNP for bovine spongiform encephalopathy ( BSE) was analyzed systematically.We also summarized and compared the allele and haplotype frequencies of 12 bp and 23 bp Indel from known bovine PRNP for evaluating the possibility of BSE.It could assist the cattle molecular breeding project.

  18. Estimating epidemiological parameters for bovine tuberculosis in British cattle using a Bayesian partial-likelihood approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, A; Orton, R J; Bessell, P R; Kao, R R

    2014-05-22

    Fitting models with Bayesian likelihood-based parameter inference is becoming increasingly important in infectious disease epidemiology. Detailed datasets present the opportunity to identify subsets of these data that capture important characteristics of the underlying epidemiology. One such dataset describes the epidemic of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British cattle, which is also an important exemplar of a disease with a wildlife reservoir (the Eurasian badger). Here, we evaluate a set of nested dynamic models of bTB transmission, including individual- and herd-level transmission heterogeneity and assuming minimal prior knowledge of the transmission and diagnostic test parameters. We performed a likelihood-based bootstrapping operation on the model to infer parameters based only on the recorded numbers of cattle testing positive for bTB at the start of each herd outbreak considering high- and low-risk areas separately. Models without herd heterogeneity are preferred in both areas though there is some evidence for super-spreading cattle. Similar to previous studies, we found low test sensitivities and high within-herd basic reproduction numbers (R0), suggesting that there may be many unobserved infections in cattle, even though the current testing regime is sufficient to control within-herd epidemics in most cases. Compared with other, more data-heavy approaches, the summary data used in our approach are easily collected, making our approach attractive for other systems.

  19. 奶牛四种流产性疾病的流行现状及疫苗研究进展%Research Progress on the Vaccine and Epidemic Situation of Four Types of Abortion Disease in Dairy Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李前勇; 张德志; 徐蓉; 吴艳秋; 詹飞; 吴润彪

    2014-01-01

    奶牛布氏杆菌病、传染性鼻气管炎、病毒性腹泻-黏膜病及新孢子虫病是导致我国奶牛流产发病比例升高的主要疾病,有效防控这四种疾病一直是世界关注的重点之一。本文对上述四种疾病的流行现状及疫苗研究进展进行了综述。%The four diseases including Bovine brucellosis, Bovine infection rhinotracheitis, Bovine viral diarrhea and Bovine neosporiasis are the main diseases that causing cow′s abortion. Pre-vention and control of these four diseases effectively have become one of the focuses. In this paper, research progress on the vaccine and epidemic situation of these four diseases had been reviewed.

  20. Trypanosomosis: Potential driver of selection in African cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija eSmetko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosomosis is a serious cause of reduction in productivity of cattle in tsetse-fly infested areas. Baoule and other local Taurine cattle breeds in Burkina Faso are trypanotolerant. Zebuine cattle, which are also kept there are susceptible to trypanosomosis but bigger in body size. Farmers have continuously been intercrossing Baoule and Zebu animals to increase production and disease tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare levels of zebuine and taurine admixture in genomic regions potentially involved in trypanotolerance with background admixture of composites to identify differences in allelic frequencies of tolerant and non tolerant animals. The study was conducted on 214 animals (90 Baoule, 90 Zebu and 34 composites, genotyped with 25 microsatellites across the genome and with 155 SNPs in 23 candidate regions. Degrees of admixture of composites were analyzed for microsatellite and SNP data separately. Average Baoule admixture based on microsatellites across the genomes of the Baoule-Zebu composites was 0.31, which was smaller than the average Baoule admixture in the trypanosomosis candidate regions of 0.37 (P=0.15. Fixation index FST measured in the overall genome based on microsatellites or with SNPs from candidate regions indicates strong differentiation between breeds. Nine out of 23 regions had FST ≥ 0.20 calculated from haplotypes or individual SNPs. The levels of admixture were significantly different from background admixture, as revealed by microsatellite data, for six out of the nine regions. Five out of the six regions showed an excess of Baoule ancestry. Information about best levels of breed composition would be useful for future breeding activities, aiming at trypanotolerant animals with higher productive capacity.

  1. Blocking Babesia bovis vaccine reactions of dairy cattle in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Combrink

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of 1.16 mg/kg (one third of the recommended dose of diminazene aceturate, administered indiscriminately to cattle on day seven of the unfrozen Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina bivalent live blood vaccine reaction, was an infection and block treatment method of immunisation used successfully with no known adverse effect on the parasites or the development of protective immunity. Continuing with this practice after replacement of the unfrozen vaccine with deep-frozen monovalent B. bovis and B. bigemina live blood vaccines resulted in reports of vaccine failure. Laboratory investigation indicated the harmful effect of block treatment in preventing the development of durable immunity against B. bigemina as opposed to the much lesser effect it had on B. bovis. Consequently the practice was no longer recommended. A B. bovis vaccination attempt aimed at controlling the disease of dairy cows in milk (n = 30 resulted in 20% fatalities during the expected vaccine reaction period. The practice of block treating B. bovis was therefore reinvestigated, this time in a field trial using dairy cattle in milk (n = 11. Using 0.88 mg/kg (one quarter of the recommended dose of diminazene administered on day 12 of the B. bovis vaccine reaction resulted in only two animals (n = 5 testing ≥ 1/80 positive with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT although parasites could be demonstrated in three. In the untreated control group, by contrast, five of the vaccinated animals (n = 6 tested ≥ 1/80 positive with IFAT and parasites could be demonstrated in all. The unsatisfactory outcome obtained in this study, combined with that of the earlier investigation, indicated that there are more factors that influence successful vaccination than previously considered. It is therefore concluded that block treatment of the live frozen South African cattle babesiosis vaccines reactions is not recommended.

  2. Passive electronic identification with temperature monitoring. [Temperature monitor for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.M.; Bobbett, R.E.; Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.; Sanders, W.M.; Depp, S.W.; Seawright, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have been supporting an electronic identification and temperature monitoring project at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since early 1973. The development, so far, indicates that a subdermally-implanted, electronic transponder (having no batteries) can be remotely activated and transmit temperature and identification information back to a receiver in a few tenths of a second. If this electronic identification and temperature monitoring system is developed into a commercially available product line, and is widely accepted by the cattle industry, it will enable them to carry out more extensive management practices. Better management can result in greater efficiency and productivity. The system will also enable regulatory agencies to trace the movements of diseased animals through commerce, and thus assist in disease control measures. Work so far has been concentrated primarily on determining the technical feasibility of the electronic concepts. (auth)

  3. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    .003) in the ClinPain group but not after placebo treatment (p = 0.06); the pain score did not differ significantly before compared to after treatment with analgesic or placebo for the non-pain group (p = 0.2; p = 0.1). A second study was conducted to further validate the Cow Pain Scale. Cows from two herds were......Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were...... selected and fifteen different behaviours were scored, subsequently a clinical examination was performed to allocate the cows to a pain and non-pain group. The animals were then treated with an analgesic or a placebo and after a resting period the cows were re-scored by two observers blinded...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  5. EVALUATION OF VERMICOMPOSTED CATTLE MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Lončarić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Vermicompost (lumbripost, biohumus is organic fertilizer or potting medium produced by microbial decomposition of cattle manure using Californian earthworm (Eisenia foetida. Analysing physical, chemical and biological properties confirmed that the vermicompost was stable with significant level of plant nutrients and the concentration of analysed heavy metals below threshold values. The results of vermicompost analyses were 17.85% ash, neutral pH reaction, EC 1.07 dS m-1, 24.6% total C, 2.32% total N and C:N ratio 10.6 indicating vermicompost maturity. Analyses showed significant concentrations (in g kg-1 of total P (11.25, K (6.13, Ca (10 and Mg (8.55 and microelements (in mg kg-1 Fe (9464, Mn (354, Zn (272 and Cu (46. Also, the total concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb (16 mg kg-1 and Cr (42 mg kg-1 was below permitted threshold values indicating that the use of vermicompost as fertilizer or as potting medium would be unrestricted. Biological tests show that (i the vermicompost was stable because measured respiration rate was 1.2 mg CO2-C g-1 compost-C day-1, and (ii the vermicompost did not show any phytotoxic effects because the 14-day growth of lettuce in containers resulted in higher aboveground fresh matter production using vermicompost as a potting medium compared with commercial medium, although the differences were not.

  6. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  7. The Prevalence of Brucellosis in Cattle, Goats and Humans in Rural Uganda: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R; Nakavuma, J L; Ssajjakambwe, P; Vudriko, P; Musisi, N; Kaneene, J B

    2016-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the presence of brucellosis in cattle, goats and humans in farms from south-western Uganda and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in these three host groups. Data and serum samples were collected from 768 cattle, 315 goats and 236 humans, with 635 samples of bovine milk, from 70 farms in two different study areas in south-western Uganda. Sera from livestock were tested with the Rose Bengal Plate test, using B. abortus and B. melitensis antigens, and human sera were tested with a commercial IgG/IgM lateral flow assay. Milk samples were tested using the OIE-approved milk ring test. Screening tests for brucellosis were positive in 14% of cattle serum, 29% of bovine milk, 17% of goat serum and 11% of human serum samples. There were significant differences in the test prevalence of brucellosis by study site, with levels higher in the study area near Lake Mburo National Park than in the study area near Queen Elizabeth National Park. Multivariable regression models identified risk factors associated with increasing test positivity at the individual and farm levels for cattle, goats and humans. Positive associations were seen between increasing seropositivity of brucellosis in goats, cattle and humans. Results of multivariable analyses suggest that improvements in farm biosecurity and hygiene may reduce the risk of brucellosis on the farm and suggest a role for ticks in bovine brucellosis. Although cattle are the focus of brucellosis control in Uganda, the significant associations between seropositivity in humans and seropositivity in goats suggest that brucellosis in goats may be an important contributor to the epidemiology of the disease on the farm.

  8. Mycobacterium bovis in Burkina Faso: epidemiologic and genetic links between human and cattle isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adama Sanou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, bovine tuberculosis (bTB is a potential hazard for animals and humans health. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of bTB epidemiology in Burkina Faso and especially Mycobacterium bovis transmission within and between the bovine and human populations.Twenty six M. bovis strains were isolated from 101 cattle carcasses with suspected bTB lesions during routine meat inspections at the Bobo Dioulasso and Ouagadougou slaughterhouses. In addition, 7 M. bovis strains were isolated from 576 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Spoligotyping, RDAf1 deletion and MIRU-VNTR typing were used for strains genotyping. The isolation of M. bovis strains was confirmed by spoligotyping and 12 spoligotype signatures were detected. Together, the spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR data allowed grouping the 33 M. bovis isolates in seven clusters including isolates exclusively from cattle (5 or humans (1 or from both (1. Moreover, these data (genetic analyses and phenetic tree showed that the M. bovis isolates belonged to the African 1 (Af1 clonal complex (81.8% and the putative African 5 (Af5 clonal complex (18.2%, in agreement with the results of RDAf1 deletion typing.This is the first detailed molecular characterization of M. bovis strains from humans and cattle in Burkina Faso. The distribution of the two Af1 and putative Af5 clonal complexes is comparable to what has been reported in neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the strain genetic profiles suggest that M. bovis circulates across the borders and that the Burkina Faso strains originate from different countries, but have a country-specific evolution. The genetic characterization suggests that, currently, M. bovis transmission occurs mainly between cattle, occasionally between cattle and humans and potentially between humans. This study emphasizes the bTB risk in cattle but also in humans and the difficulty to set up proper disease control strategies in Burkina Faso.

  9. Brucella seroprevalence of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani): exposure associated to contact with cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Matope, G; Siamudaala, V M; Munang'andu, H M; Matandiko, W; Godfroid, J; Skjerve, E; Tryland, M

    2011-07-01

    We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps. Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas.

  10. Biomarker discovery in subclinical mycobacterial infections of cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetu Seth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis is a highly prevalent infectious disease of cattle worldwide; however, infection in the United States is limited to 0.01% of dairy herds. Thus detection of bovine TB is confounded by high background infection with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The present study addresses variations in the circulating peptidome based on the pathogenesis of two biologically similar mycobacterial diseases of cattle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that serum proteomes of animals in response to either M. bovis or M. paratuberculosis infection will display several commonalities and differences. Sera prospectively collected from animals experimentally infected with either M. bovis or M. paratuberculosis were analyzed using high-resolution proteomics approaches. iTRAQ, a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry approach, was used to simultaneously identify and quantify peptides from multiple infections and contemporaneous uninfected control groups. Four comparisons were performed: 1 M. bovis infection versus uninfected controls, 2 M. bovis versus M. paratuberculosis infection, 3 early, and 4 advanced M. paratuberculosis infection versus uninfected controls. One hundred and ten differentially elevated proteins (P < or = 0.05 were identified. Vitamin D binding protein precursor (DBP, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, alpha-1B glycoprotein, fetuin, and serine proteinase inhibitor were identified in both infections. Transthyretin, retinol binding proteins, and cathelicidin were identified exclusively in M. paratuberculosis infection, while the serum levels of alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP protein, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, fetuin, and alpha-1B glycoprotein were elevated exclusively in M. bovis infected animals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The discovery of these biomarkers has significant impact on the elucidation of pathogenesis of two mycobacterial diseases at the cellular and the molecular level and

  11. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy. Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study. Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage. Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.

  12. Identification of different Bartonella species in the cattle tail louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in cattle blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Harrus, Shimon; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.

  13. Invited review: The economic impact and control of paratuberculosis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A B; Shalloo, L

    2015-08-01

    Paratuberculosis (also called Johne's disease) is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that affects ruminants and other animals. The epidemiology of paratuberculosis is complex and the clinical manifestations and economic impact of the disease in cattle can be variable depending on factors such as herd management, age, infection dose, and disease prevalence, among others. Additionally, considerable challenges are faced in the control of paratuberculosis in cattle, such as the lack of accurate and reliable diagnostic tests. Nevertheless, efforts are directed toward the control of this disease because it can cause substantial economic losses to the cattle industry mainly due to increased premature culling, replacement costs, decreased milk yield, reduced feed conversion efficiency, fertility problems, reduced slaughter values, and increased susceptibility to other diseases or conditions. The variability and uncertainty surrounding the estimations of paratuberculosis prevalence and impact influence the design, implementation, and efficiency of control programs in diverse areas of the world. This review covers important aspects of the economic impact and control of paratuberculosis, including challenges related to disease detection, estimations of the prevalence and economic effects of the disease, and the implementation of control programs. The control of paratuberculosis can improve animal health and welfare, increase productivity, reduce potential market problems, and increase overall business profitability. The benefits that can derive from the control of paratuberculosis need to be communicated to all industry stakeholders to promote the implementation of control programs. Moreover, if the suspected link between Johne's disease in ruminants and Crohn's disease in humans was established, significant economic losses could be expected, particularly for the dairy industry, making the control of this disease a priority across

  14. Time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konold Timm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate variability (HRV analysis is a method to assess the function of the autonomic nervous system. Brainstem nuclei that influence HRV are affected by vacuolar changes and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE resulting in clinical signs suggestive of an increased parasympathetic tone. It was hypothesised that BSE in cattle causes changes in the autonomic nervous system; this was tested by comparing HRV indices derived from 1048 electrocardiograms, which were recorded from 51 naturally or experimentally infected cattle with BSE confirmed by postmortem tests, 321 clinical suspect cases or cattle inoculated with potentially infectious tissue without disease confirmation and 78 BSE-free control cattle. Findings Statistically significant differences were found for low or high frequency power, their normalised values and ratio when the last recording prior to cull or repeated recordings were compared but only between male and female cattle of the three groups and not between groups of the same gender, even though BSE cases of each gender appeared to be more nervous during the recording. The same findings were made for heart rate, deviation from the mean RR interval and vasovagal tonus index when repeated recordings were compared. BSE cases with severe vacuolar changes in the parasympathetic nucleus of the vagus nerve had a significantly lower low:high frequency power ratio but not a lower heart rate than BSE cases with mild vacuolation, whereas severity of vacuolar changes in the solitary tract nucleus or intensity of PrPd accumulation in both nuclei did not appear to have any affect on either index. Abnormalities in the electrocardiogram were detected in 3% of the recordings irrespective of the BSE status; sinus arrhythmia was present in 93% of the remaining recordings. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful to distinguish BSE-positive from BSE-negative cattle

  15. 9 CFR 78.7 - Brucellosis reactor cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor cattle. 78.7... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.7 Brucellosis reactor cattle....

  16. 9 CFR 93.418 - Cattle from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle from Canada. 93.418 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.418 Cattle from Canada. (a) Health certificates. Cattle intended for importation from Canada must be accompanied by a certificate issued in...

  17. 78 FR 8960 - Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 72 Texas (Splenetic) Fever in Cattle AGENCY: Animal... permitted for use on cattle in interstate movement. These actions are necessary to update and clarify the..., Staff Entomologist, Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program Manager, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  18. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  19. Cestrum parqui (green cestrum) poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, M W; Kelly, W R

    1984-09-01

    Naturally occurring cases of poisoning of cattle by Cestrum parqui were characterised by ataxia, depression, recumbency, convulsions and death. Three cattle were dosed experimentally by intrarumenal administration of fresh plant material. One calf died 48 h after receiving 30 g (wet weight) of plant/kg bodyweight. Doses of 11 and 17 g/kg caused only mild intoxication, with dullness and anorexia lasting 2 days. In natural and experimental cases the main lesion was hepatic periacinar necrosis. Elevated levels of plasma aspartate transaminase and prolonged prothrombin times were demonstrated in experimental cases. Haemorrhage beneath the serosa and into the intestinal lumen occurred in field cases, but not in the experimental. It is concluded that C. parqui poisoning in cattle is a primary hepatotoxicity.

  20. Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Fontenele-Neto, J D; Silva, D M; Reis, P F C C; Nóbrega, J E

    2006-01-01

    Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57 animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the other cases, accidental ingestion of residual parts of oleander derived from pruning or cutting plants on grazing land were responsible. Clinical signs were diverse; the most common were locomotion disturbances, diarrhoea, depression and sudden death. Postmortem findings varied from no significant lesions to widespread haemorrhage. The presence of oleander leaves in the rumen was noted in all cases. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders was the main cause for the accident, which prompt us to stimulate wide divulgation of the common toxic plants.

  1. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi;

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  2. Spontaneous poisoning by Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S.C. Albuquerque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report cases of spontaneous poisoning of cattle by Ricinus communis (castor beans in Paraíba, a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cases were observed in 2 herds on neighboring properties in 2013. Clinical signs developed within 6-24 h and consisted of weakness, tachycardia, dyspnea, profuse watery diarrhea, dehydration, depression, instability, cramps, permanent lateral recumbency and death within 48-72 h. Of the 60 cattle at risk, 19 were affected and 14 died. Five fully recovered after the course of 12 days. Three animals were necropsied. The main gross lesions were hemopericardium, hemothorax, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epicardium and endocardium, ecchymoses at the papillary muscles and suffusions on the intercostal muscles. Hemorrhages were also observed in the abdominal cavity, spleen and mucosa of the abomasum and small intestine. The rumen content was liquid with a large amount of castor bean seeds. There were circular, whitish and focally diffuse areas in the liver parenchyma. The main microscopic lesions consisted of multifocal coagulative myocardial necrosis with the presence of mononuclear cell infiltration and varying degrees of bleeding between cardiac muscle fibers. The abomasum and small intestine mucosae and submucosa had mild edema and mononuclear and polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. The diagnosis of R. communis was based on the history of plant consumption, clinical signs, pathology of the disease and the presence of large amounts of castor bean seeds in the forestomachs.

  3. [First cases of besnoitiosis in cattle in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, M; Braun, U; Deplazes, P; Gottstein, B; Hilbe, M; Basso, W

    2012-11-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis has been diagnosed in neighboring countries but not in Switzerland so far. This disease occurs endemically in France and focal outbreaks have been reported in Germany and Italy. To determine if Besnoitia besnoiti is introduced into Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a systematic serological survey was performed. A total of 412 breeding cattle (from 114 farms) imported from France into Switzerland between 2005 and 2011, were serologically examined for antibodies against B. besnoiti using a commercial ELISA kit (PrioCHECK© Besnoitia Ab 2.0, Prionics AG, Zurich, Switzerland). Sixty-four (15.5 %) animals reacted positive in ELISA. The serologic diagnosis was confirmed by an indirect immunfluorescence test (IFAT) and a Western blot (WB) in only 2 Limousin cows imported from France on a farm in Eastern Switzerland. Subsequently, this whole herd (n = 16) was examined clinically and serologically and 2 additional Limousin cows imported from Germany also reacted positive in the three serological tests. One of these cows presented B. besnoiti tissue cysts in the scleral conjunctiva and typical skin lesions in the head region. The infection was further confirmed cytologically, histopathologically and by PCR. It can be concluded that the parasite is most likely being introduced into Switzerland through the import of infected animals.

  4. Neuropathology of organophosphate poisoning in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate pathological changes in brain tissues of Frisien Holstein dairy cattle affected by organophosphate (OP. The study was directed to anticipate spongiform encephalopathy. Samples consisted of animal feeds, sera and brain tissues were collected from Lembang, West Java. Animal feeds (fodders and commercial feed were collected directly from the dairy farms around Lembang. Sera (31 samples were from dairy cattle owned by the local farmers and brain tissues were from the local animal slaughter house. Pesticide residues were analysed following a standard procedure using gas chromatography (GC. There was an interaction between pesticide residues in animal feeds, residue level of pesticides in sera and brain tissues to cause encephalopathy in dairy cattle. Pesticide contamination in animal feeds was regarded as the source of encephalopathy in dairy cattle. The total average of OP residues (16.8 ppb were lower than organochlorines/OC (18.7 ppb in fodder, showing that pesticides were originated from the contaminated soils. On the other hand, the total average of OP residues in commercial feeds (12.0 ppb, sera (85.6 ppb and brain tissues (22.7 ppb were higher than OC (1.8; 16.7; and 5.1 ppb. The OP appears more frequently used for dairy farm activity as insecticides. Histopathological examination for brain tissues of dairy cattle showed that most cattle were diagnosed as encephalopathy with microscopic changes of vacuolation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis of neurons and nucleolysis of neurons. The encephalopathy was confirmed in rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos methyl as severe brain damage with spongiform-like lesions.

  5. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  6. Comparison of two 3ABC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of multiple-serotype foot-and-mouth disease in a cattle population in an area of endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronsvoort, B.M.D.; Sørensen, K.J.; Anderson, J.;

    2004-01-01

    The development of a serological test for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) which is quick and easy to use, which can identify all seven serotypes, and which can differentiate vaccinated from convalescing or potential virus carriers would be a major advance in the epidemiological toolkit for FMDV...

  7. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  8. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  9. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot.

  10. The Agersoe cattle: the last remnants of the Danish island cattle (Bos taurus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K B; Brüniche-Olsen, A; Pedersen, B.V.

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  11. Idiopathic Brainstem Neuronal Chromatolysis (IBNC: a novel prion protein related disorder of cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stuart

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemic form of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE is generally considered to have been caused by a single prion strain but at least two strain variants of cattle prion disorders have recently been recognized. An additional neurodegenerative condition, idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and hippocampal sclerosis (IBNC, a rare neurological disease of adult cattle, was also recognised in a sub-set of cattle submitted under the BSE Orders in which lesions of BSE were absent. Between the years of 1988 and 1991 IBNC occurred in Scotland with an incidence of 7 cases per 100,000 beef suckler cows over the age of 6 years. Results When the brains of 15 IBNC cases were each tested by immunohistochemistry, all showed abnormal labelling for prion protein (PrP. Immunohistological labelling for PrP was also present in the retina of a single case available for examination. The pattern of PrP labelling in brain is distinct from that seen in other ruminant prion diseases and is absent from brains with other inflammatory conditions and from normal control brains. Brains of IBNC cattle do not reveal abnormal PrP isoforms when tested by the commercial BioRad or Idexx test kits and do not reveal PrPres when tested by Western blotting using stringent proteinase digestion methods. However, some weakly protease resistant isoforms of PrP may be detected when tissues are examined using mild proteinase digestion techniques. Conclusion The study shows that a distinctive neurological disorder of cattle, which has some clinical similarities to BSE, is associated with abnormal PrP labelling in brain but the pathology and biochemistry of IBNC are distinct from BSE. The study is important either because it raises the possibility of a significant increase in the scope of prion disease or because it demonstrates that widespread and consistent PrP alterations may not be confined to prion diseases. Further studies, including transmission

  12. Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis with vasculitis and thrombosis of small vessels that contained discrete neutrophilic and/or lymphocytic infiltrates admixed with fibrin at the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and trigeminal nerve ganglion of all animals. All tissues from the central nervous system used during this study were previously characterized as negative for rabies virus by the direct immunofluorescence assay. PCR and RT-PCR assays investigated the participation of infectious agents associated with bovine neurological disease by targeting specific genes of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, bovine herpesvirus -1 and -5, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and ovine herpesvirus-2. PCR and subsequent sequencing resulted in partial fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of H. somni from brain sections of all animals with histopathological diagnosis of TME; all other PCR/RT-PCR assays were negative. These findings confirmed the participation of H. somni in the neuropathological disease observed in these animals, extend the geographical distribution of this disease, and support previous findings of H. somni from Brazil.

  13. Analysis and frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) alleles in Iranian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiry, M R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Mosafer, J; Mohammadi, A; Manshad, E; Ghazanfari, S; Mohammad Abadi, M R; Sulimova, G E

    2005-06-01

    The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA-DRB3) gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune response by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. DRB3 gene has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for association with various bovine diseases and immunological traits. This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 in Iranian Holstein cattle. This is the first study of the DNA polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in Iranian Holstein cattle. Hemi-nested PCR-RFLP method is used for identification the frequency of BoLA-DRB3 alleles. The BoLA-DRB3 locus is highly polymorphic in the studied herd (26 alleles). Almost 67% of the alleles were accounted for four alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*8, *24, *11 and *16) in Iranian Holstein cattle. The DRB3.2*8 allele frequency (26.6%) was higher than the others. The frequencies of the DRB3.2*54, *37, *36, *28, *25, *14, *13, *10, *1 alleles were lower than 1%. Significant distinctions have been found between Iranian Holstein cattle and other cattle breeds studied. In Iranian Holstein cattle the alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2*22, *2 and *16) associated with a lower risk of cystic ovarian disease in Holstein cattle are found. The alleles associated with the resistance to mastitis and to bovine leukemia virus infection BoLA-DRB3.2*11 and *23 are detected with the frequencies 10.4% and 4.4%, respectively. Thus in the Iranian Holstein cows studied are found alleles which are associated with resistance to various diseases. The method of DNA-typing of animals can be used in agricultural practice for BoLA-DRB3 allele genotyping of cattle in order to reduce spreading of alleles providing susceptibility to mastitis or leukemia in cattle herds.

  14. Association of oxidative status and insulin sensitivity in periparturient dairy cattle: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-04-01

    Post-parturient insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature in all mammalian animals. However, in dairy cows, it can be exacerbated because of high milk yield, leading to excessive negative energy balance, which is related with increased disease incidence, reduced milk production and worsened reproductive performance. IR has been extensively investigated in humans suffering from diabetes mellitus. In these subjects, it is known that oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in the onset of IR. Although OS occurs in transitional dairy cattle, there are yet no studies that investigated the association between IR and OS in dairy cattle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between OS and IR in dairy cattle. Serum samples were taken repeatedly from 22 dairy cows from 2 months prior to the expected calving date to 2 months after calving and were analysed for markers of metabolic and redox balance. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity were also calculated. Generalised linear mixed models revealed an effect of the oxidative status on peripheral insulin concentration and on indices of insulin sensitivity. Hence, field trials should investigate the effectiveness of antioxidant therapy on insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues during the transition period of dairy cattle.

  15. [Detection of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) in tissue samples of naturally and experimentally infected cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teifke, Jens P; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Enzootic bovine leukaemia (EBL) which is caused by the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) still plays a remarkable role despite a significant success in sanitation programmes. In the Federal Republic of Germany it was not possible to eradicate the disease until today. Sporadically during slaughter or necropsy of cattle neoplastic lesions of the lymphatic tissues are observed that need to be clarified with regard to BLV as etiological agent. Due to the fact that in most instances no serological data are available from the respective animals and blood drawings from the original holdings are not easy to obtain the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) opens new avenues as supplementary diagnostic tool to test unfixed lymphatic tissues for the presence of BLV proviral DNA. Lymph node tissues from 10 naturally or experimentally BLV-infected cattle, which have been monitored virologically and serologically, and tissues from 4 negative animals were processed, DNA was extracted and subjected to PCR to amplify BLV env gene specific sequences. The results show that in cattle with BLV-induced leukosis as well as in cattle, which were clinically healthy and unsuspicious at slaughter or at post-mortem, either with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) or without, BLV proviral DNA could be detected easily in samples of lymphatic tissues and in high concordance with serological data. In this article data from the National and OIE reference laboratory for EBL at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI, Germany) are presented. Elaborated laboratory protocols for processing of tissue samples and performing of BLV-PCR are recommended.

  16. Some preliminary observations on the susceptibility and resistance of different cattle breeds to Theileria parva infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus, Boran (Bos indicus and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50 % mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05 between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100 %, five out of nine Borans (55.6 % and two out of five Zebus (40 %. Three of the Friesians (37.5 %, and two of the Borans (22.2 % died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis.

  17. Clinical and pathological study of an outbreak of obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretti Alexandre Paulino

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, clinical picture and pathology of an outbreak of urolithiasis in cattle in southern Brazil are described. The disease occurred in August 1999 in a feedlot beef cattle herd. Five out of 1,100 castrated steers were affected. Clinical signs included colic and ventral abdominal distension. White, sand-grain-like mineral deposits precipitated on the preputial hairs. Affected cattle died spontaneously 24-48 hrs after the onset of the clinical signs. Only one animal recovered after perineal urethrostomy. Necropsy findings included calculi blocking the urethral lumen of the distal portion of the penile sigmoid flexure, urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the abdominal cavity and secondary fibrinous peritonitis. Daily water intake was low since water sources were scarce and not readily available. The animals were fed rations high in grains and received limited amounts of roughage. Biochemical analysis revealed that the calculi were composed of ammonium phosphate. A calcium-phosphorus imbalance (0.4:0.6 was detected in the feedlot ration. For the outbreak, it is suggested that contributing factors to urolith formation include insufficient fiber ingestion, low water intake and high dietary levels of phosphorus. No additional cases were observed in that feedlot after preventive measures were established. Similar dietary mismanagement in fattening steers has been associated with obstructive urolithiasis in feedlot beef cattle in other countries.

  18. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  19. Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence and associated risk factors in dairy and mixed cattle farms from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Alfonso; Guzmán, Lucía T; Montaño, Karen; Torralbo, Alicia; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Saa, Luis R

    2015-03-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the main reservoir. An extensive cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of and associated risk factors for Q fever was performed in dairy and mixed (dairy-beef) cattle herds in Ecuador. A total of 2668 serum samples from 386 herds were analyzed using an ELISA. In addition, a questionnaire with 57 variables related to management, feeding, facilities, biosecurity and animal health was completed for every cattle farm. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to determine the factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity. The true prevalence of C. burnetii seropositivity in dairy and mixed cattle from Ecuador reached 12.6% (CI95%: 11.3-13.9%). The herd prevalence was 46.9% (181/386) (CI95%: 41.9-51.9%), and the within herd prevalence ranged between 8% and 100% (mean: 25.0%; Q1: 12.5%, Q2: 25.0%, Q3: 37.5%). Four factors were included in the GEE model for C. burnetii seropositivity: age of the cattle (OR: 1.01; CI95%: 1.006-1.014), feeding of calves with milk replacers (OR: 1.94; CI95%: 1.1-3.3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus seropositivity (OR: 1.54; CI95%: 1.1-2.3), and disinfection of the umbilical cord (OR: 0.60; CI95%: 0.4-0.9).

  20. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Status of Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yong-jiang; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; XU Ming; ZHANG Liu; CHANG Guo-bin; SONG Wei-tao; WANG Dong-lei

    2006-01-01

    A total of 87 individuals of Luxi cattle from Juanchen and Liangshan counties, Shangdong Province, China, were sampled by simple random sampling in typical colony. Twenty-one blood proteins and enzymes loci were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE). In the meantime, the data of 7 loci of 13 cattle populations in China and other countries were collected and phylogeny relationships were studied. The results indicated that 9 out of 21 loci showed polymorphism (42.86%); the level of genetic variation in Luxi cattle population was relatively high, the mean heterozygosity was 0.1416. The Luxi cattle have a close phylogenetic relationship with the cattle populations of east and south of Asia, and this further confirmed the fact that Luxi cattle were the cross-breed between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China, but it is impossible that yellow cattle contained the blood of of Bali.

  1. 204 POTENTIAL OF GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN LOCUS FOR GENE EDITING IN DNA TRANSPOSON-PRODUCED TRANSGENIC CATTLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, S-Y; Lee, S-J; Kim, H-M; Lee, C-I; Kim, H-S; Kim, H-J; Choi, W-J; Hahn, S-E; Lee, J-H; Kim, S-J; Jang, G

    2016-01-01

    demonstrated that transgenic cattle via transposon are healthy to date and germ-line competence was confirmed. The GFP locus will be used as the target region for future gene engineering via genome-editing technology. Finally, all those animals could be a valuable agricultural and veterinary science resource for studying the effects of gene manipulation on disease resistance and food production.

  2. The use of skin delayed-type hypersensitivity as an adjunct test to diagnose brucellosis in cattle: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, is a contagious disease that causes economic loss to owners of domestic animals due to loss of progeny and milk yield. Because cattle, sheep, goats, and to a lesser extent pigs are considered to be the source of human brucellosis, serological te

  3. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  4. A genome-wide association study for the incidence of persistent bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses (BVDV) comprises a diverse group of viruses that causes disease in cattle. BVDV may establish both, transient and persistent infections depending on the developmental stage of the animal at exposure. The objective was to determine if genomic regions harboring single nuc...

  5. Cattle Farming at the Wildlife/Livestock Interface: Assessment of Costs and Benefits Adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaminuka, P.; Mccrindle, C.M.E.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent and magnitude of cattle loss to wildlife depredation and diseases and also considered the benefits from the park for households adjacent to Kruger National Park. Data were from interviews with 540 randomly sampled households, inspection of records, and focus-group disc

  6. Disease: H00277 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available irst associated with human disease after a multistate outbreak in the United States in 1982 involving contam...ogress to a severe cases called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Infectious disea...157:H7 strains isolated from humans during disease outbreaks and from healthy cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol

  7. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.N. Makgatho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  8. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, south Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgatho, C N; McCrindle, C M E; Owen, J H

    2005-12-01

    Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984). In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men ( n = 55). The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  9. Criollo cattle: Heritage genetics for arid landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty cows and three bulls from the Chinipas region in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were introduced onto the US Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service’s Jornada Experimental Range (JER) in 2005. Since then behavioral research has revealed these cattle, most accurately referre...

  10. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementat

  11. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  12. Epigenetics and environmental impacts in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the major advances in the field of epigenetics as well as the environmental impacts of cattle. Many findings from our own research endeavors related to the topic of this chapter are also introduced. The phenotypic characterization of an animal can be changed through epigenetic ...

  13. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  14. On the history of cattle genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen; Beerling, Marie Louise; Buchanan, David S.; Theunissen, Bert; Koolmees, Peter A.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give

  15. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age shall be negative to a test for brucellosis conducted as prescribed in “Standard Agglutination Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis” 2 or “Supplemental Test Procedures for the Diagnosis...

  16. Vaccination of cattle animals against tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine TB (bTB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a significant economic burden to the agricultural industries worldwide. It has been estimated that 50 million cattle are infected with M. bovis worldwide resulting in around US $3 billion losses annually and this is despite attempts to contro...

  17. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  18. Histopathological effects of boldenone in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Biolatti, B.

    2004-01-01

    Histopathology of male cattle previously found positive for béta-boldenone in urine in the Netherlands and in Italy was studied. The animals were derived from practice and several weeks had passed after the finding of béta-boldenone before the animals were examined. The animals consisted of 34 male

  19. Predicting forage intake by grazing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary intake by cattle is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective grazing and variability...

  20. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  1. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  2. Fat-1 transgenic cattle as a model to study the function of ω-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Tao; Liu Xin F; Ding Xiang B; Yang Fei F; Nie Yong W; An Yu J; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in health. Enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate expression of a number of genes with such broad functions as cell proliferation, growth and apoptosis and cell signaling and transduction, these effects, seem to regulate coronary artery disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis, psychiatric disorders and various cancer. In this context, fat-1 transgenic cattle was designed to convert ω-6 to ω-3 fat...

  3. Serological Investigation of Akabane Virus Infection in Cattle and Sheep in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu; Comfort Oluladun Aiki-Raji; Emmanuel Chibuzor Umeh; Samat Odunayo Mustapha; Adebowale Idris Adebiyi

    2016-01-01

    Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained w...

  4. Endoparasites in cattle nearby tribal areas of free-ranging protected areas of Tamil Nadu state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalraj, P G; Jayathangaraj, M G; Sridhar, R; Senthilkumar, T M A; Latchumikanthan, A

    2014-12-01

    Fresh dung samples from cattle nearby and tribal areas of free-ranging regions, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, Anamalai Tiger Reserve and forest divisions of Sathyamangalam-Erode of Tamil Nadu state were examined for identification of endoparasitic infection. A total of 50 dung samples were collected and examination of samples revealed the presence of eggs of Strongyle, Strongyloides sp., amphistomes, Toxocara sp. and oocysts of Eimeria sp. The risk of parasitic disease transmission from domestic livestock to wild populations was discussed.

  5. Evaluation of clinical signs, parasitemia, hematologic and biochemical changes in cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax

    OpenAIRE

    Otavio Luiz Fidelis Junior; Paulo Henrique Sampaio; Rosangela Zacarias Machado; Marcos Rogério André; Luiz Carlos Marques; Fabiano Antonio Cadioli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Infections by Trypanosoma vivax cause great losses to livestock in Africa and Central and South Americas. Outbreaks due this parasite have been occurred with increasing frequency in Brazil. Knowledge of changes caused byT. vivax during the course of this disease can be of great diagnostic value. Thus, clinical signs, parasitemia, hematologic and biochemical changes of cattle experimentally infected by this hemoparasite were evaluated. Two distinct phases were verified during the infe...

  6. Cattle scourge no more. The eradication of rinderpest and its lessons for global health campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youde, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) officially declared rinderpest eradicated. This cattle virus, which has historically had significant political, economic, and social consequences, is only the second infectious disease to disappear from the face of the planet due to concerted human actions. This paper explores the effects that rinderpest has had historically, chronicles the actions of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Campaign (GREP), and discusses the lessons that GREP can offer for combating other infectious diseases. I argue that rinderpest's unique viral characteristics made eradication particularly feasible, but that GREP's activities offer important lessons for fostering international cooperation on controlling infectious disease outbreaks.

  7. Awareness and attitude toward zoonoses with particular reference to anthrax among cattle owners in selected rural communities of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikerema, S M; Matope, G; Pfukenyi, D M

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess cattle owners' awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward zoonoses, with particular emphasis regarding anthrax. Data on awareness of zoonoses, clinical signs of anthrax in animals and human, its routes of transmission and methods of prevention, the families' consumption habits of anthrax-infected carcasses, and other family activities that increase exposure to anthrax were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 41.4% (135/326) of the farmers were from high-anthrax-risk districts, whereas 28.5% and 30.1% were from medium- and low-risk districts, respectively. Overall, the level of awareness amongst the farmers for the named zoonoses were rabies (88.7%), anthrax (71.5%), and brucellosis (20.9%). Except for anthrax, awareness of other zoonoses did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the district categories. Farmers from anthrax high-risk districts were significantly more aware of anthrax compared to those from moderate- (p=0.000) and low- (p=0.000) risk districts. All of the farmers were aware that anthrax occurs in cattle, and 73% indicated the presence of unclotting blood oozing from natural orifices as a consistent finding in cattle that died of anthrax, whereas 86.7% of them indicated the presence of skin lesions as the most common sign of the disease in humans. The good efficacy of human anthrax treatment (58.3%), slaughter of moribund cattle and selling of meat from cattle found dead to unsuspecting consumers (59.8%), reluctance to lose animals (47.9%), and forgetting about anthrax (41.1%) were cited as the major reasons for consuming anthrax-infected carcasses. Given that 75.2% of cattle owners indicated that they would not consume meat from cattle found dead, because they were discouraged by veterinary authorities, introducing meat inspection services is likely to have a positive impact in preventing human anthrax outbreaks in Zimbabwe.

  8. The effect of deltamethrin-treated net fencing around cattle enclosures on outdoor-biting mosquitoes in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Marta Ferreira; Abonuusum, Ayimbire; Lorenz, Lena Maria; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bauer, Burkhard; Garms, Rolf; Kruppa, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Classic vector control strategies target mosquitoes indoors as the main transmitters of malaria are indoor-biting and -resting mosquitoes. However, the intensive use of insecticide-treated bed-nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying have put selective pressure on mosquitoes to adapt in order to obtain human blood meals. Thus, early-evening and outdoor vector activity is becoming an increasing concern. This study assessed the effect of a deltamethrin-treated net (100 mg/m(2)) attached to a one-meter high fence around outdoor cattle enclosures on the number of mosquitoes landing on humans. Mosquitoes were collected from four cattle enclosures: Pen A - with cattle and no net; B - with cattle and protected by an untreated net; C - with cattle and protected by a deltamethrin-treated net; D - no cattle and no net. A total of 3217 culicines and 1017 anophelines were collected, of which 388 were Anopheles gambiae and 629 An. ziemanni. In the absence of cattle nearly 3 times more An. gambiae (p<0.0001) landed on humans. The deltamethrin-treated net significantly reduced (nearly three-fold, p<0.0001) culicine landings inside enclosures. The sporozoite rate of the zoophilic An. ziemanni, known to be a secondary malaria vector, was as high as that of the most competent vector An. gambiae; raising the potential of zoophilic species as secondary malaria vectors. After deployment of the ITNs a deltamethrin persistence of 9 months was observed despite exposure to African weather conditions. The outdoor use of ITNs resulted in a significant reduction of host-seeking culicines inside enclosures. Further studies investigating the effectiveness and spatial repellence of ITNs around other outdoor sites, such as bars and cooking areas, as well as their direct effect on vector-borne disease transmission are needed to evaluate its potential as an appropriate outdoor vector control tool for rural Africa.

  9. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in Organs of Slaughtered Cattle by DNA-Based Polymerase Chain Reaction and Ziehl-Neelsen Techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sa’idu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic, infectious, and contagious zoonotic disease of domestic animals, wild animals, and humans. It also poses a public health threat and economic losses. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle, based on PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and PCR techniques in Bauchi State, Nigeria. A Prospective study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the three Zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria. One hundred and twenty (15% tissues from different organs had suspected bTB lesions at PM. Out of the samples examined 35 (29.2% were AFB positive by ZN and 10 (8.3% were confirmed positive for M. bovis by PCR, with an overall prevalence of 29.16% and 8.33%, respectively. Female had a higher prevalence rate than male cattle at 16.66% and 12.5 % by ZN and 5.00% and 3.33% by PCR, respectively (P>0.05, χ2=0.218. However, there was a statistically significant association (P<0.05, χ2=7.002 between detection of bTB and the age of cattle. ZN revealed that cattle aged 6 years and above had the highest number of positive bTB cases 67.9%, while cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest 14.81%. PCR technique revealed that the cattle aged 6 and above years also had the highest percentage positive M. bovis cases of 22.84%, whereas cattle aged 3–5 years had the lowest and the overall prevalence rate of 8.33%. The study found a high infection rate of bTB among cattle and majority of the lesions 54.2% were from lungs. The prevalence of bTB was higher in Bauchi metropolitan abattoir which supplies larger population of the state with beef.

  10. Organophosphate poisoning in Ongole cattle in Sukamandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An integrated farming system between rice and beef cattle was initiated in 2000 in Sukamandi, West Java. However, since 2002 some cattle were suffering from neurological and ophthamological signs, and some of them were found dead after consuming rice straws. Field studies showed that 6 out of 12 cattle were suffered from eye disorders such as blindness, corneal opacity and sereous lacrimation. Two of 6 cattle were severely affected. But, neurological signs were not found during field observation. Pesticide analysis in rice straws shows that both groups of pesticide, organochlorines (OP and organophosphates (OP were detected. Residues of OC were higher than OP as shown as 14.41 vs 2.84 ppm (before processing for OC and 1.80 vs 0.0003 ppm (processed for OP consisting aldrin, lindane, dieldrin, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos methyl. There was only OC detected in sera consisting lindane (0.6–37.6 ppb; heptachlor (0.03–4.4 ppb; and aldrin (0.8–20.4 ppb with an average total of 21,4 ppb. The neurological and ophthalmological signs were suspected to be due to organophosphates (OPs contaminated-rice straws and any other factors such as insufficient vitamin A, magnesium and calcium. Feed replacement with fresh grasses for two cattle reduced corneal changes. Similar symptoms were also reproduced in Wistar rats dosed intraperitoneally with chlorpyriphos methyl. Clinical signs included incoordination, cachexia, eye disorder and corneal opacity. Necropsy showed hepatic injury (hepatic necrosis, mottling of hepatic surface and pale; pale kidneys; swollen of spleen and hyperaemic brain. Microscopic changes were found in brain, liver and eyes. Hepatic changes included haemorrhages, centrolobular hepatic necrosis and focal coagulative necrosis. Brains were showing focal necrosis, haemorrhages, vacuolisation, neuronal necrosis, chromatolysis and nucleolysis. Eyes appeared to have necrosis of tunica muscularis, haemorrhages and eosinophilic infiltration. The

  11. Significance of supplementing microelements in preventing metabolic disorders in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate diet can result in a series of undesired occurrences in cattle production, marked as nutritive diseases. In a certain number of cases there is a clearly defined deficiency of certain nutritive matter, with a typical clinical picture and recognizable symptoms. In a far greater number of cases, chronic conditions occur as a result of so-called graphic deficits, when the deficiency of certain components is so small that signs of deficiency develop over a longer time period. Such cases are at first accompanied by non-specific symptomatology, detection and prevention are much more difficult, while resulting damages in cattle production are substantial. The work gives a brief survey of the most important microelements added to cattle diet - iron, copper, manganese, zinc, iodine selenium, cobalt, and chromium. In addition to elementary data in connection with the contents of certain microelements in the organism of the animal the physiological role, natural sources, manner and place of resorption in the organism, and mechanisms of elimination, special attention is paid to symptoms of deficiency and sufficiency, and daily requirements in the ruminant diet. The conclusions direct the reader to several possible sources of mineral matter, with special emphasis on organically - bound microelements in the form of chelates - complexes swith one or more stable heterocyclic amino acid rings. Commercial mineral additives are described as proteinates, and bioplexes are mixes of amino acids and peptides. Chelate forms have been demonstrated aas very successful in stress situations and in diseased animals, when the organism exhibits increased needs, and the ability of feed utilization is reduced. Contrary to non-organic forms, which only temporarely increase concentration in blood, chelate forms secure considerably longer maintenance of the necessary concentration. Having in mind also the increased need of damaged tissue for certain amino acids their

  12. Infectivity in skeletal muscle of cattle with atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suardi, Silvia; Vimercati, Chiara; Casalone, Cristina; Gelmetti, Daniela; Corona, Cristiano; Iulini, Barbara; Mazza, Maria; Lombardi, Guerino; Moda, Fabio; Ruggerone, Margherita; Campagnani, Ilaria; Piccoli, Elena; Catania, Marcella; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Caramelli, Maria; Monaco, Salvatore; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The amyloidotic form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) termed BASE is caused by a prion strain whose biological properties differ from those of typical BSE, resulting in a clinically and pathologically distinct phenotype. Whether peripheral tissues of BASE-affected cattle contain infectivity is unknown. This is a critical issue since the BASE prion is readily transmissible to a variety of hosts including primates, suggesting that humans may be susceptible. We carried out bioassays in transgenic mice overexpressing bovine PrP (Tgbov XV) and found infectivity in a variety of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE. Noteworthy, all BASE muscles used for inoculation transmitted disease, although the attack rate differed between experimental and natural cases (∼70% versus ∼10%, respectively). This difference was likely related to different prion titers, possibly due to different stages of disease in the two conditions, i.e. terminal stage in experimental BASE and pre-symptomatic stage in natural BASE. The neuropathological phenotype and PrP(res) type were consistent in all affected mice and matched those of Tgbov XV mice infected with brain homogenate from natural BASE. The immunohistochemical analysis of skeletal muscles from cattle with natural and experimental BASE showed the presence of abnormal prion protein deposits within muscle fibers. Conversely, Tgbov XV mice challenged with lymphoid tissue and kidney from natural and experimental BASE did not develop disease. The novel information on the neuromuscular tropism of the BASE strain, efficiently overcoming species barriers, underlines the relevance of maintaining an active surveillance.

  13. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available.

  14. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Joseph; de Vos, Albertus J; Playford, Matthew; Salim, Bashir; Kinyanjui, Peter; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2011-02-21

    Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli), T. orientalis (ikeda), T. orientalis (chitose) and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP) or type C (SSU rRNA). The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C) previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  15. Emergence of new types of Theileria orientalis in Australian cattle and possible cause of theileriosis outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinyanjui Peter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Theileria parasites cause a benign infection of cattle in parts of Australia where they are endemic, but have, in recent years, been suspected of being responsible for a number of outbreaks of disease in cattle near the coast of New South Wales. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the species of Theileria in cattle on six farms in New South Wales where disease outbreaks have occurred, and compare with Theileria from three disease-free farms in Queensland that is endemic for Theileria. Special reference was made to sub-typing of T. orientalis by type-specific PCR and sequencing of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, and sequence analysis of the gene encoding a polymorphic merozoite/piroplasm surface protein (MPSP that may be under immune selection. Nucleotide sequencing of SSU rRNA and MPSP genes revealed the presence of four Theileria genotypes: T. orientalis (buffeli, T. orientalis (ikeda, T. orientalis (chitose and T. orientalis type 4 (MPSP or type C (SSU rRNA. The majority of animals showed mixed infections while a few showed single infection. When MPSP nucleotide sequences were translated into amino acids, base transition did not change amino acid composition of the protein product, suggesting possible silent polymorphism. The occurrence of ikeda and type 4 (type C previously not reported to occur and silent mutation is thought to have enhanced parasite evasion of the host immune response causing the outbreak.

  16. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the...

  17. Recommendations for future development in cattle transport in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J; Marahrens, M; von Holleben, K

    2003-03-01

    Every year millions of calves and cattle are transported across, from and to Europe. Most of these animals are going to slaughter houses in the respective countries or in another community state or coming or going abroad (extra-EU). These transports give cause for concern for at least three reasons: First, it can cause severe stress in animals entailing poor welfare. Second, stressful transports may have a negative effect on meat quality. Third, there is the risk of spread of infectious diseases over large distances. Existing legislation does not provide enough protection to transported animals especially over long distances largely because considerable parts of the regulations are not sufficiently based on scientific evidence. In recent years some research is carried out including the EU financed CATRA research project (contract QLK5-CT 1999-0157) concentrating on the welfare and meat quality aspects of cattle transport. This paper summarises important results of this recent research and gives some recommendations for future legislation. The welfare of the animals is limited by their needs not by a fixed maximum transport time, if vehicle and transport conditions are appropriate. Bulls, steers and heifers are reacting differently on transport. Adapt transport schemes to the needs of the animals. Meat quality is only effected in extreme situations. Some animals develop an energy deficit after 6 h of transport. Develop appropriate feeding regimes for long transport. Abolish stressful loading and unloading in staging posts (injuries, infectious diseases). Staging posts are particularly stressful for bulls. Educate handlers and drivers more intensively. Pay drivers inverse to losses. Develop monitor systems for long and short distance transport (e.g. records, GPS). Improve vehicle design (e.g. vibration).

  18. DNA polymorphism at the BoLA-DRB3 gene of cattle in relation to resistance and susceptibility to leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulimova, G.E.; Udina, I.G.; Shaikhaev, G.O. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Polymorphism of exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene was investigated by the PCR-RFLP method in a sample of healthy and leukemia-afflicted Black Pied cattle. Allele variety was studied and allele frequencies were determined in a total sample and in the two groups. Alleles mediating resistance (BoLA-DRB3.2{sup *}11, {sup *}23, and {sup *}28) and susceptibility to leukemia (DRB3.2{sup *}22, {sup *}24, {sup *}16, and {sup *}8) were revealed in Black Pied cattle. The dominant type of inheritance of the disease resistance was confirmed. On the basis of original and published data obtained earlier for Holstein-Friesian cattle, a conclusion was made about the universal character of the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles providing resistance and susceptibility to leukemia. 18 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. [DNA polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in cattle in connection with resistance and susceptibility to leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimova, G E; Udina, I G; Shaĭkhaev, G O; Zakharov, I A

    1995-09-01

    Polymorphism of exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene was investigated by the PCR-RFLP method in a sample of healthy and leukemia-afflicted Black Pied cattle. Allele variety was studied and allele frequencies were determined in a total sample and in the two groups. Alleles mediating resistance (BoLA-DRB3.2*11, *23, and *28) and susceptibility to leukemia (DRB3.2*22, *24, *16, and *8) were revealed in Black Pied cattle. The dominant type of inheritance of the disease resistance was confirmed. On the basis of original and published data obtained earlier for Holstein-Friesian cattle, a conclusion was made about the universal character of the spectrum of BoLA-DRB3 alleles providing resistance and susceptibility to leukemia.

  20. Potential emigration of Siberian cattle germplasm on Chirikof Island, Alaska

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. D. MACNEIL; L. J. ALEXANDER; J. KANTANEN; I. A. AMMOSOV; Z. I. IVANOVA; R. G. POPOV; M. OZEROV; A. MILLBROOKE; M. A. CRONIN

    2017-03-01

    Feral cattle residing in Chirikof Island, Alaska, are relatively distinct from breeds used in commercial production in North America. However, preliminary evidence suggested that they exhibit substantial genetic relationship with cattle fromYakutian region of Siberia. Thus, our objective was to further elucidate quantify the origins, admixture and divergence of the Chirikof Island cattle relative to cattle from Siberia and USA. Subject animals were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci.Compared with Turano–Mongolian and North American cattle, Chirikof Island cattle had similar variation, with slightly less observed heterozygosity, fewer alleles per locus and a positive fixation index. Analysis of the genetic distances revealed two primary clusters; one that contained the North American breeds and the Kazakh White head, and a second that contained the Yakutian and Kalmyk breeds, and the Chirikof population. Thus, it is suggested that Chirikof Island cattle may be a composite of British breeds emanating from North America and Turano–Mongolian cattle. A potential founder effect, consistent withhistorical records of the Russian–American period, may contribute to the adaptation of the Chirikof Island cattle to their harsh high-latitude environment. Further study of adaptive mechanisms manifest by these cattle is warranted.

  1. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  2. Metabolomic profiling in cattle experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen De Buck

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of current diagnostics for Johne's disease, a slow, progressing enteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP, is too low to reliably detect all infected animals in the subclinical stage. The objective was to identify individual metabolites or metabolite profiles that could be used as biomarkers of early MAP infection in ruminants. In a monthly follow-up for 17 months, calves infected at 2 weeks of age were compared with aged-matched controls. Sera from all animals were analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. Spectra were acquired, processed, and quantified for analysis. The concentration of many metabolites changed over time in all calves, but some metabolites only changed over time in either infected or non-infected groups and the change in others was impacted by the infection. Hierarchical multivariate statistical analysis achieved best separation between groups between 300 and 400 days after infection. Therefore, a cross-sectional comparison between 1-year-old calves experimentally infected at various ages with either a high- or a low-dose and age-matched non-infected controls was performed. Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS DA yielded distinct separation of non-infected from infected cattle, regardless of dose and time (3, 6, 9 or 12 months after infection. Receiver Operating Curves demonstrated that constructed models were high quality. Increased isobutyrate in the infected cattle was the most important agreement between the longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis. In general, high- and low-dose cattle responded similarly to infection. Differences in acetone, citrate, glycerol and iso-butyrate concentrations indicated energy shortages and increased fat metabolism in infected cattle, whereas changes in urea and several amino acids (AA, including the branched chain AA, indicated increased protein turnover. In conclusion, metabolomics

  3. Seroepidemiological study of Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in La Pampa, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Marcelo; Edelsten, Martyn; Maley, Stephen; Innes, Elisabeth

    2015-06-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the major causes of abortion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine and quantify the extent of the infection in cattle in a representative region of Argentina (La Pampa, province). An average sample size of 36 sera per herd was selected from 97 beef and 24 dairy herds. A total of 4334 serum samples were tested for specific anti- Neospora caninum IgG using an indirect-ELISA and 302 seropositive-ELISA sera were re-examined using an Avidity-ELISA procedure for N.caninum. The overall estimated seroprevalence for N.caninun was 9.6% (95%CI: 8.7%; 10.5%). Levels of seroprevalence were significantly different in beef 7.0% and dairy 20.3% cattle. Disease distribution seems to be associated with climatic conditions as well as the management system. Cows in the east and central regions were at a 4.5-fold and 2.0-fold higher risk, respectively, of being N. caninum seropositive compared with cows in west region. Levels of recent infection were evaluated through an avidity ELISA in seropositive animals, being registered a 0.56% and a 1.71% of recent infection in beef and dairy cattle respectively (p = 0.006). The results revealed that dairy cows had 3.1(95%CI: 1.4; 7.0) higher risk of contracting Neoporosis through horizontal transmission than beef cows. A relationship between Brucella abortus and N. caninum seroprevalence was also observed. The risk of being N. caninum seropositive was two times higher where Brucellosis seroprevalence was >3.5%. These results reveal the distribution of N. caninum infection in the cattle population in La Pampa, Argentina.

  4. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among cattle slaughtered in three municipal abattoirs of Gombe state, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mohammed Jajere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis among cattle slaughtered at three municipal abattoirs of Gombe State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 blood samples collected from slaughtered cattle of different breeds (Sokoto Gudali - 50, White Fulani - 102, Red bororo – 34, and Crossbreeds - 14, sex (males - 19 and females - 181, and from different locations (Billiri - 30, Yamaltu Deba – 50, and Gombe - 120 were screened for brucellosis using rose bengal plate test (RBPT, serum agglutination test (SAT, and microtiter agglutination test (MAT. Results: Of the 200 serum samples analyzed, 7 (3.5%, 10 (5.0% and 18 (9.0% were positive by RBPT, SAT and MAT, respectively. The results showed no statistically significant association between sex and seropositivity to bovine brucellosis. However, seropositivity of bovine brucellosis was higher in females than in males. Similarly, no statistically significant association was observed between breed and occurrence of bovine brucellosis. Moreover, the prevalence of brucellosis was higher in Sokoto Gudali as compared with the other breeds. Based on the study locations, higher seroprevalence was observed in animals screened from Billiri as compared with those from other locations (p<0.05. Conclusion: The presence of Brucella abortus antigen in the sera of slaughtered cattle in Gombe state poses a significant public health risk. Therefore, it is important to carry out further epidemiological studies on fulani herdsmen and cattle herds in the study area, in order to explore the risk factors associated with the occurrence and perpetuation of brucellosis among cattle herds, ascertain the prevalence and status of the disease among both farms and nomadic herds.

  5. Infection of water buffalo in Rio de Janeiro Brazil with Anaplasma marginale strains also reported in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Barbosa, José D; de la Fuente, José

    2014-10-15

    Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis. The importance of water buffalo in the world economy is increasing. In addition, while water buffalo may serve as a reservoir host for A. marginale, the susceptibility of this host for A. marginale cattle strains in Brazil has not been reported. The major surface protein 1 alpha (msp1α) gene has been shown to be a stable genetic marker for identification of A. marginale strains. Herein, we analyzed blood samples from 200 water buffalo and identified the A. marginale strains in an endemic area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where ticks were present and water buffalo and cattle co-mingled. Ticks that were feeding on the study buffalo were collected and identified. The prevalence of A. marginale in water buffalo in this study was low (10%). Sequence analysis of the msp1α gene demonstrated the presence of 8 different A. marginale strains. Two A. marginale strains in the water buffalo, (α-β-β-β-Γ) and (α-β-β-Γ), were similar to those reported in cattle from nearby regions. The results of this study suggested that water buffalo in this region are naturally infected with the same strains of A. marginale found in cattle.

  6. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region.

  7. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  8. Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

    2013-04-25

    In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and

  9. The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, John F

    2003-12-15

    A commercially viable cattle embryo transfer (ET) industry was established in North America during the early 1970s, approximately 80 years after the first successful embryo transfer was reported in a mammal. Initially, techniques for recovering and transferring cattle embryos were exclusively surgical. However, by the late 1970s, most embryos were recovered and transferred nonsurgically. Successful cryopreservation of embryos was widespread by the early 1980s, followed by the introduction of embryo splitting, in vitro procedures, direct transfer of frozen embryos and sexing of embryos. The wide spread adoption of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant has simplified the thaw-transfer procedures for frozen embryos. The number of embryos recovered annually has not grown appreciably over the last 10 years in North America and Europe; however, there has been significant growth of commercial ET in South America. Within North America, ET activity has been relatively constant in Holstein cattle, whereas there has been a large ET increase in the Angus breed and a concomitant ET decrease in some other beef breeds. Although a number of new technologies have been adopted within the ET industry in the last decade, the basic procedure of superovulation of donor cattle has undergone little improvement over the last 20 years. The export-import of frozen cattle embryos has become a well-established industry, governed by specific health regulations. The international movement of embryos is subject to sudden and dramatic disturbances, as exemplified by the 2001 outbreak of foot and mouth disease in Great Britain. It is probable that there will be an increased influence of animal rights issues on the ET industry in the future. Several companies in North America are currently commercially producing cloned cattle. The sexing of bovine semen with the use of flow cytometry is extremely accurate and moderate pregnancy rates in heifers have been achieved in field trials, but sexed semen

  10. Constraints to cattle production in a semiarid pastoral system in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onono, Joshua Orungo; Wieland, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-08-01

    Livestock keeping is the mainstay for the pastoral community while also providing social and cultural value. This study ranked main production constraints and cattle diseases that impacted livelihood and estimated herd prevalence, incidence rate, and impact of diseases on production parameters in a semiarid pastoral district of Narok in Kenya. Data collection employed participatory techniques including listing, pairwise ranking, disease incidence scoring, proportional piling, and disease impact matrix scoring and this was disaggregated by gender. Production constraints with high scores for impact on livelihood included scarcity of water (19%), lack of extension services (15%), presence of diseases (12%), lack of market for cattle and their products (10%), and recurrent cycle of drought (9%). Diseases with high scores for impact on livelihood were East Coast fever (ECF) (22%) and foot and mouth disease (FMD) (21%). High estimated incidence rates were reported for FMD (67%), trypanosomosis (28%), and ECF (15%), while contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) had an incidence rate Africa, its estimated incidence rate in herds was low. This study indicates what issues should be prioritized by livestock policy for pastoral areas.

  11. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Bilgen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR. In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB, East Anatolian Red (EAR, South Anatolian Red (SAR, Turkish Grey (TG, and Holstein (HOL cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.

  12. Predicting the potential environmental suitability for Theileria orientalis transmission in New Zealand cattle using maximum entropy niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Summers, S R; Heath, A C G; McFadden, A M J; Pulford, D J; Pomroy, W E

    2016-07-15

    The tick-borne haemoparasite Theileria orientalis is the most important infectious cause of anaemia in New Zealand cattle. Since 2012 a previously unrecorded type, T. orientalis type 2 (Ikeda), has been associated with disease outbreaks of anaemia, lethargy, jaundice and deaths on over 1000 New Zealand cattle farms, with most of the affected farms found in the upper North Island. The aim of this study was to model the relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission throughout New Zealand, to predict the proportion of cattle farms potentially suitable for active T. orientalis infection by region, island and the whole of New Zealand and to estimate the average relative environmental suitability per farm by region, island and the whole of New Zealand. The relative environmental suitability for T. orientalis transmission was estimated using the Maxent (maximum entropy) modelling program. The Maxent model predicted that 99% of North Island cattle farms (n=36,257), 64% South Island cattle farms (n=15,542) and 89% of New Zealand cattle farms overall (n=51,799) could potentially be suitable for T. orientalis transmission. The average relative environmental suitability of T. orientalis transmission at the farm level was 0.34 in the North Island, 0.02 in the South Island and 0.24 overall. The study showed that the potential spatial distribution of T. orientalis environmental suitability was much greater than presumed in the early part of the Theileria associated bovine anaemia (TABA) epidemic. Maximum entropy offers a computer efficient method of modelling the probability of habitat suitability for an arthropod vectored disease. This model could help estimate the boundaries of the endemically stable and endemically unstable areas for T. orientalis transmission within New Zealand and be of considerable value in informing practitioner and farmer biosecurity decisions in these respective areas.

  13. Food-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  14. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  15. Mycobacteria in Terrestrial Small Mammals on Cattle Farms in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Katakweba, Abdul; Sadiki, Harrison

    2011-01-01

    The control of bovine tuberculosis and atypical mycobacterioses in cattle in developing countries is important but difficult because of the existence of wildlife reservoirs. In cattle farms in Tanzania, mycobacteria were detected in 7.3% of 645 small mammals and in cow's milk. The cattle farms were...... and PCR in the small mammals were atypical mycobacteria. Analysis of the presence of mycobacteria in relation to the reactor status of the cattle farms does not exclude transmission between small mammals and cattle but indicates that transmission to cattle from another source of infection is more likely....... However, because of the high prevalence of mycobacteria in some small mammal species, these infected animals can pose a risk to humans, especially in areas with a high HIV-prevalence as is the case in Tanzania....

  16. Spatial Targeting for Bovine Tuberculosis Control: Can the Locations of Infected Cattle Be Used to Find Infected Badgers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine M; Downs, Sara H; Mitchell, Andy; Hayward, Andrew C; Fry, Hannah; Le Comber, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a disease of historical importance to human health in the UK that remains a major animal health and economic issue. Control of the disease in cattle is complicated by the presence of a reservoir species, the Eurasian badger. In spite of uncertainty in the degree to which cattle disease results from transmission from badgers, and opposition from environmental groups, culling of badgers has been licenced in two large areas in England. Methods to limit culls to smaller areas that target badgers infected with TB whilst minimising the number of uninfected badgers culled is therefore of considerable interest. Here, we use historical data from a large-scale field trial of badger culling to assess two alternative hypothetical methods of targeting TB-infected badgers based on the distribution of cattle TB incidents: (i) a simple circular 'ring cull'; and (ii) geographic profiling, a novel technique for spatial targeting of infectious disease control that predicts the locations of sources of infection based on the distribution of linked cases. Our results showed that both methods required coverage of very large areas to ensure a substantial proportion of infected badgers were removed, and would result in many uninfected badgers being culled. Geographic profiling, which accounts for clustering of infections in badger and cattle populations, produced a small but non-significant increase in the proportion of setts with TB-infected compared to uninfected badgers included in a cull. It also provided no overall improvement at targeting setts with infected badgers compared to the ring cull. Cattle TB incidents in this study were therefore insufficiently clustered around TB-infected badger setts to design an efficient spatially targeted cull; and this analysis provided no evidence to support a move towards spatially targeted badger culling policies for bovine TB control.

  17. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  18. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies. Results: Results reveale...

  19. Genome-wide association study of tick resistance in South African Nguni cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapholi, N O; Maiwashe, A; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Bishop, S C; MacNeil, M D; Banga, C; Taylor, J F; Dzama, K

    2016-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases are among the main causes of economic loss in the South African cattle industry through high morbidity and mortality rates. Concerns of the general public regarding chemical residues may tarnish their perceptions of food safety and environmental health when the husbandry of cattle includes frequent use of acaricides to manage ticks. The primary objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with host resistance to ticks in South African Nguni cattle. Tick count data were collected monthly from 586 Nguni cattle reared in four herds under natural grazing conditions over a period of two years. The counts were recorded for six species of ticks attached in eight anatomical locations on the animals and were summed by species and anatomical location. This gave rise to 63 measured phenotypes or traits, with results for 12 of these traits being reported here. Tick count (x) data were transformed using log10(x+1) and the resulting values were examined for normality. DNA was extracted from hair and blood samples and was genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 assay. After quality control (call rate >90%, minor allele frequency >0.02), 40,436 SNPs were retained for analysis. Genetic parameters were estimated and association analysis for tick resistance was carried out using two approaches: a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis using the GenABEL package and a regional heritability mapping (RHM) analysis. The Bonferroni genome-wide (PAmblyomma hebraeum (the vector for Heartwater disease) being the dominant species. Heritability estimates (h(2)) from the fitted animal and sire models ranged from 0.02±0.00 to 0.17±0.04 for the transformed tick count data. Several genomic regions harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for different tick count traits by both the GWA and RHM approaches. Three genome-wide significant regions on chromosomes 7, 10 and 19 were identified for total tick

  20. Beef cattle welfare in the USA: identification of priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Cassandra B; Coetzee, Johann F; Stookey, Joseph M; Thomson, Daniel U; Grandin, Temple; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S

    2015-12-01

    This review identifies priorities for beef cattle welfare research in the USA. Based on our professional expertise and synthesis of existing literature, we identify two themes in intensive aspects of beef production: areas where policy-based actions are needed and those where additional research is required. For some topics, considerable research informs best practice, yet gaps remain between scientific knowledge and implementation. For example, many of the risk factors and management strategies to prevent respiratory disease are understood, but only used by a relatively small portion of the industry. This is an animal health issue that will require leadership and discussion to gain widespread adoption of practices that benefit cattle welfare. There is evidence of success when such actions are taken, as illustrated by the recent improvements in handling at US slaughter facilities. Our highest priorities for additional empirical evidence are: the effect of technologies used to either promote growth or manage cattle in feedlots, identification of management risk factors for disease in feedlots, and management decisions about transport (rest stops, feed/water deprivation, climatic conditions, stocking density). Additional research is needed to inform science-based recommendations about environmental features such as dry lying areas (mounds), shade, water and feed, as well as trailer design.

  1. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.

  2. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrea R.R.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862 and 30.8% for calves (12/39 respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed.

  3. PRNP and SPRN genes polymorphism in atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases diagnosed in Polish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Artur; Polak, Mirosław Paweł; Larska, Magdalena; Słota, Ewa

    2012-08-01

    Polymorphisms in the coding region of the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been associated with the susceptibility and incubation period of prion diseases in humans and sheep. However, polymorphisms in this part of the bovine PRNP gene do not affect the classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility in cattle. Studies carried out in Germany have shown that insertion/deletion-type polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the bovine prion gene are possible genetic factors modulating BSE susceptibility by changing the level of PRNP expression. No such association was observed for atypical BSE cases; however, due to the rare nature of the disease, these results should be confirmed. Additionally, a single nonsynonymous mutation in PRNP codon 211 (E211K) was described in one H-type BSE case in the USA; however, it was not found in any other cases. Here, we performed genetic characterization of PRNP promoter indel variations and determined the polymorphism of open reading frames (ORFs) of PRNP and bovine prion-like Shadoo (SPRN) genes in six Polish atypical BSE cases and compared these results to the population of clinically healthy Polish Holstein cattle. No potentially pathogenic mutations were found in the PRNP ORF in atypical BSE-affected cattle, but our study showed a high frequency of deletions at the indel loci of PRNP promoter in these animals. Additionally, a rare sequence variation in the SPRN protein-coding sequence was found in one L-type atypical BSE-affected animal.

  4. Biosecurity on Finnish cattle, pig and sheep farms - results from a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani

    2014-11-01

    Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases.

  5. Mass vaccination and herd immunity: cattle and buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, P L; Taylor, W P

    2007-04-01

    The design of effective programmes for emergency response to incursion of epizootic diseases of cattle, for exclusion of such diseases and for implementation of progressive control in enzootic situations leading to eventual virus elimination, is currently largely empirical. This needs to be remedied to provide more cost-effective use of vaccines and more effective control. At population level, protective effects of immunisation can extend well beyond the individual, influencing the dynamics of viral propagation within the whole population, non-vaccinated as well as vaccinated. This concept of herd immunity and application of the resulting epidemiological principles, combined with experience gained from disease control programmes such as the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme has much to offer in designing effective science-based control programmes. This paper explores practical exploitation of the herd immunity principle by considering some of the factors which militate against mass vaccination achieving effective levels of herd immunity and, with these in mind, suggesting ways to optimise the efficiency of mass vaccination programmes.

  6. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  7. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons.

  8. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  9. A simple solution to Archimedes' cattle problem

    OpenAIRE

    Nygrén, A. (Antti)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract A simple solution to the classical Archimedes' cattle problem is given. Unlike the previous ones, this is mainly based on elementary mathematics which, at least in principle, would have been available to the mathematicians of the classical era. The solution applies linear transformation and infinite descent in solving quadratic Diophantine equations in a manner which does not explicitly take advantage of continued fractions. The idea is to create a sequence of tran...

  10. A Review of Selected Genes with Known Effects on Performance and Health of Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    There are genetic conditions that influence production in dairy and beef cattle. The objective of this review was to describe relevant genetic conditions that have been associated with productivity and health in cattle. Genes or genomic regions that have been identified as a candidate for the condition will be included, and the genetic basis of the condition will be defined. Genes and genetic conditions included in this review are bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency, deficiency of the uridine monophosphate synthase, bovine chronic interstitial nephritis, horn development, myostatin, complex vertebral malformation, leptin, osteopetrosis, apoptosis peptide activating factor 1, chondrodysplastic dwarfism, caseins, calpastatin, umbilical hernia, lactoglobulin, citrullinemia, cholesterol deficiency, prions, thyroglobulin, diacylglycerol acyltransferase, syndactyly, maple syrup urine disease, slick hair, Factor XI deficiency, and μ-Calpain. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, and relevant information is provided to ascertain genetic markers associated with the conditions. PMID:28018909

  11. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge, ruminal condition and cellular immunity in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is characterized by repeated bouts of low ruminal pH. Cows with SARA often develop complications or other diseases, and associate physiologically with immunosuppression and inflammation. Ruminal free lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases during SARA and translocates into the blood circulation activating an inflammatory response. Ruminal fermentation and cellular immunity are encouraged by supplementing hay with calf starter during weaning. SARA calves given a 5-day repeated administration of a bacteria-based probiotic had stable ruminal pH levels (6.6-6.8). The repeated administration of probiotics enhance cellular immune function and encourage recovery from diarrhea in pre-weaning calves. Furthermore, the ruminal fermentation could guard against acute and short-term feeding changes, and changes in the rumen microbial composition of SARA cattle might occur following changes in ruminal pH. The repeated bouts of low ruminal pH in SARA cattle might be associated with depression of cellular immunity.

  12. Prevalence, risk factors and spatial analysis of liver fluke infections in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Abbey; Frankena, Klaas; Bødker, Rene;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite (liver fluke), infects a wide range of host species causing fasciolosis. The disease is prevalent world-wide and causes considerable economic losses to the livestock industry. Fasciolosis is regarded as an emerging food-borne zoonosis. To promote...... awareness among farmers and to implement strategies to control the infection, this study examined the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish cattle herds. Methods: A retrospective population based study was performed using meat inspection data...... of approximately 1.5 million cattle slaughtered in the period 2011 to 2013. Annual cumulative prevalence of recorded liver fluke findings was calculated for each year. Global and local spatial cluster analysis was used to identify and map spatial patterns of Fasciola hepatica positive and negative herds to explore...

  13. Lesões de pele em bovinos com doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp. Skin lesions in cattle with systemic granulomatous disease associated to pasturing vetch (Vicia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Almeida Fighera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se as lesões cutâneas macroscópicas em 10 e histológicas em 8 vacas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp.. Em todos os casos, as lesões cutâneas eram caracterizadas por múltiplas áreas coalescentes de alopecia, liquenificação e descamação. Os locais mais atingidos pela lesão de pele foram: cabeça e pescoço (10/10, tronco (4/10, períneo (3/10 e mama (2/10. Em todos os 8 casos avaliados histologicamente, as lesões se caracterizavam por dermatite perivascular superficial granulomatosa de intensidade variável. Outros achados histológicos incluíram dermatite perivascular profunda (1/8, perifoliculite (2/8, foliculite mural (3/8, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica compacta (6/8, erosões (1/8, úlceras (2/8, microabscessos de Munro (8/8, crostas serocelulares (1/8, espongiose (4/8, degeneração hidrópica (5/8, acantólise (1/8, corpúsculos de Civatte (2/8, exocitose linfoplasmocitária (6/8, edema superficial (6/8, incontinência pigmentar (2/8, basofilia (6/8 e mineralização distrófica do colágeno (2/8, tumefação do núcleo das células endoteliais (8/8 e ectasia de glândulas sudoríparas (8/8.Gross and histopathological lesions in the skin of respectively 10 and 8 cows affected with systemic granulomatous disease associated with pasturing vetch (Vicia spp. are described. In all cases, the cutaneous lesions were characterized by multiple coalescent areas of alopecia, lichenification and desquamation. More frequently affected sites were the skin covering the head and neck (10/10, trunk (4/10, escutcheon (3/10 and mammary gland (2/10. In all 8 histologically examined cases the lesions were characterized by superficial perivascular granulomatous dermatitis of varying intensity. Other histological findings included deep perivascular dermatitis (1/8, perifoliculitis (2/8, mural foliculitis (3/8, compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis (6/8, erosions (1/8, ulcers (2

  14. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  15. Utility and fertility of herd of milked cattle

    OpenAIRE

    NEJDLOVÁ, Emilie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to analyze milk yield and fertility in dairy cattle herds ? combined (Czech Pied cattle) and dojného utility type (Holstein cattle ) in the same breeding system. Further culling was evaluated, the cost of feeding a day and milk production. Observations were carried out in the company Podhoran Černíkov, as in the time sequence of zootechnical 2 years (1st 10th 2009 - 30 9th 2011). By tracking a total of 310 cows of which 47 cows of Czech Pied cattle C1 (C 100 %), bre...

  16. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  17. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  18. Transgenic dairy cattle: genetic engineering on a large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R J; Kerr, D E; Bondioli, K R

    1997-09-01

    Amid the explosion of fundamental knowledge generated from transgenic animal models, a small group of scientists has been producing transgenic livestock with goals of improving animal production efficiency and generating new products. The ability to modify mammary-specific genes provides an opportunity to pursue several distinctly different avenues of research. The objective of the emerging gene "pharming" industry is to produce pharmaceuticals for treating human diseases. It is argued that mammary glands are an ideal site for producing complex bioactive proteins that can be cost effectively harvested and purified. Consequently, during the past decade, approximately a dozen companies have been created to capture the US market for pharmaceuticals produced from transgenic bioreactors estimated at $3 billion annually. Several products produced in this way are now in human clinical trials. Another research direction, which has been widely discussed but has received less attention in the laboratory, is genetic engineering of the bovine mammary gland to alter the composition of milk destined for human consumption. Proposals include increasing or altering endogenous proteins, decreasing fat, and altering milk composition to resemble that of human milk. Initial studies using transgenic mice to investigate the feasibility of enhancing manufacturing properties of milk have been encouraging. The potential profitability of gene "pharming" seems clear, as do the benefits of transgenic cows producing milk that has been optimized for food products. To take full advantage of enhanced milk, it may be desirable to restructure the method by which dairy producers are compensated. However, the cost of producing functional transgenic cattle will remain a severe limitation to realizing the potential of transgenic cattle until inefficiencies of transgenic technology are overcome. These inefficiencies include low rates of gene integration, poor embryo survival, and unpredictable transgene

  19. Linking bovine tuberculosis on cattle farms to white-tailed deer and environmental variables using Bayesian hierarchical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, William D.; Smith, Rick; Vanderklok, Mike; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis in livestock and wildlife with hosts that include Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Risk-assessment efforts in Michigan have been initiated on farms to minimize interactions of cattle with wildlife hosts but research onM. bovis on cattle farms has not investigated the spatial context of disease epidemiology. To incorporate spatially explicit data, initial likelihood of infection probabilities for cattle farms tested for M. bovis, prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer, deer density, and environmental variables for each farm were modeled in a Bayesian hierarchical framework. We used geo-referenced locations of 762 cattle farms that have been tested for M. bovis, white-tailed deer prevalence, and several environmental variables that may lead to long-term survival and viability of M. bovis on farms and surrounding habitats (i.e., soil type, habitat type). Bayesian hierarchical analyses identified deer prevalence and proportion of sandy soil within our sampling grid as the most supported model. Analysis of cattle farms tested for M. bovisidentified that for every 1% increase in sandy soil resulted in an increase in odds of infection by 4%. Our analysis revealed that the influence of prevalence of M. bovis in white-tailed deer was still a concern even after considerable efforts to prevent cattle interactions with white-tailed deer through on-farm mitigation and reduction in the deer population. Cattle farms test positive for M. bovis annually in our study area suggesting that the potential for an environmental source either on farms or in the surrounding landscape may contributing to new or re-infections with M. bovis. Our research provides an initial assessment of potential environmental factors that could be incorporated into additional modeling efforts as more knowledge of deer herd

  20. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.