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Sample records for cattle bos taurus

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  3. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  4. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

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    Rafael Torres de Souza Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (P<0.05. Nellore had higher phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain-2, alpha actin-1, triosephosphate isomerase and 14-3-3 protein epsilon. However, Angus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (P<0.05. Therefore, proteins involved in contraction and muscle organization, myofilaments expressed in fast or slow-twitch fibers and heat shock proteins localized in mitochondria or sarcoplasmic reticulum and involved in cell flux of calcium and apoptosis might be associated with differences in beef quality between Angus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle

  5. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

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    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, P<0.01; B. taurus, P<0.01; B. indicus, P=0.04) or age (cows, P<0.01; heifers or steers, P<0.01). In regards to reproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma

  6. Nutritive value and meat quality of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat

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    Andrzej Łozicki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to study the nutritive value and meat quality aspects of domestic cattle (Bos taurus, zubron (Bos taurus × Bison bonasus and European bison (Bison bonasus meat. The bulls and zubrons were fattened to 600–650 kg of body weight using the same feeding regimen. The European bison meat was from selective shooting of males. The meat was analysed for chemical composition, fatty acid composition, meat quality characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS value. Compared to beef, zubron and European bison meat had a lower content of crude fat, crude ash and a higher moisture content. The meat of the zubrons and European bison showed a lower content of saturated fatty acids and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to beef. The shear force of meat was highest for European bison meat and lowest for beef. Higher a* and b* colour parameters were established in European bison and zubron meat. The highest TBARS value was found in beef.

  7. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

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    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  8. Identity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus) and the suppression of Sarcocystis sinensis as a nomen nudum

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    There are uncertainties concerning the identity and host species specificity of Sarcocystis species of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos taurus). Currently, in cattle three species are recognized with known endogenous stages, viz.: S. cruzi (with canine definitive host), S. hirsuta...

  9. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein–Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein–Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattl...

  10. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  11. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie

    2016-01-01

    MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African...

  12. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle

  13. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens and cattle (Bos taurus from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China

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    Huang Xiao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak and normal animal (cattle in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones and four cattle (205 clones from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP. Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110 was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different

  14. Polymorphism and Mobilization of Rransposons in Bos taurus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    The bovine genome assembly was explored to detect putative retrotransposon sequences. In total 87,310 such sites were detected. Four breeds of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) were examined with respect to the presence, segregation or complete absence of the putative retrotransposon. A total of 10...

  15. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

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    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  16. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

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    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East.Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17 and Domiaty (N = 14, from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed.Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s; (ii haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  17. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

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    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Sequence diversity between class I MHC loci of African native and introduced Bos taurus cattle in Theileria parva endemic regions: in silico peptide binding prediction identifies distinct functional clusters.

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    Obara, Isaiah; Nielsen, Morten; Jeschek, Marie; Nijhof, Ard; Mazzoni, Camila J; Svitek, Nicholas; Steinaa, Lucilla; Awino, Elias; Olds, Cassandra; Jabbar, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence that the immunity induced by live vaccination for control of the protozoan parasite Theileria parva is mediated by class I MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells directed against the schizont stage of the parasite that infects bovine lymphocytes. The functional competency of class I MHC genes is dependent on the presence of codons specifying certain critical amino acid residues that line the peptide binding groove. Compared with European Bos taurus in which class I MHC allelic polymorphisms have been examined extensively, published data on class I MHC transcripts in African taurines in T. parva endemic areas is very limited. We utilized the multiplexing capabilities of 454 pyrosequencing to make an initial assessment of class I MHC allelic diversity in a population of Ankole cattle. We also typed a population of exotic Holstein cattle from an African ranch for class I MHC and investigated the extent, if any, that their peptide-binding motifs overlapped with those of Ankole cattle. We report the identification of 18 novel allelic sequences in Ankole cattle and provide evidence of positive selection for sequence diversity, including in residues that predominantly interact with peptides. In silico functional analysis resulted in peptide binding specificities that were largely distinct between the two breeds. We also demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells derived from Ankole cattle that are seropositive for T. parva do not recognize vaccine candidate antigens originally identified in Holstein and Boran (Bos indicus) cattle breeds.

  19. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

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    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  20. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus and swine (Sus scrofa

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    Smith Paul F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB, and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly] were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Results Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Conclusions Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  1. Host predilection and transmissibility of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus strains in domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Carter, Deborah; Gray, Elmer W; Noblet, Raymond; Berghaus, Roy D; Stallknecht, David E; Mead, Daniel G

    2012-10-03

    Epidemiologic data collected during epidemics in the western United States combined with limited experimental studies involving swine and cattle suggest that host predilection of epidemic vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (VSNJV) strains results in variations in clinical response, extent and duration of virus shedding and transmissibility following infection in different hosts. Laboratory challenge of livestock with heterologous VSNJV strains to investigate potential viral predilections for these hosts has not been thoroughly investigated. In separate trials, homologous VSNJV strains (NJ82COB and NJ82AZB), and heterologous strains (NJ06WYE and NJOSF [Ossabaw Island, sand fly]) were inoculated into cattle via infected black fly bite. NJ82AZB and NJ06WYE were similarly inoculated into swine. Clinical scores among viruses infecting cattle were significantly different and indicated that infection with a homologous virus resulted in more severe clinical presentation and greater extent and duration of viral shedding. No differences in clinical severity or extent and duration of viral shedding were detected in swine. Differences in clinical presentation and extent and duration of viral shedding may have direct impacts on viral spread during epidemics. Viral transmission via animal-to-animal contact and insect vectored transmission are likely to occur at higher rates when affected animals are presenting severe clinical signs and shedding high concentrations of virus. More virulent viral strains resulting in more severe disease in livestock hosts are expected to spread more rapidly and greater distances during epidemics than those causing mild or inapparent signs.

  2. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

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    Roggeman, Saskia, E-mail: saskiaroggeman@gmail.com [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); de Boeck, Gudrun [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Cock, Hilde [General Medical Laboratory (Medvet/AML), Department of Pathology, Emiel Vloorsstraat 9, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven [Laboratory for Systemic Physiological and Ecotoxicological Research (SPHERE), Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171/U7, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day.

  3. Accumulation and detoxification of metals and arsenic in tissues of cattle (Bos taurus), and the risks for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; de Boeck, Gudrun; De Cock, Hilde; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metal accumulation and detoxification processes in cattle from polluted and unpolluted areas. Therefore dairy cows from farms and free ranging Galloway cows from nature reserves were used as study animals. The concentrations of Ag, Cd, Pb, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As were determined in muscle, kidney, liver and lungs of cattle from polluted and reference areas in Belgium. In kidney and liver also the metallothionein concentrations were measured. For Ag, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and As the concentrations in the different tissues were significantly higher in the sampled Galloways than in the sampled dairy cows. On the other hand Cd and Pb were significantly higher in tissues of both cattle breeds from polluted sites. Cadmium seemed to be the most important metal for metallothionein induction in kidneys whereas Zn seemed to be the most important metal for the induction of metallothionein in the liver. This study also suggested that only for Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake occurs via the lungs. Although in muscle none of the Cd and Pb levels exceeded the European limits for human consumption, 40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys of all examined cows were above the European limit for cadmium. Based on the existing minimum risk levels (MRLs) for chronic oral exposure, the present results suggested that a person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g cow meat per day because of the Cr levels in the muscles. - Highlights: •Cadmium induced metallothionein in kidney while Zn induced metallothionein in liver. •For Mn and Cd a significant part of the uptake happens via the lungs. •40% of the livers and 85% of the kidneys exceeded the European limit for cadmium. •A person of 70 kg should not eat more than 150 g bovine meat per day

  4. Genetic parameters of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis and its relationship with weight and parasite infestations in Australian tropical Bos taurus cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, A.; O'Neill, C.J.; Thomson, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or 'pinkeye' is an economically important ocular disease that significantly impacts animal performance. Genetic parameters for IBK infection and its genetic and phenotypic correlations with cattle tick counts, number of helminth (unspecified...... recorded for tick counts, helminth eggs counts as an indicator of intestinal parasites and live weights at several ages including 18 months. Results: Negative genetic correlations were estimated between IBK incidence and weight traits for animals in pre-weaning and post-weaning datasets. Genetic...... correlations among weight measurements were positive, with moderate to high values. Genetic correlations of IBK incidence with tick counts were positive for the pre-weaning and negative for the post-weaning datasets but negative with helminth eggs counts for the pre-weaning dataset and slightly positive...

  5. PRODUCTIVITY AND TICK LOAD IN Bos Indicus X B. taurus CATTLE IN A TROPICAL DRY FOREST SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sofía Salazar Benjumea

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus ticks cause significant economic losses to the Colombian cattle sector: reduction in meat and milk production, blood losses and transmission of blood parasites. The degree of infestation depends on the breed, physiological state and nutrition of the animal and on microclimatic characteristics, which affect the tick life cycle. Diverse studies suggest that given the characteristics of intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS, tick loads within these systems are lower. In this study, the tick loads of grazing animals were monitored for five animal groups: three at an ISS and two at traditional farms located on the Valley of Ibague (Tolima. within the ISS, there were greater tick loads in high production cows (P = 0.026 and a positive relationship (P < 0.05 between milk production and tick load in August sampling. Greater tick counts were also observed in the in San Javier (traditional farm group compared to all other animal groups. We conclude that the dynamics of ticks is a complex phenomenon affected by many factors, whose association determines the observed tick population at any given time.

  6. The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus

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    P. N. Gavrilin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the structure of the lymphoid lobules of the parenchyma of the superficial somatic (Limphonodi subiliaci, L. cervicales superficiales, profund somatic (L. axillares proprii L. poplitei, somatovisceral (L. iliaci mediales, L. retropharyngei mediales and visceral (L. mediastinales caudales, L. ileocolici lymph nodes of newborn bull calves of domestic cattle. To visualize clearly the boundaries of the structural components of lymphoid lobules we used the author’s modification of the impregnation of total median frozen histological sections with silver nitrate. We have established a high level of tissue differentiation of the lymph nodes, a significant development of the lymphoid parenchyma, the division of the parenchyma into lymphoid lobules, the presence in the lobules of all the main structural components that are represented by two morphotypes. The first morphotype is ribbon-like perisinusoidal cords (interfollicular zone, paracortical and medullary cords. The second morphotype is rounded lymphoid formations (central zones of deep cortex units, lymphatic nodules. Lymphoid lobules are located along the marginal sinus in one row, they are better developed and differentiated in the visceral lymph nodes. In all the lymph nodes, the lymphoid lobules have a similar histoarchitectonic, and each structural component of the lymphoid lobules has a specific architectonic of the reticular meshwork and the density of the location of the fibroblastic reticulocytes. We determined that the structures of the first morphotype which provide the migration of lymphocytes, the detection of antigens and the accumulation of plasmocytes are more developed. We have established that the relative volume of structures of the first morphotype is 4.5–8.0 times larger than the volume of the structures of the second morphotype, which provide clonal proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, especially in deep somatic lymph nodes. Among the

  7. Life-cycle biological efficiency of Bos indicus x Bos taurus and Bos taurus crossbred cow-calf production to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R D; Cundiff, L V; Dickerson, G E

    1991-09-01

    A deterministic model was developed that accounted for all biological inputs and outputs for a theoretical herd of F1 females at age equilibrium mated to produce three-way terminal-cross calves and for the required proportion of straightbred cows needed to produce replacements. Two Bos indicus x Bos taurus vs two Bos taurus x Bos taurus types of crossbred cows were compared in the production environment of south-central Nebraska. The four types of F1 females were from Hereford (H) or Angus (A) dams and by H or A (HA), Pinzgauer (Pz), Brahman (Bm), or Sahiwal (Sw) sires. The crossbred females were assumed mated to Red Poll (R) sires for their first calving and to Simmental (S) sires thereafter. Two evaluations of efficiency for each of the four breeding systems were total cow and calf feed energy input 1) per unit of only weaned calf weight output (CALFEFF, Mcal/kg) and 2) per unit of weaned calf plus .55 x cull cow weight output (TVALEFF, Mcal/kg). Results for a terminal age of 7 yr in systems using HA, Pz, Bm, and Sw crossbred cows, respectively, were 64.9, 64.5, 60.9, and 59.3 Mcal/kg for CALFEFF and 45.7, 46.4, 44.1, and 43.7 Mcal/kg for TVALEFF. Changing terminal age to 11 yr reduced CALFEFF about 6% but increased TVALEFF about 7%, because total inputs increased more than output value (10 vs 3%) from 7 to 11 yr terminal ages. These results suggest differences in efficiency among these breed crosses favoring the Bos indicus crossbred cows by over 4% in this particular environment.

  8. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

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    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  9. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  10. The prey pathway: a regional history of cattle (Bos taurus and pig (Sus scrofa domestication in the northern Jordan Valley, Israel.

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    Nimrod Marom

    Full Text Available The faunal assemblage from the 9(th-8(th millennium BP site at Sha'ar Hagolan, Israel, is used to study human interaction with wild suids and cattle in a time period just before the appearance of domesticated animals of these species in the Jordan Valley. Our results, based on demographic and osteometric data, indicate that full domestication of both cattle and suids occurred at the site during the 8(th millennium. Importantly, domestication was preceded in both taxa by demographic and metric population parameters indicating severe overhunting. The possible role of overhunting in shaping the characteristics of domesticated animals and the social infrastructure to ownership of herds is then explored.

  11. Genetic variations in insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit gene associated with growth traits in beef cattle (Bos taurus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Guo, Jiazhong; Wang, Hongliang; Li, Zhixiong; Yang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein acid labile subunit (IGFALS) gene encodes a serum protein that binds to IGFs and regulates growth, development, and other physiological processes. We have found that sequencing of the IGFALS gene in Chinese Qinchuan beef cattle (n=300) revealed four SNP loci in exon two of the gene (g1219: T>C, g1893: T>C, g2612: G>A, and g2696: A>G). The SNP g2696: A>G resulted in a change from asparagine to aspartic acid (p. N574D) in the leucine-rich repeat region in the carboxyl-terminal domain of IGFALS. Four SNPs were in low linkage disequilibrium, and 12 different haplotypes were identified in the population. Association analysis suggested that SNP g1219: T>C had a significant association with hip width (PG displayed a significant association with stature (Pgrowth traits of bovine, and may serve as a genetic marker for selection of beef cattle for growth traits, including stature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterisation of Sarcocystis bovifelis, Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., Sarcocystis hirsuta and Sarcocystis cruzi from cattle (Bos taurus) and Sarcocystis sinensis from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    About 200 individual sarcocysts were excised from 12 samples of cattle beef from five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Germany, New Zealand, Uruguay) and tentatively identified to species or cyst type on the basis of their size and shape and cyst wall morphology. Genomic DNA was extracted from 147 of these sarcocysts and used initially for PCR amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1) in order to identify the sarcocysts to species and/or sequence type. In addition, seven Sarcocystis sinensis-like sarcocysts collected from the oesophagus of water buffaloes in Egypt were examined at cox1 for comparative purposes. Based on the results from the cox1 marker, selected sarcocyst isolates from both hosts were further characterised at one to three regions of the nuclear ribosomal (r) DNA unit, i.e. the complete 18S rRNA gene, the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region and the partial 28S rRNA gene. This was done in order to compare the results with previous molecular identifications based on 18S rRNA gene sequences and to evaluate the utility of these regions for species delimitations and phylogenetic inferences. On the basis of sarcocyst morphology and molecular data, primarily the cox1 sequences, four Sarcocystis spp. were identified in the samples of cattle beef. Twenty-two microscopic sarcocysts (1 × 0.1 mm) with hair-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis cruzi, 56 macroscopic sarcocysts (3-8 × 0.5 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis hirsuta and 45 and 24 microscopic sarcocysts (1-3 × 0.1-0.2 mm) with finger-like protrusions were assigned to Sarcocystis bovifelis and Sarcocystis bovini n. sp., respectively. Sarcocysts of S. cruzi were identified in samples of beef from Argentina and Uruguay; sarcocysts of S. hirsuta in samples from Argentina, Brazil, Germany and New Zealand; sarcocysts of S. bovifelis in samples from Argentina and Germany; and

  13. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

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    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  14. Genetic parameters for growth traits of a Brazilian Bos taurus x Bos indicus beef composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, G B; Ferraz, J B S; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Bueno, R S; Mattos, E C; Figueiredo, L G G

    2007-12-11

    The genetic analysis of composite data is very complicated, mainly because it is necessary to adjust data to the effects of heterosis and breed complementarity, and because there is usually considerable confounding of these data with several other effects, such as contemporary group effects, breed composition of the animal and maternal breed composition, among others. Data on birth weight (n = 151,083), weaning weight adjusted to 205 days (n = 137,257), yearling weight adjusted to 390 days (n = 61,410), weight gain from weaning to yearling (n = 56,653), and scrotum circumference (n = 23,323) and muscle score (n = 54,770), both adjusted to 390 days, from Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite beef calves born from 1994 to 2003 were analyzed to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters of growth traits. The animals belonged to the Montana Tropical program. Estimation was made by three models that approach adjustment to heterozygosis in order to suggest the best model. The RM model included contemporary groups, class of age of dam, outcrossing percentages for direct and maternal effects, and direct and maternal additive genetic breed effects as covariates; the R model was the same as RM, but without additive maternal breed effects, and H was the same as RM, but not considering any additive breed effect. Both R2 values and consistency of genetic parameters indicate that the more complex model (RM), which considers maternal and individual additive genetic breed effect, produces the best estimates when compared to other models. The R model seems to overestimate (co)variance components. The magnitudes of direct and maternal heritability estimates, obtained in this study, would permit genetic improvement for weight and growth traits, as much by selection of direct genetic effects for weight and growth as for the improvement of maternal performance, but in different lineages. Therefore, the correlations between these effects were unfavorable.

  15. Introgresión genética de bos indicus (bovidae) en bovinos criollos colombianos de origen bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    SÁNCHEZ ISAZA, CARLOS ARTURO; JIMÉNEZ ROBAYO, LIGIA MERCEDES; BUENO ANGULO, MARTA LUCÍA

    2008-01-01

    El presente trabajo evidencia desde el punto de vista citogenético la introgresión genética, de origen paterno, de Bos indicus en ganado criollo colombiano descendiente de Bos taurus. Para este estudio se realizó el análisis cariológico de la morfología del cromosoma Y a partir de muestras de sangre heparinizada de 67 bovinos machos pertenecientes a siete razas criollas colombianas. Se reporta la presencia de cuatro ejemplares pertenecientes ...

  16. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk ( Capra hircus ) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ease to locally produce kid rennet contrary to that of calve has led us to compare the proteolytic and clotting activities of these two rennets depending on their action on goat (Capra hircus) milk and cow (Bos taurus) milk. The proteolysis was measured by determining the increase of non-protein nitrogen according to the ...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism associated with weight estimated breeding values in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus

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    Fernando Henrique Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.

  18. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  19. Dinâmica folicular e taxa de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus tratadas com o protocolo "Ovsynch" para inovulação em tempo fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo em novilhas Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus receptoras de embrião. No Experimento 1, a dinâmica folicular foi acompanhada durante o protocolo "Ovsynch" (G1; n=35 e após a aplicação de PGF2alfa (G2; n=34. No Experimento 2, os mesmos tratamentos foram realizados a campo em 168 (G1 e 177 (G2 novilhas. No D6, colheu-se sangue para dosagem de P4 e se realizaram exames ultra-sonográficos. No D7, realizou-se a inovulação. No Experimento 1, 45,7% dos animais ovularam após o 1º GnRH (P;0,05. Ao final, a taxa de prenhez no Gl foi de 35,7% e no G2 de 25,4% (P<0,05. Foram detectadas em estro 53,7% das novilhas do G2 e 33,3% do Gl (P<0,05. Os corpos lúteos com maior área determinaram maiores concentrações de P4 e taxa de concepção (P<0,05. A sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo aumentou as taxas de ovulação, de aproveitamento e de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião.

  20. Candidate SNPs for carcass and meat traits in Nelore animals and in their crosses with Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the genes IGF1 (AF_017143.1:g.198C>T, MSTN (AF_320998.1:g.433C>A, MYOD1 (NC_007313:g.1274A>G and MYF5 (NC_007303:g.1911A>G on carcass and meat traits in Nelore (Bos indicus and Nelore x B. taurus. A total of 300 animals were genotyped and phenotyped for rib eye area (REA, backfat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The effects of allele substitution for each SNP were estimated by regression of the evaluated phenotypes on the number of copies of a particular allele using the general linear model. The polymorphism at IGF1 was non-informative in Nelore animals. In crossbred animals, the IGF1 C allele was associated with greater REA. However, this relation was not significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. The A allele of the MSTN polymorphism was absent in Nelore cattle and was only found in two crossbred animals. The polymorphisms of MYOD1 and MYF5 were little informative in Nelore animals with G allele frequency of 0.097 and A allele frequency of 0.031, respectively. These markers show no association with the analyzed traits in the total sample of evaluated animals.

  1. Isolation and biological and molecular characterization of Neospora caninum (NC-SP1) from a naturally infected adult asymptomatic cattle (Bos taurus) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Solange; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Aizawa, Juliana; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Silva, Natália Quadros Bressa; Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus

    2017-05-01

    The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days. The DNA obtained from oocysts was characterized molecularly and the final sequence was 99% identical to homologous sequences of N. caninum available in GenBank®. For bioassay, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 10 100 and 1000 oocysts; all gerbils remained clinically normal but developed N. caninum antibodies 14 days PI. Cell culture isolation was successful using the brain homogenate from one of the gerbils and tachyzoites were observed 24 days PI. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile for this new reference isolate.

  2. Isolation and characteristics of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) in the Chinese yakow (Bos grunniens×Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dongmei; Wu, Min; Fan, Yueyuan; Huo, Yinqiang; Leng, Jing; Gou, Xiao; Mao, Huaming; Deng, Weidong

    2012-05-01

    The Chinese yakow is the offspring of yak (Bos grunniens) and Yellow cattle (Bos taurus). The melanocortin 1receptor gene (MC1R) plays a crucial role in determining coat colour of mammals. To investigate the relationship of polymorphism of the MC1R with coat colour in the Chinese yakow, the coding sequence (CDS) and the flanking region of MC1R were sequenced from 84 Chinese yakow samples and compared with the sequences of the MC1R from other bovid species. A fragment of 1134 base pair (bp) sequences including the full CDS (954bp) and parts of the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (162 and 18bp, respectively) of the Chineseyakow MC1R were obtained. A total of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including 4 SNPs (T-129C, A-127C, C-106T, G-1A) in the 5'-untranslated region and 9 SNPs (C201T, T206C, C340A, C375T, T663C, G714C, C870T, G871A and T890C) in the CDS were identified, revealing high genetic variability. Four novel SNPs including T206C, G714C, C870T and T890C, which have not been reported previously in bovid species, were retrieved. Within 9 coding SNPs, C201T, C375T, T663C and C870T were silent mutations, while T206C, C340A, G714C, G871A and T890C were mis-sense mutations, corresponding to amino acid changes p.L69P, p.Q114K, p.K238N, p.A291N and p.I297T, respectively. Amino acid sequences alignment showed a more than 96% similarity with other ruminates. However, three classical bovine MC1R loci the E(D), E(+) and e were not retrieved in the Chinese yakow, indicating other genes or factors could be involved in affecting coat colour in this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Brain of the Domestic Bos taurus: Weight, Encephalization and Cerebellar Quotients, and Comparison with Other Domestic and Wild Cetartiodactyla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballarin

    Full Text Available The domestic bovine Bos taurus is raised worldwide for meat and milk production, or even for field work. However the functional anatomy of its central nervous system has received limited attention and most of the reported data in textbooks and reviews are derived from single specimens or relatively old literature. Here we report information on the brain of Bos taurus obtained by sampling 158 individuals, 150 of which at local abattoirs and 8 in the dissecting room, these latter subsequently formalin-fixed. Using body weight and fresh brain weight we calculated the Encephalization Quotient (EQ, and Cerebellar Quotient (CQ. Formalin-fixed brains sampled in the necropsy room were used to calculate the absolute and relative weight of the major components of the brain. The data that we obtained indicate that the domestic bovine Bos taurus possesses a large, convoluted brain, with a slightly lower weight than expected for an animal of its mass. Comparisons with other terrestrial and marine members of the order Cetartiodactyla suggested close similarity with other species with the same feeding adaptations, and with representative baleen whales. On the other hand differences with fish-hunting toothed whales suggest separate evolutionary pathways in brain evolution. Comparison with the other large domestic herbivore Equus caballus (belonging to the order Perissodactyla indicates that Bos taurus underwent heavier selection of bodily traits, which is also possibly reflected in a comparatively lower EQ than in the horse. The data analyzed suggest that the brain of domestic bovine is potentially interesting for comparative neuroscience studies and may represents an alternative model to investigate neurodegeneration processes.

  4. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  5. Genome sequencing of the extinct Eurasian wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, illuminates the phylogeography and evolution of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Stephen D E; Magee, David A; McGettigan, Paul A; Teasdale, Matthew D; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Lohan, Amanda J; Murphy, Alison; Braud, Martin; Donoghue, Mark T; Liu, Yuan; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; Schroeder, Steven; Spillane, Charles; Tai, Shuaishuai; Bradley, Daniel G; Sonstegard, Tad S; Loftus, Brendan J; MacHugh, David E

    2015-10-26

    Domestication of the now-extinct wild aurochs, Bos primigenius, gave rise to the two major domestic extant cattle taxa, B. taurus and B. indicus. While previous genetic studies have shed some light on the evolutionary relationships between European aurochs and modern cattle, important questions remain unanswered, including the phylogenetic status of aurochs, whether gene flow from aurochs into early domestic populations occurred, and which genomic regions were subject to selection processes during and after domestication. Here, we address these questions using whole-genome sequencing data generated from an approximately 6,750-year-old British aurochs bone and genome sequence data from 81 additional cattle plus genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from a diverse panel of 1,225 modern animals. Phylogenomic analyses place the aurochs as a distinct outgroup to the domestic B. taurus lineage, supporting the predominant Near Eastern origin of European cattle. Conversely, traditional British and Irish breeds share more genetic variants with this aurochs specimen than other European populations, supporting localized gene flow from aurochs into the ancestors of modern British and Irish cattle, perhaps through purposeful restocking by early herders in Britain. Finally, the functions of genes showing evidence for positive selection in B. taurus are enriched for neurobiology, growth, metabolism and immunobiology, suggesting that these biological processes have been important in the domestication of cattle. This work provides important new information regarding the origins and functional evolution of modern cattle, revealing that the interface between early European domestic populations and wild aurochs was significantly more complex than previously thought.

  6. A cytoarchitectonic and myeloarchitectonic study of the insular cortex of the bull, Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Domenico; Paparcone, Rosa; Genovese, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian Insula is characterised by considerable morphologic variability, however, it shows a cytoarchitectonic homogeneity within the species so far studied. Three cytoarchitectonic areas are generally recognisable in the Insula: an "agranular", a "dysgranular" and a "granular" area. The numerous functions attributed to the Insula (visceral sensory, visceral motor, somatosensorial, supplementary motor area, area speech and/or language related, etc.) have recently attracted renewed interest. Considering the involvement of the Insula in the control of gastroenteric motility and the structural and functional complexity of this region in ruminants, it seemed interesting to analyse the cyto- and myelo-architectonic arrangement of the Insula of the bull, Bos taurus. Unlike that of the other species described, all the insular Neocortex of the bull, is of the "agranular" type. The latter includes at least four variants that differ according to the organisation of the cortical layer pattern. Considering the available evidence in laboratory animals and primates of a role played by the agranular insular cortex in gastroenteric motility control, the trademark presence of a very much extended insular agranular cortex in the Insula of the bull may be related to the necessity of motor activity control of a gastroenteric complex that is extensively more developed than in the monogastric species.

  7. Seasonality of Oxygen isotope composition in cow (Bos taurus) hair and its model interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in animal and human tissues are expected to be good recorders of geographical origin and migration histories based on the isotopic relationship between hair oxygen and annual precipitation and the well-known spatial pattern of oxygen isotope composition in meteoric water. However, seasonal variation of oxygen isotope composition may diminish the origin information in the tissues. Here the seasonality of oxygen isotope composition in tail hair was investigated in a domestic suckler cow (Bos taurus) that underwent different ambient conditions, physiological states, and keeping and feeding strategies during five years. A detailed mechanistic model involving in ambient conditions, soil properties and animal physiology was built to explain this variation. The measured oxygen isotope composition in hair was significantly related (panalysis. Modelling suggested that this relation was only partly derived from the direct influence of feed moisture. Ambient conditions (temperature, moisture) did not only influence the isotopic signal of precipitation but also affected the animal itself (drinking water demand, transcutaneous vapor etc.). The clear temporal variation thus resulted from complex interactions with multiple influences. The twofold influence of ambient conditions via the feed and via the animal itself is advantageous for tracing the geographic origin because the oxygen isotope composition is then less influenced by variations in moisture uptake; however, it is unfavorable for indicating the production system, e.g. to distinguish between milk produced from fresh grass or from silage.

  8. Bovine Genome Database: new tools for gleaning function from the Bos taurus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsik, Christine G; Unni, Deepak R; Diesh, Colin M; Tayal, Aditi; Emery, Marianne L; Nguyen, Hung N; Hagen, Darren E

    2016-01-04

    We report an update of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) (http://BovineGenome.org). The goal of BGD is to support bovine genomics research by providing genome annotation and data mining tools. We have developed new genome and annotation browsers using JBrowse and WebApollo for two Bos taurus genome assemblies, the reference genome assembly (UMD3.1.1) and the alternate genome assembly (Btau_4.6.1). Annotation tools have been customized to highlight priority genes for annotation, and to aid annotators in selecting gene evidence tracks from 91 tissue specific RNAseq datasets. We have also developed BovineMine, based on the InterMine data warehousing system, to integrate the bovine genome, annotation, QTL, SNP and expression data with external sources of orthology, gene ontology, gene interaction and pathway information. BovineMine provides powerful query building tools, as well as customized query templates, and allows users to analyze and download genome-wide datasets. With BovineMine, bovine researchers can use orthology to leverage the curated gene pathways of model organisms, such as human, mouse and rat. BovineMine will be especially useful for gene ontology and pathway analyses in conjunction with GWAS and QTL studies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatun, Momena; Sørensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede

    2013-01-01

    Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting mastitis incidence and mastitis-related traits such as somatic cell score exist in dairy cows. Previously, QTL haplotypes associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli mastitis in Nordic Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows were identified on Bos taurus...... the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences...

  10. A Novel Protocol to Assess Acclimation Rate in Bos taurus Heifers during Yard Weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Monk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which animals acclimate to a new environment could be an important measure of ability to cope with management induced stress. This study developed a measure of acclimation rate in a group of 50 Bos taurus heifers during yard weaning over nine days. We recorded the time and order in which heifers moved through a novel funnel structure into a feeding yard daily. We hypothesised that addition of an obstacle at the entrance would increase the time it took heifers to move through the funnel, but that they would acclimate to the obstacle over a three-day period. The change in latency to move through could then be used as a measure of acclimation rate. We hypothesised that individuals which acclimated to obstacles at a faster rate might display favourable temperament as assessed by flight time. All heifers took longer to move through the funnel after a novel object was introduced, then latency decreased over the following two days while the object was present. This indicates the protocol could be useful for measuring acclimation rate at a group level. Individual acclimation rate variables, measured as change in times and orders of heifers between test days, did not appear to have any consistent relationships with flight time or weight change during or post-weaning (p > 0.05. We concluded that the protocol was inappropriate for assessing acclimation rate at an individual level, due to social effects while testing heifers as a group. Heifers which were consistently one of the first 20 to move through the funnel had a significantly greater average weight 5 and 10 months post-weaning (345 ± 9 kg and 518 ± 10 kg respectively than heifers which were consistently one of the last 20 through the funnel (311 ± 8 kg and 484 ± 8 kg respectively; p < 0.001. This may indicate order of movement through the funnel was related to feeding motivation or another aspect of temperament not reflected by flight time.

  11. Effect of protein supplementation on reproductive and productive performance in Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquivar, Martin G; Galina, Carlos S; Galindo, Jaime R; Estrada, Sandra; Molina, Rafael; Mendoza, German David

    2010-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of protein supplementation on the productive and reproductive performance of heifers, 45 Bos indicus x Bos taurus heifers, 673 +/- 146 days of age and weighing about 340 kg, were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 23) continued without supplementation, but the supplemented group (SG; n = 22) received concentrate at a rate of 1% BW kg per day. Animals were adapted to the concentrate over a 15-day period and then supplemented for 30 days, after which estrus was synchronized using a progesterone implant. Back fat thickness (BFT) was assessed by ultrasound. The SG had better average daily weight gain than the nonsupplemented group (0.63 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.13 kg/day, P 0.70 cm) showed a better ovulation percentage than those with low BFT (heifers with high BFT tended to be better than heifers with low BFT in this same group (67% vs. 30%, respectively, P < 0.10). It is concluded that protein supplementation improved reproductive performance and that ultrasonography to measure BFT may be used to estimate reproductive performance.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYSIS ON THE PROTEIN-PEPTIDE PROFILE OF Bos taurus AND Sus scrofa HEART AND AORTA TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of autolytic processes impact on the protein-peptide profile of Bos taurus and Sus scrofa cardiac muscle and aorta. The results of tissue-specific protein identification are also presented as well as the effect of autolysis. Apolipoprotein A-1 involved in the formation of high-density lipoproteins, peroxiredoxin-1 involved in the suppression of oxidative stress, galectin-1 induced apoptosis of T-lymphocytes, as well as number of heat shock proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa were identified in Sus scrofa aorta tissue. It was discovered that functional proteins with molecular weight less than 30 kDa are retained during the freezing process, but destroyed under the action of autolytic enzymes. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 16–16–10073.

  13. Vaccine-induced rabies case in a cow (Bos taurus): Molecular characterisation of vaccine strain in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuta, Vlad; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Barboi, Gheorghe; Motiu, Razvan; Barbuceanu, Florica; Vlagioiu, Constantin; Cliquet, Florence

    2016-09-22

    Rabies is a fatal neuropathogenic zoonosis caused by the rabies virus of the Lyssavirus genus, Rhabdoviridae family. The oral vaccination of foxes - the main reservoir of rabies in Europe - using a live attenuated rabies virus vaccine was successfully conducted in many Western European countries. In July 2015, a rabies vaccine strain was isolated from the brain tissues of a clinically suspect cow (Bos taurus) in Romania. The nucleotide analysis of both N and G gene sequences showed 100% identity between the rabid animal, the GenBank reference SAD B19 strain and five rabies vaccine batches used for the national oral vaccination campaign targeting foxes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  15. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  16. EFECTO DE LA SUPLEMENTACION DE DOS TIPOS DE ACIDOS GRASOS SOBRE EL REINICIO DE LA ACTIVIDAD OVARICA Y METABOLITOS DE LIPIDOS EN VACAS F1 (Bos Taurus x Bos indicus) DURANTE EL POSPARTO TEMPRANO

    OpenAIRE

    HUANTE CATALÁN, ROBERTO

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una investigación, bajo una serie de tres experimentos, en los cuales se determinó el cambio de peso vivo (PV) y ganancia de peso en becerros, el reinicio de actividad ovárica (RAO), y la concentración sérica de colesterol (COL) y lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL), en vacas F1 suplementadas con dos tipos de ácidos grasos durante el posparto temprano. Se emplearon veinte vacas Bos taurus x Bos indicus, de 400-450 kg y condición corporal de 2 – 2.5 puntos. Los animales...

  17. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves (Bos taurus and Bos indicus in the Formiga city, Minas Gerais - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Araujo Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a waterborne disease, has as aggravating the difficulty of preventing environmental contamination and lack of effective therapeutic measures. With marked importance to the cattle, causes inflammation and intestinal villous atrophy resulting in loss of absorptive surface. This study aimed to perform molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in calves in the city of Formiga, Minas Gerais. A total of 300 faeces samples from Holstein calves, Nelore and indefinite breed, both healthy, were evaluated by negative contrast staining technique of malachite green and through the reaction of nested PCR for amplification of DNA fragments of the 18S subunit of the RNA gene ribosomal. Occurrence of 5.33 % ( 16/300 for malachite green and 4.66 % ( 14/300 by PCR was observed, whereas no correlation was found between positive and variables studied. Through molecular characterization were identified Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium ryanae species. In conclusion, we observed a low incidence of infection and elimination of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, the absence of clinical signs in animals, strong agreement between the results obtained by the two techniques. Beyond, with the molecular characterization ( nested PCR , species of C. andersoni and C. ryanae were diagnosed in age groups not present in the literature. These two species of Cryptosporidium are described above for the first time parasitizing cattle in the state of Minas Gerais.

  18. The effect of dietary rations on the gut morphology of Zebu Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in the Bos taurus cattle have shown the gut morphology to be affected by diet, but there is a paucity of such information in the Bos indicus cattle. A study was conducted to evaluate the morphology of digestive tract of the Tanzanian Short Horn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle under different dietary treatments. A total of 54 TSHZ ...

  19. Morphological Dimorphism In The Y Chromosome Of 'pe-duro' Cattle In The Brazilian State Of Piauf

    OpenAIRE

    Britto C.M.C.; Mello M.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    'Pe-duro' (hard foot) is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus) origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 'pe-duro' bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (Embrapa) herd in the Brazilian State of Piauf. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus) in a cattle that has been consider...

  20. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Chase A; Downey-Slinker, Erika D; Ridpath, Julia F; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Sawyer, Jason E; Herring, Andy D

    2017-12-12

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers ( n = 366) that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV), killed, (KV) or no vaccine (NON). Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05), and interacted with day ( p gain (ADG) and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104%) and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI ( p < 0.001), and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG ( p = 0.03) and total feed intake ( p = 0.03). This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  1. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  2. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M R; Chen, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371747228; Lenstra, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335; Goderie, C R J; MacHugh, D E; Park, S D E; Magee, D A; Matassino, D; Ciani, F; Megens, H-J; van Arendonk, J A M; Groenen, M A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412585650; Marsan, P A; Balteanu, V; Dunner, S; Garcia, J F; Ginja, C; Kantanen, J

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  3. Genetic origin, admixture and population history of aurochs (Bos primigenius) and primitive European cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upadhyay, M.R.; Chen, W.; Lenstra, J.A.; Goderie, C.R.J.; MacHugh, D.E.; Park, S.D.E.; Magee, D.A.; Matassino, D.; Ciani, F.; Megens, H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The domestication of taurine cattle initiated ~10 000 years ago in the Near East from a wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) population followed by their dispersal through migration of agriculturalists to Europe. Although gene flow from wild aurochs still present at the time of this early dispersion is

  4. Effect of Vitamin E and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Cryopreserved Sperm Quality in Bos taurus Bulls Under Testicular Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losano, João D A; Angrimani, Daniel S R; Dalmazzo, Andressa; Rocha, Carolina C; Brito, Maíra M; Perez, Eduardo G A; Tsunoda, Roberta H; Góes, Paola A A; Mendes, Camilla M; Assumpção, Mayra E O A; Barnabe, Valquiria H; Nichi, Marcilio

    2018-04-03

    Taurine bulls are highly susceptible to heat stress, leading to increased oxidative stress (OS) and impaired sperm viability. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation can be an alternative to improve semen quality, which also results in more sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Moreover, this deleterious effect can be exacerbated in animals affected by heat stress. Vitamin E is a key antioxidant that counteracts lipid peroxidation of sperm membrane caused by OS. Thus, combining PUFAs with vitamin E may improve sperm quality. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of interaction between PUFAs and vitamin E on sperm quality in Bos taurus bulls under testicular heat stress. Sixteen taurine bulls under testicular heat stress were randomly assigned in four groups: Control, Vitamin E, PUFA, and PUFA + Vitamin E. All groups lasted for 60 days. Samples were cryopreserved/thawed and analyzed for motility variables (CASA), membrane and acrosome integrity, mitochondrial activity, susceptibility to oxidative stress, DNA integrity, and sperm-binding capacity. Results showed that vitamin E had a beneficial effect on some sperm characteristics, whereas PUFA supplementation had an adverse effect when the two treatments were evaluated separately. Finally, the association between PUFAs and vitamin E did not improve sperm quality.

  5. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T.; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José F.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Moazami-Goudarzi, K.; Williams, J.; Wiener, P.; Olsaker, I.; Kantanen, J.; Dunner, S.; Cañón, J.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I.; Valentini, A.; Zanotti, M.; Holm, L. E.; Eythorsdottir, E.; Mommens, G.; Polygen, Van Haeringen; Nijman, I. J.; Dolf, G.; Bradley, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in

  6. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  7. Origin and spread of Bos taurus: new clues from mitochondrial genomes belonging to haplogroup T1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bonfiglio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most genetic studies on modern cattle have established a common origin for all taurine breeds in the Near East, during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ka ago. Yet, the possibility of independent and/or secondary domestication events is still debated and is fostered by the finding of rare mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups like P, Q and R. Haplogroup T1, because of its geographic distribution, has been the subject of several investigations pointing to a possible independent domestication event in Africa and suggesting a genetic contribution of African cattle to the formation of Iberian and Creole cattle. Whole mitochondrial genome sequence analysis, with its proven effectiveness in improving the resolution of phylogeographic studies, is the most appropriate tool to investigate the origin and structure of haplogroup T1. METHODOLOGY: A survey of >2200 bovine mtDNA control regions representing 28 breeds (15 European, 10 African, 3 American identified 281 subjects belonging to haplogroup T1. Fifty-four were selected for whole mtDNA genome sequencing, and combined with ten T1 complete sequences from previous studies into the most detailed T1 phylogenetic tree available to date. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis of the 64 T1 mitochondrial complete genomes revealed six distinct sub-haplogroups (T1a-T1f. Our data support the overall scenario of a Near Eastern origin of the T1 sub-haplogroups from as much as eight founding T1 haplotypes. However, the possibility that one sub-haplogroup (T1d arose in North Africa, in domesticated stocks, shortly after their arrival from the Near East, can not be ruled out. Finally, the previously identified "African-derived American" (AA haplotype turned out to be a sub-clade of T1c (T1c1a1. This haplotype was found here for the first time in Africa (Egypt, indicating that it probably originated in North Africa, reached the Iberian Peninsula and sailed to America, with the first European

  8. A fine structure genetic analysis evaluating ecoregional adaptability of a Bos taurus breed (Hereford.

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    H D Blackburn

    Full Text Available Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Hereford cattle were genotyped with 50K Bead Chip or 770K Bovine Bead Chip to test the existence of genetic structure in five U.S. ecoregions characterized by precipitation, temperature and humidity and designated: cool arid (CA, cool humid (CH, transition zone (TZ, warm arid (WA, and warm humid (WH. SNP data were analyzed in three sequential analyses. Broad genetic structure was evaluated with STRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE software using 14,312 SNPs after passing quality control variables. The second analysis was performed using principal coordinate analysis with 66 Tag SNPs associated in the literature with various aspects of environmental stressors (e.g., heat tolerance or production (e.g., milk production. In the third analysis TreeSelect was used with the 66 SNPs to evaluate if ecoregional allelic frequencies deviated from a central frequency and by so doing are indicative of directional selection. The three analyses suggested subpopulation structures associated with ecoregions from where animals were derived. ADMIXTURE and PCA results illustrated the importance of temperature and humidity and confirm subpopulation assignments. Comparisons of allele frequencies with TreeSelect showed ecoregion differences, in particular the divergence between arid and humid regions. Patterns of genetic variability obtained by medium and high density SNP chips can be used to acclimatize a temperately derived breed to various ecoregions. As climate change becomes an important factor in cattle production, this study should be used as a proof of concept to review future breeding and conservation schemes aimed at adaptation to climatic events.

  9. RENDIMIENTO Y COMPOSICIÓN CORPORAL DE CUYES (CAVIA PORCELLUS) SUPLEMENTADOS CON TRES NIVELES DE HARINA DE SANGRE BOVINO (BOS TAURUS) PROCESADA ARTESANALMENTE

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMORA HUAMÁN, SEGUNDO JOSÉ

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the performance and body composition of Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) supplemented with three levels of bovine blood meal (Bos taurus) processed by hand in Small Animals Module of Chachapoyas Experimental Station of the Toribio Rodríguez of Mendoza of Amazonas National University. Food rations were evaluated in an iso energy and iso protein levels with 4%, 8% and 12% of blood meal, using 36 Guinea Pigs weaned males of 21 days of age, divided into groups of ...

  10. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Villa-Duque; Claudia Marcela Amaya-Torres; Darwin García-Rojas; Natalia Nieto-Omeara; Natalia Terán-Acuña

    2016-01-01

    En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander). El estudio consis...

  11. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Mark

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Results Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs. A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P Conclusion We have identified 15,353 putative SNPs in or close to bovine genes and 2,868 of these SNPs were predicted to be non-synonymous. Approximately 29% of the non-synonymous SNPs were polymorphic and common with a minor allele frequency >10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  12. Establishment of a pipeline to analyse non-synonymous SNPs in Bos taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael A; Keane, Orla M; Glass, Belinda C; Manley, Tim R; Cullen, Neil G; Dodds, Ken G; McCulloch, Alan F; Morris, Chris A; Schreiber, Mark; Warren, Jonathan; Zadissa, Amonida; Wilson, Theresa; McEwan, John C

    2006-11-26

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an abundant form of genetic variation in the genome of every species and are useful for gene mapping and association studies. Of particular interest are non-synonymous SNPs, which may alter protein function and phenotype. We therefore examined bovine expressed sequences for non-synonymous SNPs and validated and tested selected SNPs for their association with measured traits. Over 500,000 public bovine expressed sequence tagged (EST) sequences were used to search for coding SNPs (cSNPs). A total of 15,353 SNPs were detected in the transcribed sequences studied, of which 6,325 were predicted to be coding SNPs with the remaining 9,028 SNPs presumed to be in untranslated regions. Of the cSNPs detected, 2,868 were predicted to result in a change in the amino acid encoded. In order to determine the actual number of non-synonymous polymorphic SNPs we designed assays for 920 of the putative SNPs. These SNPs were then genotyped through a panel of cattle DNA pools using chip-based MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Of the SNPs tested, 29% were found to be polymorphic with a minor allele frequency >10%. A subset of the SNPs was genotyped through animal resources in order to look for association with age of puberty, facial eczema resistance or meat yield. Three SNPs were nominally associated with resistance to the disease facial eczema (P 10%. Of the SNPs detected in this study, 99% have not been previously reported. These novel SNPs will be useful for association studies or gene mapping.

  13. Quantitative trait loci mapping of calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 in the German Holstein population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, B; Baes, C; Mayer, M; Reinsch, N; Seidenspinner, T; Thaller, G; Kühn, Ch

    2010-03-01

    Linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses were performed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting calving and conformation traits on Bos taurus autosome 18 (BTA18) in the German Holstein population. Six paternal half-sib families consisting of a total of 1,054 animals were genotyped on 28 genetic markers in the telomeric region on BTA18 spanning approximately 30 Mb. Calving traits, body type traits, and udder type traits were investigated. Using univariately estimated breeding values, maternal and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth were analyzed separately for first- and further-parity calvings. The QTL initially identified by separate linkage and linkage disequilibrium analyses could be confirmed by a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis for udder composite index, udder depth, fore udder attachment, front teat placement, body depth, rump angle, and direct effects on calving ease and stillbirth. Concurrence of QTL peaks and a similar shape of restricted log-likelihood ratio profiles were observed between udder type traits and for body depth and calving traits, respectively. Association analyses were performed for markers flanking the most likely QTL positions by applying a mixed model including a fixed allele effect of the maternally inherited allele and a random polygenic effect. Results indicated that microsatellite marker DIK4234 (located at 53.3 Mb) is associated with maternal effects on stillbirth, direct effects on calving ease, and body depth. A comparison of effects for maternally inherited DIK4234 alleles indicated a favorable, positive correlation of maternal and direct effects on calving. Additionally, the association of maternally inherited DIK4234 marker alleles with body depth implied that conformation traits might provide the functional background of the QTL for calving traits. For udder type traits, the strong coincidence of QTL peaks and the position of the QTL in a

  14. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  15. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Han Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12, or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12. All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay. The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  16. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...

  18. COMPORTAMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO Y PRODUCTIVO DE VACAS Bos indicus, Bos taurus Y SUS CRUCES EN UN SISTEMA DE PRODUCCIÓN VACA:CRÍA EN YUCATÁN, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Timoteo Mejía Bautista

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el comportamiento reproductivo y productivo de vacas Bos indicus, Bos taurus y sus cruces en un sistema vaca:cría en Yucatán, México. Se utilizó la información de 310 vacas Brahman (Br, 191 Nelore (Ne, 140 Cebú Comercial (CC, 49 Suizo Pardo (SP y 69 cruzadas con SP (Cz que parieron durante un periodo de 20 años. Los indicadores estudiados fueron edad al primer parto (EPP, intervalo entre partos (IEP, peso al destete a 205 días (PDA205 y peso al destete por día de interparto (PDA/IEP. Se utilizaron modelos fijos para determinar los efectos de año de nacimiento (AN o parto (AP, época de nacimiento (EN o parto (EP, número de parto (NP, sexo de la cría (SX y grupo racial de la vaca (GRV sobre los indicadores y modelos mixtos para la repetibilidad calculada mediante los componentes de varianza entre y dentro de vaca. Las medias generales y desviaciones estándar para EPP, IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP fueron, 1091.7±137.9 días, 432.9±96.9 días, 164.3±25.5 kg y 401±159 g, respectivamente. El AN y EN afectaron la EPP; el AP, EP y NP afectaron al IEP, PDA205 y PDA/IEP (P

  19. Avaliação das concentrações plasmáticas de cortisol e progesterona em vacas nelore (Bos taurus indicus) submetidas a manejo diário ou manejo semanal

    OpenAIRE

    Maziero, Rosiára Rosária Dias [UNESP; Martin, Ian [UNESP; Mattos, Maria Clara Costa; Ferreira, João Carlos Pinheiro [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates the plasma concentration of progesterone and cortisol in cows submitted to daily or weekly handling. For this experiment, seven primiparous or multiparous Nelore cows (Bos taurus indicus) were monitored for 21 days (experiment 1) and 9 weeks (experiment 2) through rectal palpation and ultrasonographic examination of the female reproductive tract, as well as jugular venipuncture. Plasma concentration of progesterone and cortisol (ng/mL) was determined by radioimmunoassay f...

  20. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salazar B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS (Lucerna or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela. Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remaining animals grazed in an ISS based on Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus. The tick counts were made every 15 days. The data of temperature, humidity, and radiation were taken from a weather station that was inside the ISS. Results. There was a weak relationship between saturation deficit and tick load (R2=0.34 and another between UV radiation and tick load (R2=0.205 for animals grazing in ISS. There were differences in tick counts when comparing animals of similar productivity from both systems evaluated: in La Isabela (sugarcane grass paddocks average counts were 311 ticks perceptible to the touch (TPT and in Lucerna (ISS farm average counts were 206 TPT (p= 0.02. Additionally, there were greater tick counts in high productivity cows compared to low productivity cows. Conclusions. The abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem and animal productivity can affect the TPT counts. In ISS systems, tick counts can be lower than those observed in monoculture grazing systems.

  1. Global mapping of miRNA-target interactions in cattle (Bos taurus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Troels K H; Moore, Michael J; Luna, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    With roles in development, cell proliferation and disease, micro-RNA (miRNA) biology is of great importance and a potential therapeutic target. Here we used cross-linking immunoprecipitation (CLIP) and ligation of miRNA-target chimeras on the Argonaute (AGO) protein to globally map miRNA interact...

  2. Bos taurus strain:dairy beef (cattle): 1000 Bull Genomes Run 2, Bovine Whole Genome Sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Daetwyler, H.D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James M.; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars-Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, R.F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence data (BAM format) of 234 bovine individuals aligned to UMD3.1. The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants (SNPs and indels) for downstream analysis such as imputation, GWAS, and detection of lethal recessives. Additional sequences for later 1000 bull genomes runs can

  3. Spatial movement of free-roaming cattle (Bos Taurus) when in proximity to wolves (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1995 and 1996, 31 wolves were reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park and 35 in central Idaho. These populations have grown to more than 1,500 with more than 835 in Idaho. As wolf populations have grown, so has predation on livestock, complicating cow and ranch management. Our study was de...

  4. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work confirms that at type trait level Kuri cattle is a unique population within the West African taurine cattle group. The implementation of genetic analyses aiming at ascertaining the degree of uniqueness of the breed is advised. Keywords: Body measurements, Bos taurus, multivariate analyses, qualitative traits, West ...

  5. Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, G A; Martini, A P; Carloto, G W; Rodrigues, M C C; Claro Júnior, I; Baruselli, P S; Brauner, C C; Rubin, M I B; Corrêa, M N; Leivas, F G; Sá Filho, M F

    2016-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of different doses of eCG (control, 300 or 400 IU) administered at progesterone (P4) device removal in suckled Bos taurus beef cows undergoing a timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol. A total of 966 cows received a P4 insert and 2.0 mg intramuscular estradiol benzoate at the onset of the synchronization. After 9 days, P4 insert was removed, and 12.5 mg of dinoprost tromethamine and 1 mg of estradiol cypionate were administered, followed by TAI 48 hours later. Then, the cows received one of three treatments as follows: control (n = 323), 300 (n = 326), or 400 IU of eCG (n = 317). A subset (n = 435) of cows in anestrus had their ovaries evaluated using ultrasound at the time of P4 removal and at TAI. Data were analyzed by orthogonal contrasts (C): C1 (eCG effect) and C2 (eCG dose effect). Estrous occurrence (control = 53.7%, 300 IU = 70.6%, and 400 IU = 77.0%) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (control = 29.7%, 300 IU = 44.8%, and 400 IU = 47.6%) were improved by eCG treatment (C1; P = 0.0004 and P 0.15). In conclusion, the eCG treatment administered at the time of P4 removal increased the occurrence of estrus, the larger follicles at TAI, and pregnancy per artificial insemination of suckled B taurus beef cows. Despite the greater occurrence of estrus in noncyclic cows receiving 400 IU of eCG, both eCG doses (300 and 400 IU) were equally efficient to improve pregnancy to artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  7. Comparação entre a população folicular ovariana antral e pré-antral de fêmeas Bos indicus e ½ Bos indicus X Bos taurus

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Schmidt Siloto

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a população folicular ovariana antral e pré-antral de vacas Nelore (indicus) e ½ NeloreXAngus (indicus-taurus). Fêmeas indicus (n=20) e indicus-taurus (n=20) foram submetidas à aspiração folicular em dia aleatório do ciclo estral (D0), a fim de promover a ablação de todos os folículos ≥3mm e o início de uma nova onda de crescimento folicular. Em seguida foram submetidas à avaliações ultrassonográficas por cinco dias (D4, D19, D34, D49 e D64) para c...

  8. Antibody titers to vaccination are not predictive of level of protection against a BVDV type 1b challenge in Bos indicus - Bos taurus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey-Slinker, E D; Ridpath, J F; Sawyer, J E; Skow, L C; Herring, A D

    2016-09-30

    Subclinical illness associated with infection is thought to reduce performance and increase production costs in feedlot cattle, but underlying components remain largely unidentified. Vaccination is frequently used in feedlot settings but producers lack metrics that evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination programs. The goal of this study was to determine if levels of serum neutralizing antibody titers were predictive of levels of vaccine protection in a commercial setting. During this four-year study, Angus-Nellore steers housed in a production feedlot setting were assigned to 1 of 3 vaccine treatments: killed vaccine (kV), modified live virus (MLV) vaccine, or no vaccine (control), and were challenged with a noncytopathic 1b field strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. Rectal temperature and levels of circulating lymphocytes and platelets were monitored following challenge. While no animals were diagnosed as clinically ill with respiratory disease, indicators of disease (pyrexia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia) were observed. The MLV treatment elicited higher antibody titers to the vaccination than the kV, and calves in the MLV treatment had higher mean titers at challenge. The year that elicited the highest antibody response to the vaccination and the year with the lowest frequency of phenotypic responses to the challenge were not concurrent. The MLV treatment had the highest proportion, 34.68%, of animals that were protected against the challenge regardless of the pre-challenge antibody titer and had the fewest number of lymphopenia cases in response to the challenge. Both vaccine treatments mitigated thrombocytopenia when compared to the control treatment, and the MLV treatment reduced lymphopenia; however, these symptoms were not completely eliminated in vaccinated animals. Pyrexia was present in 40.11% of the animals, but no difference in the frequency of cases between treatments was observed. Pre-challenge vaccination response was not indicative of the

  9. Indicadores de estresse térmico e utilização da somatotropina bovina (bST em vacas leiteiras mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus no semi-árido do Nordeste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Neto Joaquim Batista de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi avaliar a resposta ao bST de vacas mestiças (Bos taurus x Bos indicus criadas no semi-árido do Ceará. Quinze vacas (segunda e terceira parições; 42 a 155 dias pós-parto receberam cinco aplicações de bST a intervalos de 14 dias e outras 15 foram utilizadas como controle. A dieta dos animais consistiu de capim-elefante e concentrado. Durante a primeira aplicação de bST, a produção de leite dos animais tratados (12,6 kg/dia não diferiu dos animais controle (11,3 Kg/dia mas, na segunda e terceira aplicações, a diferença entre os grupos foi significativa (2,0 e 2,2 kg. Na quarta aplicação de bST, houve aumento na diferença entre os grupos (3,0 kg e, na quinta aplicação, esta diferença foi de 3,4 kg (14,0 kg versus 10,6 kg/dia. A interação tratamento com bST e estágio de lactação não foi significativa. As temperaturas do leite e retal foram maiores (0,6 e 0,1°C, respectivamente nos animais tratados com bST que nos animais controles, mas estas diferenças não foram significativas. Para o grupo de 30 animais, houve correlações entre produção e temperatura do leite (r = 0, 38 a 0,69. Com base no cálculo do índice de temperatura e umidade, os animais estiveram submetidos a estresse térmico ameno (manhã ou moderado (à tarde. Portanto, animais mestiços criados no semi-árido do Nordeste aumentaram a produção de leite devido ao bST, sem, no entanto, apresentar indicativos de estresse térmico severo.

  10. Genomic divergence of zebu and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural selection has molded the evolution across all taxa. At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically ad...

  11. Efecto de la manipulación del semen criopreservado de bovinos Bos Taurus sobre la integridad espermática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Villa-Duque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluó el efecto de descongelar y aplicar semen de bovinos Bos Taurus en 33 ganaderías del Magdalena Medio colombiano, y se estudió in vitro el efecto de la injuria encontrada sobre la integridad de las membranas espermáticas. La información en fincas se recopiló mediante formulario específico, mientras que el estudio in vitro se ejecutó en el laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva Animal del Instituto Universitario de la Paz (Barrancabermeja, Santander. El estudio consistió en someter pajillas comerciales de 0.5 ml de toros Holstein y Pardo Suizo a la técnica convencional y a tres modificaciones de esta (injurias mediante un diseño randomizado. Ninguna de las fincas evaluadas aplicó correctamente la práctica de la inseminación artificial; errores notorios fueron: exceso de tiempo durante la extracción de la pajilla, descongelación en la región axilar y no combinación correcta entre tiempo y temperatura. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencia significativa (P<0.05 por efecto de la raza para la integridad y resistencia de las membranas espermáticas, para la integridad de las membranas por efecto de los tratamientos cuando la pajilla se descongelo a temperatura corporal en la región axilar y para la integridad de la membrana acrosomal cuando la extracción de la pajilla se realizó en forma incorrecta. El semen de la raza Holstein evidencia una ligera tendencia a ser más resistente que el de la raza Pardo Suizo.

  12. Efeitos da injeção de cloreto de cálcio pós-morte e tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo Longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso Effects of postmortem calcium chloride injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Bos indicus and Bos taurus animals selected for weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Carla de Moura

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da injeção pós-morte de cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 e o tempo de maturação no amaciamento e nas perdas por cozimento do músculo longissimus dorsi de animais Bos indicus e Bos taurus selecionados para ganho de peso. Foram usados 64 machos inteiros (16 Caracu, 16 Guzerá, 16 Nelore Controle e 16 Nelore Seleção. Vinte quatro horas após o abate, foi retirada uma amostra do músculo Longissiumus dorsi (contra-filé entre a 6ª e 9ª vértebras lombares e dividida em nove subamostras. Em cada grupo de três subamostras escolhidas ao acaso, foi injetada, na quantia correspondente a 10% do seu peso, uma das seguintes soluções: a água (controle, b 200 mM de CaCl2 e c 300 mM de CaCl2. Cada subamostra foi, então, embalada a vácuo, congelada (- 2ºC e maturada por 1,7 ou 14 dias até a realização de testes de força de cisalhamento e perdas por cozimento (evaporação, gotejamento e perdas totais. Foi usado delineamento experimental completamente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas, em que a parcela correspondia à raça e a sub-parcela, à combinação entre três níveis de CaCl2 e três tempos de maturação. A raça influenciou a força de cisalhamento, mas não influiu nas perdas por cozimento A maturação por um período de sete dias reduziu os valores de força de cisalhamento e as perdas por evaporação, gotejamento e totais. Maiores concentrações de CaCl2 resultaram em menor força de cisalhamento e maiores perdas por evaporação, embora não tenham influenciado as perdas por gotejamento e totais. A concentração de 200 mM CaCl2 apresentou a melhor redução para a força de cisalhamento. A injeção pós-morte de uma solução de CaCl2 aumentou o processo de amaciamento, sem influir nas perdas por cozimento.ABSTRACT - The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postmortem calcium chloride (CaCl2 injection and aging time on tenderness and cooking losses of Longissimus

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China.

  14. Predicting wolf (Canis lupus)-cattle (Bos Taurus) encounters and consequential effects on cattle resource selection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf population in Idaho has grown dramatically from the original 35 reintroduced individuals in 1995-1996 to 94 documented packs and a minimum population of 835 individuals in 2009. Wolf depredation on livestock has also increased dramatically with this population growth. Substantial spa...

  15. Comet assay to determine genetic damage by the use of ivermectin in zebu cows (Bos taurus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donicer Montes-Vergara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the work was evaluate the damage genetic caused by the use of ivermectin (IVM in cows zebu to concentrations of 1% and 3.15% through the test comet. Material and methods. 15 cows, were taken with age between 3 and 4 years old, average weight of 350 kg, body condition between 3 and 3.5. Three experimental groups with five animals per group, which were exposed to the concentration of IVM to 1% to 3.15% more group control (without application of IVM were used. Animal blood sample was performed by venipuncture jugular or medial flow with vacutainer® needle, extracting 8 ml of blood. The blood samples it was collected at 9, 18 and 27 days post-treatment. Results. The display of the comets is made by using fluorescence microscope, the cells were evaluated by means of visual log and the Comet image software. Evidenced the presence of nuclei with DNA migration in all analyzed plates. The values of classification of comets indicate cells with high levels of damage (grade 3: cells with high damage. The rate of DNA damage of the treatment to 1% to 3.15% was significant, to relate to the control group. Conclusions. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the likely genotoxic potential of the use of IVM in cattle.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in the bovine toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1(CCL2) genes: SNPs distribution analysis in Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Sharma, Anurodh; Kataria, R S; Verma, N K; Kimothi, Shiv Prasad; Bhatia, Avnish Kumar; Sodhi, Monika; Behl, Rahul; Joshi, B K

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 gene (TLR4) that recognizes the Gram negative bacterial ligand LPS was sequenced in the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed. Ninety four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected within 10.8 kb gene region. Seventeen of the SNPs were in the coding regions and the one at position 9589(A > G) in exon3 resulted in an amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine. These SNPs led to generation of 27 TLR4 gene haplotypes. All the Sahiwal animals studied presently showed the occurrence of the genotype CC at gene position 9662, which codes for the amino acid threonine at position 674 of the TLR4 protein, and which had been reported to be associated with lower somatic cell score and, therefore, a lower susceptibility to mastitis, in Taurus cattle. This nucleotide configuration of the Toll-like receptor 4 gene of the Bos indicus Sahiwal cattle breed could possibly indicate toward a lower susceptibility to mastitis in the Sahiwal animals. Monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (CCL2) gene encoding for small inducible cytokine A2 that belongs to the CC chemokine family was also sequence characterized in these Sahiwal animals. The CCL2 gene was observed to have 12 polymorphic sites in 3.3 kb region of which one SNP at position 2500 (A > G) in exon 3 resulted in amino acid change from Valine to Isoleucine at position 46 of the mature CCL2 peptide. Seventeen haplotypes of the CCL2 gene were predicted corresponding to 12 genotypes detected.

  17. Tissue-specific and minor inter-individual variation in imprinting of IGF2R is a common feature of Bos taurus Concepti and not correlated with fetal weight.

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    Daniela Bebbere

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R is essential for prenatal growth regulation and shows gene dosage effects on fetal weight that can be affected by in-vitro embryo culture. Imprinted maternal expression of murine Igf2r is well documented for all fetal tissues excluding brain, but polymorphic imprinting and biallelic expression were reported for IGF2R in human. These differences have been attributed to evolutionary changes correlated with specific reproductive strategies. However, data from species suitable for testing this hypothesis are lacking. The domestic cow (Bos taurus carries a single conceptus with a similar gestation length as human. We identified 12 heterozygous concepti informative for imprinting studies among 68 Bos taurus fetuses at Day 80 of gestation (28% term and found predominantly maternal IGF2R expression in all fetal tissues but brain, which escapes imprinting. Inter-individual variation in allelic expression bias, i.e. expression of the repressed paternal allele relative to the maternal allele, ranged from 4.6-8.9% in heart, 4.3-10.2% in kidney, 6.1-11.2% in liver, 4.6-15.8% in lung and 3.2-12.2% in skeletal muscle. Allelic bias for mesodermal tissues (heart, skeletal muscle differed significantly (P<0.05 from endodermal tissues (liver, lung. The placenta showed partial imprinting with allelic bias of 22.9-34.7% and differed significantly (P<0.001 from all other tissues. Four informative fetuses were generated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF with embryo culture and two individuals displayed fetal overgrowth. However, there was no evidence for changes in imprinting or DNA methylation after IVF, or correlations between allelic bias and fetal weight. In conclusion, imprinting of Bos taurus IGF2R is similar to mouse except in placenta, which could indicate an effect of reproductive strategy. Common minor inter-individual variation in allelic bias and absence of imprinting abnormalities in IVF fetuses suggest

  18. Novel polymorphisms in UTR and coding region of inducible heat shock protein 70.1 gene in tropically adapted Indian zebu cattle (Bos indicus) and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, M; Mukesh, M; Kishore, A; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R S; Joshi, B K

    2013-09-25

    Due to evolutionary divergence, cattle (taurine, and indicine) and buffalo are speculated to have different responses to heat stress condition. Variation in candidate genes associated with a heat-shock response may provide an insight into the dissimilarity and suggest targets for intervention. The present work was undertaken to characterize one of the inducible heat shock protein genes promoter and coding regions in diverse breeds of Indian zebu cattle and buffaloes. The genomic DNA from a panel of 117 unrelated animals representing 14 diversified native cattle breeds and 6 buffalo breeds were utilized to determine the complete sequence and gene diversity of HSP70.1 gene. The coding region of HSP70.1 gene in Indian zebu cattle, Bos taurus and buffalo was similar in length (1,926 bp) encoding a HSP70 protein of 641 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight (Mw) of 70.26 kDa. However buffalo had a longer 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) of 204 and 293 nucleotides respectively, in comparison to Indian zebu cattle and Bos taurus wherein length of 5' and 3'-UTR was 172 and 286 nucleotides, respectively. The increased length of buffalo HSP70.1 gene compared to indicine and taurine gene was due to two insertions each in 5' and 3'-UTR. Comparative sequence analysis of cattle (taurine and indicine) and buffalo HSP70.1 gene revealed a total of 54 gene variations (50 SNPs and 4 INDELs) among the three species in the HSP70.1 gene. The minor allele frequencies of these nucleotide variations varied from 0.03 to 0.5 with an average of 0.26. Among the 14 B. indicus cattle breeds studied, a total of 19 polymorphic sites were identified: 4 in the 5'-UTR and 15 in the coding region (of these 2 were non-synonymous). Analysis among buffalo breeds revealed 15 SNPs throughout the gene: 6 at the 5' flanking region and 9 in the coding region. In bubaline 5'-UTR, 2 additional putative transcription factor binding sites (Elk-1 and C-Re1) were identified, other than three common sites

  19. Gastrointestinal Strongyle Egg Output and its Relationship with Tick Burden in Gambian N'dama and Gobra Zebu Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli, RC.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly quantitative analysis of rectal faecal samples for the presence of strongyle eggs were carried out from May 1992 to April 1993 on 11 Gambian N'dama Bos taurus and 11 Gobra zebu Bos indicus cattle. Significantly (P <0.001 lower strongyle egg outputs were found in N'dama in comparison with zebu cattle. No correlation was found between individual cumulative tick burden and strongyle egg output in either breed, although individual variations in parasite burdens were lower in N'dama than in zebu cattle. This study strenghtens the evidence for the presence of a natural resistant trait to strongyle infection in N'dama cattle.

  20. Obtenção de oócitos e produção in vitro de embriões em doadoras lactantes da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Marcos Brandão Dias [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Raças zebuínas (Bos taurus indicus) e seus cruzamentos têm papel fundamental na pecuária brasileira, e a raça Gir, em especial, acrescenta rusticidade e produtividade nas suas descendentes leiteiras. A produção in vitro de embriões bovinos é uma biotécnica de alto valor econômico, que, aliada à utilização de sêmen sexado para cromossoma X, possibilita a multiplicação com fêmeas de valor genético superior. Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a produção in vitro (PIV) d...

  1. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  2. Cattle grazing in semiarid forestlands: Habitat selection during periods of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Roever; T. DelCurto; M. Rowland; M. Vavra; M. Wisdom

    2015-01-01

    Climate change models are predicting increased frequency and severity of droughts in arid and semiarid environments, and these areas are responsible for much of the world’s livestock production. Because cattle (Bos Taurus) grazing can impact the abundance, distribution, and ecological function of native plant and animal communities, it is important...

  3. Optimizing Stocking Rate for Maximum Return to Wheat-cattle Enterprise Using Model Simulation and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing dual-purpose wheat is complex because of the tradeoff relationship between cattle (Bos taurus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Stocking rate (SR) and planting date are the key decision variables of the dual systems. The objective was to develop decision support information th...

  4. Phylogenetic relationships of Malayan gaur with other species of the genus Bos based on cytochrome b gene DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, M K A; Zakaria, S S; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Zainal, Z Z; Shukor, M N; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Md-Zain, B M

    2011-03-22

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) is one of the three subspecies of gaurs that can be found in Malaysia. We examined the phylogenetic relationships of this subspecies with other species of the genus Bos (B. javanicus, B. indicus, B. taurus, and B. grunniens). The sequence of a key gene, cytochrome b, was compared among 20 Bos species and the bongo antelope, used as an outgroup. Phylogenetic reconstruction was employed using neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in PAUP and Bayesian inference in MrBayes 3.1. All tree topologies indicated that the Malayan gaur is in its own monophyletic clade, distinct from other species of the genus Bos. We also found significant branching differences in the tree topologies between wild and domestic cattle.

  5. The Genetic Variation of Bali Cattle (Bos javanicus Based on Sex Related Y Chromosome Gene

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    A Winaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is very popular Indonesian local beef related to their status in community living process of farmers in Indonesia, especially as providers of meat and exotic animal. Bali cattle were able to adapt the limited environment and becoming local livestock that existed until recently.  In our early study by microsatellites showed that Bali cattle have specific allele. In this study we analyzed the variance of partly sex related Y (SRY gene sequence in Bali cattle bull as a source of cement for Artificial Insemination (AI.  Blood from 17 two location of AI center, Singosari, Malang and Baturiti, Bali was collected and then extracted to get the DNA genome.  PCR reaction was done to amplify partially of SRY gene segment and followed by sequencing PCR products to get the DNA sequence of SRY gene. The SRY gene sequence was used to determine the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship.  We found that Bali cattle bull from Singosari has relatively closed genetic relationship with Baturiti. It is also supported that in early data some Bali bulls of Singosari were came from Baturiti. It has been known that Baturiti is the one source of Bali cattle bull with promising genetic potential. While, in general that Bali bull where came from two areas were not different on reproductive performances. It is important to understand about the genetic variation of Bali cattle in molecular level related to conservation effort and maintaining the genetic characters of the local cattle. So, it will not become extinct or even decreased the genetic quality of Indonesian indigenous cattle.   Key Words : Bali cattle, SRY gene, artificial insemination, phylogenetic, allele   Animal Production 13(3:150-155 (2011

  6. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  7. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  8. Population parameters for traits defining trypanotolerance in an F2 cross of N'Dama and Boran cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kemp, S.J.; Kennedy, D.; Gibson, J.P.; Teale, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Some West African Bos taurus cattle breeds such as the N'Dama and a number of West African Shorthorns are resistant to tsetse fly-transmitted trypanosomosis. The trait is termed trypanotolerance, for which changes in packed red cell volume percent (PCV) and growth rate following infection are

  9. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  10. Amino acid profile of salivary proteins and plasmatic trace mineral response to dietary condensed tannins in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus) as a marker of habitat degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yisehak, K.; Becker, A.; Rothman, J.M.; Dierenfeld, E.S.; Marescau, B.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.; Janssens, G.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the southern hemisphere, foraging areas of cattle are affected by overgrazing and soil erosion resulting in decreased availability of grasses and increased amounts of browse plants high in condensed tannins (CT). This study aimed to identify biomarkers in free-ranging zebu cattle (Bos indicus)

  11. [Argyrophilic structures of the larval forms of 2 strains of Paramphistomum microbothrium: 1 a parasite of Isidora guernei and Ovis aries, the other a parasite of Isidora truncata and Bos taurus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaw, O T; Samnaliev, P; Pino, L A; Bayssade-Dufour, C; Albaret, J L; Vassiliades, G

    1983-01-01

    The life cycle of a Paramphistome from North Senegal is completed starting from cercariae shed by naturally infected Isidora guernei: a sheep and then uninfected Isidora guernei were successively infected experimentally. Adults obtained were identifiable as P. phillerouxi or as P. microbothrium. Species determination cannot be made on the basis of argentophilic structures in the miracidium. Morphology of sporocysts and rediae differs from that observed in P. phillerouxi but is undistinguishable from that described in P. microbothrium. Cercarial chaetotaxy differs from that of P. phillerouxi. Mollusc host: Isidora guernei belongs to the same genus as Isidora truncata and I. alluaudi, reported hosts to P. microbothrium. Therefore the material is provisionally identified as P. microbothrium. To confirm this, a strain of P. microbothrium from naturally infected Bos taurus in Egypt was studied. Miracidia were used to experimentally infect Isidora truncata; cercariae obtained were identical to those previously described for this species from I. truncata and I. alluaudi. Cercarial chaetotaxy was not significantly different from that of material from North Senegal. They represent therefore two strains of Paramphistomum microbothrium.

  12. Serological survey of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in cattle (Bos indicus) and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in ten provinces of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Fagundes, Gisele Maria; Dos Anjos Bomjardim, Henrique; Dos Santos Belo Reis, Alessandra; da Silva Lima, Danillo Henrique; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Chaves; Barbosa, José Diomedes; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii among 500 cattle (Bos indicus) and 500 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) technique. Blood samples from were collected from water buffalo and cattle in 10 municipalities in the northern region of Brazil. The frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Neospora caninum in Pará state, Brazil, was 55% and 44%, respectively, and the frequency of cattle and water buffaloes seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii was 52% and 39%, respectively. Seropositivity for both N. caninum and T. gondii was detected in 10.6% of the cattle samples and 14.8% of the buffalo samples. The frequency of cattle positive for N. caninum and T. gondii was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of buffalo in two and three provinces, respectively. Buffaloes had a lower seroprevalence for N. caninum or T. gondii in all of the provinces studied. These results suggest that both species, when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii infection, have a high serological prevalence. Cattle showed a higher probability of being seropositive when exposed to the same risks for N. caninum and T. gondii. Our study, which included an extensive number of blood samples, provides important epidemiological information pertinent to buffalo production in tropical countries that can be used as a basis for disease-management practices in Latin America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle (Bos Indicus

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    Debashis Saha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted on efficiency of utilization of dietary energy for milk production in lactating crossbred cattle. 18 lactating crossbred cattle of early to mid-lactation, approximate body weight (375.39±23.43 kg, milk yield, parity and stage of lactation were divided into three groups of six animals each and were fed 0, 50 and 100% diammonium phosphate (DAP in the mineral mixture of concentrates for 120 days. The chaffed mixed roughage (berseem + wheat straw and concentrate mixture was fed to supply about nearly 18:82 concentrate to roughage ratio on dry matter basis. Tap water was available to the animals twice daily. A metabolism trial of seven days was conducted at the end of experiment to study digestibility of organic nutrients and balances of energy. DAP did not affect the nutrient intake, body weight changes, digestibility of Dry matter (DM, Crude protein (CP, Ether extract (EE, Crude fiber (CF, Nitrogen free extract (NFE and daily milk yield. It was concluded that the at 46.07 Mcal Gross energy intake level the losses in feces, urine, methane and heat production was 45.82%, 5.40%, 4.31% and 33.01%, respectively, and net energy retention for milk production was 11.43%. The gross efficiency of conversion of metabolic energy ME for milk production was 35.69% and the net efficiency of conversion of ME for milk production was 39.56%.

  14. Age effect on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle (Bos javanicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari, R. D.; Khalifah, Y.; Widyas, N.; Pramono, A.; Prastowo, S.

    2018-03-01

    Post freezing sperm viability is one of factors which determine artificial insemination success. In the other side, bull’s or sire age influences the semen quality through sperm membrane constituent. It is known that freezing process change the sperm membrane during the processing stage. This research aims to know the effect of sire age on post freezing sperm viability of Bali cattle. The samples were collected in Singosari Artificial Insemination Centre, Malang, East Java, Indonesia on September - November 2016. Eight Bali cattle (4 and 7 y.o, 4 heads in each group) were used as semen source. Semen was collected using artificial vagina, 10 times spanning for 5 weeks (2 times per week, interval 3 and 4 days) in a row. The samples were then evaluated at fresh, chill and frozen stage. Fresh semen was diluted in Tris-citrate-egg yolk 20% (v/v) followed with chilling and freezing. Semen qualities were observed as sperm % motility (MOT), % live sperm using eosin-nigrosine staining (EOS) and % sperm membrane integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Variable comparisons between age groups were done using t-test. On the average, 4 y.o bulls showed higher semen quality at fresh, chill and frozen compared to 7 y.o in MOT (68.00±6.39 vs 65.9±7.62 56.40±3.71 vs 54.33±5.83 44.25±3.52 vs 40.40±7.06), EOS (72.08±6.63 vs 71.82±7.38 57.81±3.83 vs 57.41±6.32 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13) and HOS (60.85±13.91 vs 54.84±13.43 53.16 ±8.41 vs 46.49±9.13 44.6±9.39 vs 33.8±10.70) respectively. Statistical analysis results showed that age was significantly (P<0.05) affecting HOS at chill stage and MOT and HOS at frozen. In conclusion, younger Bali cattle (4 y.o) have more viable post freezing sperm compared to the older ones (7 y.o).

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eurytrema cladorchis parasitizing cattle (Bos indicus) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Hayashi, Kei; Itagaki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    There is always controversy regarding identification of different species in the genus Eurytrema. Identification has been based mainly on morphology, which can be misleading and subject to differing interpretation among the scientists. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify Eurytrema flukes both by morphology and molecular properties on the basis of 18-subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene as well as internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) to clarify their phylogenetic status. Among six different agroecological areas of Bangladesh, 22 Eurytrema flukes were recovered from the bile ducts of 22 cattle in Bandarban, a hill district. The flukes were identified as Eurytrema cladorchis through morphometric and morphological studies. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted by neighbor-joining phylogram inferred from both 18S rRNA (1784 bp) gene and ITS2 (229 bp) sequences. A monophyletic clade was constructed by the E. cladorchis from Bangladesh; however, the clade was distinct from those formed by Eurytrema pancreaticum and Eurytrema coelomaticum. This study first described the existence of E. cladorchis from Bangladesh and may provide useful information for both morphological and molecular properties that may further help to clarify phylogenetic relationships within the genus Eurytrema and also for other digeneans.

  16. Infrared thermography as a tool to evaluate body surface temperature and its relationship with feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, Luciane Silva; da Luz E Silva, Saulo; da Costa Gomes, Rodrigo; da Silva Corte, Rosana Ruegger Pereira; Leme, Paulo Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the use of infrared thermography (IRT) images as a tool for monitoring body surface temperature and to study its relationship with residual feed intake (RFI) in Nellore cattle. We also evaluated IRT as an indicator of feed efficiency in Bos indicus cattle. In this study, 144 Nellore steers were fed high-concentrate diets for 70 days to evaluate feedlot performance. We examined nine animals classified as high RFI and nine animals classified as low RFI by measuring rectal temperature (RT), respiratory frequency (RF), and IRT in the front, eye, ocular area, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet. The measurements were taken at 0700, 1200, and 1600 hours. The IRT temperatures measured at the eye, cheek, flank, ribs, rump, and front feet were positively associated with RF and RT. These results indicate that increases in the temperatures are associated with increased RF and RT. There was an effect in the RFI group in the front region where IRT correlates with RT. The front IRT for high-RFI cattle was lower (P < 0.01) than that for low-RFI cattle. The higher skin temperature measured by IRT for animals in the RFI group may be related to improved efficiency of thermoregulatory mechanisms because the RT remained lower in the low-RFI group. IRT can be used in the head for studies related to RFI in beef cattle.

  17. Influence of grazing sheep and cattle together and separately on soils, plants and animals

    OpenAIRE

    Abaye, Azenegashe Ozzie

    1992-01-01

    Angus cows (Bos taurus) with calves and 1/2 Dorset, 1/4 Finn and 1/4 Rambouillet ewes (Ovis aries) with lambs grazed Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) - white clover (Trifolium repens) in a randomized block design with three replications during 3 yr, to investigate effects of grazing cattle and sheep together and separately on soils, plants and animals. Additionally, changes in stocking rate, seasonal distribution of cool-season forages and varying nutritional requirements of animals were ex...

  18. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  19. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  20. Morphological dimorphism in the Y chromosome of "pé-duro" cattle in the Brazilian State of Piauí

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    Carmen M.C. Britto

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available "Pé-duro" (hard foot is a rare breed of beef cattle of European (Bos taurus taurus origin, originated in northern and northeastern Brazil. Y chromosome morphology, outer genital elements and other phenotypic characteristics were examined in 75 "pé-duro" bulls from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (Embrapa herd in the Brazilian State of Piauí. The purpose was to investigate possible racial contamination with Zebu animals (Bos taurus indicus in a cattle that has been considered closest to its European origin (B. t. taurus. The presence of both submetacentric and acrocentric Y chromosomes, typical of B. t. taurus and B. t. indicus, respectively, and the larger preputial sheath in bulls with an acrocentric Y chromosome indicated racial contamination of the "pé-duro" herd with Zebu cattle. Phenotypic parameters involving horn, dewlap, ear, chamfer, and coat color characteristics, indicative of apparent racial contamination, were not associated with acrocentric Y chromosome.Um plantel de touros "pé-duro", consistindo de 75 animais do núcleo da Embrapa envolvido com a preservação desse gado no Estado do Piauí, foi examinado quanto à morfologia do seu cromossomo Y, bem como em relação a elementos da genitália externa e outras características fenotípicas dos machos. O objetivo era investigar a contaminação racial por animais zebuínos (Bos taurus indicus num gado bovino que tem sido considerado mais próximo de sua origem européia (Bos taurus taurus. Tanto a forma submetacêntrica quanto a forma acrocêntrica do cromossomo Y, típicas das sub-espécies B. t. taurus e B. t. indicus, respectivamente, bem como maior bainha prepucial nos espécimes portadores do cromossomo Y acrocêntrico, indicativa de contaminação racial por gado zebuíno, foram detectadas no rebanho "pé-duro" mantido no núcleo da Embrapa. Outras características fenotípicas analisadas que podem informar sobre a contaminação racial aparente n

  1. Physical composition, primary cuts and meat cuts of carcasses from Zebu and Bos taurus X Bos indicus crossbred cattle Composição física, cortes primários e cortes cárneos da carcaça de bovinos Zebu e de mestiços Bos taurus X Bos indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on hot carcass weight, hot carcass yield, hindquarter weights and physical components, forequarter and spare ribs, and the weights of the main commercial cuts from the hindquarters of twenty young intact bulls were assessed. The animals, belonging to four genetic groups (Nellore, ½ Guzerath + ½ Nellore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nellore (½ R + ½ N and ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nellore (½ M + ½ N, were raised on pastures, finished in dry lot and slaughtered at live weights ranging from 445 to 517 kg, and at ages ranging from 679 to 863 days. During the dry lot period, which lasted 114 days, animals were fed sorghum silage offered ad libitum, and a concentrate (13.5 MJ of ME, 18% CP in the DM at 1% live weight per day. Genetic group influenced hot carcass weight, forequarter weight, meat weight in the spare ribs, as well as meat and bone weights in the forequarter. Animals in the ½ M + ½ N group were superior both to those in the Nellore and in the ½ G + ½ N groups for hot carcass weight, forequarter weight and meat weight in the spare ribs. The ½ M + ½ N group also differed from the ½ R + ½ N and from the ½ G + ½ N groups in terms of forequarter weight and meat weight in the forequarter, respectively. Conversely, forequarter bone weight of ½ M + ½ N animals was higher than in animals from the Nellore and the ½ R + ½ N groups, respectively. There was no effect of genetic group on hindquarter cuts, except for higher shank and knuckle weights in the ½ M + ½ N group compared to the ½ G + ½ N and Nellore groups, respectively.Foram avaliados o peso e o rendimento de carcaça quente, os pesos dos cortes primários, os pesos dos componentes físicos dos cortes primários e os pesos dos principais cortes comerciais do traseiro especial de 20 bovinos machos não-castrados dos grupos genéticos Nelore, ½ Guzerá + ½ Nelore (½ G + ½ N, ½ Red Angus + ½ Nelore (½ R + ½ N e ½ Marchigiana + ½ Nelore (½ M + ½ N terminados em confinamento. O experimento durou em média 114 dias, período no qual os animais foram alimentados com silagem de sorgo à vontade e concentrado composto de 73,5% de grão de milho, 25% de caroço de algodão e 1,5% de ureia, perfazendo 13,5 MJ de EM e 18% de PB por kg de MS, fornecido à base de 1% do peso vivo do animal por dia. O grupo genético influenciou os pesos de carcaça quente, do dianteiro, da carne do costilhar e os pesos da carne e dos ossos do dianteiro. Animais do grupo ½ M + ½ N superaram os Nelore e os ½ G + ½ N em peso de carcaça quente e em peso do corte dianteiro e da porção de carne do costilhar. O grupo ½ M + ½ N distinguiu-se também do ½ R + ½ N quanto ao peso de dianteiro e do ½ G + ½ N quanto ao peso da carne do dianteiro. Por outro lado, a quantidade de ossos do dianteiro dos animais ½ M + ½ N foi superior à dos animais dos grupos Nelore e ½ R + ½ N. Não houve efeito de grupo genético sobre os cortes resultantes do desdobramento do traseiro especial, exceto pelo fato de os animais ½ M + ½ N apresentarem maior peso de músculo em comparação aos ½ G + ½ N e maior peso de patinho em comparação aos Nelore.

  2. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C Y; Stromer, M H; Rouse, G; Robson, R M

    1997-02-01

    The effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on degradation of titin, nebulin, desmin, and troponin-T (TN-T) and on structural changes in the longissimus muscle (LM) from Brahman x Simmental (B x S) cattle (Bos indicus cross) were determined. The left side of seven B x S beef carcasses was stimulated (200 V, 20 Hz) within 1 h of death, and the right side was the nonstimulated (NS) control. Myofibrils for SDS-PAGE and samples for transmission electron microscopy were prepared from the LM at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 d postmortem (PM). The SDS-PAGE results showed that the T1 band of titin was absent by 7 d in two animals, by 14 d in four animals, and by 28 d in one animal in both NS and ES samples. By SDS-PAGE, intact nebulin was gone by 7 d in two animals and by 14 d in five animals, but in blots, nebulin decreased by 7 d and was absent by 14 d in both NS and ES samples. The desmin band could still be seen as a light band at 28 d in Western blots of both NS and ES samples. A decrease in TN-T and a concomitant increase in the 30-kDa polypeptide were observed in both NS and ES samples. Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to TN-T confirmed that TN-T decreased at similar rates in NS and ES samples but showed that the 30-kDa polypeptide was more heavily labeled in ES samples from 7 to 28 d. Contraction nodes were present in O-d ES samples and were still observed in 28-d ES samples. Narrow, intermediate, and wide I-band fractures were seen earlier and at a greater frequency in ES than in NS samples. Overall, ES had no detectable effect on titin, nebulin, desmin, or TN-T degradation but accelerated the appearance and enhanced the frequency of three types of I-band fractures in the LM from Bos indicus crossbred cattle.

  3. Composição lipídica de carne bovina de grupos genéticos taurinos e zebuínos terminados em confinamento Lipid composition of meat from zebu and taurine cattle finished in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Vercezi Rossato

    2009-09-01

    Bos indicus (24.77%. For monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, Bos taurus had higher levels of C14:1 cis9, C16:1 cis9, C18:1 cis9, ΣMUFA but lower levels of C:18:1 trans. For polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, Bos taurus presented higher percentages of C18:3 n-3, C20:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-3. The C18:2 n-6, CLA, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, ΣPUFA and Σn-6 FA were similar between the groups. The ratio n-6/n-3 was lower in Bos taurus (4.63 than in Bos indicus (5.70. In general, there was a genetic influences in the cholesterol and fatty acids of cattle profile, and this effect was more pronounced for saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Random regression models using Legendre polynomials or linear splines for test-day milk yield of dairy Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; El Faro, L; Verneque, R S; Vercesi Filho, A E; Albuquerque, L G

    2013-01-01

    Studies investigating the use of random regression models for genetic evaluation of milk production in Zebu cattle are scarce. In this study, 59,744 test-day milk yield records from 7,810 first lactations of purebred dairy Gyr (Bos indicus) and crossbred (dairy Gyr × Holstein) cows were used to compare random regression models in which additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using orthogonal Legendre polynomials or linear spline functions. Residual variances were modeled considering 1, 5, or 10 classes of days in milk. Five classes fitted the changes in residual variances over the lactation adequately and were used for model comparison. The model that fitted linear spline functions with 6 knots provided the lowest sum of residual variances across lactation. On the other hand, according to the deviance information criterion (DIC) and bayesian information criterion (BIC), a model using third-order and fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, respectively, provided the best fit. However, the high rank correlation (0.998) between this model and that applying third-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, indicates that, in practice, the same bulls would be selected by both models. The last model, which is less parameterized, is a parsimonious option for fitting dairy Gyr breed test-day milk yield records. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bos frontalis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAMEEULLAH MEMON

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... study, we have investigated the structural and functional characteristics and possible duplication of the MHC-DQA genes in gayal ... Keywords. major histocompatibility complex; gayal; DQA1 gene; DQA2 gene; immunity; polymorphisms; Bos frontalis. Introduction. The potential of an organism for ...

  7. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2 gene in crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibitor decreases the activity of calpain, which are the enzymes responsible for the degradation of muscle fibers during the maturation of the meat. Moreover, there were previously observed differences in the frequencies of allele A of calpain among European breeds (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Holstein and Bos taurus indicus (Gir, Guzerá and Nelore. This variability has been related to tenderness of meat, as cattle with Bos taurus taurus origin have more tender meat than Bos taurus indicus, showing small values of shear force. One explanation is that the Capn2A product could confer greater proteolytic activity than the encoded by the allele Capn2B. If allele A is associated with tender meat, it will be possible the early identification of the animals that have the potential to produce meat with qualities that attend the needs of the consumer market, in order to add economic value to the final product of the animal production chain. For this reason, biochemical and genetic studies related to calpain and calpastatin systems have been considered promising for the clarification of the physiological changes that occur in muscle structure during the period post-mortem, whose results have contributed to the improvement of meat quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RFLP in calpain (Capn2 gene and its relation with meat tenderization in 252 crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus. The analyses were carried through by PCR-RFLP technique

  8. Ovariectomy effect in heifers Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus on the weight gains /Efeito da ovariectomia em novilhas Nelore x Angus, Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus sobre os ganhos de peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio do Nascimento Kronka

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the weight gain in cross breed heifers Nelore X Angus, spayed and nonspayed, kept on pasture and confinement. The animals were allotted in two groups as follows: group 1 consisted of 30 nonspayed heifers with 18 months old. Group 2 was composed of 30 spayed heifers with 18 months old. The animals were allotted in pasture of Brachiaria decumbens and weighted at 39and 75 days. Significant difference was observed between the average daily gain of the two groups – G1 and G2 (75th day, respectively (0.51 kg and 0.65 kg; PEsse estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar o ganho de peso em novilhas mestiças Nelore x Angus, castradas e não castradas, mantidas em pastagem e confinamento. Os animais foram alocados em dois grupos assim constituídos: grupo 1 formado por 30 novilhas não castradas com 18 meses de idade. Grupo 2 composto por 30 novilhas castradas com 18 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e pesados aos 39 e 75 dias. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (75ºdia, respectivamente (0,51 kg e 0,65 kg; P < 0,01. No dia seguinte (76ºdia, todos os animais foram transferidos e mantidos por 144 dias no confinamento. Diferença significativa foi observada entre o ganho médio diário dos dois grupos – G1 e G2 (144ºdia, respectivamente (0,73 kg e 0,58 kg; P < 0,01. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que novilhas castradas apresentaram um maior ganho diário em pastagem.

  9. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.

  10. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeyo Mwai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers.

  11. High-resolution isotopic evidence of specialised cattle herding in the European Neolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppler, Thomas; Heyd, Volker; Knipper, Corina; Kuhn, Thomas; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Schibler, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Reconstructing stock herding strategies and land use is key to comprehending past human social organization and economy. We present laser-ablation strontium and carbon isotope data from 25 cattle (Bos taurus) to reconstruct mobility and infer herding management at the Swiss lakeside settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3, occupied for only 15 years (3384–3370 BC). Our results reveal three distinct isotopic patterns that likely reflect different herding strategies: 1) localized cattle herding, 2) seasonal movement, and 3) herding away from the site year-round. Different strategies of herding are not uniformly represented in various areas of the settlement, which indicates specialist modes of cattle management. The pressure on local fodder capacities and the need for alternative herding regimes must have involved diverse access to grazing resources. Consequently, the increasing importance of cattle in the local landscape was likely to have contributed to the progress of socio-economic differentiation in early agricultural societies in Europe. PMID:28746367

  12. High-resolution isotopic evidence of specialised cattle herding in the European Neolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gerling

    Full Text Available Reconstructing stock herding strategies and land use is key to comprehending past human social organization and economy. We present laser-ablation strontium and carbon isotope data from 25 cattle (Bos taurus to reconstruct mobility and infer herding management at the Swiss lakeside settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3, occupied for only 15 years (3384-3370 BC. Our results reveal three distinct isotopic patterns that likely reflect different herding strategies: 1 localized cattle herding, 2 seasonal movement, and 3 herding away from the site year-round. Different strategies of herding are not uniformly represented in various areas of the settlement, which indicates specialist modes of cattle management. The pressure on local fodder capacities and the need for alternative herding regimes must have involved diverse access to grazing resources. Consequently, the increasing importance of cattle in the local landscape was likely to have contributed to the progress of socio-economic differentiation in early agricultural societies in Europe.

  13. Heteroses materna e individual para ganho de peso pré-desmama em bovinos Nelore × Hereford e Nelore × Angus Maternal and individual heterosis for preweaning daily gain in Nellore × Hereford and Nellore × Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Teixeira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados dados de 62.985 animais das raças Nelore, Hereford, Angus e produtos de cruzamentos Nelore × Angus e Nelore × Hereford de rebanhos comerciais a fim de estimar os efeitos de heterose materna e individual para o ganho médio diário no período pré-desmama (GMD. Os valores obtidos de heterose individual e materna considerando-se o valor médio de GMD da população representam um acréscimo de 6,2% e 11,2% no GMD para os animais F1 e filhos de vacas F1, respectivamente. A heterose materna correspondeu a 64,5% da heterose total. Animais cruzados Bos taurus × Bos indicus obtêm GMD maior do que o dos animais das raças puras.Data on 62.985 Nellore, Hereford, Angus and Nellore × Angus and Nellore × Hereford crossbred calves were analyzed to estimate maternal and individual heterosis for preweaning daily weight gain (PWD. The individual and maternal heterosis of average daily weight gain showed improvements of 6.2 and 11.2% for PWD of F1 calves and for calves borne from F1 dams. Maternal heterosis corresponded to 64.5% of total heterosis. Bos taurus × Bos indicus crossbred cattle have a PWD larger than the average of purebred cattle.

  14. Pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrus in tropical Zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardena, H; Dematawewa, C M B

    2004-07-01

    Bos indicus breeds, commonly known as Zebu cattle, have spread from their center of origin in Western Asia into large areas of Asia (including the Asia-Pacific basin), Africa, South and Central America (including the Caribbean islands). The original Zebu genotype, however, has been modified by planned and unplanned cross-breeding programs involving many native and Bos taurus breeds in their new habitats. Though accurate estimates are not available, more than half of the world's cattle population includes a proportion of B. indicus germ plasma. B. indicus native breeds have developed by natural selection over centuries for their ability to survive in rough, harsh tropical environments. Most of these non-described breeds still exhibit high fertility, in terms of calving rates, and disease resistance but they grow very slowly and take well over 3 years to reach puberty and produce only a few liters of milk over a short lactation period. Selection has been carried out in some areas and distinct Zebu breeds have been developed that have moderately high growth rate and milk production. However, they are slow breeders and have extended pre-pubertal and postpartum anestrous periods, compared to their temperate counterparts exposed to similar environment and management. The reproductive biology of B. indicus is similar to that of B. taurus. Most of the proven management, nutritional, hormonal and biotechnological interventions developed through experimentation with B. taurus breeds are equally applicable to B. indicus and their crosses. Zebu breeds predominate in most tropical countries where the majority of the human population lives. If meat and milk production are to be increased in the tropics, Zebu cow productivity, in terms of number of calves produced per lifetime or per unit area of land, must be increased and the time from birth to slaughter must be reduced. This goal could be achieved either by selection within local Zebu populations or through planned cross

  15. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G

    2009-01-01

    Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416 mic...... for QTL segregating on Bos taurus chromosome (BTA)1, BTA7, BTA10, and BTA26. On each of these chromosomes, several QTL were detected affecting more than one of the fertility traits investigated in this study. Evidence for segregation of additional QTL on BTA2, BTA9, and BTA24 was found...

  16. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance QTL on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Naveen Kumar; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2015-01-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve........ Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis (CM) and milk yield (MY) on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter...

  17. Use of gamma radiation in the production of vaccines against cattle tick fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilgama, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    In Sri Lanka both Babesiosis bigemina and Babesiosis bovis are present. These parasites cause considerable economic losses among susceptible Bos. Taurus (European) cattle. Control of Babesiosis is by four main methods-management, tick control, chemotherapy and immunization. A vaccine containing Co-60 irradiated B. bigemina to immunize calves in state forms was used. The aims of the study was to produce a vaccine that would be both protective and safe so that vaccination could be extended to small former units as well. Experimental data and results are given

  18. (Bos grunniens) in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... usage bias and gene length in Drosophila melanogaster. J. Mol. Evol. 55:52-64. Mota AF, Martinez ML, Coutinho LL (2004). Genotyping BoLA-DRB3 alleles in Brazilian Dairy Gir cattle (Bos indicus) by temperature- gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) and direct sequencing. Eur. J. Immunogen. 31:31-35.

  19. Cattle breed-variation in infestation by the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; Curto, E; Anziani, O S; Mangold, A J

    2000-09-01

    A study was carried out to assess the resistance of pure and cross-bred groups of cattle to the horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in northern Argentina. Pure-bred cattle were Criolla, Iberian Bos taurus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Nellore, Bos indicus Linnaeus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cross-bred cattle were Hereford, British B. taurus (34%) X Nellore (66%) and Hereford (66%) X Nellore (34%). All were heifers and animals were maintained in two groups, each containing a mixture of pure and cross-breeds. The lowest fly numbers were found on Criolla heifers and the highest on Hereford X Nellore cross-breeds. However, it could not be determined from this study whether this was a consequence of breed and/or size, as Criolla heifers were lighter than the corresponding Hereford X Nellore heifers. Fly numbers on the heifers followed an approximately negative binomial distribution. However, the ranking of individual animals in their level of infestation within subgroups was not consistent. Hence, culling the most infested heifers on any given date would at best give only a small improvement in H. irritans control.

  20. Genetic diversity and population structure among six cattle breeds in South Africa using a whole genome SNP panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sithembile Olga Makina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic diversity and population structure among cattle breeds is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation as well as utilization and conservation of cattle breeds. This study investigated genetic diversity and the population structure among six cattle breeds in South African (SA including Afrikaner (n=44, Nguni (n=54, Drakensberger (n=47, Bonsmara (n=44, Angus (n=31 and Holstein (n=29. Genetic diversity within cattle breeds was analyzed using three measures of genetic diversity namely allelic richness (AR, expected heterozygosity (He and inbreeding coefficient (f. Genetic distances between breed pairs were evaluated using Nei’s genetic distance. Population structure was assessed using model-based clustering (ADMIXTURE. Results of this study revealed that the allelic richness ranged from 1.88 (Afrikaner to 1.73 (Nguni. Afrikaner cattle had the lowest level of genetic diversity (He=0.24 and the Drakensberger cattle (He=0.30 had the highest level of genetic variation among indigenous and locally-developed cattle breeds. The level of inbreeding was lower across the studied cattle breeds. As expected the average genetic distance was the greatest between indigenous cattle breeds and Bos taurus cattle breeds but the lowest among indigenous and locally-developed breeds. Model-based clustering revealed some level of admixture among indigenous and locally-developed breeds and supported the clustering of the breeds according to their history of origin. The results of this study provided useful insight regarding genetic structure of South African cattle breeds.

  1. Genotype x environment interaction on post-weaning performance and carcass in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Lunardini Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed average daily gain from weaning to yearling (ADG, yearling weight (YW, rib eye area, and subcutaneous fat thickness of 91 Angus, Hereford, Caracu, and Nellore cattle, and their crosses. The animals were split into two grazing groups: improved natural grassland (n = 47 and natural grassland (n = 44. The environment was found to influence all traits, and the highest measures of performance were observed in improved natural grassland. The genetic group x environment interaction was verified only for ADG and YW (P < 0.05. We found the best performance trait averages for crossbreeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus. In addition, we found genetic x environment interaction effects in growing traits and Longissimus muscle area between the evaluated genotype groups. Finally, we found that between the evaluated genotype groups, subcutaneous adipose fat was not influenced by the environment.

  2. Spectrum of antibody profiles in tuberculous elephants, cervids, and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Gortázar, Christian; Miller, Michele A; Waters, W Ray

    2018-02-01

    Using multi-antigen print immunoassay and DPP ® VetTB Assay approved in the United States for testing captive cervids and elephants, we analyzed antibody recognition of MPB83 and CFP10/ESAT-6 antigens in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), fallow deer (Dama dama), elk (Cervus elaphus), and cattle (Bos taurus) infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Serum IgG reactivity to MPB83 was found in the vast majority of tuberculous cattle and cervid species among which white-tailed deer and elk also showed significant CFP10/ESAT-6 recognition rates with added serodiagnostic value. In contrast, the infected elephants developed antibody responses mainly to CFP10/ESAT-6 with MPB83 reactivity being relatively low. The findings demonstrate distinct patterns of predominant antigen recognition by different animal hosts in tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Allelic Diversity of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DRB Gene in Indian Cattle and Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachinandan De

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the diversity of MHC-DRB3 alleles in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds. Previously reported BoLA-DRB exon 2 alleles of Indian Zebu cattle, Bos taurus cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats were analyzed for the identities and divergence among various allele sequences. Comparison of predicted amino acid residues of DRB3 exon 2 alleles with similar alleles from other ruminants revealed considerable congruence in amino acid substitution pattern. These alleles showed a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid polymorphism at positions forming peptide-binding regions. A higher rate of nonsynonymous substitution was detected at the peptide-binding regions, indicating that BoLA-DRB3 allelic sequence evolution was driven by positive selection.

  4. Cattle genomics and its implications for future nutritional strategies for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S; Larkin, D M; Loor, J J

    2013-03-01

    The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs) from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+\\/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer). In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48%) of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously identified

  6. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  7. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization of cattle and sheep chromosomes with cloned human fragile-X DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Ahmd; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl; Babar, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive study on spontaneous and 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine induced fragile sites identified Xq31 in cattle (Bos taurus) and (Xq24, Xq26) in sheep (Ovis aries) in addition to several autosomal fragile sites (under publication). A ZOO-FISH study using three cloned human fragile-X probes with CCG....../CGG(n) trinucleotide repeat sequence was carried out to determine homology between human and bovine fragile-X. The hybridisation results showed only a weak signal on a human chromosome that was not an X with all three fragile site probes. No signals were detected in sheep chromosomes. The signal of all three human...... fragile-X probes on cattle chromosomes was however, medium-prominent sub-centromeric signal on two homologues. BrdU administration in 12 h before harvesting identified these homologues to be chromosome number 5. In addition retrospective slides of cattle and sheep chromosomes used for fragile site studies...

  8. Detection of quantitative trait loci in Danish Holstein cattle affecting clinical mastitis, somatic cell score, udder conformation traits, and assessment of associated effects on milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M S; Guldbrandtsen, B; Buitenhuis, A J

    2008-01-01

    either a pleiotropic QTL affecting 2 traits or 2 QTL each affecting 1 trait gave some evidence to distinguish between these models. For Bos taurus autosome 5, the most likely models were a pleiotropic QTL affecting CM2, CM3, and SCS, and a linked QTL affecting fat yield index. For Bos taurus autosome 9...

  9. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  10. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a byproduct of the dairy industry.

  11. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the ethnoveterinary uses of cow by-products from Nigeria and South Africa. Methods: A field survey was conducted from January to September, 2015 by conducting interviews with 110 respondents who provided information in respect of the use of cow urine, bile and dung in their folk medicine in ...

  12. Ethnoveterinary survey of tradomedical importance of Bos taurus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wounds, skin diseases, agriculture, bio- pesticides, pest repellents and possibly alternate energy source and ... age range of 45-82 years old. The selection was purely based on their recognition as knowledgeable .... The wound healing of cow urine was reported in Wister albino rats and the outcome of the treatment ...

  13. Effect of heat stress on rumen temperature of three breeds of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A. M.; Lees, J. C.; Lisle, A. T.; Sullivan, M. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m2/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m2) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment. Ambient dry bulb temperature ( T A; °C), relative humidity (RH; %), wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction, and solar radiation (SR; W/m2) were recorded at 10 min intervals. Rainfall (mm) was collected daily at 0900 h. From these data, black globe temperature (BGT; °C), temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI), and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average and then mean hourly T RUM were converted to a mean within hour T RUM across the 130 days. Rumen temperatures were analyzed using an autoregressive repeated measures model. The model analyzed the effect of breed ( P < 0.0002), treatment ( P = 0.3543), time of day (hour, h; P < 0.0001), breed × treatment ( P < 0.3683), breed × h ( P < 0.0001), treatment × h ( P < 0.0001), breed × treatment × h ( P = 0.0029), pen within treatment ( P = 0.0195), and animal × breed × treatment within pen ( P = 0.1041). Furthermore, there were breed × treatment × hour differences in T RUM ( P = 0.0036), indicating that Bos indicus and Bos taurus regulate T RUM differently.

  14. Chemical and sensory meat characteristics of Nellore cattle (Bos indicus finished with different levels of backfat thickness in the longissimus thoracis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Moraes Malheiros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of backfat thickness (BFT on the meat quality of feedlot-finished Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. Seventy-two animals were feedlot finished for about 100 days. For this study, 24 animals were sampled according to BFT in the longissimus thoracis muscle after slaughter: 12 animals with BFT up to 3.0 mm (class BFT-3 and 12 animals with BFT > 6.0 mm (class BFT-6. Chemical (myofibrillar fragmentation index, intramuscular fat content, and unsaturated and saturated fatty acids and physical (cold carcass weight, rib eye area, and marbling score characteristics of the meat were evaluated. Additionally, shear force and sensory characteristics (aroma, flavor, tenderness, chewiness, and juiciness were analyzed. Marbling score and intramuscular fat content were considered low for the two BFT classes. The mean values of the characteristics studied did not differ (P>0.05 between BFT classes, except for fatty acids, with the observation of higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the BFT-6 class. There was no difference (P>0.05 in sensory characteristics between BFT classes. The most consistent relationship was observed between the myofibrillar fragmentation index and tenderness, measured as shear force, in animals with greater BFT (BFT-6 class compared to animals with lower BFT (BFT-3 class, suggesting possible tenderness problems in animals with a leaner carcass. The observation of a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in animals with greater BFT suggests an increase in the sensory perception of meat, especially flavor.

  15. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xu

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs

  17. Promoter region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene: single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cattle and association with performance in Brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2008-12-01

    Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., Brahman cattle averaged 27.4 +/- 0.07% divergence from the Bos taurus breeds, whereas divergence of Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  18. Genome-wide identification of breed-informative single-nucleotide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avhashoni AA. Zwane

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Sanga cattle, which belong to the subspecies Bos taurus africanus. Sanga cattle breeds originated from eastern and northern Africa, the home of Sanga and Zenga cattle. Sanga are possibly crossbreds between the indigenous humpless cattle (Bos taurus) and Zebu (Bos indicus), whereas Zenga are ...

  19. Comparison of SNP Variation and Distribution in Indigenous Ethiopian and Korean Cattle (Hanwoo Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu Edea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been identified from the bovine genome-sequencing project, few of these have been validated at large in Bos indicus breeds. We have genotyped 192 animals, representing 5 cattle populations of Ethiopia, with the Illumina Bovine 8K SNP BeadChip. These include 1 Sanga (Danakil, 3 zebu (Borana, Arsi and Ambo, and 1 zebu × Sanga intermediate (Horro breeds. The Hanwoo (Bos taurus was included for comparison purposes. Analysis of 7,045 SNP markers revealed that the mean minor allele frequency (MAF was 0.23, 0.22, 0.21, 0.21, 0.23, and 0.29 for Ambo, Arsi, Borana, Danakil, Horro, and Hanwoo, respectively. Significant differences of MAF were observed between the indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations and Hanwoo breed (p < 0.001. Across the Ethiopian cattle populations, a common variant MAF (≥0.10 and ≤0.5 accounted for an overall estimated 73.79% of the 7,045 SNPs. The Hanwoo displayed a higher proportion of common variant SNPs (90%. Investigation within Ethiopian cattle populations showed that on average, 16.64% of the markers were monomorphic, but in the Hanwoo breed, only 6% of the markers were monomorphic. Across the sampled Ethiopian cattle populations, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.314 and 0.313, respectively. The level of SNP variation identified in this particular study highlights that these markers can be potentially used for genetic studies in African cattle breeds.

  20. Physiological responses of newborn Bos indicus and Bos indicus x Bos taurus calves after exposure to cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Smith, S D; Guthrie, M J; Stanko, R L; Neuendorff, D A; Randel, R D

    1991-01-01

    Brahman (n = 9) and 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford (n = 11) calves were utilized to determine the influence of exposure to cold on the physiology of the neonate. All calves were removed from their dams within 20 min of birth and prior to suckling. Calves were assigned randomly within breed to either a warm (W; 31 degrees C) or cold (C; 4 degrees C) environmental treatment group. Jugular blood samples were collected via indwelling catheters at 20-min intervals for 180 min. At 100 to 120 min of sampling, all calves were given 1.2 liters of colostrum from their dams via stomach tube. At 120 min, C calves were placed in the W environment. Calf vigor score (CVS) and rectal temperature were determined at each time blood was collected. Serum or plasma was analyzed for glucose (GLU), lactate (LAC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), hemoglobin (HEM), triglyceride (TRG), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), insulin (INS), cortisol (CORT) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Rectal temperature was lower (P less than .01) in C Brahman than in W Brahman and C or W crossbred calves. Crossbred calves had higher (P less than .01) CVS than Brahman calves. Calves in W had lower (P less than .01) GLU than C calves. Brahman calves had higher GLU, LAC, BUN, TRG, T3, T4 and CORT (P less than .05) than crossbred calves. The C Brahman calves had the highest (P less than .05) TRG, CORT, T3 and T4 of all groups. Concentration of NEFA were higher (P less than .01) in C than in W calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Does Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation increase the risk for myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Rodrigues, Rogério O; Souza, Ugo A; Webster, Anelise; Leite, Romário C; Gonzales, João Carlos; Klafke, Guilherme M; Martins, João Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The larval phase of Cochliomyia hominivorax (screwworm) is an obligate parasite of vertebrate animals, particularly mammals, and widespread in South America, where it remains one of the most important parasitic diseases of domestic animals. The skin of cattle highly infested by ticks, with cutaneous lesions, exudation of tissue fluid and blood scent seems to produce the ideal environment for fly attraction. However, an association between these parasites was never investigated. The aim of this work was to verify if there is an association between Rhipicephalus microplus tick load and the occurrence of C. hominivorax myiasis in cattle, and to quantify the risk. Sixty bovine (Bos taurus taurus, Angus breed) under field conditions were observed for 24 weeks, during which weekly tick counts and examination for the presence of myiasis were performed. There was a significant association between a high tick burden (24-week mean above 50 ticks per animal) and myiasis occurrence (P=0.0102). The calculated relative risk (RR) for C. hominivorax myiasis occurrence in cattle with high tick burden was 3.85 (CI95%=1.23-12.13); indicating that cattle highly parasitized by R. microplus have about four times more risk of myiasis than those with a low parasite load. As far as we aware, this is the first statistically based evidence of the relationship between R. microplus parasitic load and occurrence of myiasis by C. hominivorax. This result could be useful for the design of integrated control strategies for these parasites and to provide more information for the understanding of cattle tick parasitism in cattle production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus-Host Interface: A Review of Resistant and Susceptible Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala E. Tabor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are able to transmit tick-borne infectious agents to vertebrate hosts which cause major constraints to public and livestock health. The costs associated with mortality, relapse, treatments, and decreased production yields are economically significant. Ticks adapted to a hematophagous existence after the vertebrate hemostatic system evolved into a multi-layered defense system against foreign invasion (pathogens and ectoparasites, blood loss, and immune responses. Subsequently, ticks evolved by developing an ability to suppress the vertebrate host immune system with a devastating impact particularly for exotic and crossbred cattle. Host genetics defines the immune responsiveness against ticks and tick-borne pathogens. To gain an insight into the naturally acquired resistant and susceptible cattle breed against ticks, studies have been conducted comparing the incidence of tick infestation on bovine hosts from divergent genetic backgrounds. It is well-documented that purebred and crossbred Bos taurus indicus cattle are more resistant to ticks and tick-borne pathogens compared to purebred European Bos taurus taurus cattle. Genetic studies identifying Quantitative Trait Loci markers using microsatellites and SNPs have been inconsistent with very low percentages relating phenotypic variation with tick infestation. Several skin gene expression and immunological studies have been undertaken using different breeds, different samples (peripheral blood, skin with tick feeding, infestation protocols and geographic environments. Susceptible breeds were commonly found to be associated with the increased expression of toll like receptors, MHC Class II, calcium binding proteins, and complement factors with an increased presence of neutrophils in the skin following tick feeding. Resistant breeds had higher levels of T cells present in the skin prior to tick infestation and thus seem to respond to ticks more efficiently. The skin of resistant breeds also

  3. Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships among West/Central African cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline Mengwi; Jann, Oliver Carl; Weimann, Christina; Erhardt, Georg

    2004-01-01

    Genetic diversity, introgression and relationships were studied in 521 individuals from 9 African Bos indicus and 3 Bos taurus cattle breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria using genotype information on 28 markers (16 microsatellite, 7 milk protein and 5 blood protein markers). The genotypes of 13 of the 16 microsatellite markers studied on three European (German Angus, German Simmental and German Yellow) and two Indian (Nelore and Ongole) breeds were used to assess the relationships between them and the African breeds. Diversity levels at microsatellite loci were higher in the zebu than in the taurine breeds and were generally similar for protein loci in the breeds in each group. Microsatellite allelic distribution displayed groups of alleles specific to the Indian zebu, African taurine and European taurine. The level of the Indian zebu genetic admixture proportions in the African zebus was higher than the African taurine and European taurine admixture proportions, and ranged from 58.1% to 74.0%. The African taurine breed, Muturu was free of Indian zebu genes while its counter Namchi was highly introgressed (30.2%). Phylogenic reconstruction and principal component analysis indicate close relationships among the zebu breeds in Cameroon and Nigeria and a large genetic divergence between the main cattle groups--African taurine, European taurine and Indian zebu, and a central position for the African zebus. The study presents the first comprehensive information on the hybrid composition of the individual cattle breeds of Cameroon and Nigeria and the genetic relationships existing among them and other breeds outside of Africa. Strong evidence supporting separate domestication events for the Bos species is also provided.

  4. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a mesolithic wild aurochs (Bos primigenius.

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    Ceiridwen J Edwards

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The derivation of domestic cattle from the extinct wild aurochs (Bos primigenius has been well-documented by archaeological and genetic studies. Genetic studies point towards the Neolithic Near East as the centre of origin for Bos taurus, with some lines of evidence suggesting possible, albeit rare, genetic contributions from locally domesticated wild aurochsen across Eurasia. Inferences from these investigations have been based largely on the analysis of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences generated from modern animals, with limited sequence data from ancient aurochsen samples. Recent developments in DNA sequencing technologies, however, are affording new opportunities for the examination of genetic material retrieved from extinct species, providing new insight into their evolutionary history. Here we present DNA sequence analysis of the first complete mitochondrial genome (16,338 base pairs from an archaeologically-verified and exceptionally-well preserved aurochs bone sample. METHODOLOGY: DNA extracts were generated from an aurochs humerus bone sample recovered from a cave site located in Derbyshire, England and radiocarbon-dated to 6,738+/-68 calibrated years before present. These extracts were prepared for both Sanger and next generation DNA sequencing technologies (Illumina Genome Analyzer. In total, 289.9 megabases (22.48% of the post-filtered DNA sequences generated using the Illumina Genome Analyzer from this sample mapped with confidence to the bovine genome. A consensus B. primigenius mitochondrial genome sequence was constructed and was analysed alongside all available complete bovine mitochondrial genome sequences. CONCLUSIONS: For all nucleotide positions where both Sanger and Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing methods gave high-confidence calls, no discrepancies were observed. Sequence analysis reveals evidence of heteroplasmy in this sample and places this mitochondrial genome sequence securely within a previously

  5. Nature conservation and grazing management. Free-ranging cattle as a driving force for cyclic vegetation seccession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.

    2003-01-01

    Key-words : biodiversity, herbivory, wilderness, non-linear dynamics, mosaic cycling, grassland, wood encroachment, forest, Bos taurus , Calluna vulgaris , Deschampsia flexuosa.This thesis examines the suitability of controlled and wilderness grazing as conservation management tool for open,

  6. The genetic prehistory of domesticated cattle from their origin to the spread across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, Amelie; Powell, Adam; Bollongino, Ruth; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Tresset, Anne; Çakırlar, Canan; Benecke, Norbert; Burger, Joachim

    2015-05-28

    Cattle domestication started in the 9(th) millennium BC in Southwest Asia. Domesticated cattle were then introduced into Europe during the Neolithic transition. However, the scarcity of palaeogenetic data from the first European domesticated cattle still inhibits the accurate reconstruction of their early demography. In this study, mitochondrial DNA from 193 ancient and 597 modern domesticated cattle (Bos taurus) from sites across Europe, Western Anatolia and Iran were analysed to provide insight into the Neolithic dispersal process and the role of the local European aurochs population during cattle domestication. Using descriptive summary statistics and serial coalescent simulations paired with approximate Bayesian computation we find: (i) decreasing genetic diversity in a southeast to northwest direction, (ii) strong correlation of genetic and geographical distances, iii) an estimated effective size of the Near Eastern female founder population of 81, iv) that the expansion of cattle from the Near East and Anatolia into Europe does not appear to constitute a significant bottleneck, and that v) there is evidence for gene-flow between the Near Eastern/Anatolian and European cattle populations in the early phases of the European Neolithic, but that it is restricted after 5,000 BCE. The most plausible scenario to explain these results is a single and regionally restricted domestication process of cattle in the Near East with subsequent migration into Europe during the Neolithic transition without significant maternal interbreeding with the endogenous wild stock. Evidence for gene-flow between cattle populations from Southwestern Asia and Europe during the earlier phases of the European Neolithic points towards intercontinental trade connections between Neolithic farmers.

  7. Cattle grazing and conservation of a meadow-dependent amphibian species in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Roche

    Full Text Available World-wide population declines have sharpened concern for amphibian conservation on working landscapes. Across the Sierra Nevada's national forest lands, where almost half of native amphibian species are considered at risk, permitted livestock grazing is a notably controversial agricultural activity. Cattle (Bos taurus grazing is thought to degrade the quality, and thus reduce occupancy, of meadow breeding habitat for amphibian species of concern such as the endemic Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus [ = Bufo] canorus. However, there is currently little quantitative information correlating cattle grazing intensity, meadow breeding habitat quality, and toad use of meadow habitat. We surveyed biotic and abiotic factors influencing cattle utilization and toad occupancy across 24 Sierra Nevada meadows to establish these correlations and inform conservation planning efforts. We utilized both traditional regression models and Bayesian structural equation modeling to investigate potential drivers of meadow habitat use by cattle and Yosemite toads. Cattle use was negatively related to meadow wetness, while toad occupancy was positively related. In mid and late season (mid July-mid September grazing periods, cattle selected for higher forage quality diets associated with vegetation in relatively drier meadows, whereas toads were more prevalent in wetter meadows. Because cattle and toads largely occupied divergent zones along the moisture gradient, the potential for indirect or direct negative effects is likely minimized via a partitioning of the meadow habitat. During the early season, when habitat use overlap was highest, overall low grazing levels resulted in no detectable impacts on toad occupancy. Bayesian structural equation analyses supported the hypothesis that meadow hydrology influenced toad meadow occupancy, while cattle grazing intensity did not. These findings suggest cattle production and amphibian conservation can be compatible goals within this

  8. Genetic diversity in selected stud and commercial herds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina

    2014-08-29

    Aug 29, 2014 ... The Afrikaner cattle breed (Bos taurus africanus) is an indigenous South African breed of the “Sanga” type. Sanga cattle are generally found in Southern Africa and are a mixture of the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds (Payne & Wilson, 1999). Sanga cattle therefore contain genetic material that has been.

  9. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  10. Suplementasi Blok Multinutrisi terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik Ransum pada Sapi Bali (Bos sondaicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Nababan, Rimbun H.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    RIMBUN HOT ASI HASOLOAN NABABAN : The Supplementation Nutrition Block in Feed on The Digestibility of Dry Matter and Organic Matter of Bos sondaicus. Under advised by MA’RUF TAFSIN and ROESWANDY. The nutrition supplement is a feed additive which can increase the quality feed of cattle then increase the palatability of feed. The nutrition supplement can manipulate the microorganism in cattle and finally can support the digestibility of cattle. The present experiment was conducted to inv...

  11. Identification of polymorphism in the SCL24A5 gene of cattle

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    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The SLC24A5 (Solute Carrier family 24, member 5 gene is implicated in skin pigmentation in zebrafish and humans as it regulates the morphogenesis of melanosomes, specialized lysosomes involved in melanin deposit. In humans, the ancestral allele predominates in African and East Asian populations, while the allelic variant is nearly fixed in European populations and correlates with lighter pigmentation. Considering the role of melanin in the protecting of DNA from ultraviolet radiation, the lack of information in cattle and the importance of polymorphisms associated with pigmentation phenotypes, we investigated the SLC24A5 gene in cattle with light and dark skin pigmentation. To identify SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in this gene and their association to dark skin pigmentation in cattle, each of the nine SLC24A5 exons, three introns (1, 3 and 8 and a portion of intron 5, were sequenced in a set of sixteen animals belonging to four Italian cattle breeds, two African zebu breeds and two African sanga breeds. The region spanning exons 3 and 4 was sequenced in fifteen animals belonging to seven additional breeds. A total of sixteen SNPs were identified: eleven positioned in introns (six in intron 1, one in intron 5 and four in intron 8 and five in exons (one in exon 1, two in exon 6 and two in exon 7. Three SNPs (located in exons 1, 6 and 7 were non synonymous, determining Pro19Leu, Ala238Val, and Met341Ile amino acid changes, respectively. All the SNPs identified were polymorphic between Bos taurus, Bos indicus and Sanga, while none of them resulted associated with the studied phenotype and discriminated the three breeds (Chianina, Mucubal and Goudali characterized by dark pigmented skin from the others.

  12. Breed character or pathology? Cattle with loose horns from the Eneolithic site of Hostivice-Litovice (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2010), s. 1241-1246 ISSN 0305-4403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : cattle (Bos taurus ) * Chalcolithic * Central Europe * loose horns * hornlessness * pathology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WH8-4Y3KSMB-1&_user=10&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=ca7f596eb156dedf387dad34ab953fe2&searchtype=a

  13. Olfactory response of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) to cattle-derived volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Palma, R; Alberti, E; Hormazabal, E; Pardo, F; Birkett, M A; Quiroz, A

    2009-11-01

    In Chile, the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L., 1758), is a major pest of grazing cattle and affects livestock production during the summer. Previous studies in Europe and the United States have shown that cattle flies, including H. irritans, are differentially attracted to individual cattle within herds and that volatile semiochemicals are responsible for this phenomenon. This study provides evidence that similar differential attractiveness occurs for the interaction between Chilean Holstein-Friesian cattle herds and local H. irritans populations. Thus, Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle, Bos taurus, which were of similar age and physiological condition, were shown to possess an uneven distribution of H. irritans. Heifers h6904 and h8104 were defined as low-carrier heifers and h5804, h2304 and h1404 as high-carrier heifers. Gas chromatography (GC) and coupled GC-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of samples collected from heifers revealed the presence of compounds previously reported as semiochemicals for cattle flies, including meta- and para-cresol, methylketones (C8-C11), and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Other compounds identified included carboxylic acids (butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, pentanoic, and hexanoic acids), 1-hexanol, and 3-octanone. In Y-tube olfactometer studies, both m- and p-cresol attracted H. irritans at the highest doses tested (10(-6) g), as did the positive control 1-octen-3-ol. Of the other compounds tested, only 2-decanone and 2-undecanone produced a behavioral response, with significantly more flies being recorded in the control arm when the former compound was tested (at 10(-6) and 10(-8) g), and more flies being recorded in the treated arm for the latter compound (at 10(-7) g). This demonstration of behavioral activity with the identified compounds represents a first step for research into the application of semiochemicals in monitoring and control of cattle flies in Chile.

  14. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker Vasconcellos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  15. Juridica; Bos, bouw en gemeenten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2011-01-01

    Bouwen in het bos van de ecologische hoofdstructuur. Geen probleem als niemand bezwaar maakt.... Uiteindelijk is de gemeente vergunningverlener aan zichzelf, is wetgever in eigen zaak en maakt voor zichzelf een lucratief bestemmingsplan. Aldus de analyse van wetskenner Fred Kistenkas

  16. Oestrus detection and reproductive performance of cattle in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.R.; Sivakanesan, R.; Rajamahendran, R.

    1990-01-01

    The efficiency of oestrus detection in pure Bos taurus and Bos taurus x Bos indicus breeds on two large farms and on smallholdings in the mid-country region of Sri Lanka was studied. Milk samples were collected on the day of insemination (D 0 ), and at 7 days (D 7 ) and 23 days (D 23 ) after insemination for the measurement of progesterone concentrations. Of a total of 228 inseminations performed on large farms, ovulatory oestrus was confirmed by progesterone measurement in only 144 animals, giving a correct oestrus detection rate of 63.2%. Of a total of 1317 inseminations performed on smallholdings, oestrus was correctly detected in 805 animals, giving an accuracy of 61.1%. The number of services per conception on large farms and on smallholdings was found to be 3.2 and 2.9, respectively. Most of the incorrect timings of service were due to inseminations being performed during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle: 28.9% in large farms and 23.1% under smallholder conditions; and on smallholdings, 15.5% of the services were given to anoestrous cows or to cows which failed to ovulate. The percentage of cows in oestrus served by private inseminators (71.3%) was found to be significantly higher (P<0.025) than that in cows served by government technicians (53.8%). The accuracy of diagnosing pregnancy and non-pregnancy on the basis of progesterone concentrations 23 days after insemination, as confirmed by subsequent rectal examination after eight weeks, was found to be 72.5% and 96.4%, respectively. In post-partum cows, the involution of the uterus was found to be complete within 28 ± 8.0 days in 95% of the animals studied. The calving to first service interval was 155 ± 77 days on smallholder farms. In this study, the major causes for lowered reproductive efficiency in cattle in Sri Lanka were found to be delayed onset of post-partum ovarian activity and incorrect timing of service. (author). 33 refs, 9 tabs

  17. Total digestibility and in situ degradability of bulky diets with the inclusion of ionophores or probiotics for cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ionophores (monensin and probiotic (Saccharomyces cerevisiae + selenium + chromium in diets with 80% forage were evaluated on the digestibility of nutrients. Three buffaloes, Murrah (Bubalus bubalis and three cattle, Holstein (Bos taurus, with an average weight of 520 ± 30 kg and 480 ± 182 kg, respectively, with rumen cannula, over experimental design with two 3 x 3 Latin squares in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with the absence or presence of additives: ionophore or probiotic and two species, were used. The internal flow indicator of fecal dry matter (DM was the acid insoluble ash. DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF ruminal degradability of Tifton 85 hay was conducted for cattle and buffaloes. A diet containing probiotics had higher dry matter and organic matter digestibility in buffalo and cattle, indicating a good performance in bulky diets. The potential and effective dry matter degradability in diet with probiotic in buffaloes, were smaller than diet with ionophore, suggesting that there was a better digestion of nutrients in the intestine of these animals. The potential and effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber and crude protein in the diet containing ionophores were superior than diet containing probiotic. Buffaloes showed higher capacity of dry matter and fiber digestion than cattle.

  18. Karyotype relationships among selected deer species and cattle revealed by bovine FISH probes.

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    Jan Frohlich

    Full Text Available The Cervidae family comprises more than fifty species divided into three subfamilies: Capreolinae, Cervinae and Hydropotinae. A characteristic attribute for the species included in this family is the great karyotype diversity, with the chromosomal numbers ranging from 2n = 6 observed in female Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis to 2n = 70 found in Mazama gouazoubira as a result of numerous Robertsonian and tandem fusions. This work reports chromosomal homologies between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60 and nine cervid species using a combination of whole chromosome and region-specific paints and BAC clones derived from cattle. We show that despite the great diversity of karyotypes in the studied species, the number of conserved chromosomal segments detected by 29 cattle whole chromosome painting probes was 35 for all Cervidae samples. The detailed analysis of the X chromosomes revealed two different morphological types within Cervidae. The first one, present in the Capreolinae is a sub/metacentric X with the structure more similar to the bovine X. The second type found in Cervini and Muntiacini is an acrocentric X which shows rearrangements in the proximal part that have not yet been identified within Ruminantia. Moreover, we characterised four repetitive sequences organized in heterochromatic blocks on sex chromosomes of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. We show that these repeats gave no hybridization signals to the chromosomes of the closely related moose (Alces alces and are therefore specific to the reindeer.

  19. Karyotype relationships among selected deer species and cattle revealed by bovine FISH probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Jan; Kubickova, Svatava; Musilova, Petra; Cernohorska, Halina; Muskova, Helena; Vodicka, Roman; Rubes, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The Cervidae family comprises more than fifty species divided into three subfamilies: Capreolinae, Cervinae and Hydropotinae. A characteristic attribute for the species included in this family is the great karyotype diversity, with the chromosomal numbers ranging from 2n = 6 observed in female Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis to 2n = 70 found in Mazama gouazoubira as a result of numerous Robertsonian and tandem fusions. This work reports chromosomal homologies between cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and nine cervid species using a combination of whole chromosome and region-specific paints and BAC clones derived from cattle. We show that despite the great diversity of karyotypes in the studied species, the number of conserved chromosomal segments detected by 29 cattle whole chromosome painting probes was 35 for all Cervidae samples. The detailed analysis of the X chromosomes revealed two different morphological types within Cervidae. The first one, present in the Capreolinae is a sub/metacentric X with the structure more similar to the bovine X. The second type found in Cervini and Muntiacini is an acrocentric X which shows rearrangements in the proximal part that have not yet been identified within Ruminantia. Moreover, we characterised four repetitive sequences organized in heterochromatic blocks on sex chromosomes of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). We show that these repeats gave no hybridization signals to the chromosomes of the closely related moose (Alces alces) and are therefore specific to the reindeer.

  20. Interactive Effects of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs and Cattle on Shrub Encroachment in a Desert Grassland Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Guevara, Eduardo; Davidson, Ana; Sierra-Corona, Rodrigo; Ceballos, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), help control shrub encroachment through clipping of shrubs and consumption of their seedlings, but little is known about how this important ecological role interacts with and may be influenced by co-existing large herbivores, especially domestic livestock. Here, we established a long-term manipulative experiment using a 2 × 2 factorial design to assess the independent and interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and cattle (Bos taurus) on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) abundance and structure. We found that, after five years, mesquite abundance was three to five times greater in plots where prairie dogs were removed compared to plots where they occurred together or alone, respectively. While both prairie dogs and cattle reduced mesquite cover, the effect of prairie dogs on reducing mesquite abundance, cover, and height was significantly greater than that by cattle. Surprisingly, cattle grazing enhanced prairie dog abundance, which, in turn, magnified the effects of prairie dogs on mesquite shrubs. Mesquite canopy cover per hectare was three to five times greater where prairie dogs and cattle were absent compared to where they occurred together or by themselves; whereas, cumulative mesquite height was two times lower on sites where prairie dog and cattle occurred together compared to where they occurred alone or where neither occurred. Data from our experimental study demonstrate that prairie dogs and moderate grazing by cattle can suppress mesquite growth, and, when their populations are properly managed, they may interact synergistically to significantly limit mesquite encroachment in desert grasslands.

  1. Interactive Effects of Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs and Cattle on Shrub Encroachment in a Desert Grassland Ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ponce-Guevara

    Full Text Available The widespread encroachment of woody plants throughout the semi-arid grasslands in North America has largely resulted from overgrazing by domestic livestock, fire suppression, and loss of native large and small mammalian herbivores. Burrowing-herbivorous mammals, such as prairie dogs (Cynomys spp., help control shrub encroachment through clipping of shrubs and consumption of their seedlings, but little is known about how this important ecological role interacts with and may be influenced by co-existing large herbivores, especially domestic livestock. Here, we established a long-term manipulative experiment using a 2 × 2 factorial design to assess the independent and interactive effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus and cattle (Bos taurus on honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa abundance and structure. We found that, after five years, mesquite abundance was three to five times greater in plots where prairie dogs were removed compared to plots where they occurred together or alone, respectively. While both prairie dogs and cattle reduced mesquite cover, the effect of prairie dogs on reducing mesquite abundance, cover, and height was significantly greater than that by cattle. Surprisingly, cattle grazing enhanced prairie dog abundance, which, in turn, magnified the effects of prairie dogs on mesquite shrubs. Mesquite canopy cover per hectare was three to five times greater where prairie dogs and cattle were absent compared to where they occurred together or by themselves; whereas, cumulative mesquite height was two times lower on sites where prairie dog and cattle occurred together compared to where they occurred alone or where neither occurred. Data from our experimental study demonstrate that prairie dogs and moderate grazing by cattle can suppress mesquite growth, and, when their populations are properly managed, they may interact synergistically to significantly limit mesquite encroachment in desert grasslands.

  2. Recent research into the production potential of indigenous cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former group is tax- onomically classified as Bos taurus and is exotic to. Southern Africa. ..... en uitdagings in die Landbou. Simposium, 27 Maart 1981. MUGGLI, N. & HOHENBOKEN,. W., 1983. Inheritance of maternal immunoglobin. G 1 concentration by the bovine neonate. Proc. 15th Int. Congr. Genet. (New Delhi), 1 ...

  3. Genotyping of β-Lactoglobulin gene by PCR-RFLP in Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neelam

    2006-05-01

    population. Conclusion Genotype frequencies of AA were the lowest compared to that of BB genotype in Sahiwal cattle while AB genotypes were more frequent in Tharparkar cattle. The frequency of A allele was found to be lower than that of B allele in both the breeds studied. These results further confirm that Bos indicus cattle are predominantly of β-Lactoglobulin B type than Bos taurus breeds.

  4. Genome-wide association study using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and whole-genome sequences for clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Holm, L-E; Panitz, F; Brøndum, R F; Bendixen, C; Lund, M S

    2014-11-01

    Mastitis is a mammary disease that frequently affects dairy cattle. Despite considerable research on the development of effective prevention and treatment strategies, mastitis continues to be a significant issue in bovine veterinary medicine. To identify major genes that affect mastitis in dairy cattle, 6 chromosomal regions on Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 6, 13, 16, 19, and 20 were selected from a genome scan for 9 mastitis phenotypes using imputed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. Association analyses using sequence-level variants for the 6 targeted regions were carried out to map causal variants using whole-genome sequence data from 3 breeds. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery population comprised 4,992 progeny-tested Holstein bulls, and QTL were confirmed in 4,442 Nordic Red and 1,126 Jersey cattle. The targeted regions were imputed to the sequence level. The highest association signal for clinical mastitis was observed on BTA 6 at 88.97 Mb in Holstein cattle and was confirmed in Nordic Red cattle. The peak association region on BTA 6 contained 2 genes: vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC) and neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (NPFFR2), which, based on known biological functions, are good candidates for affecting mastitis. However, strong linkage disequilibrium in this region prevented conclusive determination of the causal gene. A different QTL on BTA 6 located at 88.32 Mb in Holstein cattle affected mastitis. In addition, QTL on BTA 13 and 19 were confirmed to segregate in Nordic Red cattle and QTL on BTA 16 and 20 were confirmed in Jersey cattle. Although several candidate genes were identified in these targeted regions, it was not possible to identify a gene or polymorphism as the causal factor for any of these regions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and genetic markers for association with meat tenderness in South African feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; van Wyk, G L; Smith, T P L; Strydom, P E; van Marle-Köster, E; Webb, E C; Koohmaraie, M; Smith, M F

    2009-12-01

    A large proportion of South African feedlot cattle are crossbreds of Brahman (BrX, Bos indicus), and Simmental (SiX, Bos taurus). A sample of 20 grain fed bulls from each of these crossbreeds was used to compare meat quality with that of the small frame indigenous Nguni (NgX, Sanga) by evaluating a variety of biochemical and genetic parameters previously shown to be associated with meat tenderness. Shear force values were generally high (5.6kg average at 14days post mortem), with SiX animals higher than BrX or NgX (P=0.051) despite higher calpastatin:calpain ratio in BrX (P<0.05). Calpain activity and cold shortening were both correlated with tenderness for all classes. The sample size was too small to accurately estimate genotypic effects of previously published markers in the CAST and CAPN1 genes, but the allele frequencies suggest that only modest progress would be possible in these South African crossbreds using these markers.

  6. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  7. Breeding objectives for Jersey cattle in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... Taurus Jersey, 2009. Taurus Stock Improvement Co-operative Ltd. Irene, South Africa. Tesfa, K.N., 2002. The effect of different milk pricing schemes on a selection index for South African Holstein cattle. M.Sc. dissertation. University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Theron, H.E. & Mostert, B.E., ...

  8. Population structure of Reyna Creole cattle in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Roldan; Näsholm, Anna; Malmfors, Birgitta; Philipsson, Jan

    2010-10-01

    Reyna Creole cattle originated from Bos taurus cattle brought to Latin America during the Spanish colonization in the fifteenth century and are the only remaining local breed in Nicaragua. However, the current genetic status of this breed is unknown. Therefore, the population structure of three recorded Reyna Creole herds in Nicaragua was studied to estimate their level of inbreeding, effective population size, and generation intervals. Data from 2,609 animals born between 1958 and 2007 were analyzed. A pedigree completeness index higher than 0.8 was required to obtain reliable estimates of the level of inbreeding, and this criterion was met for 367 animals (14%) in two herds. The average level of inbreeding was 13.0%, with values ranging from 0% to 43.8% for individual animals. One of the herds had an average inbreeding level of 21.6%, primarily due to long periods in which the same bulls were used for mating, leading to excessive frequencies of matings between closely related animals. The effective population size differed between years and ranged from 28 to 46 animals, showing that the Reyna Creole cattle breed is endangered, close to critical status. The average generation interval was 6.9 years with values as high as 19.1 years for some sires that were used for artificial insemination over a long period of time. Due to the high level of inbreeding and small population size, urgent actions are required for the development of a breeding program to protect the breed and support its sustainable utilization.

  9. PÉRDIDA DE PESO EN BOVINOS Bos indicus Y Bos taurus DURANTE EL PROCESO DE SUBASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodr\\u00EDguez-Rodr\\u00EDguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la pérdida de peso de bovinos en subasta. Se evaluó además el porcentaje de merma correspondiente al peso del animal según su sexo, el patrón racial, la categoría comercial, el peso vivo de entrada a las instalaciones de la subasta y el tiempo de espera de cada animal desde el ingreso hasta el momento de su remate. Se analizaron un total de 629 animales en la subasta Asociación Cámara de Ganaderos Unidos del Sur, ubicada en Pérez Zeledón, San José, Costa Rica, entre agosto y noviembre del 2011. El sexo del animal y el patrón racial no tuvieron efecto significativo sobre los kilogramos de peso perdidos. Mientras que, según la categoría comercial, el periodo de espera y el peso de ingreso (p<0,05, se pueden perder entre 4,31 y 9,91; entre 6,16 y 7,31; y entre 3,52 y 9,54 kilos por animal, respectivamente. Para el porcentaje de merma, las variables patrón racial, categoría comercial y el periodo de espera presentaron efectos significativos, no así el sexo y el peso de ingreso. El porcentaje de merma fluctuó entre 1,57 a 2,54%.

  10. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  11. Molecular Study of the Amazonian Macabea Cattle History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Julio; Landi, Vincenzo; Martínez, Amparo; Gómez, Mayra; Camacho, María Esperanza; Álvarez, Luz Ángela; Aguirre, Lenin; Delgado, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Macabea cattle are the only Bos taurus breed that have adapted to the wet tropical conditions of the Amazon. This breed has integrated into the culture of the indigenous Shuar-Asuar nations probably since its origins, being one of the few European zoogenetic resources assimilated by the deep-jungle Amazon communities. Despite its potential for local endogenous sustainable development, this breed is currently endangered. The present study used molecular genetics tools to investigate the within- and between-breeds diversity, in order to characterize the breed population, define its associations with other breeds, and infer its origin and evolution. The within-breed genetic diversity showed high values, as indicated by all genetic parameters, such as the mean number of alleles (MNA = 7.25±2.03), the observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.72±0.02) and the expected heterozygosity (He = 0.72±0.02). The between-breeds diversity analysis, which included factorial correspondence analysis, Reynolds genetic distance, neighbor-joining analysis, and genetic structure analysis, showed that the Macabea breed belongs to the group of the American Creoles, with a Southern-Spain origin. Our outcomes demonstrated that the Macabea breed has a high level of purity and null influences of exotic cosmopolitan breeds with European or Asiatic origin. This breed is an important zoogenetic resource of Ecuador, with relevant and unique attributes; therefore, there is an urgent need to develop conservation strategies for the Macabea breed.

  12. Pathogenesis and pathology of African trypanosomosis in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé cross bred and Zebu cattle in Burkina Faso. 1. Clinical performance under high natural tsetse challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, P H; Sidibé, I; Bassinga, A; Richard, X; Bauer, B; Pohlit, H

    1993-06-01

    The pathogenesis and pathology of African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in Baoulé, N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and Zebu cattle was studied from 1987 to 1991 in a series of experiments conducted under natural and artificial conditions of challenge at the Centre de Recherches sur les Trypanosomoses Animales (CRTA) in Burkina Faso. This first paper reports on the clinical performance of 64 Baoulé, 10 N'Dama/Baoulé-cross-bred and 20 Zebu cattle, which were transferred to the pastoral zone of Satiri, 50 km northeast of Bobo-Dioulasso, a zone infested with Glossina palpalis gambiensis, G. morsitans submorsitans and G. tachinoides. Prior to the experiment, the cattle had been raised in a fly proof stable and at the CRTA breeding station, an area of extremely low incidence of trypanosomosis or had been exposed at least once to natural trypanosome challenge in an area of high Glossina density. The cattle were monitored daily for clinical performance. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and examined on the spot for packed red cell volume (PCV) and parasitaemia. In the blood of 98% of the cattle trypanosomes (Trypanosoma vivax, T. congolense) were detected. Significant inter- and intrabreed differences with respect to the clinical performance were recorded. Regarding general health, the humpless Baoulé and N'Dama/Baoulé cross-bred cattle (Bos taurus) proved to be superior to the humped Zebu cattle (B. indicus) under this high challenge. Previous exposure to natural challenge had a positive effect on survival for both Baoulé and Zebu cattle. The phenotypic variation in response to trypanosomosis was small in Baoulé previously exposed and large in Baoulé previously not exposed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. High-resolution haplotype block structure in the cattle genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Jungwoo

    2009-04-01

    similarities in haplotype block structure between dairy and beef breeds make them non-differentiable. Finally, our findings suggest that ~30,000 uniformly distributed SNPs would be necessary to construct a complete genome LD map in Bos taurus breeds, and ~580,000 SNPs would be necessary to characterize the haplotype block structure across the complete cattle genome.

  14. (Re)Considering cattle farming in Southern Africa under a changing climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archer van Garderen, ERM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available in more traditional extensive farming systems) are usually better adapted to higher temperatures. As one example, Bos taurus breeds tend to be more productive in temperate climates and tend to be used for their productivity, while Bos indicus (such...) Comfort threshold for high-producing dairy cows (Herna?ndez et al. 2002); higher for Bos indicus breeds (which are highly adapted to heat stress) 278C Upper limit of comfort zone for maximum milk production in India, which is 28C higher than...

  15. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

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    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  16. Effects of Wolves on Elk and Cattle Behaviors: Implications for Livestock Production and Wolf Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Isabelle; Muhly, Tyler B.; Pitt, Justin A.; Alexander, Mike; Musiani, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background In many areas, livestock are grazed within wolf (Canis lupus) range. Predation and harassment of livestock by wolves creates conflict and is a significant challenge for wolf conservation. Wild prey, such as elk (Cervus elaphus), perform anti-predator behaviors. Artificial selection of cattle (Bos taurus) might have resulted in attenuation or absence of anti-predator responses, or in erratic and inconsistent responses. Regardless, such responses might have implications on stress and fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared elk and cattle anti-predator responses to wolves in southwest Alberta, Canada within home ranges and livestock pastures, respectively. We deployed satellite- and GPS-telemetry collars on wolves, elk, and cattle (n = 16, 10 and 78, respectively) and measured seven prey response variables during periods of wolf presence and absence (speed, path sinuosity, time spent head-up, distance to neighboring animals, terrain ruggedness, slope and distance to forest). During independent periods of wolf presence (n = 72), individual elk increased path sinuosity (Z = −2.720, P = 0.007) and used more rugged terrain (Z = −2.856, P = 0.004) and steeper slopes (Z = −3.065, P = 0.002). For cattle, individual as well as group behavioral analyses were feasible and these indicated increased path sinuosity (Z = −2.720, P = 0.007) and decreased distance to neighbors (Z = −2.551, P = 0.011). In addition, cattle groups showed a number of behavioral changes concomitant to wolf visits, with variable direction in changes. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest both elk and cattle modify their behavior in relation to wolf presence, with potential energetic costs. Our study does not allow evaluating the efficacy of anti-predator behaviors, but indicates that artificial selection did not result in their absence in cattle. The costs of wolf predation on livestock are often compensated considering

  17. Genetic improvements to productivity of cattle in tropical Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.; Vercoe, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Improvement in productivity of cattle in some areas of tropical Africa is likely to be related mainly to improvement in environmental conditions, including the implementation of effective vaccination programmes and an increased availability of feed. In other areas, scope also exists to increase output by increasing the genetic potential of indigenous breeds and animals. The variation within indigenous breeds in resistance to environmental stresses and in genetic potentials could be exploited by within-breed selection but responses are likely to be slow. Initial attempts at genetic improvements should therefore concentrate on utilizing between-breed variation in these traits by identifying breeds with the required attributes and crossing them to the breed under improvement. Increases in milk yield and size are mainly dependent on the successful implementation of cross-breeding programmes aimed at maintaining high resistance to environmental stresses while also increasing genetic potentials up to the level that can be supported by the available nutrition. The most suitable combination of breeds to be used in these crosses is not known at present. However, in areas of high trypanosome challenge, crosses between trypanotolerant breeds from East and West Africa may be the best option. In areas of lower trypanosome challenge but where high levels of other environmental stresses exist, crosses between indigenous and Indian breeds may be the most appropriate. Only in those areas where parasite and disease challenge is low and the plane of nutrition is high will crosses to higher yielding European Bos taurus breeds be suitable. Improved standards of living of sections of society and increases in population have contributed to increased demand for cattle products. If this demand is to be met from African sources, output must be increased. Some of the ways in which this may be achieved are considered in the paper. (author)

  18. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  19. Controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae em sistemas de produção de leite da microrregião fisiográfica fluminense do grande Rio - Rio de Janeiro Control of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae in dairy farm systems of the physiographic microrregion of grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juracy de Castro Borba Santos Júnior

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar os métodos de controle do carrapato Boophilus microplus realizados em três fazendas representativas dos sistemas de produção de leite da Microrregião Fisiográfica Fluminense do Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro, levando-se em consideração o manejo das fazendas, o grau de sangue Bos taurus e Bos indicus dos rebanhos, os fatores climáticos e a prevalência estacional do carrapato. Para efeito de avaliação, foi utilizada a contagem periódica de fêmeas ingurgitadas medindo entre 4,5 e 8mm, no antímero direito de 20% das vacas em lactação de cada fazenda, durante um ano. A diferença no manejo das pastagens, a composição genética dos rebanhos e as condições climáticas influenciaram a prevalência estacional de B. microplus. A maior lotação animal por hectare, o elevado "stand" vegetativo das pastagens e o maior grau de sangue B. taurus contribuíram para as maiores infestações de carrapatos nas fazendas. O controle de B. microplus realizado pelos proprietários teve importância secundária em relação as outras atitudes de manejo dos rebanhos. Ficou evidenciado o uso excessivo e ineficiente de produtos químicos para o controle de B. microplus nas fazendas. Para implantação de medidas de controle estratégico do B. Microplus, fazem-se necessários esforços para a transferência e adoção dos resultados de pesquisas disponíveis aos produtores rurais.The objective of the study was to analyse the control methods of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. The experiment was carried out on three farms of the dairy production systems of the Fluminense Physiographic Microregion of Grande Rio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Farm management, the Bos indicus and Bos taurus composition of herds, climatic factors and seasonal variation in tick infestation level of cattle was taken into account. Counts of engorged female ticks, measuring between 4.5 and 8.0mm, in 20% of the lactating cows of each farm

  20. Background-oriented schlieren (BOS) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    This article gives an overview of the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique, typical applications and literature in the field. BOS is an optical density visualization technique, belonging to the same family as schlieren photography, shadowgraphy or interferometry. In contrast to these older techniques, BOS uses correlation techniques on a background dot pattern to quantitatively characterize compressible and thermal flows with good spatial and temporal resolution. The main advantages of this technique, the experimental simplicity and the robustness of correlation-based digital analysis, mean that it is widely used, and variant versions are reviewed in the article. The advantages of each variant are reviewed, and further literature is provided for the reader.

  1. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  2. Comparative bone histology of adult horses (Equus caballus) and cows (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedda, M; Lepore, G; Manca, P; Chisu, V; Farina, V

    2008-12-01

    Bone microstructure of domestic herbivores is still not completely understood. Indeed, works focused on the bone histology of numerous Mammalian species frequently led to misunderstandings because of the high number of variations such as the kind of bone, section orientation, species, breed and age. Moreover, attempts to identify the species in archaeozoological studies by a mere qualitative approach have not been encouraging and in recent years quantitative methods, based on image processing and statistical analysis, have appeared. The present study was undertaken to determine whether morphometrical and morphological differences exist in the compact bone structure of the femur and humerus between horses and cows. Measurements such as area, perimeter, minimum and maximum diameter of osteons and Haversian canals as well as the osteonal density were carried out on cross sections of eight humeri and eight femurs of the two herbivores investigated. In agreement with other authors, the qualitative investigation confirmed that the compact bone of horses and cows can be classified as dense Haversian tissue. Osteons of the horse were more numerous and composed of a higher number of well-defined lamellae when compared with the cow. Diameter, perimeter and area of osteons and Haversian canals were always higher in horses than in cows and this pattern could be related to the different locomotor behaviour of these animals.

  3. Bovine Genome Database: supporting community annotation and analysis of the Bos taurus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Childs Kevin L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of the Bovine Genome Database (BGD; http://BovineGenome.org has been to support the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (BGSAC in the annotation and analysis of the bovine genome. We were faced with several challenges, including the need to maintain consistent quality despite diversity in annotation expertise in the research community, the need to maintain consistent data formats, and the need to minimize the potential duplication of annotation effort. With new sequencing technologies allowing many more eukaryotic genomes to be sequenced, the demand for collaborative annotation is likely to increase. Here we present our approach, challenges and solutions facilitating a large distributed annotation project. Results and Discussion BGD has provided annotation tools that supported 147 members of the BGSAC in contributing 3,871 gene models over a fifteen-week period, and these annotations have been integrated into the bovine Official Gene Set. Our approach has been to provide an annotation system, which includes a BLAST site, multiple genome browsers, an annotation portal, and the Apollo Annotation Editor configured to connect directly to our Chado database. In addition to implementing and integrating components of the annotation system, we have performed computational analyses to create gene evidence tracks and a consensus gene set, which can be viewed on individual gene pages at BGD. Conclusions We have provided annotation tools that alleviate challenges associated with distributed annotation. Our system provides a consistent set of data to all annotators and eliminates the need for annotators to format data. Involving the bovine research community in genome annotation has allowed us to leverage expertise in various areas of bovine biology to provide biological insight into the genome sequence.

  4. Spermatozoal transcripts expression levels are predictive of semen quality and conception rate in bulls (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Sivashanmugam; Selvaraju, Sellappan; Somashekar, Lakshminarayana; Arangasamy, Arunachalam; Sivaram, Muniandy; Ravindra, Janivara Parameswaraiah

    2017-08-01

    Spermatozoal transcripts expression levels could be used to assess fertility potential of a male. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the predictive ability of the expression levels of growth, apoptosis and homeostasis regulating transcripts on sperm functions and fertility. The expression levels of spermatozoal RNA isolated from the neat semen samples were related to the good (discarded ejaculate, 40%, n = 6) quality semen producer and bulls (n = 12) with known conception rate. The relative fold expression levels of BMP2 were significantly (p conception rate (r = -0.57, p conception rate of the bull. The study provides ample evidence that the sperm transcripts expression levels might be used to predict quality semen production and bull fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Casein genes of Bos taurus. II. Isolation and characterization of the β-casein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetskii, S.I.; Tkach, T.M.; Kapelinskaya, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of the casein genes in the cells of the mammary gland is regulated by peptide and steroid hormones. In order to study the controlling mechanisms we have isolated and characterized the β-casein gene. The gene is 8.6 kb long and exceeds by a factor of 7.8 the length of the corresponding mRNA which is encoded by nine exons. The genomic clones incorporate in addition 8.5 kb and 4.5 kb of the 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. We have determined the sequence of the 5- and 3-terminals of the gene and have performed a comparative analysis of the corresponding regions of the rat β-casein gene. Furthermore we have identified the conversed sequences identical or homologous to the potential sections of binding to the nuclear factor CTF/NF-1 by glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors. The regulatory region of the bovine casein gene contains two variants of the TATA signal, flanking the duplication section in the promoter region

  6. Clotting of cow (Bos taurus) and goat milk (Capra hircus) using calve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... and Finance, 2001). Much effort has been put into animal rearing and local milk production. This has led to improvements in the production of local milk products ..... beta-casein. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 3632-3639. Berridge NJ (1952). An improved method of observing the clotting of milk containing rennin.

  7. Bovine (Bos taurus) humoral immune response against Echinococcus granulosus and hydatid cyst infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Rodolfo; Godoy, Pablo; Rodríguez, Betsabé; García, María Pía; Cabezón, Carolina; Cabrera, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Verónica; Hellman, Ulf; Sáenz, Leonardo; Ferreira, Arturo; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus, the agent of hydatid disease, presents an indirect life cycle, with canines (mainly dogs) as definitive hosts, and herbivores and human as intermediary ones. In intermediary hosts fertile and infertile cysts develop, but only the first ones develop protoscoleces, the parasite form infective to definitive hosts. We report the presence of bovine IgGs in the germinal layer from infertile cysts (GLIC), in an order of magnitude greater than in the germinal layer from fertile cysts (GLFC). When extracted with salt solutions, bovine IgGs from GLIC are associated with low or with high affinity (most likely corresponding to non specific and antigen specific antibodies, respectively). Specific IgGs penetrate both the cells of the germinal layer and HeLa cultured cells and recognize parasitic proteins. These results, taken together with previous ones from our laboratory, showing induction of apoptosis in the germinal layer of infertile hydatid cysts, provide the first coherent explanation of the infertility process. They also offer the possibility of identifying the parasite antigens recognized, as possible targets for immune modulation.

  8. Studies on the growth and reproduction of cattle in the tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a number of studies that had the long term aim of increasing the productivity of cattle in the tropics are reported. The studies were conducted on the B (Brahman), HS (interbred Hereford x Shorthorn), F 1 BX (first cross B x HS) and F n BX (interbred B x HS) lines. These breeds were used to demonstrate the origins of the heterosis that occurs in both the realized growth and the reproductive rate of Bos indicus x Bos taurus. Genetic and environmental factors that limit the realized reproductive rates were also investigated. The reproductive rate of cows of each breed that differed in lactation status during the breeding season was compared in contrasting environments. It was shown that the main limitation to HS achieving high realized reproductive rates was of environmental origin. For B cows, the main limitation was associated with the stress of lactation. Unsuccessful attempts were made to overcome this limitation by using progesterone releasing intravaginal devices alone or in combination with temporary calf weaning to try to induce a fertile oestrus. Improvement of the realized reproductive rates in the HS line was achieved by increasing their resistance to environmental stresses. The prospects for increasing the realized reproductive rate of maiden heifers by increasing their live weight at the start of their first breeding season were also investigated. About half of the heifers of each breed were implanted with the synthetic growth promotant Synovex 'H' on three occasions before the start of the breeding season. Although the live weight of all breeds increased in response to Synovex 'H', the magnitude of the response was dependent on the presence or absence of parasite control. Previously implanted heifers had a lower pregnancy rate than non-implanted heifers. 4 refs, 6 tabs

  9. Microsatellite and Mitochondrial DNA Study of Native Eastern European Cattle Populations: The Case of the Romanian Grey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cean, Ada; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Gavojdian, Dinu; Ivan, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern European Grey cattle are regarded as the direct descendants of the aurochs (Bos taurus primigenius). Nowadays in Romania, less than 100 Grey animals are being reared and included in the national gene reserve. We examined the genetic diversity among Romanian Grey, Brown, Spotted and Black and White cattle breeds, with a particular focus on Romanian Grey through the use of (i) 11 bovine specific microsatellite markers on 83 animals and (ii) 638 bp length of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region sequence data from a total of 81 animals. Both microsatellite and mtDNA analysis revealed a high level of genetic variation in the studied breeds. In Romanian Grey a total of 100 alleles were found, the mean number of observed alleles per locus was 9.091; the average observed heterozygosity was 0.940; the Wright’s fixation index (FIS) was negative (-0.189) and indicates that there is no inbreeding and no selection pressure. MtDNA analysis revealed 52 haplotypes with 67 variable sites among the Romanian cattle breeds without any insertion or deletion. Haplotype diversity was 0.980 ± 0.007 and ranged from 0.883 ± 0.056 (Brown) to 0.990 ± 0.028 (Spotted and Black and White). The highest genetic variability of the mtDNA was recorded in the Grey breed, where 18 haplotypes were identified. The most frequent mtDNA D-loop region belonged to T3 haplogroup (80.247%), which was found across all studied breeds, while T2 haplotypes (16.049%) was only found in Grey, Spotted and Black and White genotypes. The T1 haplotypes (3.704%) were found in the Grey and Spotted. The current results contribute to the general knowledge on genetic diversity found in Eastern European cattle breeds and could prove a valuable tool for the conservation efforts of animal genetic resources (FAnGR). PMID:26398563

  10. Fatores etários no leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas sadias da raça Nelore (Bos indicus Influence of age on the leukogram values for healthy Nelore (Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselito Nunes Costa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar-se a influência dos fatores etários sobre o leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore, examinaram-se amostras de sangue de 158 animais, distribuídos por sete grupos etários ( até 3 meses; 3 a 6 meses; 6 a 12 meses; 12 a 24 meses; 24 a 48 meses; 48 a 72 meses e maior que 72 meses. Os resultados expressos em valores médios (± desvios padrões máximo (máx. e mínimo (mín. em milhares de células por mm³ para os diferentes componentes do leucograma foram os seguintes: leucócitos total máx. - 16992 ± 4104 ( 6 a 12 meses e min. -10353 ± 2397 (48 a 72 meses ; neutrófilos total máx. - 3931 ± 1578 (até 3 meses e min. - 2416 ± 1118 ( 6 a 12 meses ; eosinófilos máx. - 999 ± 499 (24 a 48 meses e min. - 265 ± 276 ( 3 a 6 meses ; basófilos máx. - 67 ± 88 (> 72 meses e min. - 39 ± 78 (6 a 12 meses; linfócitos típicos máx. - 12758 ± 3608 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 5906 ± 1883 (48 a 72 meses; linfócitos atípicos máx. - 1310 ± 603 (3 a 6 meses e min. - 760 ± 419 ( 48 a 72 meses ; linfócitos total máx. - 14079 ± 4027 (6 a 12 meses e min. - 6666 ± 2059 ( 48 a 72 meses ; monócitos máx. -27 ± 62 ( até 3 meses e min.- 0 ( 6 a 12 meses. A existência de diferenças (p > 0,05 entre grupos demonstrando diminuição dos neutrófilos e aumento dos linfócitos no primeiro ano de vida; a diminuição dos valores do total de leucócitos a partir de um ano de idade, como reflexo de comportamento similar dos números de linfócitos (típicos e atípicos e o aumento dos eosinófilos entre 24 e 48 meses de vida, caracterizaram a influência dos fatores etários sobre a variação dos valores dos componentes do leucograma de fêmeas zebuínas da raça Nelore criadas em São Paulo - Brasil.In order to evaluate the influence of the age on the white blood cell counts of Nelore (Zebu cattle, 158 blood samples from seven groups of different ages (group I-up to three months; group II-three to six months; group III-six to 12

  11. The use of toxicokinetics and exposure studies to show that carprofen in cattle tissue could lead to secondary toxicity and death in wild vultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, V; Taggart, M A; Duncan, N; Wolter, K; Chipangura, J; Green, R E; Galligan, T H

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary medicines can be extremely damaging to the environment, as seen with the catastrophic declines in Gyps vulture in South Asia due to their secondary exposure to diclofenac in their primary food source. Not surprisingly, concern has been raised over other similar drugs. In this study, we evaluate the toxicity of carprofen to the Gyps vulture clade through plasma pharmacokinetics evaluations in Bos taurus cattle (their food source) and Gyps africanus (a validated model species); tissue residues in cattle; and the effect of carprofen as a secondary toxicant as both tissue-bound residue or pure drug at levels expected in cattle tissues. Carprofen residues were highest in cattle kidney (7.72 ± 2.38 mg/kg) and injection site muscle (289.05 ± 98.96 mg/kg of dimension of 5 × 5 × 5 cm). Vultures exposed to carprofen as residues in the kidney tissue or pure drug equivalents showed no toxic signs. When exposed to average injection site concentrations (64 mg/kg) one of two birds died with evidence of severe renal and liver damage. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed a prolonged drug half-life of 37.75 h in the dead bird as opposed to 13.99 ± 5.61 h from healthy birds dosed intravenously at 5 mg/kg. While carprofen may generally be harmless to Gyps vultures, its high levels at the injection site in treated cattle can result in lethal exposure in foraging vultures, due to relative small area of tissue it is found therein. We thus suggest that carprofen not be used in domesticated ungulates in areas where carcasses are accessible or provided to vultures at supplementary feeding sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. © 2015 UICC.

  13. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Somavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.

  14. Methanogen community structure in the rumens of farmed sheep, cattle and red deer fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanathan, Jeyamalar; Kirs, Marek; Ronimus, Ron S; Hoskin, Simone O; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-05-01

    Development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on knowledge of the methanogens present. We investigated the composition of archaeal communities in the rumens of farmed sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to generate fingerprints of archaeal 16S rRNA genes. The total archaeal communities were relatively constant across species and diets, and were less variable and less diverse than bacterial communities. There were diet- and ruminant-species-based differences in archaeal community structure, but the same dominant archaea were present in all rumens. These were members of three coherent clades: species related to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium and Methanobrevibacter olleyae; species related to Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii, Methanobrevibacter thaueri and Methanobrevibacter millerae; and species of the genus Methanosphaera. Members of an archaeal group of unknown physiology, designated rumen cluster C (RCC), were also present. RCC-specific DGGE, clone library analysis and quantitative real-time PCR showed that their 16S rRNA gene sequences were very diverse and made up an average of 26.5% of the total archaea. RCC sequences were not readily detected in the DGGE patterns of total archaeal 16S rRNA genes because no single sequence type was abundant enough to form dominant bands. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine leptin and leptin receptor genes with growth and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R C G; Ferraz, J B S; Meirelles, F V; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C; Cucco, D C; Mattos, E C; Rezende, F M; Silva, S L

    2012-10-11

    Given the important role of leptin in metabolism, we looked for a possible association of leptin and leptin receptor polymorphisms with carcass and growth traits in Nellore cattle. We examined associations of leptin and leptin receptor SNPs with ultrasound carcass (longissimus dorsi muscle area (ribeye area), backfat thickness and rump fat thickness and growth traits (weaning weight adjusted to 210 days of age, yearling weight adjusted to 550 days of age, weight gain of weaning to yearling and scrotal circumference adjusted to 550 days of age) of 2162 Bos primigenius indicus (Nellore) animals. Allele and genotypic frequencies were calculated for each marker. Allele substitution, additive and dominance effects of the polymorphisms were also evaluated. Some alleles of the molecular markers had low frequencies, lower than 1%, in the sample analyzed, although the same polymorphisms described for B. p. taurus cattle were found. Due to very low allelic frequencies, the E2JW, A59V and UASMS2 markers were not included in the analysis, because they were almost fixed. E2FB was found to be significantly associated with weight gain, ribeye area and backfat thickness. The promoter region markers, C963T and UASMS1, were also found to be significantly associated with ribeye area. T945M was significantly associated with weight gain. We conclude that the leptin and receptor gene markers would be useful for marker-assisted selection.

  16. k-Casein, b-lactoglobulin and growth hormone allele frequencies and genetic distances in Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Augusta Kemenes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The genotypes for k-casein (k-CN, b-lactoglobulin (b-LG and growth hormone (GH were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion in seven breeds of cattle (Nelore, Gyr, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolais, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. k-Casein had two alleles with the A allele occurring at a higher frequency in Bos indicus breeds (0.93, 0.92 and 0.91% for Gyr, Guzerá and Nelore, respectively. The b-lactoglobulin locus had two alleles in all of the breeds. European breeds had a higher frequency of the b-LG A allele than Zebu breeds. The GH locus had two alleles (L and V in Bos taurus and was monomorphic (L allele only in all of the Bos indicus breeds evaluated. The highest frequency for the V allele was observed in Charolais cattle. The markers used revealed a considerable similarity among breeds, with two main groups being discernible. One group consisted of Zebu and Santa Gertrudis breeds and the other consisted of European and Canchim breeds.Os genótipos de k-caseína (k-CN, b-lactoglobulina (b-LG e hormônio de crescimento foram determinados por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição em sete raças de bovinos (Nelore, Gir, Guzerá, Caracu, Charolesa, Canchim and Santa Gertrudis. A k-caseína apresentou dois alelos e as freqüências mais elevadas para o alelo A foram observadas em Bos indicus (0,93, 0,92 e 0,91% para as raças Gir, Guzerá e Nelore, respectivamente. A b-lactoglobulina apresentou dois alelos em todas as raças estudadas, sendo a freqüência do alelo A mais elevada nas raças européias. O loco de hormônio de crescimento apresentou dois alelos em Bos taurus e foi monomórfico (alelo L em todas as raças zebuínas. A maior freqüência para o alelo V foi observado na raça Charolesa. Os marcadores investigados revelaram alta similaridade entre as raças, com a formação de dois grupos principais: um composto de raças zebuínas e a raça Santa Gertrudis e outro

  17. Social behaviour of cattle in tropical silvopastoral and monoculture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Améndola, L; Solorio, F J; Ku-Vera, J C; Améndola-Massiotti, R D; Zarza, H; Galindo, F

    2016-05-01

    Silvopastoral systems can be a good alternative for sustainable livestock production because they can provide ecosystem services and improve animal welfare. Most farm animals live in groups and the social organization and interactions between individuals have an impact on their welfare. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe and compare the social behaviour of cattle (Bos indicus×Bos taurus) in a silvopastoral system based on a high density of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) combined with guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus), star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) and some trees; with a monoculture system with C. nlemfuensis, in the region of Merida, Yucatán. Eight heifers in each system were observed from 0730 to 1530 h each day for 12 consecutive days during the dry season and 12 consecutive days during the rainy season. The animals followed a rotation between three paddocks, remaining 4 days in each paddock. The vegetation was characterized in the paddocks of the silvopastoral system to estimate the average percentage of shade provided. To make a comparison between systems, we used a t test with group dispersion, and Mann-Whitney tests with the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviours. We assessed differences in linearity and stability of dominance hierarchies using Landau's index and Dietz R-test, respectively. The distance of cows with respect to the centroid of the group was shorter, and non-agonistic behaviours were 62% more frequent in the intensive silvopastoral system than in the monoculture one. Heifers in the silvopastoral system had a more linear and non-random dominance hierarchy in both seasons (dry season: h'=0.964; rainy season: h'=0.988), than heifers in the monoculture system (dry season: h'=0.571, rainy season: h'=0.536). The dominance hierarchy in the silvopastoral system was more stable between seasons (R-test=0.779) than in the monoculture system (R-test=0.224). Our results provide the first evidence that heifers in the

  18. Association analysis of CAPN1 gene variants with carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... the cattle industry. Key words: Bovine, CAPN1 gene, Carcass and meat quality traits, SNPs. INTRODUCTION. Carcass and meat quality traits, which are influenced by multiple ... value assessment of beef cattle industry. Selection of ..... tenderness marker test to include cattle of Bos indicus, Bos taurus,.

  19. The size of domestic cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the Czech Neolithic and Eneolithic Periods: Temporal variations and their causes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, Junio (2016), s. 33-78 ISSN 1132-6891 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : osteometry * body mass * domestication * cross-breeding * Chalcolithic * Bos taurus * Ovis aries * Capra hircus * Sus domesticus * aurochs * wild boar * archaeozoology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. THE TAURUS SPITZER SURVEY: NEW CANDIDATE TAURUS MEMBERS SELECTED USING SENSITIVE MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; McCabe, C.-E.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Brooke, T.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Angione, J. R.; Huard, T.; Terebey, S.; Audard, M.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Monin, J.-L.; Menard, F.; Bouvier, J.; Fukagawa, M.; Guedel, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Allen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the properties of pre-main-sequence objects in the Taurus molecular clouds as observed in seven mid- and far-infrared bands with the Spitzer Space Telescope. There are 215 previously identified members of the Taurus star-forming region in our ∼44 deg 2 map; these members exhibit a range of Spitzer colors that we take to define young stars still surrounded by circumstellar dust (noting that ∼20% of the bona fide Taurus members exhibit no detectable dust excesses). We looked for new objects in the survey field with similar Spitzer properties, aided by extensive optical, X-ray, and ultraviolet imaging, and found 148 new candidate members of Taurus. We have obtained follow-up spectroscopy for about half the candidate sample, thus far confirming 34 new members, three probable new members, and 10 possible new members, an increase of 15%-20% in Taurus members. Of the objects for which we have spectroscopy, seven are now confirmed extragalactic objects, and one is a background Be star. The remaining 93 candidate objects await additional analysis and/or data to be confirmed or rejected as Taurus members. Most of the new members are Class II M stars and are located along the same cloud filaments as the previously identified Taurus members. Among non-members with Spitzer colors similar to young, dusty stars are evolved Be stars, planetary nebulae, carbon stars, galaxies, and active galactic nuclei.

  1. SPECTROSCOPY OF PUTATIVE BROWN DWARFS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Quanz and coworkers have reported the discovery of the coolest known member of the Taurus star-forming complex (L2 ± 0.5), and Barrado and coworkers have identified a possible protostellar binary brown dwarf in the same region. We have performed infrared spectroscopy on the former and the brighter component of the latter to verify their substellar nature. The resulting spectra do not exhibit the strong steam absorption bands that are expected for cool objects, demonstrating that they are not young brown dwarfs. The optical magnitudes and colors for these sources are also indicative of background stars rather than members of Taurus. Although the fainter component of the candidate protostellar binary lacks spectroscopy, we conclude that it is a galaxy rather than a substellar member of Taurus based on its colors and the constraints on its proper motion.

  2. Genetic evaluation of temperament trait by visual score in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Verdugo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The national herd is predominantly composed by Nelore breed (Bos indicus, being extremely important for beef cattle, even though, it have limitations as aggressive temperament compared to populations of Bos taurus origin. The temperament (TEMP can be defined as the perception and reaction of the animals when they feel fear or are managed by man. More reactive cattle have lower weight gain, produce beef of lower quality, are more susceptible to diseases and have low reproductive performance. The objective of this research was to obtain the components of (co variances and genetic parameters of TEMP in order to provide subsidies to farmers and technicians on its use in animal breeding programs. For the TEMP trait, the database used was from the Nelore breeding program – Nelore Qualitas. Data was recorded from 2000 to 2009, on 20 farms across six Brazilian states, on 48,879 males and females ranging in age from 450 to 599 days. TEMP trait was performed by visual scores, in 1-5 scale, where higher scores means less reactive animals. The genetic parameters were estimated with univariate animal model and Bayesian inference, using the program GIBBS2F90. The statistical model included fixed effects of contemporary group, age at measurement as a linear covariate, and random effects of additive genetic and residual. The data set included 455 sires, 28,111 dams and 3,153 contemporary groups defined as animals born in same herd-year, sex, and weaning and post-weaning management groups. Pedigree data included all animals in an observation where their relatives up to nine generations back were added, which included 190,127 animals. One independent chain was run 500,000, with the first 20,000 rounds discarded as the burn-in period and 20 rounds as the time interval, thus resulting in 24,000 rounds. The burn-in period was based on subjective evaluation of plots of values from the Gibbs chain. Flat prior distributions were used for variance components. The

  3. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  4. Solid CO in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared vibrational feature of solid state CO at 4.67 μm wavelength is detected towards five sources in or behind the dark cloud complex in Taurus. A comparison with millimetre-wave data suggests that a significant fraction (up to 40 per cent) of the CO may be depleted on to grains. The adjacent CN feature at 4.62 μm observed in W33A by previous authors is absent from the present spectra, suggesting that the grain mantles in Taurus are unannealed. (author)

  5. SNP Data Quality Control in a National Beef and Dairy Cattle System and Highly Accurate SNP Based Parentage Verification and Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Matthew C; McCarthy, John; Flynn, Paul; McClure, Jennifer C; Dair, Emma; O'Connell, D K; Kearney, John F

    2018-01-01

    A major use of genetic data is parentage verification and identification as inaccurate pedigrees negatively affect genetic gain. Since 2012 the international standard for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) verification in Bos taurus cattle has been the ISAG SNP panels. While these ISAG panels provide an increased level of parentage accuracy over microsatellite markers (MS), they can validate the wrong parent at ≤1% misconcordance rate levels, indicating that more SNP are needed if a more accurate pedigree is required. With rapidly increasing numbers of cattle being genotyped in Ireland that represent 61 B. taurus breeds from a wide range of farm types: beef/dairy, AI/pedigree/commercial, purebred/crossbred, and large to small herd size the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation (ICBF) analyzed different SNP densities to determine that at a minimum ≥500 SNP are needed to consistently predict only one set of parents at a ≤1% misconcordance rate. For parentage validation and prediction ICBF uses 800 SNP (ICBF800) selected based on SNP clustering quality, ISAG200 inclusion, call rate (CR), and minor allele frequency (MAF) in the Irish cattle population. Large datasets require sample and SNP quality control (QC). Most publications only deal with SNP QC via CR, MAF, parent-progeny conflicts, and Hardy-Weinberg deviation, but not sample QC. We report here parentage, SNP QC, and a genomic sample QC pipelines to deal with the unique challenges of >1 million genotypes from a national herd such as SNP genotype errors from mis-tagging of animals, lab errors, farm errors, and multiple other issues that can arise. We divide the pipeline into two parts: a Genotype QC and an Animal QC pipeline. The Genotype QC identifies samples with low call rate, missing or mixed genotype classes (no BB genotype or ABTG alleles present), and low genotype frequencies. The Animal QC handles situations where the genotype might not belong to the listed individual by identifying: >1 non

  6. Photometric peculiarities of the RY Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtseva, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of photoelectric UBV-observations of RY Taurus carried out in 1965-80 at the Crimean Station of the State Sternberg Astronomical Institute. Two components of brightness variations are observed: fast (days) and slow (years). During fast variations the colour indices U-B and B-V change independently of brightness, however, in particular time inter-- vals the rather strong correlation with the star brightness is observed, positive or negative. During the slow variations only the reverse dependence is observed; the brightness increase is followed by the increase of colour indices (reddening of the star). The comparison of the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization variations has shown that the dependence of polarization degree on brightness is nonmonotonic. At minimum and maximum brightness the RY TAURUS intrinsic polarization is maximum and reaches 5-6 %. At the general amplitude of RY TAURUS brightness variations in V rays from 10.sup(m)1 to 11.sup(m)7 the V=11.sup(m)0 value is singled out. First a certain ''avoidance'' of this brightness value by the star is observed. Second, the fracture in the course of polarization dependence on brightness occurs as well in the V=11sup(m) region

  7. Factors affecting conception rates in cattle following embryo transfer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT) plays an important role in improving productivity of dairy cattle (Bos indicus). Embryo Transfer Technology allows top quality female livestock to improve a herd or flock in much the same way that artificial insemination has allowed greater use of superior sires. The technology hastens ...

  8. Comparison of milk fatty acid profiles measured on Kouri cows near Lake Chad and on dairy cattle as reported by meta-analytical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada Algom, O; Fabry, C; Leroy, P L; Hornick, J-L

    2017-06-01

    Kouri (Bos taurus) is a breed aboriginal from Lake Chad and threatened with extinction. This study aimed to compare milk fatty acid profiles measured on Kouri cows and on high-yielding dairy cattle in Europe and elsewhere as reported by meta-analytical data (22 experimentations). Milk samples were collected from 14 Kouri dairy cows in dry season (March to June) and fatty acids (FA) were determined by gas chromatography. Overall, 32 FA have been identified. Kouri showed lower values (P < 0.001) in the sum of saturated FA (SFA, -10.9 pts), cis-9, cis-12 18:2 (-1.00 pt) (P < 0.01, higher values (P < 0.001) in the sum of monounsaturated FA (MUFA, +15.3 pts), C18:0) (+3.5 pts), cis-9, trans-11 C18:2-CLA (+1.00 pts), trans-11 18:1 (+1.4 pts) and (P < 0.01) in cis-9, C18:1 (+3.00 pts) acids. The differences between the milk FA profile of the Kouri cows and that obtained from meta-analytical data could be the possible consequence of the use of particular lake pastures by Kouri cows.

  9. A comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yániz, Jesús L; Capistrós, Sara; Vicente-Fiel, Sandra; Hidalgo, Carlos O; Santolaria, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA) combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. The use of the PI/PSA combination and CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method allowed the capture, morphometric analysis, and differentiation of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes and whole heads, and the assessment of acrosomal integrity with a high precision in the three species studied. For the size of the head and nuclear area, the relationship between the three species may be summarized as bull > ram > boar. However, for the other morphometric parameters (length, width, and perimeter), there were differences in the relationships between species for sperm nuclei and whole sperm heads. Bull sperm acrosomes were clearly smaller than those in the other species studied and covered a smaller proportion of the sperm head. The acrosomal morphology, small in the bull, large and broad in the sheep, and large, long, and with a pronounced equatorial segment curve in the boar, was species-characteristic. It was concluded that there are clear variations in the size and shape of the sperm head components between the three species studied, the acrosome being the structure showing the most variability, allowing a clear distinction of the spermatozoa of each species.

  10. A Taurus Map on a Minoan Vase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G.

    During the excavation of a shrine at Anemospilia on Crete in 1979, richly decorated vase was discovered, like that appearing on the sarcophagus of Aghia Triada to be used for the collection of the blood of the sacrifices bull. The vase was dated to the Middle Minoan period (around 1700 B.C.) The central motif of the decoration of the vase is a plastic bull painted off- white, with a pattern of red round spots scattered over its body. The whole decoration was considered by the excavators and other investigators, as a "speaking symbol" of a bull sacrifice. In this article we suggest that the pattern of round spots could be considered as a map of the Taurus constellation, the oldest one known in the Aegean moreover, that the whole decoration refers to Spring, when the vernal equinox was located in Taurus in Minoan Times. We also suggest that the beginning of the year would be fixed following this equinox.

  11. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P stream zone (0 to 3 m from stream center) in June and August and in the streamside zone (0 to 33 m from stream zone) in May through August and May through September, respectively, than cattle in CSU pastures. However, off-stream water had no effect on cattle distribution. Compared with the CSU treatment, the CSR treatment reduced the probability (P stream center) at BGTHI of 50 to 100. Bare ground was greater (P stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby

  12. Patterns of cell proliferation and apoptosis by topographic region in normal Bos taurus vs. Bos indicus crossbreeds bovine placentae during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrósio Carlos E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental and fetal growth requires high rates of cellular turnover and differentiation, which contributes to conceptus development. The trophoblast has unique properties and a wide range of metabolic, endocrine and angiogenic functions, but the proliferative profile of the bovine placenta characterized by flow cytometry analysis and its role in fetal development are currently uncharacterized. Complete understanding of placental apoptotic and proliferative rates may be relevant to development, especially if related to the pathogenesis of pregnancy losses and placental abnormalities. Methods In this study, the proliferation activity and apoptosis in different regions of normal bovine placenta (central and boundary regions of placentomes, placentomal fusion, microplacentomes, and interplacentomal regions, from distinct gestation periods (Days 70 to 290 of pregnancy, were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Our results indicated that microplacentomes presented a lower number of apoptotic cells throughout pregnancy, with a higher proliferative activity by the end of gestation, suggesting that such structures do not contribute significantly to normal of placental functions and conceptus development during pregnancy. The placentome edges revealed a higher number of apoptotic cells from Day 170 on, which suggests that placentome detachment may well initiate in this region. Conclusion Variations involving proliferation and apoptotic rates may influence placental maturation and detachment, compromising placental functions and leading to fetal stress, abnormalities in development and abortion, as frequently seen in bovine pregnancies from in vitro fertilization and cloning procedures. Our findings describing the pattern of cell proliferation and apoptosis in normal bovine pregnancies may be useful for unraveling some of the developmental deviations seen in nature and after in vitro embryo manipulations.

  13. Aurochs and potential crossbreeding with domestic cattle in Central Europe in the Eneolithic period. A metric analysis of bones from the archaeological site of Kutná Hora–Denemark (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2008), s. 7-37 ISSN 0761-3032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Bos primigenius * local domestication * crossbreeding * cattle * Eneolithic * osteometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Effect of Concentrate Supplementation on Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Rungwe district in Tanzania, to assess the effect of concentrate supplementation on reproductive performance of smallholder dairy cattle. Cattle used were crossbreds, mainly between Friesian (Bos taurus) and indigenous Tanzania Short Horn Zebu (Bos indicus). All animals were managed under ...

  15. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... This study describes genetic variability in the leptin in Iranian native, Brown Swiss and Holstein cattle. (Bos Indicus and Bos Taurus). This is the first study of genetic polymorphism of the leptin gene in. Iranian native cattle. We examined exon 2 of the leptin gene from 587 individuals in six different.

  16. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  17. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM, a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT, yearling weight (YWT, carcass weight (CWT, backfat thickness (BFT, longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb. Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX] may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  18. Molecular Cloning, Bioinformatics Analysis and Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 from Tianzhu White Yak, Bos grunniens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGF family is essential for normal embryonic and postnatal development and plays important roles in the immune system, myogenesis, bone metabolism and other physiological functions, which makes the study of its structure and biological characteristics important. Tianzhu white yak (Bos grunniens domesticated under alpine hypoxia environments, is well adapted to survive and grow against severe hypoxia and cold temperatures for extended periods. In this study, a full coding sequence of the IGF2 gene of Tianzhu white yak was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (RACE for the first time. The cDNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 450 nucleotides, encoding a protein with 179 amino acids. Its expression in different tissues was also studied by Real time PCR. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that yak IGF2 was similar to Bos taurus, and 3D structure showed high similarity with the human IGF2. The putative full CDS of yak IGF2 was amplified by PCR in five tissues, and cDNA sequence analysis showed high homology to bovine IGF2. Moreover the super secondary structure prediction showed a similar 3D structure with human IGF2. Its conservation in sequence and structure has facilitated research on IGF2 and its physiological function in yak.

  19. Detection of two non-synonymous SNPs in SLC45A2 on BTA20 as candidate causal mutations for oculocutaneous albinism in Braunvieh cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothammer, Sophie; Kunz, Elisabeth; Seichter, Doris; Krebs, Stefan; Wassertheurer, Martina; Fries, Ruedi; Brem, Gottfried; Medugorac, Ivica

    2017-10-05

    Cases of albinism have been reported in several species including cattle. So far, research has identified many genes that are involved in this eye-catching phenotype. Thus, when two paternal Braunvieh half-sibs with oculocutaneous albinism were detected on a private farm, we were interested in knowing whether their phenotype was caused by an already known gene/mutation. Analysis of genotyping data (50K) of the two albino individuals, their mothers and five other relatives identified a 47.61-Mb candidate haplotype on Bos taurus chromosome BTA20. Subsequent comparisons of the sequence of this haplotype with sequence data from four Braunvieh sires and the Aurochs genome identified two possible candidate causal mutations at positions 39,829,806 bp (G/A; R45Q) and 39,864,148 bp (C/T; T444I) that were absent in 1682 animals from various bovine breeds included in the 1000 bull genomes project. Both polymorphisms represent coding variants in the SLC45A2 gene, for which the human equivalent harbors numerous variants associated with oculocutaneous albinism type 4. We demonstrate an association of R45Q and T444I with the albino phenotype by targeted genotyping. Although the candidate gene SLC45A2 is known to be involved in albinism in different species, to date in cattle only mutations in the TYR and MITF genes were reported to be associated with albinism or albinism-like phenotypes. Thus, our study extends the list of genes that are associated with bovine albinism. However, further research and more samples from related animals are needed to elucidate if only one of these two single nucleotide polymorphisms or the combination of both is the actual causal variant.

  20. Interstellar extinction in the Taurus dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistas, E.; Straizys, V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 89 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of the Taurus dark clouds with corrdinates (1950) 4sup(h)16sup(m)-4sup(h)33sup(m), +16 0 -+20 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitude, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The distance of the dark nebula is found to be 140 pc and is in a good agreement with the distance determined for the dark nebula Khavtassi 286, 278. The average extinction Asub(v) in the investigated area is of the order of 1.4. (author)

  1. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  2. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  3. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeson, R. L.; Jensen, E. L. N.

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10 –4 M ☉ . We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F mm ∝M ∗ 1.5--2.0 to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  4. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  5. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  6. TERMOGRAFIA DIGITAL POR INFRAVERMELHO DO ESCROTO E QUALIDADE DO SÊMEN EM TOUROS NELORE (BOS TAURUS INDICUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aimed to study the relationship between scrotal temperature on semen quality by use of infrared thermography in Nelore bulls bred extensively. There were scrotal thermography and semen collection. Climatic data were collected by means of globe thermometer. The thermograms of the scrotum were obtained by digital infrared thermography. We carried out ejaculates through electroejaculation for analysis of quantitative and qualitative characteristics. For the data, we used analysis of variance and subsequently applied the Tukey test at 5%. (p <0.05 between animals for sperm vigor, sperm motility between animals and between crops, sperm concentration, total sperm and total viable sperm between groups, between harvests for the scrotum temperatures and climate data. It was concluded that the surface temperatures of the scrotum and climatic factors influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a complementary test in the evaluation of reproductive bulls.

  7. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  8. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium [Fischoeder 1901] (Digenea: Paramphistomidae), a parasite of Bos taurus in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane

    2007-08-01

    The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7 microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body". Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.

  9. Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium (Fischoeder 1901; Digenea, Paramphistomidae), a parasite of Bos taurus in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Momar Talla; Marchand, Bernard; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane

    2007-07-01

    The ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Paramphistomum microbothrium gave evidence of some characteristics of this digenean. The intercentriolar body located between two striated roots and two centrioles exhibits a symmetric plane. The two external bands of this intercentriolar body are made up of a line of granules. The striated roots are about 3.7-microm long. During spermiogenesis, a flagellar rotation of 90 degrees is described. The spermatozoon is characterized in its anterior part by the existence of external ornamentations and a lateral expansion exhibiting a "spine-like body." Such a spine-like body has never been described before in a digenean. The region II of the spermatozoon is asymmetrical and also characterized by the absence of mitochondrion. The posterior end of this spermatozoon exhibits a nucleus and a few microtubules.

  10. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvan, A Sakthivel; Gupta, I D; Verma, A; Chaudhari, M V; Magotra, A

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal. Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenol-chloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows using Helicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCR-RFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ (2)) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns. Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I (contig 2) and HinfI (contig 4) RE

  11. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  12. TAURUS, Post-processor of 3-D Finite Elements Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.E.; Hallquist, J.O.; Kennedy, T.

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: TAURUS reads the binary plot files generated by the LLNL three-dimensional finite element analysis codes, NIKE3D (NESC 9725), DYNA3D (NESC 9909), TACO3D (NESC 9838), TOPAZ3D (NESC9599) and GEMINI and plots contours, time histories, and deformed shapes. Contours of a large number of quantities may be plotted on meshes consisting of plate, shell, and solid type elements. TAURUS can compute a variety of strain measures, reaction forces along constrained boundaries, and momentum. TAURUS has three phases: initialization, geometry display with contouring, and time history processing

  13. Reintroducing fire into a ponderosa pine forest with and without cattle grazing: understory vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; Michelle Buonopane; Walter G. Thies; Christine. Niwa

    2011-01-01

    Reestablishing historical fire regimes is a high priority for North American coniferous forests, particularly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) ecosystems. These forests are also used extensively for cattle (Bos spp.) grazing. Prescribed fires are being applied on or planned for millions of hectares of these forests to reduce...

  14. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces methane emission in beef cattle fed sugarcane-based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, R.B.A.; Berndt, A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Zijderveld, van S.M.; Newbold, J.R.; Perdok, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary nitrate on methane emission and rumen fermentation parameters in Nellore × Guzera (Bos indicus) beef cattle fed a sugarcane based diet. The experiment was conducted with 16 steers weighing 283 ± 49 kg (mean ± SD), 6 rumen cannulated

  15. Recent and historical recombination in the admixed Norwegian Red cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grove Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the

  16. Whole genome resequencing of black Angus and Holstein cattle for SNP and CNV discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stothard Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the goals of livestock genomics research is to identify the genetic differences responsible for variation in phenotypic traits, particularly those of economic importance. Characterizing the genetic variation in livestock species is an important step towards linking genes or genomic regions with phenotypes. The completion of the bovine genome sequence and recent advances in DNA sequencing technology allow for in-depth characterization of the genetic variations present in cattle. Here we describe the whole-genome resequencing of two Bos taurus bulls from distinct breeds for the purpose of identifying and annotating novel forms of genetic variation in cattle. Results The genomes of a Black Angus bull and a Holstein bull were sequenced to 22-fold and 19-fold coverage, respectively, using the ABI SOLiD system. Comparisons of the sequences with the Btau4.0 reference assembly yielded 7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 24% of which were identified in both animals. Of the total SNPs found in Holstein, Black Angus, and in both animals, 81%, 81%, and 75% respectively are novel. In-depth annotations of the data identified more than 16 thousand distinct non-synonymous SNPs (85% novel between the two datasets. Alignments between the SNP-altered proteins and orthologues from numerous species indicate that many of the SNPs alter well-conserved amino acids. Several SNPs predicted to create or remove stop codons were also found. A comparison between the sequencing SNPs and genotyping results from the BovineHD high-density genotyping chip indicates a detection rate of 91% for homozygous SNPs and 81% for heterozygous SNPs. The false positive rate is estimated to be about 2% for both the Black Angus and Holstein SNP sets, based on follow-up genotyping of 422 and 427 SNPs, respectively. Comparisons of read depth between the two bulls along the reference assembly identified 790 putative copy-number variations (CNVs. Ten

  17. Protozoários ciliados do rúmen de bovinos e bubalinos alimentados com dietas suplementadas com monensina ou própolis Ruminal ciliate protozoa of cattle and buffalo fed on diet supplemented with monensin or extracts from propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Barros Ríspoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dietas suplementadas com monensina ou produtos à base de própolis, nas populações de protozoários ciliados no rúmen de bovinos (Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis. Quatro bovinos da raça Holandesa e quatro búfalos da raça Murrah adultos, fistulados no rúmen, foram distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino (4x4. A dieta constituiu-se de 50% de silagem de milho e 50% de concentrado à base de milho em grãos e farelo de soja, com adição de monensina sódica ou aditivo à base de própolis LLOSA2 ou LLOSC1. As amostras do conteúdo ruminal foram coletadas duas horas após a alimentação. O gênero Entodinium foi o mais representativo em todos os tratamentos, para ambas as raças de ruminantes. Em búfalos, foi observado o efeito redutor do tratamento LLOSC1 nas populações do gênero Entodinium, além do efeito redutor dos tratamentos monensina e LLOSA2 sobre os gêneros da subfamília Diplodiniinae. A média de ciliados foi maior em bubalinos (56x10(4 mL-1 do que em bovinos (26x10(4 mL-1. Houve aumento do pH ruminal dos bovinos no tratamento com monensina. O extrato de própolis LLOSC1 reduziu os ciliados do rúmen em bubalinos.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of diets supplemented with monensin or with extracts of propolis, on the population of ciliate protozoa in the rumen of cattle (Bos taurus and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Four Holstein cattle and four Murrah buffalo, fistulated in the rumen, were distributed in 4x4 Latin square design. The diet was constituted by 50% corn silage and 50% concentrate based on corn grain and soybean meal, and the supplementation of monensin sodium or propolis extracts LLOSA2 or LLOSC1. Samples of ruminal contents were collected two hours after feeding. The genus Entodinium was the most common in all treatments for both cattle and buffalo. The LLOSC1 treatment reduced the populations of the genus Entodinium in buffalo

  18. Temperature Studies for ATLAS MDT BOS Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Engl, A.; Biebel, O.; Mameghani, R.; Merkl, D.; Rauscher, F.; Schaile, D.; Ströhmer, R.

    Data sets with high statistics taken at the cosmic ray facility, equipped with 3 ATLAS BOS MDT chambers, in Garching (Munich) have been used to study temperature and pressure effects on gas gain and drifttime. The deformation of a thermally expanded chamber was reconstructed using the internal RasNik alignment monitoring system and the tracks from cosmic data. For these studies a heating system was designed to increase the temperature of the middle chamber by up to 20 Kelvins over room temperature. For comparison the temperature effects on gas properties have been simulated with Garfield. The maximum drifttime decreased under temperature raise by -2.21 +- 0.08 ns/K, in agreement with the results of pressure variations and the Garfield simulation. The increased temperatures led to a linear increase of the gas gain of about 2.1% 1/K. The chamber deformation has been analyzed with the help of reconstructed tracks. By the comparison of the tracks through the reference chambers with these through the test chamber ...

  19. THE DISK POPULATION OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed nearly all images of the Taurus star-forming region at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm that were obtained during the cryogenic mission of the Spitzer Space Telescope (46 deg 2 ) and have measured photometry for all known members of the region that are within these data, corresponding to 348 sources, or 99% of the known stellar population. By combining these measurements with previous observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and other facilities, we have classified the members of Taurus according to whether they show evidence of circumstellar disks and envelopes (classes I, II, and III). Through these classifications, we find that the disk fraction in Taurus, N(II)/N(II+III), is ∼75% for solar-mass stars and declines to ∼45% for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs (0.01-0.3 M sun ). This dependence on stellar mass is similar to that measured for Chamaeleon I, although the disk fraction in Taurus is slightly higher overall, probably because of its younger age (1 Myr versus 2-3 Myr). In comparison, the disk fraction for solar-mass stars is much lower (∼20%) in IC 348 and σ Ori, which are denser than Taurus and Chamaeleon I and are roughly coeval with the latter. These data indicate that disk lifetimes for solar-mass stars are longer in star-forming regions that have lower stellar densities. Through an analysis of multiple epochs of Spitzer photometry that are available for ∼200 Taurus members, we find that stars with disks exhibit significantly greater mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability than diskless stars, which agrees with the results of similar variability measurements for a smaller sample of stars in Chamaeleon I. The variability fraction for stars with disks is higher in Taurus than in Chamaeleon I, indicating that the IR variability of disks decreases with age. Finally, we have used our data in Taurus to refine the observational criteria for primordial, evolved, and transitional disks. The ratio of the number of evolved and

  20. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of an 11,450-year-old Aurochsen (Bos primigenius from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscato Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bos primigenius, the aurochs, is the wild ancestor of modern cattle breeds and was formerly widespread across Eurasia and northern Africa. After a progressive decline, the species became extinct in 1627. The origin of modern taurine breeds in Europe is debated. Archaeological and early genetic evidence point to a single Near Eastern origin and a subsequent spread during the diffusion of herding and farming. More recent genetic data are instead compatible with local domestication events or at least some level of local introgression from the aurochs. Here we present the analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a pre-Neolithic Italian aurochs. Results In this study, we applied a combined strategy employing both multiplex PCR amplifications and 454 pyrosequencing technology to sequence the complete mitochondrial genome of an 11,450-year-old aurochs specimen from Central Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of the aurochs mtDNA genome supports the conclusions from previous studies of short mtDNA fragments - namely that Italian aurochsen were genetically very similar to modern cattle breeds, but highly divergent from the North-Central European aurochsen. Conclusions Complete mitochondrial genome sequences are now available for several modern cattle and two pre-Neolithic mtDNA genomes from very different geographic areas. These data suggest that previously identified sub-groups within the widespread modern cattle mitochondrial T clade are polyphyletic, and they support the hypothesis that modern European breeds have multiple geographic origins.

  1. The BOS loci of Arabidopsis are required for resistance to Botrytis cinerea infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Paola; Chen, Xi; Bluhm, Burton; Salmeron, John; Dietrich, Robert; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2004-11-01

    Three Botrytis-susceptible mutants bos2, bos3, and bos4 which define independent and novel genetic loci required for Arabidopsis resistance to Botrytis cinerea were isolated. The bos2 mutant is susceptible to B. cinerea but retains wild-type levels of resistance to other pathogens tested, indicative of a defect in a response pathway more specific to B. cinerea. The bos3 and bos4 mutants also show increased susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola, another necrotrophic pathogen, suggesting a broader role for these loci in resistance. bos4 shows the broadest range of effects on resistance, being more susceptible to avirulent strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Interestingly, bos3 is more resistant than wild-type plants to virulent strains of the biotrophic pathogen Peronospora parasitica and the bacterial pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato. The Pathogenesis Related gene 1 (PR-1), a molecular marker of the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance pathway, shows a wild-type pattern of expression in bos2, while in bos3 this gene was expressed at elevated levels, both constitutively and in response to pathogen challenge. In bos4 plants, PR-1 expression was reduced compared with wild type in response to B. cinerea and SA. In bos3, the mutant most susceptible to B. cinerea and with the highest expression of PR-1, removal of SA resulted in reduced PR-1 expression but no change to the B. cinerea response. Expression of the plant defensin gene PDF1-2 was generally lower in bos mutants compared with wild-type plants, with a particularly strong reduction in bos3. Production of the phytoalexin camalexin is another well-characterized plant defense response. The bos2 and bos4 mutants accumulate reduced levels of camalexin whereas bos3 accumulates significantly higher levels of camalexin than wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. The BOS2, BOS3, and BOS4 loci may affect camalexin levels and responsiveness to ethylene and jasmonate. The three new mutants appear to mediate

  2. The yak genome and adaptation to life at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Qiang; Zhang, Guojie; Ma, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) provide meat and other necessities for Tibetans living at high altitude on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and in adjacent regions. Comparison between yak and the closely related low-altitude cattle (Bos taurus) is informative in studying animal adaptation to high altitude...

  3. Assessment of genetic variation among four populations of Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Username

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... 4 College of Animal Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Forage & Herbivore, Chongqing. Engineering Research Centre for Herbivores ...... evolution, domestication and phylogeography of taurine and zebu cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). Genetics. 146, 1071-1086. Maletsanake, D.

  4. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  5. Marginal costs of abating greenhouse gases in the global ruminant livestock sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Falcucci, A.; Early, L.; Gerber, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Livestock [inclusive of ruminant species, namely cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Capra hircus), and buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and non-ruminant species, namely pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) and chickens (Gallus domesticus)] are both affected by climate change and

  6. Draft genome of the gayal, Bos frontalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Shan; Zeng, Yan; Wang, Xiao; Nie, Wen-Hui; Wang, Jin-Huan; Su, Wei-Ting; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Qu, Kai-Xing; Yan, Shou-Qing; Yang, Min-Min; Wang, Wen; Dong, Yang; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gayal (Bos frontalis), also known as mithan or mithun, is a large endangered semi-domesticated bovine that has a limited geographical distribution in the hill-forests of China, Northeast India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Bhutan. Many questions about the gayal such as its origin, population history, and genetic basis of local adaptation remain largely unresolved. De novo sequencing and assembly of the whole gayal genome provides an opportunity to address these issues. We report a high-depth sequencing, de novo assembly, and annotation of a female Chinese gayal genome. Based on the Illumina genomic sequencing platform, we have generated 350.38 Gb of raw data from 16 different insert-size libraries. A total of 276.86 Gb of clean data is retained after quality control. The assembled genome is about 2.85 Gb with scaffold and contig N50 sizes of 2.74 Mb and 14.41 kb, respectively. Repetitive elements account for 48.13% of the genome. Gene annotation has yielded 26 667 protein-coding genes, of which 97.18% have been functionally annotated. BUSCO assessment shows that our assembly captures 93% (3183 of 4104) of the core eukaryotic genes and 83.1% of vertebrate universal single-copy orthologs. We provide the first comprehensive de novo genome of the gayal. This genetic resource is integral for investigating the origin of the gayal and performing comparative genomic studies to improve understanding of the speciation and divergence of bovine species. The assembled genome could be used as reference in future population genetic studies of gayal. PMID:29048483

  7. Antibiogram profile of pathogens isolated from processed cow meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cow meat or beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines especially cattle. The generic name of cow meat is Bos taurus and the habitable weather of Bos taurus includes temperature of 101.50F (38.60C) and ability to live in a harsh terrains (Li et al., 2006). The processing of cow meat begins from ...

  8. Effect of ruminally protected Methionine on the productive and reproductive performance of grazing Bos indicus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, L; Maquivar, M; Galina, C S; Mendoza, G D; Guzmán, A; Estrada, S; Villareal, M; Molina, R

    2008-12-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effect of methionine supplementation prior to a breeding program, thirty one heifers (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) were used averaging 386 +/- 29 days of age and a mean body weight of 402.6 +/- 28 kg. Fifteen of the animals received a supplement (SG) during 45 days with molasses-urea mixture (2 kg molasses + 407 g urea/head/day), plus 10 g of ruminally protected methionine. The other sixteen heifers did not receive supplement (CG). Fecal and pastures samples were collected to assess dry herbage intake and digestibility. Serial ultrasound measurements from the ovary were performed in both groups to evaluate follicular dynamics. The heifers were categorized according to their follicular size and presence of a CL. Forage intake and dry matter digestibility were reduced (P heifers, however, total intake, final weight, daily gain and dorsal back fat were not affected. After the supplementation period, the percentage of females in the categories or = 9 mm, the percentage of animals was 60% in SG and 18.8% in CG (P < 0.05). The percentage of ovulation for the SG and CG was 86.7% and 62.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). The combination of supplementation with methionine-urea and molasses at the end of the dry season and the anticipated onset of the rainy season favored the establishment of ovarian activity and follicular dynamics.

  9. A comparative study of the morphometry of sperm head components in cattle, sheep, and pigs with a computer-assisted fluorescence method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús L Yániz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sperm nuclear and acrosomal morphometry of three species of domestic artiodactyls; cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, and pigs (Sus scrofa. Semen smears of twenty ejaculates from each species were fixed and labeled with a propidium iodide-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PI/PSA combination. Digital images of the sperm nucleus, acrosome, and whole sperm head were captured and analyzed. The use of the PI/PSA combination and CASA-Morph fluorescence-based method allowed the capture, morphometric analysis, and differentiation of most sperm nuclei, acrosomes and whole heads, and the assessment of acrosomal integrity with a high precision in the three species studied. For the size of the head and nuclear area, the relationship between the three species may be summarized as bull > ram > boar. However, for the other morphometric parameters (length, width, and perimeter, there were differences in the relationships between species for sperm nuclei and whole sperm heads. Bull sperm acrosomes were clearly smaller than those in the other species studied and covered a smaller proportion of the sperm head. The acrosomal morphology, small in the bull, large and broad in the sheep, and large, long, and with a pronounced equatorial segment curve in the boar, was species-characteristic. It was concluded that there are clear variations in the size and shape of the sperm head components between the three species studied, the acrosome being the structure showing the most variability, allowing a clear distinction of the spermatozoa of each species.

  10. Polarimetric study of the interstellar medium in Taurus Dark Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical linear polarimetric survey was completed for more than 300 stars in an area of 6.5 0 x 10 0 toward the Taurus Dark Clouds Complex. It was found that the orientation of the magnetic field is roughly perpendicular to the elongation direction of the dust lanes, indicating cloud contraction along the magnetic field lines. The distance to the front edge of the dark clouds in Taurus is determined to be 126 pc. There is only insignificant amount of obscuring material between the cloud complex and the Sun. Besides the polarization data, the reddenings of about 250 stars were also obtained from the UBV photometry. The mean polarization to reddening ratio in the Taurus region is 4.6, which is similar to that of the general interstellar matter. The wavelengths of maximum polarization were determined for 30 stars in Taurus. They show an average value of lambda/sub max/ = 0.57 μm, which is only slightly higher than the mean value of the general interstellar medium, lambda/sub max/ = 0.55 μm. A few stars that show higher values of lambda/sub max/ are found near the small isolated regions of very high extinction. One such highly obscured small region where very complex long chain molecules have been discovered in the ratio spectra, is the Taurus Molecular Cloud 1

  11. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida.

  12. A study of [i]Neospora caninum[/i] and [i]Toxoplasma[/i] [i]gondii[/i] antibody seroprevalence in healthy cattle in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bártová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. The aim of study was to test the sera of healthy dairy cows by ELISAs, the methods also used in other groups of animals in the Czech Republic, and thus to obtain actual data about [i]N. caninum[/i] and [i]T. gondii[/i] seroprevalence in cattle. [b]Material and methods[/b]. In the Czech Republic, sera from 546 clinically healthy dairy cows ([i]Bos primigenius f. taurus[/i] aged > 2 years from 49 farms in 7 districts were collected. Sera were tested for [i]Neospora caninum[/i] antibodies by a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 30% inhibition were considered as positive. The same samples were also analysed for Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; samples with more than 50% S/P were considered as positive. [b]Results[/b]. Antibodies against [i]N. caninum[/i] were found only in 3 cows (0.5% with inhibitions of 47, 78 and 85. Antibodies against [i]T. gondii [/i]were found in 53 cows (9.7% with S/P ranging from 51% to over 211%; positive animals were found in 4 of 7 districts, with prevalences ranging from 8% – 14%. Indication of mixed infections (concurrent presence of both [i]N. caninum[/i] and [i]T. gondii [/i]antibodies was not proved. [b]Conclusion[/b]. The results of the study indicate that dairy cows in the Czech Republic have a relatively low seroprevalence for both [i]N. caninum[/i] and [i]T. gondii[/i]. Therefore, natural infection with [i]N. caninum[/i] and [i]T. gondii[/i] seems not to be very common in Czech cattle. These results show actual data about [i]N. caninum[/i] and [i]T. gondii [/i]infection in healthy dairy cattle from the Czech Republic.

  13. National Genetic Evaluation (System of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selected through performance and progeny tests. National Hanwoo genetic evaluations are implemented with yearling weight (YW, carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS. Yearling weights and MS are used for selecting young bulls, and EMA, BF, and MS are used for selecting proven bulls. One individual per testing room was used for performance tests, and five individuals per room for progeny tests. Individuals tested were not allowed to graze pasture, but there was enough space for them to move around in the testing room. Feeds including roughages and minerals were fed ad libitum, and concentrates were provided at the rate of about 1.8% of individual weight. Overall means of the traits were 352.8±38.56 kg, 335.09±44.61 kg, 77.85±8.838 cm2, 8.6±3.7 mm and 3.293±1.648 for YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS. Heritabilities estimated in this study were 0.30, 0.30, 0.42, 0.50 and 0.63 in YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS, respectively, which are similar to results from previous research. Yearling weight was 315.54 kg in 1998, and had increased to 355.06 kg in 2011, resulting in about 40 kg of improvement over 13 yrs. YW and CW have improved remarkably over the past 15 yrs. Breeding values between 1996 and 2000 decreased or did not change much, but have moved in a desirable direction since 2001. These improvements correspond with the substantial increase in use of animal models since the late 1990s in Korea. Hanwoo testing programs have

  14. Correlation analysis of the Taurus molecular cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Autocorrelation and power spectrum methods were applied to the analysis of the density and velocity structure of the Taurus Complex and Heiles Cloud 2 as traced out by 13 CO J = 1 → 0 molecular line observations obtained with the 14m antenna of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory. Statistically significant correlations in the spacing of density fluctuations within the Taurus Complex and Heiles 2 were uncovered. The length scales of the observed correlations correspond in magnitude to the Jeans wavelengths characterizing gravitational instabilities with (i) interstellar atomic hydrogen gas for the case of the Taurus complex, and (ii) molecular hydrogen for Heiles 2. The observed correlations may be the signatures of past and current gravitational instabilities frozen into the structure of the molecular gas. The appendices provide a comprehensive description of the analytical and numerical methods developed for the correlation analysis of molecular clouds

  15. Study on the flare stars in the Taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the search of flare stars and their photometric, Hsub(α)-spectroscopic and statistical study in the Taurus are presented. By means of photographic observations carried out during 1980-1984, 92 new flare stars were discovered, 13 of which are known Orion Population variables, and 16 repeated flare-ups among 13 known flare stars. Spatial distribution of these stars was considered and the problem of their membership was discussed. Comparative analysis of the data of flare stars in the Taurus with that of other systems has been carried out. The Herzsprung-Russel and two-colour (U-B, B-V) diagrams for the Taurus flare stars are similar to the diagrams of stellar clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion etc.). The estimated total number of flare stars in this region is larger than 500

  16. A study of flare stars in the taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of a search for flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus together with the results of photometric, H /sub alpha/ -spectroscopic, and statistical investigations of them. Photographic observations during 1980-1984 revealed 92 new flare stars, 13 of which were found to be known Orion variables with 16 repeated flares of 13 previously known flare stars. Their apparent distribution is considered. The question of whether the flare stars belong to a dark cloud is discussed. A comparative analysis of the flare stars in the Taurus region and other aggregates is made. The Hertzsprung-Russell (V, B - V) and two-color (U - B, B - V) diagrams for the flare stars are similar to the corresponding diagrams constructed for star clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion, etc.). The total number of flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus is estimated at ≥ 500

  17. De prijsvorming van hout uit het Nederlandse bos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.

    1984-01-01

    De prijsvorming van hout op stam en hout geveld uit het Nederlandse bos op het niveau van het bosbedrijf staat centraal in deze publikatie. Na een schets van een aantal facetten die invloed hebben op de prijsvorming wordt nader ingegaan op de prijsvorming zelf. Onderzocht wordt of er verschil in

  18. Testicular compensation in Nguni (Bos indicus, Sanga) bulls with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Testicular compensation in Nguni. (Bos indicus, Sanga) bulls with unilateral gonadal hypoplasia and aplasia. G.W. Kay* and E.H.H. Meyer. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. *To whom correspondence should be addressed. The testosterone response to ...

  19. Combining ART and FBP for improved fidelity of tomographic BOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ulrich; Seume, Joerg R.

    2016-09-01

    Engine component defects along the hot-gas path (HGP) of jet engines influence the density distribution of the flow, and thus result in characteristic patterns in the exhaust jet. These characteristic patterns can be reconstructed with the optical background-oriented schlieren (BOS) method in a tomographic set-up, which in turn allows the identification of defects inside the engine through an exhaust jet analysis. The quality of the tomographic reconstruction strongly influences how easily defects can be detected inside the jet engine. In particular, the presence of high gradients in the reconstruction area has a strong impact on the reconstruction quality. An algebraic reconstruction algorithm (ART) is implemented and compared to a filtered-back projection (FBP) algorithm in terms of the capability of performing high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions. A combination of both algorithms is presented which significantly improves the reconstruction quality of high-gradient tomographic BOS in terms of artifact reduction. The combination of both algorithms is applied to both synthetic and real measurement data in this paper, in order to show possible applications and the achievable improvement of high-gradient tomographic BOS reconstructions.

  20. Pelepah dan Daun Kelapa Sawit Terfermentasi oleh Aspergillus niger Dalam Konsentrat Terhadap Kecernaan Bahan Kering dan Bahan Organik Ransum Pada Sapi iiiBali (Bos sondaicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Harahap, Yahya Partomuan

    2012-01-01

    YAHYA PARTOMUAN HARAHAP : The Oil Palm Frond Fermented by Aspergillus niger on The Digestibility of Dry Matter and Organic Matter on Bali cattle (Bos sondaicus). Under supervised by EDHY MIRWANDHONO and MA’RUF TAFSIN. The Oil Palm Frond is potensive to be an alternative feed. But the high of fiber in the oil palm frond has a negative effect to the digestibility. Utilizing of Aspergillus niger can increase the nutrition of oil palm frond. The objective of this research was conducted to inv...

  1. Interstellar ice grains in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, M.F.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations made in November 1981 using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea of the 3 μm ice absorption feature in the spectra of several obscured stars in the Taurus interstellar clouds are reported. The feature correlated in strength with extinction at visual wavelengths (Asub(v)), and is present in stars with Asub(v) as low as 4-6 mag. Ice may be widespread in the Taurus clouds, vindicating ideas on grain composition and growth first reported nearly 50 yr ago. (author)

  2. T Tauri stars in Taurus - the IRAS view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Stella; Clegg, Peter; Hughes, Joanne

    1988-01-01

    Statistical studies of star-formation have traditionally been beset with selection effects. We have developed a technique, using the completeness of the IRAS catalogue, which circumvents these effects. We have taken the properties of known T Tau stars within Taurus as a template to establish a purely IRAS-based definition of such sources. We then use this definition to extract, from the IRAS catalogue, all sources within a specific region of Taurus having those same IRAS properties. This wider class of source is examined and discussed. (author)

  3. The temporal behaviour of Taurus X-1 (the Crab Nebula)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, P.J.N.

    1975-01-01

    Copernicus data on Taurus X-1 and the Crab pulsar extending over a 2 1/2-yr period indicate that under normal conditions the source has a flux that is constant to within 2.5 per cent at the 90 per cent confidence level. The pulsed/total flux ratio also shows no significant changes during the same time. (author)

  4. Recent TAURUS results on Hα velocities in M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.J.; Atherton, P.D.; Oosterloo, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary Hα observations with the TAURUS imaging spectrometer confirm a pattern of systematic radial motions in a section of spiral arm in M83. The velocity gradients are not consistent with those predicted for the neutral gas. Non-circular motions have also been discovered in the central regions of the galaxy. (Auth.)

  5. Relationship between back and rump fat thickness and residual feed intake of young Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eimar de Oliveira Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Evidence exists of a positive correlation between RFI and fat thickness in Bos taurus, suggesting that low RFI cattle (feed efficient ones are leaner. The objective of this study was to access the relationship between fat thickness and RFI by partial correlation including all animals (n=603, 300 bulls and 303 heifers, and by means comparison including only animals divergently classified by RFI (low RFI, n=192 and high RFI, n=186. The animals were born from 2004 to 2010, and were performance tested after weaning for 56 to 112 days, depending of test year and sex. The average age and body weight at the beginning of performance test were 286±42 days and 225±51kg. At the end of performance test images of backfat thickness (BF were obtained by ultrasound (Pie Medical-Aquila-3.5 MHz linear probe between the 12th and 13th ribs, transversely over the longissimus muscle. Images of rump fat thickness (RF were obtained at the junction of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles between the hook and pin bones. The images were saved and subsequently analyzed using Echo Image Viewer 1.0. For partial correlations (MANOVA, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effect of contemporary group (GC=year, sex and installation and age of the beginning of performance test and age of ultrasound fat measurement (average of 373±42 days as covariates (linear effect. For means comparison (GLM, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effects of GC, RFI classes (only low RFI and high RFI, excluding medium RFI and age of beginning of performance test. Partial correlations between fat thickness and RFI were close to zero (-0.006 for BF and 0.010 for RF. Reinforcing these results, there were no significant differences of BF and RF from feed efficient (low RFI class and feed

  6. Efforts In Conserving Purebred Bali Cattle As Draught And Beef Type In Bali Island, Indonesia. (UPAYA PELESTARIAN SAPI BALI SEBAGAI TABUNGAN DAN TIPE PEDAGING DI PULAU BALI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Kasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle (Bos javanicus d’Alton is a part of the complex evolution of all cattle over a longtime in Indonesia. Little is known of the origin of bali cattle in Southeast Asia.  The geographicaldistribution of Bos (Bibos types of cattle suggests that the centre of domestication was Indo-China and Malaysia, then spreading to Bali. Due to such several unique characters of bali cattle, someefforts have been conducting with main purpose to conserve purebred, draught as well as meat typecattle on Bali in particular and Indonesia in general. Method has been employed in this study areliterature explore, visiting, interview with questionnaire sheet. Set of efforts have been conductingin order to conserve purebred bali cattle by the government. For examples, establishment of balicattle Breeding centre of Pulukan village, establishment of bali cattle Breeding centre of Sobanganvillage, establishment of bali cattle Conservation centre of Nusa Penida Island,  essense of UdayanaUniversity, Bali and role of Department of Animal Husbandry. It could be concluded thatgovernment as a whole have played an important role in conserving the purebred bali cattle asdraught and meat type cattle at certain suitable places in Bali to fulfill local and national daily meatrequirement by establishing good collaboration with related government agency as well as farmers.

  7. Evaluation of the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination through the use of progesterone RIA in Venezuela and its improvement with temporary calf removal and progesterone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Belloso, E.; Portillo Martinez, G.; De Ondiz, A.; Rojas, N.; Soto Castillo, G.; Aranguren, J.; Ramirez Iglesia, L.; Perera, F.

    2001-01-01

    A survey was carried out to evaluate the reproductive performance of crossbred zebu cattle under artificial insemination (AI). Defatted milk samples were taken for progesterone radioimmunoassay at the moment of AI (day 0), 10 days and 22 days after AI and at manual pregnancy diagnosis. Six farms located in the western region of Venezuela were used in this study and a total of 600 AI were included. The calving to first service interval (CFSI) and the calving to conception interval (CCI) showed no significant differences between the hand milking (suckling) and machine milking (non suckling) systems. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were found among farms within the traditional and hand milking system. The mean (± SEM) CFSI for first calving heifers and for cows with second or higher parity was 141.9 ± 6.9 and 71.8 ± 4.2 days (P<0.05), and the CCI for these two groups was 154 ± 8.9 and 80.8 ± 5.5 days (P<0.05), respectively. Cows calving in the dry season had CFSI and CCI of 115.4 ± 5.2 and 123.8 ± 6.8 days, while for those calving in the rainy season the intervals were 98.3 ± 5.5 and 111.1 ± 7.2 days respectively (P<0.05). Predominantly Bos indicus cows had shorter CFSI and CCI (P<0.05) than predominantly Bos taurus cows. Overall conception rate, analyzed by Chi-square, showed significant differences due to predominant breed and parity. Correct heat detection, as determined by low progesterone levels at AI, was 95.5% in the best farm and 83.3% in the worst farm. The results of this study identify a postpartum anoestrus problem, especially in the first calf heifers with an important effect of season, breed, farm, and heat detection on the reproductive efficiency of farms under AI. After this survey a study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of calf removal for 96 hours compared with treatment using norgestomet implants and PMSG for oestrus induction and fertility in crossbred primiparous acyclic zebu. cows which were suckled twice a day

  8. Analysis of the risk factors related to the immune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale in dairy cattleAnálise dos fatores de risco relacionados à resposta imune humoral anti-Anaplasma marginale em vacas de leite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent pathogen of cattle transmitted by ticks in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for anaplasmosis in dairy cattle. Fifty dairy cattle from the herd of Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro were selected by proportional stratified sampling. The risk factors evaluated were: physiological state, race pattern, number of lactations, milk production, infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus and animal density. Antibody activity against A. marginale was determined using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentual values of seroprevalence for A. marginale were submitted to χ2 test, and the level of minimum significance, to keep a factor in the model of logistic regression, was fixated in 5%. It was observed that pregnancy and lactation influenced significantly (pAnaplasma marginale é o mais prevalente patógeno de bovinos transmitido por carrapatos em todo o mundo. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os fatores de risco para anaplasmose em vacas de leite. Foram selecionadas por amostragem estratificada proporcional 50 vacas do rebanho da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os fatores de risco avaliados foram: estado fisiologico, padrão racial, número de lactações, produção leiteira, infestação por Rhipicephalus microplus e densidade animal. Atividade de anticorpos contra Anaplasma marginale determinada utilizado o Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimático Indireto. Os valores percentuais de soroprevalêcia para A. marginale foram submetidos ao teste ?2, sendo que o nível de significância mínima para manter um fator no modelo de regressão logística foi fixado em 5%. Observou-se que, tanto a gestação quanto a lactação influenciaram significativamente (p<0.05 na soropositividade dos animais. Animais Bos indicus apresentaram 5,21 vezes mais chance de serem soropositivos do que animais B. taurus. Fêmeas prim

  9. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, M. H. A.; Freua, M. C.; Do, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feed lots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle......, were annotated and the biological processes underlying the traits were inferred from Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Our results indicated several putative genomic regions associated with the target...... genetics approach used in this study revealed novel pathways related to feed efficiency traits in beef cattle....

  10. Conservation of the genetic material of Macedonian Busha cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunevski Gjoko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Busha is an indigenous breed of cattle in many Balkan countries. It has been bred for centuries. It belongs to primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus. These cattle used to be the dominant and most important breed in almost all Balkan countries until the 1950s and 1960s, but today in lowland areas where intensive farming is practiced they have already been replaced by more productive and specialized breeds of cattle. In Macedonia this breed has officially been classified as a triple purpose breed (raised for meat, milk and draft but considering its low production capabilities it is more similar to some primitive draft breeds. This breed is part of the National Biodiversity Program for the conservation of indigenous breeds of animals in the Republic of Macedonia. Economic, cultural and scientific reasons underlie the need to protect the biological diversity of autochthonous breeds of cattle such as the Busha. The aim of the research was to establish a gene bank for different strains of adult Busha cattle in the Republic of Macedonia. To this end, 998 samples of blood, 1100 hair coat samples and 958 doses of semen were collected from adult Busha cattle. Also, a phenotypic characterization was done on adult Busha cattle for their major productive and morphological traits. During the last few years, there have been certain negative trends in the population size of Busha cattle in accordance with the decline of the rural population in the hills and uplands and young people's disinterest in rearing indigenous breeds of cattle such as the Busha.

  11. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  12. Association analysis of PRKAG3 gene variants with carcass and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... study could add new evidence that PRKAG3 is an important candidate gene to be used for selection of meat traits in the beef cattle industry. .... detected in four Bos taurus cattle breeds; the bovine. PRKAG3 gene described in that study might be involved in muscle-related genetic diseases or meat quality ...

  13. Llllan, w. WAIBOCPH, Keith, T. BALLINGALI, Niall, n. MACHUGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African cattle are a hi ghly divergent population possibly due tointrogression by Asian Bos indicus Oiumped) cattle and more recently European B. taurus ... highly divergent Asian, African and European allelic families. This describes signiñcant allelic ..... J. Tïssue Culture Methods Il: 101. 13. Bembridge, G.P. Parsons, K,R., ...

  14. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M ☉ ).

  15. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis reports a large-scale survey of carbon monoxide ( 12 CO) emission (at λ = 2.6 mm) from dark nebulae in Taurus and Perseus. CO spectra at 4395 points were obtained within an area of about 800 square degrees generally west of the galactic anti-center. The spatial resolution of the instrument was eight arcminutes and velocity resolution was 2.6 km s -1 /. CO emission is strongest wherever extinction by dust is greatest, spilling over the apparent outer boundaries of the dust clouds observed optically. Combining CO velocity for the nebulae with optically determined distances shows that the clouds in the survey area form several layers. The molecular cloud mass closest to the sun is the Taurus and Auriga complex about 150 +/- 50 pc). Nearer to the Per )B2 OB association (at 350 +/- 100 pc) than the Taurus clouds are the Per OB2 molecular cloud (350 +/- 100 pc) and the California Nebula = NGC15979 molecular clouds (at 400 +/- 150 pc). Cloud masses were determined from integrated CO emission intensity alone by assuming that γ-ray emission intensities can be used to relate H 2 column densities to CO emission intensities

  16. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  17. Petroleum systems in the eastern and central Taurus region, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, I.H. [Hacettepe Univ., Beytepe-Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2004-09-01

    The Autochthonous Taurus 'known' petroleum system is geographically located in the eastern Taurus region and includes the Allochthonous Units and Miocene-Pliocene sequences in the Adana Basin. The total thickness of the Early Palaeozoic to Cenozoic sediments reaches 9500-10400 m. The eastern Taurus region is a major petroleum source area with three source rocks: Upper Devonian limestones, Lower Carboniferous shales and dark carbonates, and Upper Permian algal limestones and shales. The Burdigalian-Serravillian sandstones and limestones and the Late Tortonian-Messinian evaporites and shales of the Adana Basin constitute the reservoir-seal rock combinations in this petroleum system. The main periods for oil generation from these source rocks occurred during the Aptian to Bartonian, Maastrichtian and Lutetian to the present. However, the main periods for oil generation for the effective source rocks (Lower Carboniferous and Upper Permian formations) began 40 mybp and continued to 20 mybp. Oil and gas traps in this petroleum system are formed by thrusting due to Late Cretaceous and Late Eocene tectonism, strike- slip faults and unconformity surfaces. (author)

  18. Genetic dissection of milk yield traits and mastitis resistance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 20 in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Naveen K; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-12-01

    Intense selection to increase milk yield has had negative consequences for mastitis incidence in dairy cattle. Due to low heritability of mastitis resistance and an unfavorable genetic correlation with milk yield, a reduction in mastitis through traditional breeding has been difficult to achieve. Here, we examined quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate for clinical mastitis and milk yield on Bos taurus autosome 20 (BTA20) to determine whether both traits are affected by a single polymorphism (pleiotropy) or by multiple closely linked polymorphisms. In the latter but not the former situation, undesirable genetic correlation could potentially be broken by selecting animals that have favorable variants for both traits. First, we performed a within-breed association study using a haplotype-based method in Danish Holstein cattle (HOL). Next, we analyzed Nordic Red dairy cattle (RDC) and Danish Jersey cattle (JER) with the goal of determining whether these QTL identified in Holsteins were segregating across breeds. Genotypes for 12,566 animals (5,966 HOL, 5,458 RDC, and 1,142 JER) were determined by using the Illumina Bovine SNP50 BeadChip (50K; Illumina, San Diego, CA), which identifies 1,568 single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA20. Data were combined, phased, and clustered into haplotype states, followed by within- and across-breed haplotype-based association analyses using a linear mixed model. Association signals for both clinical mastitis and milk yield peaked in the 26- to 40-Mb region on BTA20 in HOL. Single-variant association analyses were carried out in the QTL region using whole sequence level variants imputed from references of 2,036 HD genotypes (BovineHD BeadChip; Illumina) and 242 whole-genome sequences. The milk QTL were also segregating in RDC and JER on the BTA20-targeted region; however, an indication of differences in the causal factor(s) was observed across breeds. A previously reported F279Y mutation (rs385640152) within the growth hormone

  19. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  20. Serological patterns of brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever in Bos indicus cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, Francesca; Handel, Ian G; Fèvre, Eric M; Morgan, Kenton L; Tanya, Vincent N; Bronsvoort, Barend M de C

    2010-01-21

    Brucellosis, leptospirosis and Q fever are important infections of livestock causing a range of clinical conditions including abortions and reduced fertility. In addition, they are all important zoonotic infections infecting those who work with livestock and those who consume livestock related products such as milk, producing non-specific symptoms including fever, that are often misdiagnosed and that can lead to severe chronic disease. This study used banked sera from the Adamawa Region of Cameroon to investigate the seroprevalences and distributions of seropositive animals and herds. A classical statistical and a multi-level prevalence modelling approach were compared. The unbiased estimates were 20% of herds were seropositive for Brucella spp. compared to 95% for Leptospira spp. and 68% for Q fever. The within-herd seroprevalences were 16%, 35% and 39% respectively. There was statistical evidence of clustering of seropositive brucellosis and Q fever herds. The modelling approach has the major advantage that estimates of seroprevalence can be adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test used and the multi-level structure of the sampling. The study found a low seroprevalence of brucellosis in the Adamawa Region compared to a high proportion of leptospirosis and Q fever seropositive herds. This represents a high risk to the human population as well as potentially having a major impact on animal health and productivity in the region.

  1. relationship of thyroid and adrenal function to growth rate in bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ductivity of Bas taurus breeds is higher than that of. Bas indicus breeds. However, feed intake and growth rate of Bas taurus breeds decreases rapidly as temperature in- creases (Fuller, 1969). Differences in heat tolerance and thermal stability between breeds have been attributed to differences in anatomy, in metabolic ...

  2. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di; Clemens, D. P.; Krco, Marko

    2011-01-01

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A V ∼ 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 μG and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales (∼2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  3. USO DE ANTI-HELMÍNTICOS E BIOESTIMULANTES NO DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE SUPLEMENTADOS A PASTO NO ESTADO DO PARÁ EFFECTS OF VERMIFUGES AND BIOSTIMULANTS ON BEEF CATTLE PERFORMANCE UNDER PASTURE SUPPLEMENTATION IN PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Rubielle Silva de Castro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento avaliou o efeito da vermifugação e da utilização de bioestimulantes no ganho de peso e no escore de condição corporal (ECC de bovinos de corte, criados em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com suplementação a pasto, no Estado do Pará, durante 160 dias. Foram utilizados 132 bovinos machos não castrados, com idade média de 24 meses, da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus. Os grupos experimentais compreenderam o grupo G1 (controle; n=33, G2 (moxidectina 1%; n=33, G3 (moxidectina 10%; n=33 e G4 (ivermectina 3,15%; n=33. Em todos os grupos foram estabelecidas três subparcelas, a fim de serem testados dois bioestimulantes de crescimento animal (bioestimulante 1 e bioestimulante 2. Não houve diferença estatística significativa no ganho de peso médio, no ECC e nas contagens de OPG entre animais do G1, G2, G3 e G4, independentemente dos anti-helmínticos e/ou bioestimulantes usados. Contudo, o tratamento baseado na associação de moxidectina 1% e o bioestimulante 2 apresentou maior receita líquida e incrementou a lucratividade da terminação em 1,24%. Os resultados sugerem que não há necessidade de um controle contra nematódeos durante a terminação, desde que os animais apresentem uma baixa carga parasitária, porém o uso de fármacos pode, sob certas condições, apresentar resultado econômico favorável.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anti-helmíntico, bovinocultura, crescimento, rentabilidade, sistema de produção.
    The experiment evaluated the effect of vermifuges and biostimulants on weight gain and body condition score (BCS of beef cattle, created in pasture supplementation system, in the State of Pará, during 160 days. Experimental animal were 132 Nelore (Bos taurus indicus, non-castrated male, with average age of 24 months. Experimental groups were: G1 group (control; n=33, G2 (1% moxidectin; n=33, G3 (10% moxidectin; n=33 and G4 (3.15% ivermectin; n=33. Each group was divided in three plots, in order to test

  4. New insights on multiplicity and clustering in Taurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joncour, Isabelle; Duchene, Gaspard; Moraux, Estelle; Mundy, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Multiplicity and clustering of young stars are critical clues to constraint star formation process. The Taurus molecular complex is the archetype of a quiescent star forming region that may retain primeval signature of star formation.Using statistical and clustering tools such as nearest neighbor statistics, correlation functions and the density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm, this work reveals new spatial substructures in Taurus.We have identified unexpected ultra wide pairs (UWPs) candidates of high order multiplicity in Taurus in the 5-60 kAU separation range (Joncour et al 2017), beyond the separation assessed for wide pairs (Kraus & Hillenbrand 2009).Our work reveals 20 local stellar substructures, the Nested Elementary Structures (NESTs). These NESTs contain nearly half the stars of Taurus and 75% of the Class 0/I objects probing that they are the preferred sites of star formation (Joncour et al, sub.). The NESTs size ranges from few kAU up to 80 kAU making a length scale bridge between wide pairs and loose group (few hundreds kAU, Kirk & Myers, 2011). The NESTs mass ranges from 0.5-10 solar mass. The balance between Class I, II and III in NESTs suggests that they may be ordered as an evolutionary temporal scheme, some of them got infertile, while other shelter stars in infancy.The UWPs and the NESTs may be pristine imprints of their spatial configuration at birth. The UWPs population may result from a cascade fragmentation scenario of the natal molecular core. They could be the older counterparts, to the 0.5 Myr prestellar cores/Class 0 multiple objects observed at radio/millimeter wavelengths (Tobin et al 2010, 2016) and the precursors of the large number of UWPs (10–100 kAU) recently identified in older moving groups (Floriano-Alonso et al, 2015 ; Elliot et al 2016). The NESTs may result from the gravitational collapse of a gas clump that fragments to give a tight collection of stars within few millions years

  5. Kinematics of Lithium-Rich Stars South of Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, R.; Frink, S.; Torres, G.; Sterzik, M. F.; Roeser, S.; Randich, S.

    We have obtained single-order echelle spectra for 106 late-type stars found with ROSAT south of Taurus, including some 30 stars that have been claimed to be low-mass pre-main sequence (PMS) stars. 19 stars are located on the Lambda Ori cloud, nine of which are K-type stars with lithium in excess of the zero-age-main-sequence (ZAMS) level; i.e., are PMS stars. At least 40 of the remaining off-cloud stars display detectable lithium, 24 of which show lithium at least as strong as IC 2602 stars with the same spectral types and, therefore, are probably not older than IC 2602 (~3 x 10^7 yr). Of those 24 stars, nine (25% of the off-cloud stars with detectable lithium) are PMS stars isolated from cloud material; all have spectral type K, and three of them are spectroscopic binaries. The remaining 15 off-cloud stars have spectral type G and lithium comparable to IC 2602 stars, i.e., may have arrived already on the ZAMS, as the G-type IC 2602 stars have. However, these 24 off-cloud lithium-excess stars are probably not older than IC 2602 (~3 x 10^7 yr). For 18 of the lithium-excess stars south of Taurus, we have determined proper motions with a typical accuracy of 5 mas/yr from the STARNET catalog, a combination of the HST GSC1.2 and the Astrographic Catalog. Most of these 18 stars have spectral type G. Their 3D space velocity is different from the 3D velocity distribution of bona-fide T Tauri stars in central Taurus. We conclude that the new G-type stars among the lithium-excess population may be young Gould Belt members. Since both the GSC and the AC are magnitude-limited, only the brightest stars (i.e., the G-type stars) are listed in STARNET. Run-away T Tauri stars, however, should be most frequent among lower-mass stars. We also discuss alternative modes of origin of the isolated PMS stars south of Taurus.

  6. Influência da raça do touro (Bos indicus x Bos taurus na tolerância ao estresse térmico calórico de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Nabhan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Para melhor compreender as diferenças entre zebuínos e taurinos em relação à resistência ao ETC, objetivou-se verificar se a resistência ao ETC é resultado da contribuição genética do oócito, do espermatozoide ou de ambos. Oócitos de vacas das raças Nelore e mestiças com fenótipo predominante da raça Holandesa preto e branco (mHPB foram coletados, maturados e fertilizados com espermatozoide de touros das raças Nelore (N, Angus (An, Brahman (Bra e Gir (Gir. Noventa e seis horas pós-inseminação (hpi, embriões > 16 células foram separados ao acaso em dois grupos: controle e ETC. Embriões do grupo controle foram cultivados a 39 ºC continuamente e do grupo ETC expostos a 41 ºC por 12 horas, retornando a seguir para 39 ºC. Não foi observado efeito do ETC nas raças estudadas, sem redução nas taxas de blastocisto e blastocisto eclodido. As taxas de clivagem e mórula dos embriões mHPB x Gir foram inferiores (p < 0,05 às das demais raças. As raças mHPB x N apresentaram taxas de blastocisto superiores as raças mHPB x An e mHPB x Gir (p < 0,05. Concluiu-se que a contribuição genética do oócito é mais importante do que a do espermatozoide, uma vez que a raça do touro não influenciou a resistência embrionária ao ETC.

  7. Pengaruh Pengadukan Dan Variasi Feeding Terhadap Pembentukan Biogas Dari Sampah Dapur Rumah Makan Pada Reaktor Batch Dengan Aktivator Feses Sapi (Bos Taurus)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Utomo, Doron; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sudarno, Sudarno

    2014-01-01

    Food waste is organic waste that is quite lot and have not good treatment now. Food waste in anaerobic treatment have potential to produce biogas with addition cow feces as an activator. Stirring is one effort to increase the production of biogas. Research has been conducted in a batch system but the results have not been produced an optimal biogas. This research use two big reactors (19 liter) and 16 small reactors (600 ml dan 500 ml). There are four parameters that were observed the biogas...

  8. Digital infrared thermography of the scrotum, semen quality, serum testosterone levels in Nellore bulls (Bos taurus indicus and their correlation with climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rydygier de Ruediger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the relationship of climatic conditions with the temperature of the scrotum surface and sperm quality through digital infrared thermography in Nellore bulls, raised extensively. In six bulls held with scrotal thermography Flir E40® cameras, blood samples for serum testosterone and semen collection were taken by electroejaculation every 10 days, with six replications. Climatic factors: ambient temperature, relative humidity, dry globe temperature and temperature of the wet globe were recorded using a globe thermometer (InstruTemp®, ITWTG-2000. Thermal images of the scrotum were analyzed with the Flir Tools® software for the temperatures of scrotal surface, the right and left sides of the scrotum lap thirds: dorsal, middle and ventral testicles; and tails of the epididymis. The semen data and thermograms were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey’s test at 5%. Pearson correlation was used for the surface temperatures of the scrotum, rectal temperature, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of semen and climatic factors. There was a positive correlation (P<0.05 for sperm motility x scrotal temperatures; sperm concentration x scrotal temperatures; climatic factors x rectal temperature. There was a negative correlation (P<0.05 between ambient temperature x sperm concentration. It was concluded that the temperature of the scrotum surface and climatic factors, temperature and humidity, influence the quality of semen. Thermography is recommended as a supplementary examination for reproductive evaluation of bulls.

  9. Morfologia e grânulos citoplasmáticos do corpo lúteo de vacas aneloradas (Bos taurus indicus gestantes e não gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a proporção volumétrica dos constituintes do corpo lúteo e a distribuição de células lúteas com grânulos citoplasmáticos no corpo lúteo de animais Nelore ao longo da gestação e em animais não gestantes. Foram coletados ovários com corpos lúteos de 24 animais abatidos em frigorífico. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos: gestantes e não gestantes. A idade gestacional foi determinada pela medição do comprimento apicocaudal do feto. Os ovários foram distribuídos segundo o trimestre gestacional: primeiro - gestação de até 90 dias; segundo - de 91 a 180 dias; e terceiro - de 181 a 270 dias. Os corpos lúteos, processados para inclusão em paraplast, foram avaliados em microscópio de luz. Na proporção volumétrica do corpo lúteo, os constituintes avaliados foram citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas, tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos, células endoteliais e pericitos e vasos sanguíneos. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma de células lúteas reduziu de 46,1±2,8% para 37,9±3,5% e a de núcleo de células lúteas reduziu de 9,2±1,0% para 6,2±1,0%, do primeiro para o segundo trimestre. A proporção de tecido conjuntivo e fibroblastos aumentou de 20,9±5,4%, no primeiro trimestre, para 34,0±4,2%, no segundo trimestre. Grânulos citoplasmáticos foram evidenciados pelas técnicas histoquímicas xylidine ponceau e azul de bromofenol, que indicam sua provável composição proteica. A quantidade de células maiores com grânulos aumentou significativamente de 2,3±1,9%, no primeiro trimestre, para 25,5±20,3%, no segundo. A proporção volumétrica de citoplasma e núcleo de células lúteas diminuiu ao longo da gestação, e a de tecido conjuntivo aumentou. A quantidade de células lúteas maiores contendo grânulos também aumentou ao longo da gestação.

  10. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  11. Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on enzymatic mastitis indicators of milk from dairy cows experimentally inoculated with Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Peter; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a quantitative trait locus associated with mastitis caused by Escherichia coli, with one haplotype being more susceptible (HH) and another being more resistant (HL) to E. coli mastitis, on the activity of 4 inflammatory related milk enzymes. ...

  12. Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Hélder Silva e; Lijeron, Luciana Alves; Costa, Rafaela Nelson da

    2010-01-01

    A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica...

  13. Studies on the food and feeding habits of Gaur Bos taurus H. Smith (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Bovidae in two protected areas of Goa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Gad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits and diet composition of gaur were studied at Bhagvan Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Goa. Altogether, 32 species of plants belonging to 17 families constitute the gaur diet. The fruits, leaves, young shoots, bark and flowers are consumed, with a preference for leaves (87%. In summer gaur also consumed the bark of cashew (Anacardium occidentale and teak (Tectona grandis trees. Strong association was observed between food preference and season (chi-square=12.94; p=0.001. Peak feeding activity was observed early in the morning (0630 to 0830 hr and in the evening (1730 to 1845 hr. During hot hours of the day (1330 to 1530 hr, animals were found resting in the shade of large trees.

  14. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  15. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggeman, Saskia; Brink, Nico van den; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. - Highlights: ► Vegetation selection, social behavior, and seasonal variation determine exposure. ► Soft rush consumption highly increased daily Cd intake during winter. ► Most Cd and Pb levels in vegetation exceeded the maximum tolerable feed levels. - This study reveals that spatial heterogeneity and foraging behavior play a more important role in the metal exposure pattern of large grazers than generally is presumed.

  16. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  17. Effects of calpastatin and micro-calpain markers in beef cattle on tenderness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Johnson, D D; Smith, T P L

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed at the calpastatin (CAST) and mu-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness and palatability traits in populations with diverse genetic backgrounds. Three populations were used in the study. One population consisted of Bos taurus that included crossbred animals derived from Hereford, Angus, Red Angus, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Simmental (GPE7; n = 539). Another population consisted of Bos taurus with Bos indicus influence, including crossbred animals from Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara, and Romosinuano (GPE8; n = 580). The third population was Bos indicus and consisted of purebred Brahman (STARS; n = 444). Traits evaluated were meat tenderness measured as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; kg) at 14 d postmortem, and traits evaluated by trained sensory panels that included tenderness score, juiciness, and flavor intensity. A SNP at the CAST gene had a significant (P < 0.003) effect on WBSF and tenderness score in the GPE7 and GPE8 populations. Animals inheriting the TT genotype at CAST had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the CC genotype. The marker at the CAPN1 gene was significant (P < 0.03) for tenderness score in GPE7 and GPE8. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAPN1 had meat that was more tender than those inheriting the TT genotype. Markers at the CAST and CAPN1 genes were associated with flavor intensity in the GPE8 population. Animals inheriting the CC genotype at CAST and the TT genotype at CAPN1 produced steaks with an intense flavor when compared with the other genotypes. An interaction between CAST and CAPN1 was detected (P < 0.05) for WBSF on GPE8. The statistical significance of the interaction is questionable because of the limited number of observations in some cells. Markers developed at the CAST and CAPN1 genes are suitable for use in identifying animals with the genetic potential to produce meat

  18. Interstellar extinction in the dark Taurus clouds. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straizys, V.; Meistas, E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of photoelectric photometry of 74 stars in the Vilnius seven-color system in the area of Taurus dark clouds with coordinates (1950) 4sup(h)20sup(m)-4sup(h)48sup(m)+24 0 .5-+27 0 are presented. Photometric spectral types, absolute magnitudes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances of the stars are determined. The dark cloud Khavtassi 286, 278 and the surrounding absorbing nebulae are found to extend from 140 to 175 pc from the sun. The average interstellar extinction Asub(V) on both sides of the dark cloud is of the order of 1sup(m).5. We find no evidence of the existence of several absorbing clouds situated at various distances. (author)

  19. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Wani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study was carried out to sequence and phylogenetic analysis of CXCR2 gene of Murrah buffalo. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, from a group of forty eight Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, blood samples were collected randomly from eight animals, out of which four were healthy and four were mastitic. Results: The amplification of Interleukin-8B (IL-8B receptor gene target sequence was carried out using the primer pair in an optimized polymerase chain reaction. Partial sequencing of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis (Murrah has been done successfully. The sequences of IL-8B receptor gene showed 99% homology to that of Bos indicus × Bos taurus, 98% to that of Bos taurus, 97% to that of Ovis aries, 93% to that of Sus scrofa, 92% to that of Equus caballus and 90% to that of Felis catus. Conclusion: From the present study it can be concluded that the PCR amplification procedure for target region of IL-8B receptor gene yielding 459 bp products has been standardized, which yielded consistent and specific amplification. Amplification of partial IL-8B receptor gene (exon 2- 459 bp using self designed primers specific for cattle ortholog sequence signifies that the locus is conserved in cattle and buffaloes. In phylogenetic tree, the target sequence of IL-8B receptor gene of Bubalus bubalis were found to be more closely related to Bos indicus × Bos Taurus and Bos taurus than to Ovis aries and Sus scrofa.

  20. The mtDNA haplogroup P of modern Asian cattle: A genetic legacy of Asian aurochs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoi Noda

    Full Text Available Aurochs (Bos primigenius were distributed throughout large parts of Eurasia and Northern Africa during the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, and all modern cattle are derived from the aurochs. Although the mtDNA haplogroups of most modern cattle belong to haplogroups T and I, several additional haplogroups (P, Q, R, C and E have been identified in modern cattle and aurochs. Haplogroup P was the most common haplogroup in European aurochs, but so far, it has been identified in only three of >3,000 submitted haplotypes of modern Asian cattle.We sequenced the complete mtDNA D-loop region of 181 Japanese Shorthorn cattle and analyzed these together with representative bovine mtDNA sequences. The haplotype P of Japanese Shorthorn cattle was analyzed along with that of 36 previously published European aurochs and three modern Asian cattle sequences using the hypervariable 410 bp of the D-loop region.We detected the mtDNA haplogroup P in Japanese Shorthorn cattle with an extremely high frequency (83/181. Phylogenetic networks revealed two main clusters, designated as Pa for haplogroup P in European aurochs and Pc in modern Asian cattle. We also report the genetic diversity of haplogroup P compared with the sequences of extinct aurochs. No shared haplotypes are observed between the European aurochs and the modern Asian cattle. This finding suggests the possibility of local and secondary introgression events of haplogroup P in northeast Asian cattle, and will contribute to a better understanding of its origin and genetic diversity.

  1. Genetic diversity and bottleneck analysis of Yunnan mithun ( Bos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the smaller population size, the normal L-shaped distribution of allelic frequencies without any mode-shift indicate the absence of genetic bottleneck in Yunnan mithun population, suggesting that Yunnan mithun population might moderately have underwent gene introgression from zebu and yellow cattle.

  2. Serological evidence for brucellosis in Bos indicus in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertu, Wilson J.; Gusi, Amahyel M.; Hassan, Moses; Mwankon, Esther; Ocholi, Reuben A.; Ior, Daniel D.; Husseini, Bakari A.; Ibrahim, Gideon; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Nigeria is the largest cattle-rearing nation in Africa with most animals kept under traditional husbandry practices. While bovine brucellosis does not receive much attention, a relatively high seroprevalence is found in samples submitted for laboratory testing. The aim of the study was to

  3. Assessment of sewage water as carrier of pathogenic organisms to cattle/ Ensaio com águas poluídas como veiculadoras de patógenos para bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdair Josino Carvalho Landin

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Water of a brook that receives raw sewage from Jaboticabal, São Paulo State tawn, that passes through the grounds of the UNESP University campus, and, of the well that provides water to the University’s facilities were submitted to bacteriological and parasitological analysis. At the same time, 16 steers aged 8 to 16 months (8 Bos indicus and 8 Bos taurus, were closed in and given one of each type of water to drink (4 to each water source for seven fifteen day periods. On day zero all the animals were treated with ivermectin (at a dosage of 200 mg/Kg and were randomly separated in two groups (one for each water source. The experimental cattle came from farms supposedly free of cysticercosis and underwent clinical and laboratorial testing to detect the presence of this parasite before the beginning and at regular intervals during the experiment. After the seven fifteen day period, the 16 steers were slaughtered and were inspected by the “Serviço de Inspeção Federal – SIF” (Federal Inspection Service. Blood and tissue samples were taken from all animals for laboratorial testing. a the bacteriological tests revealed that the water from the well, classified as drinking water, had fecal coliform levels compatible to the classification as “drinking water” (CONAMA 20, but the water from the brook “Cerradinho” was classified as polluted in all samples; b the samples taken during the 15 weeks all showed the presence of eggs of Cestode ( Taenia and Hymenolepis and Nematode ( Ascaris, Trichuris, Capillaria and Ancylostomidae helminthes; c while one of eight steers given drinking water from the well was infected with Cysticercus bovis, four of the eight that drank water from the Cerradinho brook were infected; d although the parasitological tests showed the presence of helminth eggs of Taenia genus, the finding of one animal with positive serum and another with the parasite embedded in its muscle, both from the group that drank the well

  4. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected from WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Koenig, X.; Padgett, D.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P.; Hillenbrand, L.; Knapp, G.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 square degrees. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a 260 square degree region designed to encompass previously-identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present: a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  5. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  6. Genetic diversity and relationship of Indian cattle inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rekha; Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Ahlawat, Sonika; Maitra, Avishek; Pandey, Ashwni Kumar; Tantia, Madhu Sudan

    2015-06-30

    Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation. Sadly, the population of indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) is declining (8.94% in last decade) and needs immediate scientific management. Genetic characterization is the first step in the development of proper management strategies for preserving genetic diversity and preventing undesirable loss of alleles. Thus, in this study we investigated genetic diversity and relationship among eleven Indian cattle breeds using 21 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial D loop sequence. The analysis of autosomal DNA was performed on 508 cattle which exhibited sufficient genetic diversity across all the breeds. Estimates of mean allele number and observed heterozygosity across all loci and population were 8.784 ± 0.25 and 0.653 ± 0.014, respectively. Differences among breeds accounted for 13.3% of total genetic variability. Despite high genetic diversity, significant inbreeding was also observed within eight populations. Genetic distances and cluster analysis showed a close relationship between breeds according to proximity in geographic distribution. The genetic distance, STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis concluded that the Southern Indian Ongole cattle are the most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. Sequencing of hypervariable mitochondrial DNA region on a subset of 170 cattle revealed sixty haplotypes with haplotypic diversity of 0.90240, nucleotide diversity of 0.02688 and average number of nucleotide differences as 6.07407. Two major star clusters for haplotypes indicated population expansion for Indian cattle. Nuclear and mitochondrial genomes show a similar pattern of genetic variability and genetic differentiation. Various analyses concluded that the Southern breed 'Ongole' was distinct from breeds of Northern/ Central India. Overall these results provide basic information about genetic diversity and structure of Indian cattle which

  7. NUTGRANJA 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prado, del A.; Corré, W.J.; Gallejones, P.; Pardo, G.; Pinto, M.; Hierro, del O.; Oenema, O.

    2016-01-01

    Farm nutrient management has been identified as one of the most important factors determining the economic and environmental performance of dairy cattle (Bos taurus) farming systems. Given the environmental problems associated with dairy farms, such as emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), and the

  8. Genetic diversity in selected stud and commercial herds of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as being 2.67 - 7.78, with an average of 5.18 alleles per locus. It could be concluded that a moderate to high degree of variation is still present within the Afrikaner cattle breed, despite the recent decline in numbers of this indigenous breed. Keywords: Bos taurus africanus, heterozygosity, inbreeding, microsatellite markers ...

  9. Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia Andersen; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...

  10. Partial characterization of three β-defensin gene transcripts in river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the tracheal tissues from Egyptian river buffalo and cattle were screened for the presence of three bovine β-defensin gene transcripts. Three primer pairs were designed on the basis of published Bos taurus sequences for partial amplification of β-defensin 4, β-defensin 10 and β-defensin 11 complementary DNA ...

  11. Congenital bovine spinal dysmyelination is caused by a missense mutation in the SPAST gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nissen, Peter H.; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2010-01-01

     Bovine spinal dysmyelination (BSD) is a recessive congenital neurodegenerative disease in cattle (Bos taurus) characterized by pathological changes of the myelin sheaths in the spinal cord. The occurrence of BSD is a longstanding problem in the American Brown Swiss (ABS) breed and in several...

  12. Zvířecí skelet z laténského objektu v Nových Dvorech, okr. Kutná Hora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselý, René

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2011), s. 253-255 ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : ritual * La Tène period * osteology * Bos taurus * cattle Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Livestock and elk grazing effects on stream morphology, brown trout population dynamics, movement, and growth rate, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate grazing in riparian areas has been shown to detrimentally impact stream morphology and fish populations. Goals of this research were to assess changes in stream morphology and responses of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to exclusion of cattle (Bos taurus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) from riparian...

  14. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts and their associations with cattle (Bos taurus) growth traits · Chun Lei Zhang Hong Chen Yan Hong Wang Xian Yong Lan Chu Zhao Lei Xing Tang Fang · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. We investigated the polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- ...

  16. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Hong Chen. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 33 Issue 3 September 2008 pp 365-370 Articles. The polymorphisms of bovine cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcripts and their associations with cattle (Bos taurus) growth traits · Chun Lei Zhang Hong Chen ...

  17. 76 FR 72436 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Protecting and Restoring Native Ecosystems by Managing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... preservation of cultural resources. DATES: All comments must be postmarked or transmitted not later than 60... small numbers of feral cattle (Bos taurus). These animals cause loss of vegetation, wildlife habitat... and animal communities important to the culture of native peoples. The Draft EIS identifies and...

  18. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically cha...

  19. Interstellar C2 molecules in a Taurus dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, L.M.; Black, J.H.; van Dishoeck, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    Five relatively strong interstellar absorption lines of the 2--0) Phillips band of C 2 near lambda8760 are detected in the spectrum of HD 29647, a late B star which lies behind a substantial part of the Taurus molecular cloud complex about 20triangle-solid from TMC-1. In combination with newly determined oscillator strengths, the observations yield a column density N(C 2 )roughly-equal9 x 10 13 cm -2 , which is comparable to those of widely distributed molecules like CH and H 2 O. Theoreticl models of the observed C 2 rotational level populations indicate a kinetic temperature T = 14 +8 /sub -/ 5 K and a mean density n 3 cm -3 . A narrow, anomalous strong, stellar Mn II line yields for HD 29647 a project rotational velocity v sin i -1 and is explained by previous identifications HD 29647 as a Hg-Mn peculiar star. Similar spectra of ν Cyg and omicron And give an upper limit W/sub lambda/ 2 lines in the 2--0) band, toward both stars

  20. Observations of HC5N and NH3 in Taurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, P.C.; Ho, P.T.P.; Benson, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of HC 5 N lines toward TMC-2 indicate that it is a small (Lapprox.0.1 pc), dense (napprox.4 x 10 4 cm -3 ), low-mass (Mapprox.1 M/sub sun/) fragment in the Taurus complex, with velocity dispersion at the emission peak only about twice thermal (Δvapprox.0.2 km s -1 ). The HC 5 N emission region in TMC-2 has roughly half the projected area of that in TMC-1, and is more round than filamentary. The HC 5 N and NH 3 emission regions in TMC-2 are coincident, with N (HC 5 N)/N (NH 3 ) approx.0.1. The line width is much smaller than the free-fall width; the deduced values of L, n, and T satisfy the virial-theorem requirement for stable equilibrium. The temporary equilibrium of such fragments may serve to lengthen the time scales for formation of low-mass stars and long-chain molecules

  1. Magnetic and turbulent evolution of the Taurus molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemeon-Heyer, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the interstellar magnetic field in the dynamics of molecular clouds is investigated from extensive mapping of the 13 CO J = 1 - 0 emission to delineate gas morphology and kinematics and polarization of background starlight to determine the magnetic field direction within the Taurus Molecular Cloud Complex. The signature for a dynamically significant magnetic field is a rotating, flattened cloud with the rotational and minor axes parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. It was found that molecular regions characterized by mean densities less than 10 3 cm -3 exhibit such magnetic signatures and are likely a result of magnetically dominated evolution. A method to spatially and kinematically isolate the subcondensations within the clouds is developed. These cores are characterized by mean densities greater than 10 4 cm -3 and are the sites of star formation. However, based on core morphology and kinematics, it appears the magnetic field no longer provides a significant stress to the mostly neutral gas. Therefore, a constraint on the mean density at which the magnetic field decouples from the gas is a molecular density of less than 10 4 cm -3 . The role of stellar winds from pre-main sequence stars as an internal energy source for molecular clouds is investigated from 12 CO and 13 CO mapping of star forming regions delineated by point sources of far infrared emission. Evidence for mass outflow is found toward three of the thirty sources surveyed

  2. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Suwiti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa. Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices. Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH] of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 μg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 μg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 μg/ml compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 μg/ml. Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.

  3. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  4. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  5. Complex Organic Molecules in Taurus Molecular Cloud-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    We have observed the millimeter-wave rotational spectral lines of CH3CHO, H2CCO, cyclopropenone, and H2CO toward the cyanoployyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP). The spectral line profile of CH3CHO is found to reveal a well-separated double peak. It is similar to the line profile of CH3OH, but is much different from those of carbon-chain molecules and C34S. The different line profiles mean different distributions along the line of sight. The similarity of the spectral line profiles between CH3CHO and CH3OH suggests that CH3CHO is mainly formed on dust grains as CH3OH or through gas-phase reactions starting from CH3OH. On the other hand, the spectral line profiles of H2CCO and cyclopropenone are rather similar to those of carbon-chain molecules and C34S, implying their gas-phase productions. H2CO shows a composite spectral line profile reflecting the contributions of both gas-phase and grain-surface productions. In addition, we have detected the spectral lines of CH3CHO and HCOOCH3 toward the methanol peak near TMC-1 CP. We have also tentatively detected one line of (CH3)2O. Considering the chemical youth of TMC-1, the present results indicate that fairly complex organic species have already been formed in the early evolutionary phase of starless cores. TMC-1 is thus recognized as a novel source where formation processes of complex organic molecules can be studied on the basis of the line profiles.

  6. Leptospira venezuelensis sp. nov., a new member of the intermediate group isolated from rodents, cattle and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Rafael; Ferrés, Ignacio; Caraballo, Lizeth; Rangel, Yaritza; Picardeau, Mathieu; Takiff, Howard; Iraola, Gregorio

    2018-02-01

    Three strains, CLM-U50 T , CLM-R50 and IVIC-Bov1, belonging to the genus Leptospira, were isolated in Venezuela from a patient with leptospirosis, a domestic rat (Rattus norvegicus) and a cow (Bos taurus), respectively. The initial characterisation of these strains based on the rrs gene (16S rRNA) suggested their designation as a novel species within the 'intermediates' group of the genus Leptospira. Further phylogenomic characterisation based on single copy core genes was consistent with their separation into a novel species. The average nucleotide identity between these three strains was >99 %, but below 89 % with respect to any previously described leptospiral species, also supporting their designation as a novel species. Given this evidence, these three isolates were considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Leptospiravenezuelensis sp. nov. is proposed, with CLM-U50 T (=CIP 111407 T =DSM 105752 T ) as the type strain.

  7. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  8. CO survey of the dark nebulae in Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungerechts, H.; Thaddeus, P.

    1987-01-01

    A new SIS receiver with extremely low noise temperature, used on the Columbia 1.2-m telescope has permitted mapping CO rapidly with full sampling. Results are presented of a survey for which the angular resolution of the telescope was reduced to 0.5 deg, allowing the observations for the complete region of 750 square degrees to be finished within four months, while retaining sufficient resolution to see significant substructure. Most positions with emission are in the Taurus-Auriga dark nebulae, a cloud associated with IC 348 and NGC 1333, and a cloud associated with the California nebula (NGC 1499) and NGC 1579, which overlaps the northern Taurus-Auriga nebulae but is separated from them in velocity. Also seen were several small clouds at Galactic latitude -25 deg to -35 deg southwest of the Taurus clouds, and the L1558 and L1551 clouds in the south. 89 references

  9. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    and Taurus in order to characterize the presence and morphology of emission from high density (ncrit > 106 cm-3) and high column density gas, respectively. These are supplemented with archival dust continuum maps observed with SCUBA on the JCMT and Herschel PACS to compare the morphology of the gas and dust...... in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+J = 4-3 and 850 μm dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I sources in Perseus and Taurus are not Stage I, but are likely to be more evolved Stage II pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with disks...... in the Perseus star forming region are truly embedded Stage I sources (71%), while the Taurus cloud hosts a majority of evolved PMS stars with disks (68%). The concentration factor method is useful to correct misidentified embedded YSOs, yielding higher accuracy for YSO population statistics and Stage timescales...

  10. A near-infrared survey for pre-main sequence stars in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mercedes; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hartmann, Lee

    1994-01-01

    We present a near-infrared survey of approximately 2 sq deg covering parts of L1537, L1538, and Heiles cloud 2 in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. Although this study is more sensitive than previous attempts to identify pre-main sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga, our survey regions contain only one new optically visible, young star. We did find several candidate embedded protostars; additional 10 micrometer photometry is necessary to verify the pre-main sequence nature of these sources. Our results--combined with those of previous surveys--show that the L1537/L1538 clouds contain no pre-main sequence stars. These two clouds are less dense than the active star formation sites in Taurus-Auriga, which suggests a cloud must achieve a threshold density to form stars.

  11. Molecular epidemiology and characterization of bovine leukemia virus in domestic yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Yun; Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Pan, Yangyang; Xu, Fang; Tian, Lili; Zeng, Qiaoying

    2018-03-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a member of the genus Deltaretrovirus of the family Retroviridae and cause a chronic lymphosarcoma, which is extensive in cattle. In yaks (Bos grunniens), the distribution, strains and genetic characteristics of BLV have rarely been studied. The aim of our study was to investigate BLV infections in domestic yaks and determine the genetic variability of BLV circulating in a region of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, China. Blood samples were collected from 798 yaks, which were from different farms from Gansu, Qinghai and Sichuan provinces surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Nested PCR targeting BLV long terminal repeats was used to detect the BLV provirus. The highest prevalence of BLV infection was in Gansu province, where it was 18.93% (39/206) in white yaks from Tianzhu City and 19.14% (31/162) in black yaks from Gannan City. In Qinghai and Sichuan provinces, the prevalence of BLV in black yaks was 14.83% (35/236) and 14.94% (29/194), respectively. The prevalence of BLV was not significantly different in yaks up to one year old than in older animals. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 16 different env-gp51 (497-bp) gene sequences from the three provinces and 71 known BLV strains, which revealed that in both Gansu and Qinghai provinces, genotypes 6 and 10 of the BLV strains were at high levels, whereas only genotype 10 was prevalent in Sichuan Province. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons revealed 95.7-99.8% sequence identity among the full-length env genes of 16 strains, nearly full-length genome sequences of six BLV strains, and those of the known genotypes 6 and 10 of BLV. This study provides comprehensive information is regarding the widespread infection of domestic yaks with BLV on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, and shows that at least two BLV genotypes (genotypes 6 and 10) are circulating in this population.

  12. AN INFRARED/X-RAY SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Mamajek, E. E.; Cruz, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a search for new members of the Taurus star-forming region using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the XMM-Newton Observatory. We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of 44 sources that exhibit red Spitzer colors that are indicative of stars with circumstellar disks and 51 candidate young stars that were identified by Scelsi and coworkers using XMM-Newton. We also performed spectroscopy on four possible companions to members of Taurus that were reported by Kraus and Hillenbrand. Through these spectra, we have demonstrated the youth and membership of 41 sources, 10 of which were independently confirmed as young stars by Scelsi and coworkers. Five of the new Taurus members are likely to be brown dwarfs based on their late spectral types (>M6). One of the brown dwarfs has a spectral type of L0, making it the first known L-type member of Taurus and the least massive known member of the region (M ∼ 4-7 M Jup ). Another brown dwarf exhibits a flat infrared spectral energy distribution, which indicates that it could be in the protostellar class I stage (star+disk+envelope). Upon inspection of archival images from various observatories, we find that one of the new young stars has a large edge-on disk (r = 2.''5 = 350 AU). The scattered light from this disk has undergone significant variability on a timescale of days in optical images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Using the updated census of Taurus, we have measured the initial mass function for the fields observed by XMM-Newton. The resulting mass function is similar to previous ones that we have reported for Taurus, showing a surplus of stars at spectral types of K7-M1 (0.6-0.8 M sun ) relative to other nearby star-forming regions, such as IC 348, Chamaeleon I, and the Orion Nebula Cluster.

  13. Assessment of Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structure in Yak (Bos grunniens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Zhenming; Fang, Lei; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Chai, Shatuo; Liu, Shujie; Schonewille, Jan Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the microbial community composition in the rumen of yaks under different feeding regimes. Microbial communities were assessed by sequencing bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments obtained from yaks (Bos grunniens) from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,

  14. Measurement of the fluctuating temperature field in a heated swirling jet with BOS tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Henning M.; Oberleithner, Kilian; Paschereit, C. Oliver; Sieber, Moritz

    2017-07-01

    This work investigates the potential of background-oriented schlieren tomography (3D-BOS) for the temperature field reconstruction in a non-isothermal swirling jet undergoing vortex breakdown. The evaluation includes a quantitative comparison of the mean and phase-averaged temperature field with thermocouple and fast-response resistance thermometer as well as a qualitative comparison between the temperature field and the flow field obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV). Compared to other temperature-measuring techniques, 3D-BOS enables non-invasive capturing of the entire three-dimensional temperature field. In contrast to previous 3D-BOS applications, the present investigation makes use of the special character of the flow, which provides a global instability that leads to a rotational symmetry of the jet. Additionally, the rotational motion of the jet is used to obtain a tomographic reconstruction from a single camera. The quality of 3D-BOS results with respect to the physical setup as well as the numerical procedure is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, a new approach for the treatment of thin occluding objects in the field of view is presented.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  16. METHANOL IN THE STARLESS CORE, TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Tatsuya; Sakai, Nami; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: soma@taurus.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    To explore the formation mechanisms of gas phase CH{sub 3}OH in cold starless cores, we have conducted high spectral resolution observations toward the cyanopolyyne peak of Taurus Molecular Cloud-1 (TMC-1 CP) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral lines of CH{sub 3}OH toward TMC-1 CP are found to have a double-peaked profile separated by 0.5 km s{sup −1}. Since the double-peaked profile is observed for {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, it is not due to optical depth and/or self-absorption effects. The spectral line profile of CH{sub 3}OH is much different from those of C{sup 34}S, C{sub 3}S, and HC{sub 7}N observed toward this source. The H{sub 2} densities of the emitting region of CH{sub 3}OH for the blueshifted and redshifted components are derived to be (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3} and (4.3 ± 1.2) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, respectively. These densities are similar to or slightly lower than those found for the other molecules. These results suggest a chemical differentiation between CH{sub 3}OH and the other molecules, which has indeed been confirmed by mapping observations of the CH{sub 3}OH and C{sup 34}S lines. These results are consistent with the general idea that CH{sub 3}OH is formed on dust grains and is liberated into the gas phase by non-thermal desorption. The grain-surface origin of CH{sub 3}OH is further confirmed by the CH{sub 3}OH/{sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH ratio. Weak shocks caused by accreting diffuse gas to the TMC-1 filament, photoevaporation caused by cosmic-ray induced UV radiation, and the desorption of excess reaction energy in the formation of CH{sub 3}OH on dust grains are discussed for the desorption mechanisms.

  17. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  18. Study of the reproductive efficiency of dual purpose cattle in Panama through the use of radioimmunoassay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, O.

    1990-01-01

    Reproductive parameters were monitored in 50 post-partum Bos indicus x Bos taurus animals located on four farms in two ecological zones of Panama. Progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations were measured in four of these animals twice a week and their reproductive organs palpated per rectum once a week until 60 days post-artificial-insemination or post-natural-service. The other 46 cows were palpated for early pregnancy between days 45 and 60 post-service. The mean P 4 concentration in cows with palpable corpora lutea (CL) was 10.3±4.0 nmol/L; when no Cl were detected, the mean P 4 level was 2.2±1.6 nmol/L. Of the 46 animals palpated for early pregnancy, 36 (70%) were found to be pregnant, one (2%) exhibited early embryonic death and one (2%) aborted; the other eight cows (17%) were anoestrous. The mean P 4 concentration in pregnant cows was 11.9±4.0 nmol/L and the calving to conception interval was 148 days. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 4 tabs

  19. Effect of biological type of cattle on the incidence of the dark, firm, and dry condition in the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M; Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Dikeman, M E

    1994-02-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to characterize longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness for beef carcasses of diverse biological types and to determine the genetic parameters of lean color, texture, and firmness. The carcasses (n = 3,641) used in this experiment were from steers produced by mating Angus, Brahman, Braunvieh, Charolais, Chianina, Galloway, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Jersey, Limousin, Longhorn, Maine Anjou, Nellore, Piedmontese, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, Sahiwal, Salers, Shorthorn, Simmental, South Devon, and Tarentaise sires to Hereford and Angus dams. Steers were fed a corn-corn silage diet from weaning until slaughter at 356 to 575 d of age. Steers were slaughtered at commercial packing plants and longissimus muscle color, texture, and firmness were scored by trained carcass evaluators. Sire line least squares means for lean color, texture, and firmness ranged approximately one unit on a 7-point scale. Chianina crosses had darker-colored lean than all breed groups except Tarentaise and Simmental crosses (P < .05). Moreover, a higher percentage (P < .05) of Chianina crosses than of all other breed groups had unacceptably dark-colored ("dark red" or darker) lean. Bos indicus sire lines were not different from Bos taurus sire lines in frequency of carcasses with unacceptably dark-colored lean. However, Bos indicus crosses were more likely to be scored "very light cherry-red." Lean color and texture were lowly heritable, whereas lean firmness was moderately heritable. Thus, this experiment demonstrated that there is genetic variation in the incidence of the DFD condition; however, genetic variation was small relative to environmental variation.

  20. Molecular characterization of a long range haplotype affecting protein yield and mastitis susceptibility in Norwegian Red cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Ben J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous fine mapping studies in Norwegian Red cattle (NRC in the region 86-90.4 Mb on Bos taurus chromosome 6 (BTA6 has revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL for protein yield (PY around 88 Mb and a QTL for clinical mastitis (CM around 90 Mb. The close proximity of these QTLs may partly explain the unfavorable genetic correlation between these two traits in NRC. A long range haplotype covering this region was introduced into the NRC population through the importation of a Holstein-Friesian bull (1606 Frasse from Sweden in the 1970s. It has been suggested that this haplotype has a favorable effect on milk protein content but an unfavorable effect on mastitis susceptibility. Selective breeding for milk production traits is likely to have increased the frequency of this haplotype in the NRC population. Results Association mapping for PY and CM in NRC was performed using genotypes from 556 SNPs throughout the region 86-97 Mb on BTA6 and daughter-yield-deviations (DYDs from 2601 bulls made available from the Norwegian dairy herd recording system. Highest test scores for PY were found for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within and surrounding the genes CSN2 and CSN1S2, coding for the β-casein and αS2-casein proteins. High coverage re-sequencing by high throughput sequencing technology enabled molecular characterization of a long range haplotype from 1606 Frasse encompassing these two genes. Haplotype analysis of a large number of descendants from this bull indicated that the haplotype was not markedly disrupted by recombination in this region. The haplotype was associated with both increased milk protein content and increased susceptibility to mastitis, which might explain parts of the observed genetic correlation between PY and CM in NRC. Plausible causal polymorphisms affecting PY were detected in the promoter region and in the 5'-flanking UTR of CSN1S2. These polymorphisms could affect transcription or translation of

  1. Anomalous strength of the 2200 Angstroem feature in Cassiopeia-Taurus association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, C.; Ruiz del Arbol, J.A.; Llorente de Andres, F.

    1980-01-01

    From a large sample of reddened stars we computed the individual extinction curves which agree with that calculated by Nandy et al. (1976), except for four stars which show that the extinction at the 2200 Angstroem feature is greater than that deduced for the rest of stars. These four stars belong to the Cassiopeia-Taurus association. (orig.)

  2. EGRET observations of diffuse gamma-ray emission in taurus and perseus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digel, Seth W.; Grenier, Isabelle A.

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of the interstellar gamma-ray emission observed toward the extensive molecular cloud complexes in Taurus and Perseus by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The region's large size (more than 300 square degrees) and location below the plane in the anticenter are advantageous for straightforward interpretation of the interstellar emission. The complex of clouds in Taurus has a distance of ∼140 pc and is near the center of the Gould Belt. The complex in Perseus, adjacent to Taurus on the sky, is near the rim of the Belt at a distance of ∼300 pc. The findings for the cosmic-ray density and the molecular mass-calibrating ratio N(H 2 )/W CO in Taurus and Perseus are compared with results for other nearby cloud complexes resolved by EGRET. The local clouds that now have been studied in gamma rays can be used to trace the distribution of high-energy cosmic rays within 1 kpc of the sun

  3. Detection of warm water vapour in Taurus protoplanetary discs by Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Menard, F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Woitke, P.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Mendigutia, I.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.

    Line spectra of 68 Taurus T Tauri stars were obtained with the Herschel-PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument as part of the GASPS (GAS evolution in Protoplanetary Systems) survey of protoplanetary discs. A careful examination of the linescans centred on the [OI] 63.18 mu m

  4. Correlations between the stellar and disc properties of Taurus PMS stars in the GASPS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Martínez, Miguel; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Pascual, Natalia; Montesinos, Benjamín; Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Eiroa, Carlos; Dent, Bill

    The Herschel Open Time Key Programme GASPS (P.I. B. Dent) has observed a large number of pre-main sequence TTauri stars in Taurus with PACS (photometry and spectroscopy). In addition, we have also carried out new ground-based optical and near-IR observations (photometry and spectroscopy) of most of

  5. The diet of the ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ragged-tooth shark Carcharias taurus is a large predator of inshore coastal waters in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Born at about 1m long and attaining approximately 3m, stomach content analyses have shown that it feeds largely on teleosts and elasmobranchs, although cephalopods are taken to a lesser extent.

  6. Taurus Hill Observatory Scientific Observations for Pulkova Observatory during the 2016-2017 Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentunen, V.-P.; Haukka, H.; Heikkinen, E.; Salmi, T.; Juutilainen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association Warkauden Kassiopeia. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focused on exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring. We also do long term monitoring projects.

  7. Revisiting the Field Geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M(sup 3)) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated Ar-40/Ar-39 analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M(sup 3) spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence

  8. Revisiting the field geology of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Wells, R. A.; Robinson, M. S.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra, and Miniature Radio Frequency (Mini-RF) S-band radar images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus-Littrow on the Moon. Connecting the various remote observations to sample data enables a set of new conclusions to be drawn regarding the geological evolution of the valley. Structural considerations and published and recalculated 40Ar/39Ar analyses of samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills indicate that the Crisium basin formed about 3.93 Ga; the Serenitatis basin about 3.82 Ga; and the Imbrium basin no earlier than 3.82 Ga and no later than the average of 3.72 Ga for 33 age dates from samples of the valley's mare basalts. Strong evidence continues to support the conclusion of others (Lucchitta, 1972; Spudis et al., 2011; Fassett et al., 2012) that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta. Interpretation of M3 spectral data and Apollo 17 samples indicate that rock units of the Sculptured Hills consist of a largely coherent, Mg-suite pluton. LROC NAC stereo images and Mini-RF data indicate the presence of several exposed pyroclastic fissures across the Sculptured Hills. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute nearly in situ wall rocks of that crater rather than ejecta and provide an opportunity for investigations of remanent magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. Paleomagnetic field orientation information also may be obtained relative to melt-breccia contacts in North Massif boulders that suggest original horizontal orientations. LROC images indicate the existence of two temporally separate light mantle avalanche deposits. The origin, potential flow mechanisms, and geology of the youngest avalanche from the South Massif have been clarified. The existence of two

  9. Far-infrared investigation of the Taurus star-forming region using the IRAS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Taurus-Auriga complex was selected as the first molecular cloud to be investigated in this study. The Taurus clouds were defined as lying between 04h and 05h in R.A. and +16 to +31 degrees in Dec., then the IRAS point-source catalogue was searched for sources with good or moderate quality fluxes in all three of the shortest IRAS bands. The sources selected were then classified into subgroups according to their IRAS colors. Taurus is generally believed to be an area of low-mass star formation, having no luminous O-B associations within or near to the cloud complex. Once field stars, galaxies and planetary nebulae had been removed from the sample only the molecular cloud cores, T Tauri stars and a few emission-line A and B stars remained. The great majority of these objects are pre-main sequence in nature and, as stated by Chester (1985), main sequence stars without excess far-infrared emission would only be seen in Taurus if their spectral types were earlier than about A5 and then not 25 microns. By choosing our sample in this way we are naturally selecting the hotter and thus more evolved sources. To counteract this, the molecular cloud core-criterion was applied to soruces with good or moderate quality flux at 25, 60 and 100 microns, increasing the core sample by about one third. The candidate protostar B335 is only detected by IRAS at 60 and 100 microns while Taurus is heavily contaminated by cirrus at 100 microns. This means that detection at 25 microns is also required with those at 60 and 100 microns to avoid confusing a ridge of cirrus with a genuine protostar. The far-infrared luminosity function of these sources is then calculated and converted to the visual band by a standard method to compare with the field star luminosity function of Miller and Scalo

  10. The Taurus Boundary of Stellar/Substellar (TBOSS) Survey. II. Disk Masses from ALMA Continuum Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Duong, K.; Patience, J.; Bulger, J.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Jackson, A. P.; Bryden, G.; Turner, N. J.; Harvey, P.; Hales, A.; De Rosa, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    We report 885 μm ALMA continuum flux densities for 24 Taurus members spanning the stellar/substellar boundary with spectral types from M4 to M7.75. Of the 24 systems, 22 are detected at levels ranging from 1.0 to 55.7 mJy. The two nondetections are transition disks, though other transition disks in the sample are detected. Converting ALMA continuum measurements to masses using standard scaling laws and radiative transfer modeling yields dust mass estimates ranging from ∼0.3 to 20 M ⊕. The dust mass shows a declining trend with central object mass when combined with results from submillimeter surveys of more massive Taurus members. The substellar disks appear as part of a continuous sequence and not a distinct population. Compared to older Upper Sco members with similar masses across the substellar limit, the Taurus disks are brighter and more massive. Both Taurus and Upper Sco populations are consistent with an approximately linear relationship in M dust to M star, although derived power-law slopes depend strongly upon choices of stellar evolutionary model and dust temperature relation. The median disk around early-M stars in Taurus contains a comparable amount of mass in small solids as the average amount of heavy elements in Kepler planetary systems on short-period orbits around M-dwarf stars, with an order of magnitude spread in disk dust mass about the median value. Assuming a gas-to-dust ratio of 100:1, only a small number of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs have a total disk mass amenable to giant planet formation, consistent with the low frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs.

  11. Isolation, identification and retrospective study of foot-and-mouth disease virus from affected Mithun (Bos frontalis) in north-eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B; Deka, P; Sharma, K; Baro, S; Hazarika, A K; Das, C; Garam, G B; Boro, P; Ltu, K

    2018-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that causes substantial and perpetual economic loss. Apart from the contagious nature of the disease, the FMD virus can establish in a "carrier state" among all cloven-hoofed animals. The Mithun (Bos frontalis), popularly called the "Cattle of Mountain," is found in the geographically isolated, hilly region of north-east India: Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Despite the geographical inaccessibility, infection by FMD virus has emerged as the single most devastating disease among Mithun after the eradication of rinderpest from this region. Samples from outbreaks of FMD in Mithun were analysed by sandwich ELISA, multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and isolated in the BHK-21 cell line. The results indicate the presence of FMDV serotype "O." The sequencing and molecular phylogenies have revealed close relationships in the lineage of type "O" isolates from Bangladesh. The findings will provide useful information for further research and development of a sustainable programme for the progressive control of FMD in the Mithun population. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Recent Status of Banteng (Bos javanicus Conservation in East Java and Its Perspectives on Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchman Hakim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to examine the recent status of Banteng Bos javanicus conservation in East Java, identify the roots of conservation problems and propose the non-consumptive and sustainable uses of Banteng by implementing ecotourism. Recently, Banteng population distributes in Alas Purwo, Meru Betiri, and Baluran National Parks. The population in Alas Purwo and Meru Betiri were relatively stable yearly. Rapid population decrease found in Baluran National Park. The roots of threats may be categorized into two factors, socio-economic and ecological factors. Socio-economic problems lead to the increase of habitat disturbance, poaching, and illegal hunting. Ecological aspect was ranging from invasion of exotic plant species, competitors, predators, drought, forest fire and vegetation changes. Lack of habitat management also recognized as an important factor to drive Bos javanicus decline and extinction. Ecotourism in the national park may become one of the significant and effective stimuli to support Banteng conservation.

  13. Development of Uncertainty Quantification Method for MIR-PIV Measurement using BOS Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jee Hyun; Song, Min Seop; Kim, Eung Soo

    2014-01-01

    Matching Index of Refraction (MIR) is frequently used for obtaining high quality PIV measurement data. ven small distortion by unmatched refraction index of test section can result in uncertainty problems. In this context, it is desirable to construct new concept for checking errors of MIR and following uncertainty of PIV measurement. This paper proposes a couple of experimental concept and relative results. This study developed an MIR uncertainty quantification method for PIV measurement using SBOS technique. From the reference data of the BOS, the reliable SBOS experiment procedure was constructed. Then with the combination of SBOS technique with MIR-PIV technique, velocity vector and refraction displacement vector field was measured simultaneously. MIR errors are calculated through mathematical equation, in which PIV and SBOS data are put. These errors are also verified by another BOS experiment. Finally, with the applying of calculated MIR-PIV uncertainty, correct velocity vector field can be obtained regardless of MIR errors

  14. A randomised controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corris, Paul A; Ryan, Victoria A; Small, Therese; Lordan, James; Fisher, Andrew J; Meachery, Gerard; Johnson, Gail; Ward, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin therapy in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) post lung transplantation. Methods We compared azithromycin (250 mg alternate days, 12 weeks) with placebo. Primary outcome was FEV1 change at 12 weeks. Results 48 patients were randomised; (25 azithromycin, 23 placebo). It was established, post randomisation that two did not have BOS. 46 patients were analysed as intention to treat (ITT) with 33 ‘Completers’. ITT analysis included placebo patients treated with open-label azithromycin after study withdrawal. Outcome The ITT analysis (n=46, 177 observations) estimated mean difference in FEV1 between treatments (azithromycin minus placebo) was 0.035 L, with a 95% CI of −0.112 L to 0.182 L (p=0.6). Five withdrawals, who were identified at the end of the study as having been randomised to placebo (four with rapid loss in FEV1, one withdrawn consent) had received rescue open-label azithromycin, with improvement in subsequent FEV1 at 12 weeks. Study Completers showed an estimated mean difference in FEV1 between treatment groups (azithromycin minus placebo) of 0.278 L, with 95% CI for the mean difference: 0.170 L to 0.386 L (p=azithromycin group had ≥10% gain in FEV1 from baseline. No patients in the placebo group had ≥10% gain in FEV1 from baseline while on placebo (p=0.002). Seven serious adverse events, three azithromycin, four in the placebo group, were deemed unrelated to study medication. Conclusions Azithromycin therapy improves FEV1 in patients with BOS and appears superior to placebo. This study strengthens evidence for clinical practice of initiating azithromycin therapy in BOS. Trial registration number EU-CTR, 2006-000485-36/GB. PMID:25714615

  15. Breed and selection line differences in the temperament of beef cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16426

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus José Rodrigues Paranhos da Costa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The temperament of four beef cattle breeds were measured using a flight time test (FT and a behavior score test (BST. FT was defined as the time taken by animals to cross a distance of 2 m after weight scale. The BST used a visual assessment of cattle behavior in which the results of four categories defined the score: movements, breathing intensity, vocalization and kicking. FT and BST coefficients of heritability were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood, considering half siblings. Caracu presented a lower BST value than the other breeds. Nellore presented intermediate results, followed by Guzerat and Gyr with similar and higher means (p p= -0.36; p s = -0.63; p Bos indicus cattle.  

  16. ORF Alignment: NT_033779 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rEMBL::g2674107:GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-EXCHANGE ... PROTEIN. organism:BOS TAURUS (BOVINE). dbxref:GenBank...; ... AF023451; g2674107; -.'', species:''BOS TAURUS ... Length = 185 ... Query: 586 METGIELFNRKP

  17. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Shukla, S. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [eXtreme Gravity Institute, Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg{sup 2} fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg{sup 2}) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  18. NEW YOUNG STAR CANDIDATES IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA REGION AS SELECTED FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebull, L. M.; Padgett, D. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg 2 . The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ∼260 deg 2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  19. A SURVEY FOR NEW MEMBERS OF THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION WITH THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Mamajek, E. E.; Shukla, S. J.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that ∼1 deg 2 fields surrounding the stellar aggregates in the Taurus star-forming region exhibit a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to denser clusters like IC 348 and the Orion Nebula Cluster. To test whether this difference reflects mass segregation in Taurus or a variation in the initial mass function, we have performed a survey for members of Taurus across a large field (∼40 deg 2 ) that was imaged by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members identified with those images and the Two Micron All Sky Survey, as well as miscellaneous candidates that were selected with several other diagnostics of membership. We have classified 22 of the candidates as new members of Taurus, which includes one of the coolest known members (M9.75). Our updated census of members within the SDSS field shows a surplus of solar-mass stars relative to clusters, although it is less pronounced than in the smaller fields toward the stellar aggregates that were surveyed for previously measured mass functions in Taurus. In addition to spectra of our new members, we include in our study near-IR spectra of roughly half of the known members of Taurus, which are used to refine their spectral types and extinctions. We also present an updated set of near-IR standard spectra for classifying young stars and brown dwarfs at M and L types.

  20. New Young Star Candidates in the Taurus-Auriga Region as Selected from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebull, L. M.; Koenig, X. P.; Padgett, D. L.; Terebey, S.; McGehee, P. M.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; Knapp, G. R.; Leisawitz, D.; Liu, W.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Ressler, M. E.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Mainzer, A.

    2011-09-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud subtends a large solid angle on the sky, in excess of 250 deg2. The search for legitimate Taurus members to date has been limited by sky coverage as well as the challenge of distinguishing members from field interlopers. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer has recently observed the entire sky, and we take advantage of the opportunity to search for young stellar object (YSO) candidate Taurus members from a ~260 deg2 region designed to encompass previously identified Taurus members. We use near- and mid-infrared colors to select objects with apparent infrared excesses and incorporate other catalogs of ancillary data to present a list of rediscovered Taurus YSOs with infrared excesses (taken to be due to circumstellar disks), a list of rejected YSO candidates (largely galaxies), and a list of 94 surviving candidate new YSO-like Taurus members. There is likely to be contamination lingering in this candidate list, and follow-up spectra are warranted.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of dust in the Taurus dark clouds: solid carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; McFadzean, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Spectra centred on the spectral feature of solid CO at 4.67 μm wavelength are presented for eight stars in or behind the quiescent dark cloud complex in Taurus. The solid CO profile is dominated by a sharp component centred at 4.673 μm (2140 cm -1 ). As in previous observations of the feature, asymmetry in the profile is consistent with the presence of a weaker, somewhat broader, overlapping component centred at ∼ 4.682 μm (2136 cm -1 ). New and previously published data for Taurus stars are combined to study the correlation of the peak optical depth in the CO feature with visual extinction and with the depth of the water-ice feature at 3.0 μm. (author)

  2. Flares of Orion population variables in the association Taurus T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.; AN Armyanskoj SSR, Byurakan. Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen new flare stars, proved to be irregular variables of Orion Population, were discovered from a study of the Taurus Dark Cloud region by the homogeneous photographic multipose method on the wide angle Schmidt telescopes of the Byurakan Astorphysical Observatory. Seventeen flares on these stars were detected for about 750 hours of the effective observing time. The analysis of the complicated light curves of these flares shows a great variety and multiplicity of this phenomenon and various dynamics of flare energy release processes. The existence of flare stars with some properties typical for both of the T Tauri and UV Ceti stars simulteneously indicates nonstable stars. The population of flare stars in the Taurus Dark Cloud region is apparently as young as in Orion and Monoceros

  3. Ratio of total-to-selective extinction in the Taurus dark cloud complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, F.J.; Rydgren, A.E.; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    UBVRI and JHK photometry, as well as spectral classifications are presented for seven reddened early-type field stars that are observed through the Taurus dark cloud complex. The ratio of total-to-selective extinction is derived for each star by the color-difference method. For six stars with absolute magnitudes in violet of more than 1.7 and less than 3.2 mag, a normal ratio R of total-to-selective extinction of about 3.1 is found. The mildly anomalous R value of about 3.5 for the well-studied star HD 29647 was also confirmed. The results provide further evidence that the interstellar extinction law in the Taurus dark cloud complex is basically normal for lines of sight with absolute magnitudes in violet of less than 3 mag. 24 references

  4. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF T TAURI STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Luhman, K. L.; Espaillat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 161 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of T Tauri stars and young brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. All of the targets were selected based on their infrared excess and are therefore surrounded by protoplanetary disks; they form the complete sample of all available IRS spectra of T Tauri stars with infrared excesses in Taurus. We also present the IRS spectra of seven Class 0/I objects in Taurus to complete the sample of available IRS spectra of protostars in Taurus. We use spectral indices that are not significantly affected by extinction to distinguish between envelope- and disk-dominated objects. Together with data from the literature, we construct spectral energy distributions for all objects in our sample. With spectral indices derived from the IRS spectra we infer disk properties such as dust settling and the presence of inner disk holes and gaps. We find a transitional disk frequency, which is based on objects with unusually large 13-31 μm spectral indices indicative of a wall surrounding an inner disk hole, of about 3%, and a frequency of about 20% for objects with unusually large 10 μm features, which could indicate disk gaps. The shape and strength of the 10 μm silicate emission feature suggests weaker 10 μm emission and more processed dust for very low mass objects and brown dwarfs (spectral types M6-M9). These objects also display weaker infrared excess emission from their disks, but do not appear to have more settled disks than their higher-mass counterparts. We find no difference for the spectral indices and properties of the dust between single and multiple systems.

  5. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  6. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemgen, Sebastian; Bonavita, Mariangela; Jayawardhana, Ray; Lafrenière, David; Janson, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M ☉ and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M ☉ . We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M Jup . The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3 −4.9 +6.6 %. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M ☉ appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8 −1.5 +4.2 % of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively

  7. SUB-STELLAR COMPANIONS AND STELLAR MULTIPLICITY IN THE TAURUS STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemgen, Sebastian [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5H 3H4 (Canada); Bonavita, Mariangela [The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); Lafrenière, David [Department of Physics, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC (Canada); Janson, Markus, E-mail: daemgen@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    We present results from a large, high-spatial-resolution near-infrared imaging search for stellar and sub-stellar companions in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The sample covers 64 stars with masses between those of the most massive Taurus members at ∼3 M {sub ☉} and low-mass stars at ∼0.2 M {sub ☉}. We detected 74 companion candidates, 34 of these reported for the first time. Twenty-five companions are likely physically bound, partly confirmed by follow-up observations. Four candidate companions are likely unrelated field stars. Assuming physical association with their host star, estimated companion masses are as low as ∼2 M {sub Jup}. The inferred multiplicity frequency within our sensitivity limits between ∼10-1500 AU is 26.3{sub −4.9}{sup +6.6}%. Applying a completeness correction, 62% ± 14% of all Taurus stars between 0.7 and 1.4 M {sub ☉} appear to be multiple. Higher order multiples were found in 1.8{sub −1.5}{sup +4.2}% of the cases, in agreement with previous observations of the field. We estimate a sub-stellar companion frequency of ∼3.5%-8.8% within our sensitivity limits from the discovery of two likely bound and three other tentative very low-mass companions. This frequency appears to be in agreement with what is expected from the tail of the stellar companion mass ratio distribution, suggesting that stellar and brown dwarf companions share the same dominant formation mechanism. Further, we find evidence for possible evolution of binary parameters between two identified sub-populations in Taurus with ages of ∼2 Myr and ∼20 Myr, respectively.

  8. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Karaarslan Emel; Uyanöz Refik; Doğu Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was ma...

  9. Thermal equilibrium responses in Guzerat cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerro, Leandro Zuccherato; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, Marcos Chiquitelli; Costa, Cintia Carol de Melo; Castro, Patric André

    2016-08-01

    The literature is very sparse regarding research on the thermal equilibrium in Guzerat cattle (Bos indicus) under field conditions. Some factors can modify the physiological response of Guzerat cattle, such as the reactivity of these animals to handling. Thus, the development of a methodology to condition and select Guzerat cattle to acclimate them to the routine collection of data without altering their physiological response was the objective of the preliminary experiment. Furthermore, the animals selected were used in the main experiment to determine their thermal equilibrium according to the thermal environment. For this proposal, the metabolic heat production and heat exchange between the animal and the environment were measured simultaneously in the field with an indirect calorimetry system coupled to a facial mask. The results of the preliminary experiment showed that the respiratory rate could demonstrate that conditioning efficiently reduced the reactivity of the animals to experimental handling. Furthermore, the respiratory rate can be used to select animals with less reactivity. The results of the main experiment demonstrate that the skin, hair-coat surface and expired air temperature depend on the air temperature, whereas the rectal temperature depends on the time of day; consequently, the sensible heat flow was substantially reduced from 70 to 20Wm(-2) when the air temperature increased from 24 to 34°C. However, the respiratory latent heat flow increased from 10 to 15Wm(-2) with the same temperature increase. Furthermore, the metabolic heat production remained stable, independent of the variation of the air temperature; however, it was higher in males than in females (by approximately 25%). This fact can be explained by the variation of the ventilation rate, which had a mean value of 1.6 and 2.2Ls(-1) for females and males, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Evans II, Neal J.; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature

  11. THE GOULD'S BELT VERY LARGE ARRAY SURVEY. IV. THE TAURUS-AURIGA COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Domenici Science Operations Center, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kounkel, Marina A.; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Torres, Rosa M. [Instituto de Astronomía y Meteorología, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Vallarta No. 2602, Col. Arcos Vallarta, CP 44130 Guadalajara, Jalisco, México (Mexico); Boden, Andrew F. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans II, Neal J. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Tobin, John, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-03-10

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ∼1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  12. The Gould's Belt Very Large Array Survey. IV. The Taurus-Auriga Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Kounkel, Marina A.; Pech, Gerardo; Rivera, Juana L.; Torres, Rosa M.; Boden, Andrew F.; Hartmann, Lee; Evans, Neal J., II; Briceño, Cesar; Tobin, John

    2015-03-01

    We present a multi-epoch radio study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming complex made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at frequencies of 4.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 610 sources, 59 of which are related to young stellar objects (YSOs) and 18 to field stars. The properties of 56% of the young stars are compatible with non-thermal radio emission. We also show that the radio emission of more evolved YSOs tends to be more non-thermal in origin and, in general, that their radio properties are compatible with those found in other star-forming regions. By comparing our results with previously reported X-ray observations, we notice that YSOs in Taurus-Auriga follow a Güdel-Benz relation with κ = 0.03, as we previously suggested for other regions of star formation. In general, YSOs in Taurus-Auriga and in all the previous studied regions seem to follow this relation with a dispersion of ~1 dex. Finally, we propose that most of the remaining sources are related with extragalactic objects but provide a list of 46 unidentified radio sources whose radio properties are compatible with a YSO nature.

  13. An overview on the use of urinary purine derivatives excretion as a method for estimation of rumen microbial protein production in swamp buffaloes and zebu cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.B.; Pimpa, O.; Elan, Z.A.; Balcells, J.; Abdullah, N.

    2004-01-01

    Respond models based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) as an index to predict rumen microbial protein production have been developed for European cattle and sheep. However, there is evidence to suggest that those equations may not be applicable directly to tropical swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and zebu Kedah-Kelantan (KK) cattle (Bos indicus). To establish similar equations for the above two species of ruminants, three studies were conducted. The first study examined the relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol) and duodenal purine bases (PB) (X, mmol). The relationships obtained were Y = 0.12 X + 12.78 (r 2 =0.45) for buffaloes and Y 0.85 X + 7.15 (r 2 =0.62) for KK cattle, suggesting that 12 and 85% of the supplied exogenous purines were excreted in the urine of buffaloes and zebu cattle, respectively. In the second study, 8-[ 14 C]-uric acid was used to test the hypothesis that the lower recovery of urinary PD in swamp buffaloes was due to their higher recycling of plasma PD as compared to KK cattle. Averaged non-renal loss of plasma [ 14 C]-uric acid for swamp buffaloes and KK cattle did not differ significantly. A third study was conducted to examine whether the lower urinary PD excretion for buffaloes could be due to lower absorption in the small intestine as compared to cattle. The results indicated that apparent purine absorption rate for buffaloes as a percentage of disappearance in the first segment of small intestine was not significantly different from that of zebu cattle, even though a significantly larger quantity of digesta and PB was noted in the last 4 segments of the small intestine of buffaloes. The equation obtained in this study for zebu cattle is similar to those published for European cattle. Due to the extremely low recovery rate (12%), the proposed equation for buffaloes should be used with great caution. (author)

  14. Some effects of partial suckling on milk yield, reproduction and calf growth in crossbred dairy cattle in north east coastal Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, M.J.; Msanga, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments are described where a progeny of Bos taurus x Bos indicus crossbred cows were reared by partial suckling or bucket rearing (Experiment I), and partially suckled calves were weaned at 12 or 24 weeks of age (Experiment II). The results of Experiment I suggest that calf rearing method had no significant effect in the yield of milk extracted from the cows by hand milking although there were effects on the shape of the lactation curve. Cows showed similar patterns of live weight and body condition losses and gains and there were no significant effects on the length of the post partum interval. Suckled calves were lighter at weaning (P <0.01) but there were no differences in live weight between treatments at 52 weeks of age. The main advantage of partial suckling was that the calves took advantage of residual milk which was estimated as 28-29% of the total yield. The results from Experiment II suggest that there were no advantages in terms of milk yield or calf growth by extending the suckling period to 24 weeks. The post partum intervals observed in Experiment II were substantially longer than those in Experiment I, possibly because of greater live weight/body condition losses experienced by cows in the second experiment. (author)

  15. Absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at seven wavelengths in the 1.8-4.2 cm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, L.V.; Snegireva, V.V.; Turchin, V.I.; Tsejtlin, N.M.; Voronkov, L.A.; Dmitrenko, D.A.; Kuznetsova, N.A.; Kholodilov, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Results of absolute measurements of fluxes from Cassiopeia A, Cygnus A, Taurus A, Virgo A at 1.8-4.17 cm wavelengths are presented. Spectra are built in the wave range of 1.8-100 cm with the use of results obtained earlier. Variability has been detected in radiation of Taurus A as well as ''steps'' in the spectrum of Taurus A with the spectral index α=0 in the region of 2 cm and 3-4 cm [ru

  16. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  17. Dosimetric evaluation of using in-house BoS Frame Fixation Tool for the Head and Neck Cancer Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Suk; Jo, Kwang Hyun; Choi, Byeon Ki

    2016-01-01

    BoS(Base of Skull) Frame, the fixation tool which is used for the proton of brain cancer increases the lateral penumbra by increasing the airgap (the distance between patient and beam jet), due to the collision of the beam of the posterior oblique direction. Thus, we manufactured the fixation tool per se for improving the limits of BoS frame, and we'd like to evaluate the utility of the manufactured fixation tool throughout this study. We've selected the 3 patients of brain cancer who have received the proton therapy from our hospital, and also selected the 6 beam angles; for this, we've selected the beam angle of the posterior oblique direction. We've measured the planned BoS frame and the distance of Snout for each beam which are planned for the treatment of the patient using the BoS frame. After this, we've proceeded with the set-up that is above the location which was recommended by the manufacturer of the BoS frame, at the same beam angle of the same patient, by using our in-house Bos frame fixation tool. The set-up was above 21 cm toward the superior direction, compared to the situation when the BoS frame was only used with the basic couch. After that, we've stacked the snout to the BoS frame as much as possible, and measured the distance of snout. We've also measured the airgap, based on the gap of that snout distance; and we've proceeded the normalization based on each dose (100% of each dose), after that, we've conducted the comparative analysis of lateral penumbra. Moreover, we've established the treatment plan according to the changed airgap which has been transformed to the Raystation 5.0 proton therapy planning system, and we've conducted the comparative analysis of DVH(Dose Volume Histogram). When comparing the result before using the in-house Bos frame fixation tool which was manufactured for each beam angle with the result after using the fixation tool, we could figure out that airgap than when

  18. Lameness in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokka, G L; Lechtenberg, K; Edwards, T; MacGregor, S; Voss, K; Griffin, D; Grotelueschen, D M; Smith, R A; Perino, L J

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the various causes of lameness in feedlot cattle, with an emphasis on clinical signs, treatment, and prevention. Specific conditions are discussed, including interdigital necrobacillosis, laminitis, feedlot injuries, and feedlot lameness associated with Mycoplasma bovis. Immune management of the foot is also reviewed.

  19. Genome-wide mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Matos, Márcia C; Zavarez, Ludmilla B; Ito, Pier K R K; Pérez O'Brien, Ana M; Sölkner, Johann; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Schenkel, Flávio S; McEwan, John; Cole, John B; da Silva, Marcos V G B; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Garcia, José Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus) genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility.

  20. Genome-wide mapping of loci explaining variance in scrotal circumference in Nellore cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri T Utsunomiya

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of bulls has a high impact on the beef cattle industry. Scrotal circumference (SC is the most recorded reproductive trait in beef herds, and is used as a major selection criterion to improve precocity and fertility. The characterization of genomic regions affecting SC can contribute to the identification of diagnostic markers for reproductive performance and uncover molecular mechanisms underlying complex aspects of bovine reproductive biology. In this paper, we report a genome-wide scan for chromosome segments explaining differences in SC, using data of 861 Nellore bulls (Bos indicus genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci that excel from the genome background were identified on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21. The majority of these regions were previously found to be associated with reproductive and body size traits in cattle. The signal on chromosome 14 replicates the pleiotropic quantitative trait locus encompassing PLAG1 that affects male fertility in cattle and stature in several species. Based on intensive literature mining, SP4, MAGEL2, SH3RF2, PDE5A and SNAI2 are proposed as novel candidate genes for SC, as they affect growth and testicular size in other animal models. These findings contribute to linking reproductive phenotypes to gene functions, and may offer new insights on the molecular biology of male fertility.

  1. Individual taper models for natural cedar and Taurus fir mixed stands of Bucak Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Özçelik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the performance of different types of taper equations for predicting tree diameters at specific heights and total stem volumes for mixed stands of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Taurus fir (Abies cilicica Carr.. We used data from mixed stands containing a total of 131 cedar and 124 Taurus fir trees. We evaluated six commonly used and well-known forestry taper functions developed by a variety of researchers (Biging (1984, Zakrzewski (1999, Muhairwe (1999, Fang et al. (2000, Kozak (2004, and Sharma and Zhang (2004. To address problems related to autocorrelation and multicollinearity in the hierarchical data associated with the construction of taper models, we used appropriate statistical procedures for the model fitting. We compared model performances based on the analysis of three goodness-of-fit statistics and found the compatible segmented model of Fang et al. (2000 to be superior in describing the stem profile and stem volume of both tree species in mixed stands. The equation used by Zakrzewski (1999 exhibited the poorest fitting results of the three taper equations. In general, we found segmented taper equations to provide more accurate predictions than variable-form models for both tree species. Results from the non-linear extra sum of squares method indicate that stem tapers differ among tree species in mixed stands. Therefore, a different taper function should be used for each tree species in mixed stands in the Bucak district. Using individual-specific taper equations yields more robust estimations and, therefore, will enhance the prediction accuracy of diameters at different heights and volumes in mixed stands.

  2. Using binary statistics in Taurus-Auriga to distinguish between brown dwarf formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M.; Martín, E. L.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Lodieu, N.; Kroupa, P.; Manjavacas, E.; Thies, I.; Rebolo López, R.; Velasco, S.

    2017-08-01

    Context. One of the key questions of the star formation problem is whether brown dwarfs (BDs) form in the manner of stars directly from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core (star-like) or whether BDs and some very low-mass stars (VLMSs) constitute a separate population that forms alongside stars comparable to the population of planets, for example through circumstellar disk (peripheral) fragmentation. Aims: For young stars in Taurus-Auriga the binary fraction has been shown to be large with little dependence on primary mass above ≈ 0.2 M⊙, while for BDs the binary fraction is population synthesis model in which stellar binary formation is universal with a large binary fraction close to unity. Peripheral objects form separately in circumstellar disks with a distinctive initial mass function (IMF), their own orbital parameter distributions for binaries, and small binary fractions, according to observations and expectations from smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and grid-based computations. A small amount of dynamical processing of the stellar component was accounted for as appropriate for the low-density Taurus-Auriga embedded clusters. Results: The binary fraction declines strongly in the transition region between star-like and peripheral formation, exhibiting characteristic features. The location of these features and the steepness of this trend depend on the mass limits for star-like and peripheral formation. Such a trend might be unique to low density regions, such as Taurus, which host binary populations that are largely unprocessed dynamically in which the binary fraction is large for stars down to M-dwarfs and small for BDs. Conclusions: The existence of a strong decline in the binary fraction - primary mass diagram will become verifiable in future surveys on BD and VLMS binarity in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. The binary fraction - primary mass diagram is a diagnostic of the (non-)continuity of star formation along the mass

  3. Ice in the Taurus molecular cloud: modelling of the 3-μm profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bult, C.E.P.M. van de; Greenberg, J.M.; Whittet, D.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the absorption by interstellar core-mantle particles with mantles of different compositions are compared with observations of the 3μm ice band in the Taurus molecular cloud. The strength and shape of the 3-μm band is shown to be a remarkably good diagnostic of the physical state and evolution of the dust in molecular clouds. The strength of the band is consistent with large fractional H 2 O mantle concentrations, in the range 60-70 per cent, as predicted by theoretical studies of cloud chemistry and as expected from the high oxygen abundance in pre-molecular clouds. (author)

  4. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L.; Konopacky, Q. M.; McLeod, K. K.; Apai, D.; Pascucci, I.; Ghez, A. M.; Robberto, M.

    2014-01-01

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M ☉ ). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15 −0.03 +0.05 for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M ☉ ) and 4/108 = 0.04 −0.01 +0.03 for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M ☉ ) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  5. THE RELATION BETWEEN GAS AND DUST IN THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chapman, Nicholas; Li Di; Snell, Ronald L.; Cambresy, Laurent; Brunt, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We report a study of the relation between dust and gas over a 100 deg 2 area in the Taurus molecular cloud. We compare the H 2 column density derived from dust extinction with the CO column density derived from the 12 CO and 13 CO J = 1 → 0 lines. We derive the visual extinction from reddening determined from 2MASS data. The comparison is done at an angular size of 200'' corresponding to 0.14 pc at a distance of 140 pc. We find that the relation between visual extinction A V and N(CO) is linear between A V ≅ 3 and 10 mag in the region associated with the B213-L1495 filament. In other regions, the linear relation is flattened for A V ∼> 4 mag. We find that the presence of temperature gradients in the molecular gas affects the determination of N(CO) by ∼30%-70% with the largest difference occurring at large column densities. Adding a correction for this effect and accounting for the observed relation between the column density of CO and CO 2 ices and A V , we find a linear relationship between the column of carbon monoxide and dust for observed visual extinctions up to the maximum value in our data ≅23 mag. We have used these data to study a sample of dense cores in Taurus. Fitting an analytical column density profile to these cores we derive an average volume density of about 1.4 x 10 4 cm -3 and a CO depletion age of about 4.2 x 10 5 yr. At visual extinctions smaller than ∼3 mag, we find that the CO fractional abundance is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The data show a large scatter suggesting a range of physical conditions of the gas. We estimate the H 2 mass of Taurus to be about 1.5 x 10 4 M sun , independently derived from the A V and N(CO) maps. We derive a CO integrated intensity to H 2 conversion factor of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm -2 (K km s -1 ) -1 , which applies even in the region where the [CO]/[H 2 ] ratio is reduced by up to two orders of magnitude. The distribution of column densities in our Taurus maps resembles a log

  6. A search for companions to brown dwarfs in the Taurus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorov, K. O.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Konopacky, Q. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); McLeod, K. K. [Whitin Observatory, Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA 02481 (United States); Apai, D.; Pascucci, I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Robberto, M., E-mail: todorovk@phys.ethz.ch [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have used WFPC2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain images of 47 members of the Taurus and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions that have spectral types of M6-L0 (M ∼ 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉}). An additional late-type member of Taurus, FU Tau (M7.25+M9.25), was also observed with adaptive optics at Keck Observatory. In these images, we have identified promising candidate companions to 2MASS J04414489+2301513 (ρ = 0.''105/15 AU), 2MASS J04221332+1934392 (ρ = 0.''05/7 AU), and ISO 217 (ρ = 0.''03/5 AU). We reported the first candidate in a previous study, showing that it has a similar proper motion as the primary in images from WFPC2 and Gemini adaptive optics. We have collected an additional epoch of data with Gemini that further supports that result. By combining our survey with previous high-resolution imaging in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Upper Sco (τ ∼ 10 Myr), we measure binary fractions of 14/93 = 0.15{sub −0.03}{sup +0.05} for M4-M6 (M ∼ 0.1-0.3 M {sub ☉}) and 4/108 = 0.04{sub −0.01}{sup +0.03} for >M6 (M ≲ 0.1 M {sub ☉}) at separations of >10 AU. Given the youth and low density of these regions, the lower binary fraction at later types is probably primordial rather than due to dynamical interactions among association members. The widest low-mass binaries (>100 AU) also appear to be more common in Taurus and Chamaeleon I than in the field, which suggests that the widest low-mass binaries are disrupted by dynamical interactions at >10 Myr, or that field brown dwarfs have been born predominantly in denser clusters where wide systems are disrupted or inhibited from forming.

  7. DNA polymorphism of 3’ UTR of Nramp1 gene in Malvi breed of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ranjan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 gene (Nramp1, which is a member of large family of metal ion–transport protein. Nramp1 gene plays a critical role in innate immunity favoring bacterial killing by macrophages in addition to its influence on adaptive immunity. The aim of the present investigation was to identify the genetic variations in the 3’UTR (Untranslated region of Nramp1 gene in the Malvi breed (Bos indicus cattle, using the technique PCR-SSCP and by sequencing. PCR-SSCP (Single Strand conformational polymorphism of 440 bp amplicon of Nramp1 gene revealed three common SSCP patterns in Malvi breed. A total of 3 SSCP patterns viz Pattern I, Pattern II and Pattern III were observed with frequency of 0.361, 0.426 and 0.213 respectively. The patterns variations were confirmed by cloning and sequencing, which showed total 6 mutations in 3 patterns.

  8. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with Ca II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren 'HVR', (1986) are reported. Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km/s precision. The kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li are found to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. It is suggested following Jones and Herbig (1979), that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  9. Rotation and kinematics of the premain-sequence stars in Taurus-Auriga with CA II emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.

    1987-04-01

    The authors report radial velocities and v sin i values for the stars in the Taurus-Auriga region that were found to have strong Ca II H and K emission by Herbig, Vrba, and Rydgren (HVR). Most of the velocities are determined to better than 2 km s-1 precision. The authors find the kinematic properties of the Ca II emission stars with strong Li to be indistinguishable from conventional T Tauris in Taurus-Auriga, contrary to HVR. These Li-rich stars also rotate like T Tauris. Most of the stars that lack Li are probable or possible members of the Hyades, in the foreground, and are among the brightest and most active stars in that cluster for their spectral types. The authors suggest, following Jones and Herbig, that the apparent absence of low-mass stars older than 10 Myr in Taurus-Auriga is real, and is due to the finite lifetime of the cloud.

  10. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  11. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  12. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  13. Internationale gevolgen van geïntegreerd bosbeheer in Nederland; verwaarloost Nederland de rol van bos als natuurlijke hulpbron?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, G.J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Goede, de D.

    2001-01-01

    De lange-termijneffecten van een meer natuurlijk bosbeheer in Europa wat betreft de leeftijdsklassenverdeling van het Europese bos en de verwachte veranderingen in de import- en exportstromen van naald- en loofhout binnen Europa (Scandinavië, Oost-Europa, Centraal-Europa, Middellandse-Zeegebied).

  14. microbiological study of clinically affected and unaffected animals with special reference to cervid herpesvirus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Javier Sanchez; Mork, Torill; Laaksonen, Sauli; Agren, Erik; Nymo, Ingebjorg H.; Sunde, Marianne; Tryland, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Background: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is one of the most common ocular diseases in ruminants worldwide. In addition to keratitis and conjunctivitis, animals with IKC can develop uveitis, corneal ulcer, and in severe cases, blindness. The bacteria Moraxella spp. has been described as the primary causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) in cattle (Bos taurus), while Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma conjunctivae are considered the main causative agents of IKC in s...

  15. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel da Silva

    Full Text Available High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production.

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  17. COMBINED ANALYSIS OF IMAGES AND SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF TAURUS PROTOSTARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gomez, Mercedes; Whitney, Barbara A.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), near- and mid-infrared images, and Spitzer spectra of eight embedded Class I/II objects in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. The initial model for each source was chosen using the grid of young stellar objects (YSOs) and SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. Then the models were refined using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. to fit both the spectra and the infrared images of these objects. In general, our models agree with previous published analyses. However, our combined models should provide more reliable determinations of the physical and geometrical parameters since they are derived from SEDs, including the Spitzer spectra, covering the complete spectral range; and high-resolution near-infrared and Spitzer IRAC images. The combination of SED and image modeling better constrains the different components (central source, disk, envelope) of the YSOs. Our derived luminosities are higher, on average, than previous estimates because we account for the viewing angles (usually nearly edge-on) of most of the sources. Our analysis suggests that the standard rotating collapsing protostar model with disks and bipolar cavities works well for the analyzed sample of objects in the Taurus molecular cloud.

  18. ULTRAVIOLET-SELECTED FIELD AND PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS TOWARD TAURUS AND UPPER SCORPIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, K.; Hillenbrand, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Cycle 1 guest investigator program covering 56 deg 2 near the Taurus T association and 12 deg 2 along the northern edge of the Upper Scorpius OB association. We combined photometry in the GALEX far-ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet bands with data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey to identify candidate young (∼<100 Myr old) stars as those with an ultraviolet excess relative to older main-sequence stars. Follow-up spectroscopy of a partial sample of these candidates suggests five new members of Taurus, with 8-20 expected from additional observations, and five new members of Upper Scorpius, with three to six expected from additional observations. These candidate new members appear to represent a distributed, non-clustered population in either region, although our sample statistics are as of yet too poor to constrain the nature or extent of this population. Rather, our study demonstrates the ability of GALEX observations to identify young stellar populations distributed over a wide area of the sky. We also highlight the necessity of a better understanding of the Galactic ultraviolet source population to support similar investigations. In particular, we report a large population of stars with an ultraviolet excess but no optical indicators of stellar activity or accretion, and briefly argue against several interpretations of these sources.

  19. Isolation and partial purification of antimicrobial peptides/proteins from dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus immune hemolymph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanth Patil, H.B.; Sathish Kumar, B.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes and not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application. (author)

  20. Bos grunniens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... genera viz indicine (Dubey, 2008) and taurine (Liefers et al., 2003; Konfortnov et al., 2006; Friedman and Halaas,. 1998) in exon 2 were found to be fixed with T allele. The observed allele fixation might be due high altitude adaptation or bulky body selection by nature for its survival, but this needs more ...

  1. Genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analyses Reveal Genetic Diversity and Structure of Wild and Domestic Cattle in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rasel Uzzaman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of variation in coat color, size, and production traits among indigenous Bangladeshi cattle populations, genetic differences among most of the populations have not been investigated or exploited. In this study, we used a high-density bovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 80K Bead Chip derived from Bos indicus breeds to assess genetic diversity and population structure of 2 Bangladeshi zebu cattle populations (red Chittagong, n = 28 and non-descript deshi, n = 28 and a semi-domesticated population (gayal, n = 17. Overall, 95% and 58% of the total SNPs (69,804 showed polymorphisms in the zebu and gayal populations, respectively. Similarly, the average minor allele frequency value was as high 0.29 in zebu and as low as 0.09 in gayal. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.42±0.14 in zebu to 0.148±0.14 in gayal with significant heterozygosity deficiency of 0.06 (FIS in the latter. Coancestry estimations revealed that the two zebu populations are weakly differentiated, with over 99% of the total genetic variation retained within populations and less than 1% accounted for between populations. Conversely, strong genetic differentiation (FST = 0.33 was observed between zebu and gayal populations. Results of population structure and principal component analyses suggest that gayal is distinct from Bos indicus and that the two zebu populations were weakly structured. This study provides basic information about the genetic diversity and structure of Bangladeshi cattle and the semi-domesticated gayal population that can be used for future appraisal of breed utilization and management strategies.

  2. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  3. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While......, a number of potential risks are discussed, including detrimental genetic trends for non-measured welfare traits, the increased chance of spreading unfavourable mutations, reduced sharing of information arising from concerns over patents, and an increased monopoly within dairy cattle breeding that may make...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  5. Efeito do flunixin meglumine, da somatotropina recombinante bovina e/ou da gonadotrofina coriônica humana na redução da mortalidade embrionária em vacas nelore (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, Rita Cristina [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Estratégias farmacológicas são empregadas para reduzir a mortalidade embrionária em fêmeas bovinas. Objetivou se comparar o efeito do Flunixin Meglumine (FM), Somatotropina Recombinante Bovina (bST) e/ou Gonadotrofina Coriônica Humana (hCG) na redução da mortalidade embrionária em vacas Nelore no período compreendido entre o 15º e 19º dias da gestação, baseando se na taxa de concepção aos 40 dias de gestação. A hipótese é que vacas tratadas com FM, bST e/ou hCG, apresentam menor mortalidade e...

  6. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitro en los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  7. Determinación de las condiciones de crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del tracto intestinal de terneros (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ávila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer el efecto de la temperatura, pH y la concentración de inóculo sobre el crecimiento in vitro de una cepa probiótica (Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus aislada del intestino delgado de terneros. Para ello se utilizó en el primer caso, el método de superficie de respuesta para determinar las condiciones de pH y temperatura óptimas de la cepa, y en el segundo, un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado considerando el factor concentración de inóculo inicial a seis niveles, donde el crecimiento (en medio De Man, Rogosa y Sharpe expresado en unidades de Absorbancia, constituyó la variable respuesta; presentándose una máxima respuesta (0,806 uA para 5 % de concentración inicial de inóculo. Los valores de pH y temperatura utilizados permitieron el establecimiento de una zona óptima de crecimiento in vitroen los siguientes intervalos, pH entre 5,1 y 5,6; y temperatura entre 38,0 y 41,5 °C, donde el máximo crecimiento se obtuvo a pH 5,31 y a 39,38 °C. Por otro lado se encontraron incrementos significativos del crecimiento in vitro (p < 0,05 a medida que se utiliza menor concentración de inóculo inicial. Con la información obtenida se espera incrementar los rendimientos de la cepa y así promover la producción de productos probióticos para el consumo animal en Venezuela.

  8. Global gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with Theileria annulata in crossbred and indigenous cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amod; Gaur, Gyanendra Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Panigrahi, Manjit; Ghosh, Shrikant; Saravanan, B C; Bhushan, Bharat; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Sulabh, Sourabh; Priya, Bhuvana; V N, Muhasin Asaf; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Wani, Sajad Ahmad; Sahu, Amit Ranjan; Sahoo, Aditya Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tropical theileriosis is an important haemoprotozoan disease associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality particularly in exotic and crossbred cattle. It is one of the major constraints of the livestock development programmes in India and Southeast Asia. Indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) are reported to be comparatively less affected than exotic and crossbred cattle. However, genetic basis of resistance to tropical theileriosis in indigenous cattle is not well documented. Recent studies incited an idea that differentially expressed genes in exotic and indigenous cattle play significant role in breed specific resistance to tropical theileriosis. The present study was designed to determine the global gene expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from indigenous (Tharparkar) and cross-bred cattle following in vitro infection of T. annulata (Parbhani strain). Two separate microarray experiments were carried out each for cross-bred and Tharparkar cattle. The cross-bred cattle showed 1082 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Out of total DEGs, 597 genes were down-regulated and 485 were up-regulated. Their fold change varied from 2283.93 to -4816.02. Tharparkar cattle showed 875 differentially expressed genes including 451 down-regulated and 424 up-regulated. The fold change varied from 94.93 to -19.20. A subset of genes was validated by qRT-PCR and results were correlated well with microarray data indicating that microarray results provided an accurate report of transcript level. Functional annotation study of DEGs confirmed their involvement in various pathways including response to oxidative stress, immune system regulation, cell proliferation, cytoskeletal changes, kinases activity and apoptosis. Gene network analysis of these DEGs plays an important role to understand the interaction among genes. It is therefore, hypothesized that the different susceptibility to tropical theileriosis exhibited by indigenous and crossbred cattle

  9. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Ocharan, Francisco J

    2013-01-01

    Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species,especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980's and 2000's are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  10. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  11. Improvement of indigenous cattle to modern Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Wagyu cattle have been improved from indigenous cattle raised in Japan since the country was opened 100 years ago. Characteristics of the breed were formed during that period. Here, the process of the breeding is described, and recent topics about breeding studies are discussed.

  12. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Hélder Silva e Luna; Luciana Alves Lijeron; Rafaela Nelson da Costa

    2010-01-01

    A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica...

  13. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (XEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedel, M.; Briggs, K. R.; Arzner, K.; Audard, M.; Bouvier, J.; Feigelson, E. D.; Franciosini, E.; Glauser, A.; Grosso, N.; Micela, G.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) is the nearest large star-forming region, prototypical for the distributed mode of low-mass star formation. Pre-main sequence stars are luminous X-ray sources, probably mostly owing to magnetic energy release. Aims. The XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud (EST) presented in this paper surveys the most populated =5 square degrees of the TMC, using the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory to study the thermal structure, variability, and long-term evolution of hot plasma, to investigate the magnetic dynamo, and to search for new potential members of the association. Many targets are also studied in the optical, and high-resolution X-ray grating spectroscopy has been obtained for selected bright sources. Methods. The X-ray spectra have been coherently analyzed with two different thermal models (2-component thermal model, and a continuous emission measure distribution model). We present overall correlations with fundamental stellar parameters that were derived from the previous literature. A few detections from Chandra observations have been added. Results. The present overview paper introduces the project and provides the basic results from the X-ray analysis of all sources detected in the XEST survey. Comprehensive tables summarize the stellar properties of all targets surveyed. The survey goes deeper than previous X-ray surveys of Taurus by about an order of magnitude and for the first time systematically accesses very faint and strongly absorbed TMC objects. We find a detection rate of 85% and 98% for classical and weak-line T Tau stars (CTTS resp. WTTS), and identify about half of the surveyed protostars and brown dwarfs. Overall, 136 out of 169 surveyed stellar systems are detected. We describe an X-ray luminosity vs. mass correlation, discuss the distribution of X-ray-to-bolometric luminosity ratios, and show evidence for lower X-ray luminosities in CTTS compared to WTTS. Detailed analysis (e.g., variability, rotation

  14. MAPPING STUDY OF 71 PLANCK COLD CLUMPS IN THE TAURUS, PERSEUS, AND CALIFORNIA COMPLEXES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanyi; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie

    2013-01-01

    A mapping study of 71 Planck cold clumps was made with 12 CO(1-0), 13 CO(1-0), and C 18 O(1-0) lines at the 13.7 m telescope of Purple Mountain Observatory. For all the clumps, 12 CO(1-0) and 13 CO(1-0) emissions were detected, while for 55 of them, C 18 O(1-0) emissions were detected. Of the 71 Clumps, 34 are in the Taurus Complex, 24 in the California Complex, and 13 are in the Perseus Complex. In the 76 velocity components, 38 cores are found in 27 clumps; 19 of these cores are in the Taurus Complex, 16 in the California Complex, and 3 in the Perseus Complex. We acquired V lsr , T A and FWHM of lines. Physical parameters including T ex , N H 2 , σ Therm , σ NT , and σ 3D were calculated. Generally, the cores are of T ex = 2-16 K, N H 2 =10 21 --10 22 cm –2 , and σ 3D = 0.2-1.0 km s –1 . In the Taurus Complex, the cores are less dense on average and have smaller σ Therm than the cores in the Perseus and California Complexes. Two of the three cores in the Perseus Complex are revealed to have larger T ex , N H 2 , and σ 3D than the mean values in the other two regions. Most of the cores have σ NT larger than σ Therm , suggesting a dominance of turbulence in our cores. The majority of the cores have M vir /M LTE >> 1, which indicates these cores are not bound and will disperse. By comparing our results with the dust properties revealed by the Planck Early Release Cold Cores Catalog, we investigated the coupling of gas and dust components. We found that most of the cores have dust temperatures higher than their gas temperatures. The stellar objects associated with our sources were checked and 90% of the cores were found to be starless

  15. Water vapor weathering of Taurus-Littrow orange soil - A pore-structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Mikhail, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    A pore-volume analysis was performed on water vapor adsorption data previously obtained on a fresh sample of Taurus-Littrow orange soil, and the analysis was repeated on the same sample after its exposure to moist air for a period of approximately six months. The results indicate that exposure of an outgassed sample to high relative pressures of water vapor can result in the formation of substantial micropore structure, the precise amount being dependent on the sample pretreatment, particularly the outgassing temperature. Micropore formation is explained in terms of water penetration into surface defects. In contrast, long-term exposure to moist air at low relative pressures appears to reverse the process with the elimination of micropores and enlargement of mesopores possibly through surface diffusion of metastable adsorbent material. The results are considered with reference to the storage of lunar samples.

  16. Spectropolarimetry of the 3μm ice band in Elias 16 (Taurus Dark Cloud)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, J.H.; Sato, Shuji; Tamura, Motohide

    1988-01-01

    Polarization data between 1.2 and 3.8 μm, including spectro-polarimetry in the 3-μm ice feature, are presented for the highly reddened field star Elias 16 in the Taurus Dark Cloud. The polarization is observed to increase with optical depth in the ice feature in a manner similar to that found for the BN object, that is, consistent with dichroic absorption by aligned grains. The polarization feature can be well modelled assuming grains composed of ammonia-water ices, with the ratio of H 2 O:NH 3 greater than 3:1. The continuum polarization can be well fitted over most of the observed wavelength range assuming a mix of silicate and graphite grains with size ∼ 0.13μm. (author)

  17. Transient periodic x-ray source in Taurus, A0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradt, H.; Mayer, W.; Buff, J.; Clark, G.W.; Doxsey, R.; Hearn, D.; Jernigan, G.; Joss, P.C.; Laufer, B.; Lewin, W.; Li, F.; Matilsky, T.; McClintock, J.; Primini, F.; Rappaport, S.; Schnopper, H.

    1976-01-01

    Light curves of the 104 s periodicity in the transient X-ray source in Taurus (A0535+26) are presented for six energy intervals in the range 1-35 keV for the period 1975 May 30-June 2. The pulse structure ranges from an apparently simple modulation at higher energies to a very complex pattern at lower energies. No Doppler shift is observed in the 104 s pulse period during the three days of observations. This places severe constraints upon possible binary orbital motion. Upper limits on the power at other periodicities are approximately-less-than10 percent for 2 ms-2s and approximately-less-than2 percent for 2 s-2000 s

  18. Morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza on bulbous plants (Taurus mountain in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaarslan Emel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the morphological identification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM on bulbous plants in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey. Thirteen soil samples and bulbous roots were taken from the rhizosphere of bulbous plants. The soils were analyzed for the number of VAM spores and chemical and physical properties. In addition, the roots were examined for infection levels, and morphological identification of VAM spores was made. All tested plants are considered mycorrhizal plants. We determined three spore species (Glomus mosseae, Glomus hoi and Scutellospora calospora from the surveyed soils. The spore distribution rates were as follows: G. Mossea 61.54 %, G. Hoi 23.07 % and Scutellospora calospora 15.38 %. Results suggest that VAM fungal spores and root colonization display variation in rhizosphere under bulbous plants in different ecological conditions.

  19. Pro-Amateur Observatories as a Significant Resource for Professional Astronomers - Taurus Hill Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, H.; Hentunen, V.-P.; Nissinen, M.; Salmi, T.; Aartolahti, H.; Juutilainen, J.; Vilokki, H.

    2013-09-01

    Taurus Hill Observatory (THO), observatory code A95, is an amateur observatory located in Varkaus, Finland. The observatory is maintained by the local astronomical association of Warkauden Kassiopeia [8]. THO research team has observed and measured various stellar objects and phenomena. Observatory has mainly focuse d on asteroid [1] and exoplanet light curve measurements, observing the gamma rays burst, supernova discoveries and monitoring [2]. We also do long term monitoring projects [3]. THO research team has presented its research work on previous EPSC meetings ([4], [5],[6], [7]) and got very supportive reactions from the European planetary science community. The results and publications that pro-amateur based observatories, like THO, have contributed, clearly demonstrates that pro-amateurs area significant resource for the professional astronomers now and even more in the future.

  20. Stephanofilariasis (Cascado in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwitri Endah Estuningsih

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephanofilariasis which is called as Cascado is characterized by dermatitis in cattle. This disease is caused by nematode from the genus of Stephanofilaria and transmitted by the fly vector. In general, the disease is characterized by pruritis, loss of hair, ulceration, exudation and haemorrhage depending on the stage of infection. Control of the disease could be done by drug treatment of the infected animals and eradication of the fly vector periodically. The disease easily spreads, therefore farmers and the veterinary officers in the fields should pay attention on this disease.

  1. MAPPING THE SHORES OF THE BROWN DWARF DESERT. II. MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION IN TAURUS-AURIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Martinache, Frantz; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a high-resolution imaging study of the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region in order to characterize the primordial outcome of multiple star formation and the extent of the brown dwarf desert. Our survey identified 16 new binary companions to primary stars with masses of 0.25-2.5 M sun , raising the total number of binary pairs (including components of high-order multiples) with separations of 3-5000 AU to 90. We find that ∼2/3-3/4 of all Taurus members are multiple systems of two or more stars, while the other ∼1/4-1/3 appear to have formed as single stars; the distribution of high-order multiplicity suggests that fragmentation into a wide binary has no impact on the subsequent probability that either component will fragment again. The separation distribution for solar-type stars (0.7-2.5 M sun ) is nearly log-flat over separations of 3-5000 AU, but lower-mass stars (0.25-0.7 M sun ) show a paucity of binary companions with separations of ∼>200 AU. Across this full mass range, companion masses are well described with a linear-flat function; all system mass ratios (q = M B /M A ) are equally probable, apparently including substellar companions. Our results are broadly consistent with the two expected modes of binary formation (free-fall fragmentation on large scales and disk fragmentation on small scales), but the distributions provide some clues as to the epochs at which the companions are likely to form.

  2. NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY OF A NORMAL SPIRAL GALAXY VIEWED THROUGH THE TAURUS MOLECULAR CLOUD COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Cashman, L. R.; Pavel, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Few normal galaxies have been probed using near-infrared polarimetry, even though it reveals magnetic fields in the cool interstellar medium better than either optical or radio polarimetry. Deep H-band (1.6 μm) linear imaging polarimetry toward Taurus serendipitously included the galaxy 2MASX J04412715+2433110 with adequate sensitivity and resolution to map polarization across nearly its full extent. The observations revealed the galaxy to be a steeply inclined (∼75°) disk type with a diameter, encompassing 90% of the Petrosian flux, of 4.2 kpc at a distance of 53 Mpc. Because the sight line passes through the Taurus Molecular Cloud complex, the foreground polarization needed to be measured and removed. The foreground extinction A V of 2.00 ± 0.10 mag and reddening E(H – K) of 0.125 ± 0.009 mag were also assessed and removed, based on analysis of Two Micron All Sky Survey, UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, Spitzer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry using the Near-Infrared Color Excess, NICE-Revisited, and Rayleigh-Jeans Color Excess methods. Corrected for the polarized foreground, the galaxy polarization values range from 0% to 3%. The polarizations are dominated by a disk-parallel magnetic field geometry, especially to the northeast, while either a vertical field or single scattering of bulge light produces disk-normal polarizations to the southwest. The multi-kiloparsec coherence of the magnetic field revealed by the infrared polarimetry is in close agreement with short-wavelength radio synchrotron observations of edge-on galaxies, indicating that both cool and warm interstellar media of disk galaxies may be threaded by common magnetic fields.

  3. DISK EVOLUTION IN THE THREE NEARBY STAR-FORMING REGIONS OF TAURUS, CHAMAELEON, AND OPHIUCHUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, E.; Watson, Dan M.; McClure, M. K.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze samples of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of T Tauri stars in the Ophiuchus, Taurus, and Chamaeleon I star-forming regions, whose median ages lie in the <1-2 Myr range. The median mid-infrared spectra of objects in these three regions are similar in shape, suggesting, on average, similar disk structures. When normalized to the same stellar luminosity, the medians follow each other closely, implying comparable mid-infrared excess emission from the circumstellar disks. We use the spectral index between 13 and 31 μm and the equivalent width of the 10 μm silicate emission feature to identify objects whose disk configuration departs from that of a continuous, optically thick accretion disk. Transitional disks, whose steep 13-31 μm spectral slope and near-IR flux deficit reveal inner disk clearing, occur with about the same frequency of a few percent in all three regions. Objects with unusually large 10 μm equivalent widths are more common (20%-30%); they could reveal the presence of disk gaps filled with optically thin dust. Based on their medians and fraction of evolved disks, T Tauri stars in Taurus and Chamaeleon I are very alike. Disk evolution sets in early, since already the youngest region, the Ophiuchus core (L1688), has more settled disks with larger grains. Our results indicate that protoplanetary disks show clear signs of dust evolution at an age of a few Myr, even as early as ∼1 Myr, but age is not the only factor determining the degree of evolution during the first few million years of a disk's lifetime.

  4. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  5. DYNA3D, INGRID, and TAURUS: an integrated, interactive software system for crashworthiness engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.J.; Hallquist, J.O.; Stillman, D.W.

    1985-04-01

    Crashworthiness engineering has always been a high priority at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory because of its role in the safe transport of radioactive material for the nuclear power industry and military. As a result, the authors have developed an integrated, interactive set of finite element programs for crashworthiness analysis. The heart of the system is DYNA3D, an explicit, fully vectorized, large deformation structural dynamics code. DYNA3D has the following four capabilities that are critical for the efficient and accurate analysis of crashes: (1) fully nonlinear solid, shell, and beam elements for representing a structure, (2) a broad range of constitutive models for representing the materials, (3) sophisticated contact algorithms for the impact interactions, and (4) a rigid body capability to represent the bodies away from the impact zones at a greatly reduced cost without sacrificing any accuracy in the momentum calculations. To generate the large and complex data files for DYNA3D, INGRID, a general purpose mesh generator, is used. It runs on everything from IBM PCs to CRAYS, and can generate 1000 nodes/minute on a PC. With its efficient hidden line algorithms and many options for specifying geometry, INGRID also doubles as a geometric modeller. TAURUS, an interactive post processor, is used to display DYNA3D output. In addition to the standard monochrome hidden line display, time history plotting, and contouring, TAURUS generates interactive color displays on 8 color video screens by plotting color bands superimposed on the mesh which indicate the value of the state variables. For higher quality color output, graphic output files may be sent to the DICOMED film recorders. We have found that color is every bit as important as hidden line removal in aiding the analyst in understanding his results. In this paper the basic methodologies of the programs are presented along with several crashworthiness calculations

  6. Probing Disk Stratification by Combining X-ray and Disk Inclination Data for Taurus-Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraki, Kenza S.; Daly, B.; Harding, M.; McCleary, J.; Cox, A. W.; Grady, C. A.; Woodgate, B. E.; Hamaguchi, K.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Brakken-Thal, S.; Hilton, G.; Bonfield, D.; Williger, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectric neutral Hydrogen absorption, N(H), is a probe of the gas and dust column towards the star. Kastner et al. (2005) found a correlation between N(H) and proplyd aspect ratio in the Orion nebula cluster. We extend this study to Taurus-Auriga by combining publicly available N(H) data from the XMM-Newton Extended Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud (XEST), with published disk inclination data obtained from HST coronagraphic imagery and mm interferometry. Additional inclinations were derived from jet proper motion and radial velocity data obtained from archival HST imagery and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope's Goddard Fabry-Perot and DIS long-slit spectrograph. Both N(H) and extinction have linear relations with system inclination, where the extinction has a smaller slope than the N(H) trend. Correlations with system inclination demonstrate that the bulk of both N(H) and extinction arise in the disk rather than in remnant envelopes, nearby molecular cloud material, or foreground material. The deficit in extinction compared with predictions for ISM-like gas to dust ratios is consistent with grain growth and settling toward the disk midplane and stratification in disks occurring by 2 Myr. However, the disks remain gas-rich, indicating that giant planet formation is still feasible. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the NASA Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) Project and of NASA's APRA program under WBS#399131.02.06.02.32. A grant of Director's Discretionary Time funded observing time at the Apache Point Observatory.

  7. 9 CFR 91.5 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... surveillance system at slaughter plants: Canada and Mexico. (b) Brucellosis. All cattle over 6 months of age... agrees to share any findings of brucellosis in U.S. origin cattle with APHIS; (v) Cattle exported... a country that does not require cattle from the United States to be tested for brucellosis as...

  8. Hvordan påvirker indvandrernes integration, ressourcer og diaspora deres bosætningspræferencer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Etniske minoriteters boligønsker må i vid udstrækning antages, at have de samme årsager, som generelt er fundet i forbindelse med studier af boligvalg i Danmark og andre europæiske lande. Men indvandreres bosætning i Danmark og andre lande afviger så meget fra den indfødte befolknings, at den ikk...

  9. A genome-wide scan for selection signatures in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, A L; Sonstegard, T S; Higa, R H; Rosa, A N; Siqueira, F; Silva, L O C; Torres Júnior, R A A; Coutinho, L L; Mudadu, M A; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A

    2014-12-01

    Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) have been selected for growth traits for over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genome regions altered by artificial selection can potentially permit a better understanding of the biology of specific phenotypes that are useful for the development of tools designed to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect evidence of recent selection signatures in Nellore cattle using extended haplotype homozygosity methodology and BovineHD marker genotypes (>777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms) as well as to identify corresponding genes underlying these signals. Thirty-one significant regions (P meat quality, fatty acid profiles and immunity. In addition, 545 genes were identified in regions harboring selection signatures. Within this group, 58 genes were associated with growth, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism, reproductive traits or the immune system. Using relative extended haplotype homozygosity to analyze high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker data allowed for the identification of regions potentially under artificial selection pressure in the Nellore genome, which might be used to better understand autozygosity and the effects of selection on the Nellore genome. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Effect of feeding cassava and/or Stylosanthes foliage on the performance of crossbred growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, C M; Ledin, I; Bertilsson, J

    2010-01-01

    The effect of feeding different levels of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and/or Stylosanthes guianensis foliage on the growth and digestibility was studied using twenty eight 6-month-old crossbred growing cattle (50% local Yellow cattle and 50% Sindhi) (both Bos indicus) weighing on average 114 kg at start. All animals were fed a basal diet consisting of urea treated rice straw (URTRS) fed ad libitum, 0.87 kg concentrate and 0.22 kg molasses on dry matter (DM) basis. The treatments were four supplements: soybean meal, cassava foliage, stylosanthes foliage or a mix of stylosanthes foliage and cassava foliage all giving the same nitrogen intake. The consumption of tannins and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were significantly higher in groups fed a mixture of foliages compared with only cassava foliage, respectively. There were 30% and 19%, respectively, higher live weight gain in the group fed a mixture of foliages as compared to the groups fed only cassava or stylosanthes. The factors of low organic matter and high level of HCN in the diet when feeding only cassava foliage might explain the negative effects on intake, neutral detergent fibre digestibility and nitrogen retention, and resulted in lower growth rates.

  11. Prevalence of Endoglobular Hemotropic Parasites in Pure Gyr Cattle in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Blanco Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine parasitic sadness produces significant losses in Colombia and it is associated with the presence of ticks. It is caused by microscopic endoglobular hemotropic parasites such as Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. In this study, 131 pure Gyr cows were studied from four cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia. A blood sample of 5 ml was collected from the coccygeal vein for hematocrit determination and for blood smears stained with Wright’s stain, in order to assess intracellular parasitic forms morphologically compatible with Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables of body condition, mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement were independent from the frequency of endoglobular hemotropic parasites. The study found that 24.43% of the sampled animals were positive for endoglobular hemotropic parasites; 20.61% (27/131 of them were positive for Anaplasma spp.; 3.05% (4/131 for Babesia spp., and 0.76% (1/131 for both Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found for variables of mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement. This allowed to register for the first time the prevalence of infection by endoglobular hemotropic parasites in Bos indicus cattle, of the Gyr breed specifically.

  12. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  13. A CENSUS OF ROTATION AND VARIABILITY IN L1495: A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF TRANS-ATLANTIC EXOPLANET SURVEY LIGHT CURVES FOR PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS IN TAURUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Hongyu; Covey, Kevin R.; Lloyd, James P.; Rebull, Luisa; Charbonneau, David; Mandushev, Georgi; O'Donovan, Francis; Slesnick, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    We analyze light curves obtained by the Trans-atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES) for a field centered on the L1495 dark cloud in Taurus. The Spitzer Taurus Legacy Survey catalog identifies 179 bona fide Taurus members within the TrES field; 48 of the known Taurus members are detected by TrES, as well as 26 candidate members identified by the Spitzer Legacy team. We quantify the variability of each star in our sample using the ratio of the standard deviation of the original light curve (σ orig. ) to the standard deviation of a light curve that has been smoothed by 9 or 1001 epochs (σ 9 and σ 1001 , respectively). Known Taurus members typically demonstrate (σ orig. /σ 9 ) orig. /σ 1001 ) orig. /σ 9 ) ∼ 3.0 and (σ orig. /σ 1001 ) ∼ 10, as expected for light curves dominated by unstructured white noise. Of the 74 Taurus members/candidates with TrES light curves, we detect significant variability in 49 sources. Adapting a quantitative metric originally developed to assess the reliability of transit detections, we measure the amount of red and white noise in each light curve and identify 18 known or candidate Taurus members with highly significant period measurements. These appear to be the first periods measured for four of these sources (HD 282276, CX Tau, FP Tau, TrES J042423+265008), and in two other cases, the first non-aliased periods (LkCa 21 and DK Tau AB). For the remainder, the TrES measurements typically agree very well (δP < 1%) with previously reported values. Including periods measured at lower confidence for 15 additional sources, we report periods for 11 objects where no previous periods were found, including 8 confirmed Taurus members. We also identify 10 of the 26 candidate Taurus members that demonstrate variability levels consistent with being bona fide T Tauri stars. A Kolomgorov-Smirnov (K-S) test confirms that these new periods confirm the distinction between the rotation period distributions of stars with and without circumstellar

  14. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Bluetongue Virus (BTV) Vaccine Strains from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine, a BTV-4 Field Strain from South Africa, and a Reassortant Strain Isolated from Experimentally Vaccinated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Peter; le Grange, Misha; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequences of plaque-selected isolates of each of the five virus strains included in a South African commercial trivalent bluetongue virus (BTV) attenuated live virus vaccine, a BTV-4 field strain isolated from Rustenburg, South Africa, in 2011, and a bluetongue reassortant (bluetongue virus 4 strain 4/O. aries-tc/ZAF/11/OBP-115) isolated from experimentally vaccinated cattle. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses show that the bluetongue virus 9 strain 9/B. taurus-tc/ZAF/15/Onderstepoort_B02b is a reassortant virus containing segments from both BTV-9 and BTV-8. PMID:27340051

  15. Analyses of fixed effects for genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test day records in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Anang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Season, rainfall, day of rain, temperature, humidity, year and farm are fixed effects, which have been reported to influence milk yield. Those factors are often linked together to contribute to the variation of milk production. This research is addressed to study the fixed effect factors, including lactation curve, which should be considered for genetic evaluation of milk yield based on test day records of dairy cattle. The data were taken from four different farms, which were PT. Taurus Dairy Farm, BPPT Cikole, Bandang Dairy Farm, and BBPTU Baturraden. In total of 16806 test day records were evaluated, consisting of 9,302 at first and 7,504 at second lactation, respectively. The results indicated that fixed effects were very specific and the influences had different patterns for each farm. Consequently, in a genetic evaluation, these factors such as lactation, temperature, year, day of rain, and humidity need to be evaluated first. Ali-Schaeffer curve represented the most appropriate curve to use in the genetic evaluation of dairy cattle in Indonesia.

  16. Overlapping Open Clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 behind the Taurus Dark Clouds. II. CCD Photometry in the Vilnius System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straižys V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven-color photometry in the Vilnius system has been obtained for 420 stars down to V = 16 mag in the area containing the overlapping open clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 in Taurus. Spectral and luminosity classes, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are given for 287 stars. The classification of stars is based on their reddening-free Q-parameters. 18 stars observed photoelectrically were used as standards. The extinction vs. distance diagram exhibits the presence of one dust cloud at a distance of 175 pc which almost coincides with a distance of other dust clouds in the Taurus complex. The clusters NGC 1750 and NGC 1758 are found to be at the same distance of ~760 pc and may penetrate each other. Their interstellar extinction AV is 1.06 mag which corresponds to EB-V = 0.34 mag.

  17. Cloning of an endangered species (Bos gaurus) using interspecies nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R P; Cibelli, J B; Diaz, F; Moraes, C T; Farin, P W; Farin, C E; Hammer, C J; West, M D; Damiani, P

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 100 species become extinct a day. Despite increasing interest in using cloning to rescue endangered species, successful interspecies nuclear transfer has not been previously described, and only a few reports of in vitro embryo formation exist. Here we show that interspecies nuclear transfer can be used to clone an endangered species with normal karyotypic and phenotypic development through implantation and the late stages of fetal growth. Somatic cells from a gaur bull (Bos gaurus), a large wild ox on the verge of extinction, (Species Survival Plan animals) were electrofused with enucleated oocytes from domestic cows. Twelve percent of the reconstructed oocytes developed to the blastocyst stage, and 18% of these embryos developed to the fetal stage when transferred to surrogate mothers. Three of the fetuses were electively removed at days 46 to 54 of gestation, and two continued gestation longer than 180 (ongoing) and 200 days, respectively. Microsatellite marker and cytogenetic analyses confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned animals was gaurus in origin. The gaur nuclei were shown to direct normal fetal development, with differentiation into complex tissue and organs, even though the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) within all the tissue types evaluated was derived exclusively from the recipient bovine oocytes. These results suggest that somatic cell cloning methods could be used to restore endangered, or even extinct, species and populations.

  18. Harvestmen of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo (Spain) (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Anadón, Araceli; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract There are significant gaps in accessible knowledge about the distribution and phenology of Iberian harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Harvestmen accessible datasets in Iberian Peninsula are unknown, an only two other datasets available in GBIF are composed exclusively of harvestmen records. Moreover, only a few harvestmen data from Iberian Peninsula are available in GBIF network (or in any network that allows public retrieval or use these data). This paper describes the data associated with the Opiliones kept in the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo, Spain (hosted in the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas), filling some of those gaps. The specimens were mainly collected from the northern third of the Iberian Peninsula. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection, dating back to the early 20th century, belongs to the P. Franganillo Collection. The dataset documents the collection of 16,455 specimens, preserved in 3,772 vials. Approximately 38% of the specimens belong to the family Sclerosomatidae, and 26% to Phalangidae; six other families with fewer specimens are also included. Data quality control was incorporated at several steps of digitisation process to facilitate reuse and improve accuracy. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format, allowing public retrieval, use and combination with other biological, biodiversity of geographical variables datasets. PMID:24146596

  19. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection (University of Oviedo, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torralba-Burrial

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species, especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS, University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records, especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16,604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  1. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  2. Severe diarrhea outbreak in beef calves (Bos indicus caused by G6P[11], an emergent genotype of bovine rotavirus group A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais N.S. Medeiros

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The episodes of diarrhea caused by neonatal bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA constitute one of the major health problems in the calf rearing worldwide. The main G (VP7 and P (VP4 genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of diarrhea in calves are G6P[1], G10P[11], G6P[5], and G8P[1]. However, less frequently, other G and P genotypes have been described in BoRVA strains identified in diarrheic fecal samples of calves. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of an emerging genotype (G6P[11] in BoRVA strains involved in the etiology of a diarrhea outbreak in beef calves in a cattle herd of high production in extensive management system. The diarrhea outbreak, which showed high morbidity (60% and lethality (7% rates, occurred in calves (n= 384 Nelore (Bos indicus up to 30-day-old from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. BoRVA was identified in 80% (16/20 of the fecal samples analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE technique. In all PAGE-positive fecal samples were amplified products with 1,062-bp and 876-bp in the RT-PCR assays for VP7 (G type and VP4 (VP8* (P type of BoRVA, respectively. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP7 and VP4 genes of four wild-type BoRVA strains showed G6-III P[11]-III genotype/lineage. The G6P[11] genotype has been described in RVA strains of human and animal hosts, however, in calves this genotype was only identified in some cross-sectional studies and not as a single cause of diarrhea outbreaks in calves with high morbidity and lethality rates as described in this study. The monitoring of the G and P genotypes of BoRVA strains involved in diarrhea outbreaks in calves is important for both animal and public health by allowing the identification of the most frequent genotypes, the characterization of novel genotypes and to identify reassortments with genotypes described in animal and human hosts. The results of this study show the importance of the monitoring of

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16181-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-507F20 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232941 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-255J15 (Children...'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232940 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-62I11 (Children's... 48 0.79 1 ( A...C232929 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-291F15 (Children'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232768 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-460C15 (Childre...n'... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232755 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-409J7 (Children...'s... 48 0.79 1 ( AC232753 ) Bos taurus Y Chr NOVECTOR CH240-45P20 (Children's... 48 0.7

  4. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L., E-mail: taran.esplin@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K{sub s}, which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M {sub Jup} according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M{sub Jup}).

  5. A Survey For Planetary-mass Brown Dwarfs in the Taurus and Perseus Star-forming Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the initial results from a survey for planetary-mass brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region. We have identified brown dwarf candidates in Taurus using proper motions and photometry from several ground- and space-based facilities. Through spectroscopy of some of the more promising candidates, we have found 18 new members of Taurus. They have spectral types ranging from mid-M to early-L, and they include the four faintest known members in extinction-corrected K s , which should have masses as low as ∼4–5 M Jup according to evolutionary models. Two of the coolest new members (M9.25, M9.5) have mid-IR excesses that indicate the presence of disks. Two fainter objects with types of M9–L2 and M9–L3 also have red mid-IR colors relative to photospheres at ≤L0, but since the photospheric colors are poorly defined at >L0, it is unclear whether they have excesses from disks. We also have obtained spectra of candidate members of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 clusters in Perseus that were identified by Luhman et al. Eight candidates are found to be probable members, three of which are among the faintest and least-massive known members of the clusters (∼5 M Jup ).

  6. Growth and efficiency of young Brahman, Bonsmara and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frisch & Vercoe (1977) found that Brahman-cross steers had a lower voluntary food intake per kilogram live mass, as well as a lower fasting metabolism per kilogram live mass, com- pare:d to Bos taurus steers. Furthermore, Bos indicus breeds show a better growth rate on roughage than Bos taurus breeds. (Fri:>eh, 1976).

  7. FIRST ISOLATION OF TENACIBACULUM MARITIMUM IN A CAPTIVE SAND TIGER SHARK (CARCHARIAS TAURUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Daniela; Gridelli, Stefano; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-03-01

    This report describes a case of the first isolation of Tenacibaculum maritimum from a captive-bred adult female sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) housed at the Cattolica Aquarium (Italy). The animal showed, between the second dorsal fin and the precaudal pit, skin lesions characterized by the presence of abundant whitish necrotic tissue. Through routine bacteriological examination, a bacterium was isolated from a skin lesion and subsequently identified as T. maritimum by phenotypic characters and species-specific polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the isolated strain was evaluated for 11 antimicrobial agents by disk diffusion method. Antibiotic therapy was conducted with enrofloxacin at 10 mg kg(-1) i.m. on alternate days for 10 days. One month after the end of treatment skin lesions showed complete resolution and the shark recovered completely. The case presented here represents the first report of infection by T. maritimum in a sand tiger shark and highlights the potential pathogenic role of this microorganism in elasmobranchs kept in an aquarium.

  8. Optical polarization maps of star-forming regions in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.; Bastien, P.; Menard, F.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical linear polarization maps are presented of the star-forming regions near L1506 in Taurus, L1755 in Ophiuchus, and the complex of dark cloud which extends from L1448 in B5 in Perseus. The former two show a well-defined peak magnetic field direction in the plane of the sky with a finite dispersion about that peak which is smaller than would be expected for a random distribution of field distributions. The dispersion in the position angle of filamentary clouds within these complexes implies that clouds which appear elongated on the plane of the sky are not all associated with a pattern of polarization vectors particularly parallel or perpendicular to their geometry. Instead, clouds tend to be oriented at the angle formed by their axis and the mean direction of the local large-scale field. For the dark cloud complex, a bimodal distribution of the polarization vector angle is taken to result from at least two distributions of gas along the line of sight which appear as a complex in projection. 55 refs

  9. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer observations of Taurus members (Luhman+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Allen, P. R.; Espaillat, C.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2016-03-01

    For our census of the disk population in Taurus, we use images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0um obtained with Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and images at 24um obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). The cameras produced images with FWHM=1.6"-1.9" from 3.6 to 8.0um and FWHM=5.9" at 24um. The available data were obtained through Guaranteed Time Observations for PID = 6, 36, 37 (G. Fazio), 53 (G. Rieke), 94 (C. Lawrence), 30540 (G. Fazio, J. Houck), and 40302 (J. Houck), Director's Discretionary Time for PID = 462 (L. Rebull), Legacy programs for PID = 139, 173 (N. Evans), and 30816 (D. Padgett), and General Observer programs for PID = 3584 (D. Padgett), 20302 (P. Andre), 20386 (P. Myers), 20762 (J. Swift), 30384 (T. Bourke), 40844 (C. McCabe), and 50584 (D. Padgett). The IRAC and MIPS observations were performed through 180 and 137 Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs), respectively. The characteristics of the resulting images are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. (6 data files).

  11. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs

  12. Fertility variation in two populations of taurus cedar (cedrus libani rich.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozel, H.B.; Bilir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Fertility variation, measured as half-sib family coefficient, based on number of one, two and three years cones were investigated in plantation population (PP), and a natural population (NP) of Taurus Cedar (Cedrus libani Rich.) sampled from southern part of Turkey. Fertility variation was higher in PP than NP for one, two and three years. It was the highest in PP for one year cones (2.34), while it was lowest in NP for three years cones (1.73) as shown in Table 2. The effective number of parents were 21.8 (38.4% of census number) for one year cones, 25.7 (47.9% of census number) for two years cones and 29.8 (52.6% of census number) for three cones in PP. On the other hand the effective number of parents were 28.3 (43.4% of census number) for one year cones, 32.8 (51.6% of census number) for two years cones and 36.4 (58.9% of census number) for three years cones in NP. Diameter at breast height and tree crown area had positive and significant (p<0.05) effective on cone production, while effects of tree height and tree age were not significant (NS) on that (Table 3). There were also positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between years in cone production. (author)

  13. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  14. 9 CFR 78.12 - Cattle from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.12 Cattle from quarantined areas. Not... cattle. Brucellosis reactor cattle may be moved interstate in accordance with § 78.7. (c) Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate in accordance with § 78.8(a) or (b). (d...

  15. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  16. Comparative study of biogas from cattle dung and mixture of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...

  17. Evaluation of foot and mouth vaccination for yak (Bos grunniens) in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Khan, E H Haq; Ali, I; Manzoor, S; Jamil, A; Abubakar, M; Afzal, M; Hussain, M

    2017-04-01

    In northern Pakistan, many farming communities rely on domestic yak (Bos grunniens) as a principle source of income. A 2006 participatory disease surveillance report from this region indicated that foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most prevalent annual disease of yak. Our objectives of this study were to determine exposure levels of yak to FMD virus; implement a vaccination program based on current, regional FMD virus serotypes and subtypes; and quantify immune responses following vaccination. Blood samples were used to determine pre-vaccination exposure of animals to FMD virus by antibody presence to non-structural proteins of FMD virus using a 3-ABC trapping indirect ELISA. Vaccine used consisted of FMD serotypes 'O' (PanAsia-2), 'A' (Iran-05), and 'Asia-1' (Shamir), but changed later during the study to match newly circulating viruses in the country ('O'-PanAsia-2; 'A'-Turk-06 and Asia-1-Sindh-08). Three hundred sixty-three blood samples were tested from selected villages to determine pre-vaccination FMD virus exposure in yak with an average of 37.7%. Immune responses from initial vaccination and booster dose 30 days later showed clear protective levels (as mean percent inhibition) of antibodies against structural proteins of serotypes 'O,' 'A,' and 'Asia-1.' These responses remained above threshold positive level even at day 210 following initial vaccination. Results of sero-surveillance and anecdotal information of repeated FMD outbreaks demonstrate the persistence of FMD virus of yak in northern Pakistan. Laboratory results and field observations clearly indicated that yak can be protected against FMD with a good quality vaccine with FMD serotype(s) matching current, regionally circulating FMD virus.

  18. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  19. Objective measures for the assessment of post-operative pain in bos indicus bull calves following castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musk, Gabrielle C.; Jacobsen, Stine; Hyndman, Timothy H.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration...... in the concentrations of SAA, haptoglobin, and fibrinogen in all of the groups from day 0 to 3. Iron concentrations were not different at the time points it was measured. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of meloxicam. The other objective...

  20. Unethical evidence against cattle dignity during loading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some activities that showed unethical practices against cattle during loading, transportation and off-loading were considered in this paper. Three major cattle market centres (Akinyele, Bodija and Oranyan) in Ibadan metropolis were used. Eighty (80) structured questionnaires were randomly administered to the cattle ...

  1. Analysis of the Plant bos1 Mutant Highlights Necrosis as an Efficient Defence Mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrit, Oriane; Simond-Côte, Elizabeth; Hermand, Victor; Van Gijsegem, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS) production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection. PMID:21533045

  2. Analysis of the plant bos1 mutant highlights necrosis as an efficient defence mechanism during D. dadantii/Arabidospis thaliana interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvan Kraepiel

    Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii is a broad host range phytopathogenic bacterium provoking soft rot disease on many plants including Arabidopsis. We showed that, after D. dadantii infection, the expression of the Arabidopsis BOS1 gene was specifically induced by the production of the bacterial PelB/C pectinases able to degrade pectin. This prompted us to analyze the interaction between the bos1 mutant and D. dadantii. The phenotype of the infected bos1 mutant is complex. Indeed, maceration symptoms occurred more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type parent but at a later stage of infection, a necrosis developed around the inoculation site that provoked a halt in the progression of the maceration. This necrosis became systemic and spread throughout the whole plant, a phenotype reminiscent of that observed in some lesion mimic mutants. In accordance with the progression of maceration symptoms, bacterial population began to grow more rapidly in the bos1 mutant than in the wild type plant but, when necrosis appeared in the bos1 mutant, a reduction in bacterial population was observed. From the plant side, this complex interaction between D. dadantii and its host includes an early plant defence response that comprises reactive oxygen species (ROS production accompanied by the reinforcement of the plant cell wall by protein cross-linking. At later timepoints, another plant defence is raised by the death of the plant cells surrounding the inoculation site. This plant cell death appears to constitute an efficient defence mechanism induced by D. dadantii during Arabidopsis infection.

  3. Ancient DNA extracted from Danish aurochs (Bos primigenius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Gravlund; Aaris-Sørensen, Kim; Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    in an archeological or geological context. We find that aurochs from southern Scandinavia display a star-shaped population genetic structure, that is indicative of a local and relatively recent diversification from a few ancestral haplotypes that may have originated in the ancestral Western European population before...... cattle in our aurochs suggests that introgression between these species must have been limited, if it occurred at all. We found that the successful recovery of genetic material for PCR amplification correlates with sample age and local geographic conditions. However, contrary to other studies, we found...

  4. THE DISK IMAGING SURVEY OF CHEMISTRY WITH SMA. I. TAURUS PROTOPLANETARY DISK DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeberg, Karin I.; Qi Chunhua; Andrews, Sean M.; Espaillat, Catherine; Van Kempen, Tim A.; Wilner, David J.; Fogel, Jeffrey K. J.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    Chemistry plays an important role in the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, with implications for the composition of comets and planets. This is the first of a series of papers based on data from DISCS, a Submillimeter Array survey of the chemical composition of protoplanetary disks. The six Taurus sources in the program (DM Tau, AA Tau, LkCa 15, GM Aur, CQ Tau, and MWC 480) range in stellar spectral type from M1 to A4 and offer an opportunity to test the effects of stellar luminosity on the disk chemistry. The disks were observed in 10 different lines at ∼3'' resolution and an rms of ∼100 mJy beam -1 at ∼0.5 km s -1 . The four brightest lines are CO 2-1, HCO + 3-2, CN 2 33/4/2 - 1 22/3/1 , and HCN 3-2, and these are detected toward all sources (except for HCN toward CQ Tau). The weaker lines of CN 2 22 -1 11 , DCO + 3-2, N 2 H + 3-2, H 2 CO 3 03 -2 02 , and 4 14 -3 13 are detected toward two to three disks each, and DCN 3-2 only toward LkCa 15. CH 3 OH 4 21 -3 1 2 and c-C 3 H 2 are not detected. There is no obvious difference between the T Tauri and Herbig Ae sources with regard to CN and HCN intensities. In contrast, DCO + , DCN, N 2 H + , and H 2 CO are detected only toward the T Tauri stars, suggesting that the disks around Herbig Ae stars lack cold regions for long enough timescales to allow for efficient deuterium chemistry, CO freeze-out, and grain chemistry.

  5. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  6. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  7. Subsurface density structure of Taurus-Littrow Valley using Apollo 17 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Stanley, S.; Hatch, D.; Carroll, K. A.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) from the Apollo 17 mission was the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon, revealing the local gravity field at Taurus-Littrow Valley (TLV). TLV is hypothesized to be a basalt-filled graben, oriented radial to Serenitatis basin. We implemented modern 3-D modeling techniques using recent high-resolution Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter topography and image data sets to reinvestigate the subsurface structure of TLV and constrain the volcanic and tectonic history of the region. Updated topography led to significant improvements in the accuracy of free-air, Bouguer, and terrain corrections. To determine the underlying geometry for TLV, we tested a range of possible thicknesses, dips, and wall positions for the graben fill. We found that the thickness and position previously determined by Talwani et al. (1973) represent our preferred model for the data, but with walls with dips of 30°, rather than 90°. We found large model misfits due to unmodeled 3-D structure and density anomalies, as well as parameter trade-offs. We performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the parameter trade-offs in an ideal future survey, assuming dominantly 2-D geological structure. At the TGE survey noise level (2.5 mGal), the fill thickness was constrained to ±150 m, the wall angle to ±5∘20∘ and the wall positions to ±1 km of the preferred model. This information can be used to inform the design of future lunar gravimetry experiments in regions similar to TLV.

  8. The Nature of Transition Circumstellar Disks. III. Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Romero, Gisela A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Merín, Bruno

    2012-05-01

    As part of an ongoing program aiming to characterize a large number of Spitzer-selected transition disks (disks with reduced levels of near-IR and/or mid-IR excess emission), we have obtained (sub)millimeter wavelength photometry, high-resolution optical spectroscopy, and adaptive optics near-infrared imaging for a sample of 31 transition objects located in the Perseus, Taurus, and Auriga molecular clouds. We use these ground-based data to estimate disk masses, multiplicity, and accretion rates in order to investigate the mechanisms potentially responsible for their inner holes. Following our previous studies in other regions, we combine disk masses, accretion rates, and multiplicity data with other information, such as spectral energy distribution morphology and fractional disk luminosity, to classify the disks as strong candidates for the following categories: grain-growth-dominated disks (seven objects), giant planet-forming disks (six objects), photoevaporating disks (seven objects), debris disks (11 objects), and cicumbinary disks (one object, which was also classified as a photoevaporating disk). Combining our sample of 31 transition disks with those from our previous studies results in a sample of 74 transition objects that have been selected, characterized, and classified in a homogenous way. We discuss this combined high-quality sample in the context of the current paradigm of the evolution and dissipation of protoplanetary disks and use its properties to constrain different aspects of the key processes driving their evolution. We find that the age distribution of disks that are likely to harbor recently formed giant planets favors core accretion as the main planet formation mechanism and a ~2-3 Myr formation timescale. Based in part on observations made with the CFHT, under programs 09BH48, 09BH10, 10AH06, and 10BH97.

  9. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) exhibits heritable variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2011-03-01

    Sperm competition is thought to be an important selective pressure shaping sperm form and function. However, few studies have moved beyond gross examinations of sperm morphology. Sperm length is subject to sexual selection via sperm competition in the scarab beetle Onthophagus taurus. Here, the structure and ultrastructure of spermatozoa in this species were investigated using light and electron microscopy. Spermatozoa were found to be filiform, measuring about 1,200 mm in length. The sperm head consists of a three-layered acrosome and a nuclear region bearing the anterior extension of the centriole adjunct. Acrosome and nuclear regions are bilaterally symmetric, with their axes of symmetry being orthogonal to each other. Head and flagellar structures are connected by a well-developed centriole adjunct. The sperm heads are asymmetrically surrounded by accessory material and embedded into the cytoplasm of the spermatocyst cell. The accessory material is produced inside the spermatids and then transferred to the outside due to a new membrane formed around the sperm's organelles. The old spermatid membrane separates the accessory material from the cyst cell. The flagellum contains a 9+9+2 axoneme, two accessory bodies, and two mitochondrial derivatives of unequal size. The major mitochondrial derivative is significantly larger than the minor one. The axoneme is arranged in a sinusoidal manner parallel along the major mitochondrial derivative. The spermatozoa show no progressive motility when released in buffer solution which is likely to be the result of the flagellar arrangement and the structure of the major mitochondrial derivative. The cross-sectional area of the minor and the major mitochondrial derivatives show different patterns of genetic variation. The data provide the first estimates of genetic variation in sperm ultrastructure for any species, and give evidence for the persistence of genetic variation in ultrastructure required for the rapid and divergent

  10. The GBT 3mm Survey of Infall and Fragmentation of Dense Cores in Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmin; Goldsmith, Paul; Shirley, Yancy L.; Church, Sara; Frayer, David

    2018-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the infall and fragmentation survey toward a complete population of prestellar cores in Taurus that was carried out with the 16-element W-band focal plane array receiver (Argus) on the 100m Green Bank Telescope. The survey is designed take advantage of the 8.5” angular resolution and high sensitivity of Argus on the GBT to trace infall motions in HCN 1-0 & HCO+ 1-0 and find any evidence of fragmentation in N2H+ & NH2D within prestellar cores ranging in size from 0.05 pc to 0.0075 pc (1500 AU), which is a typical size scale of individual planetary systems. The scientific goal is to estimate the fraction of infall candidates from a complete population of prestellar cores and to understand internal velocity structure during the final gravitational collapse before forming stars. The survey started in the winter of 2016 and is to continue to the end of January 2018. So far, we observed 23 prestellar cores out of 65 targets in HCN 1-0 and HCO+ 1-0. We have so far found only two prestellar cores (L1495A-N, L1521D) out of 23 observed that show infall signatures, which is a fraction of infalling cores less than half of that reported by the previous surveys toward the bright, dense cores in various molecular clouds (Lee et al. 2004; Sohn et al. 2007). We also found that L1495A-N has a highly asymmetric infall motion which does not fit to a conventional model of dense core collapse, while L1521D has a slow infall motion similar to L1544.

  11. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness.

  12. Cattle and their colours: A synchronic investigation of cattle colour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Northern Sotho, a separate colour lexicon is distinguished, containing terms which are believed to be used exclusively as colour terms to describe not only the colours, but also the colour patterning found among domestic animals, particularly cattle. According to current literature, the use of these terms is restricted to the ...

  13. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND ρ OPHIUCHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M J , which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10 -5 M sun and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10 -10 M sun . These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  14. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  15. Modelado de las distribuciones espectrales de energía para tres protoestrellas de Clase I en Taurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, V. L.; Gómez, M.; Whitney, B. A.

    In this contribution we present initial results on the mo-deling of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a group of 3 Class I embedded sources (protostars) belonging to the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We compiled fluxes between 1.25 and 800 µm from the literature for each source. We used a radiative transfer code developed by Whitney et al. (2003) to model the SEDs. We derived geometrical and physical parameters of the star + disk system and compared our results with those obtained by other authors. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  16. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, R F

    1986-06-01

    The history, appearance and clinical course of a low incidence, chronic skin disease in beef cattle is reported. Calves were affected from 3 months of age and the condition persisted into adulthood. The infection was caused by Dermatophilus congolensis and resulted in severe crusting of the skin. Sheep were kept on the farm until 4 years ago. The method of diagnosis is discussed.

  17. Pain evaluation in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Karina Charlotte Bech; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Munksgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pain compromises the welfare of animals. A prerequisite for being able to alleviate pain is that we are able to recognize it. Potential behavioural signs of pain were investigated for dairy cattle with the aim of constructing a pain scale for use under production conditions. Forty-three cows were......, piloerection, was also significant but seemed difficult to use as it changed rapidly; p 

  18. Purine derivative excretion and recovery of 14C-uric acid in urine of Ongole cattle given different levels of feed intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soejono, M.; Yusiati, L.M.; Budhi, S.P.S.; Widyobroto, B.P.; Bachrudin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The microbial protein supply to ruminants can be estimated based on the amount of purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the purine derivatives method for Ongole cattle. In the first experiment, 4 four-year old male Ongole cattle (Bos indicus) were used to calibrate the PD technique using the most common locally available feed at four levels of intake (95, 80, 60 and 40% of voluntary intake). The diet consisted of king grass and rice bran (70:30 on DM basis). The cattle at the level of 95% intake were injected with [ 14 C]-uric acid in a single dose to define the renal:non-renal partitioning ratio of plasma PD excreted in the urine. The results showed that PD excretion responded positively to the level of feed intake. The relative proportion of urinary allantoin and uric acid to PD excretion was 0.87 and 0.13 respectively. The proportion of urea N to total N ranged from 83 to 93%. The glomerular filtration rate and tubular load of PD increased due to the increasing level of feed intake. Nitrogen balance became negative when the level of feed intake decreased to 60%. The proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine was 0.67. (author)

  19. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  20. Selenium in Cattle: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines the role of selenium (Se and the effects of Se supplementation especially in the bovine species. Selenium is an important trace element in cattle. Some of its roles include the participation in the antioxidant defense the cattle farms. The nutritional requirements of Se in cattle are estimated at 100 μg/kg DM (dry matter for beef cattle and at 300 μg/kg DM for dairy cows. The rations high in fermentable carbohydrates, nitrates, sulfates, calcium or hydrogen cyanide negatively influence the organism’s use of the selenium contained in the diet. The Se supplementation may reduce the incidence of metritis and ovarian cysts during the postpartum period. The increase in fertility when adding Se is attributed to the reduction of the embryonic death during the first month of gestation. A use of organic Se in feed would provide a better transfer of Se in calves relative to mineral Se supplementation. The addition of Se yeasts in the foodstuffs of cows significantly increases the Se content and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in milk compared to the addition of sodium selenite. The enzyme 5-iodothyronine deiodinase is a seleno-dependent selenoprotein. It is one of the last proteins to be affected in the event of Se deficiency. This delay in response could explain the fact that several studies did not show the effect of Se supplementation on growth and weight gain of calves. Enrichment of Se in the diet did not significantly affect the slaughter weight and carcass yield of bulls. The impact and results of Se supplementation in cattle depend on physiological stage, Se status of animals, type and content of Se and types of Se administration. Further studies in Se supplementation should investigate the speciation of Se in food and yeasts, as well as understanding their metabolism and absorption. This constitute a path to exploit in order to explain certain different effects of Se.