WorldWideScience

Sample records for cattails

  1. Cattail-to-alcohol project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvesting, grinding, and fermentation of cattails and/or their rhizomes are described. The use of antibiotics to prevent massive contamination of microorganisms and cessation of fermentation is discussed.

  2. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails for cellulose conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Diallo, Oumou; Whitmore, Allante

    2011-10-01

    The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of cattails was studied using a Dionex accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) varying acid concentration (0.1-1%), treatment temperature (140-180 °C), and residence time (5-10 min). The highest total glucose yield for both the pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis stages (97.1% of the cellulose) was reached at a temperature of 180 °C, a sulfuric acid concentration of 0.5%, and a time of 5 min. Cattails pretreated with 0.5% sulfuric acid are digestible with similar results at enzyme loadings above 15 FPU/g glucan. Glucose from cattails cellulose can be efficiently fermented to ethanol with an approximately 90% of the theoretical yield. The results in this study indicate that cattails are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  4. Utilization of cattail aquatic weed(Typha domingesis pers) for biogas energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashandete, Anthony Manoni

    2007-01-01

    Cattail, Typha domingesis Pers, an aquatic emergent weed had seriously impacted the ecosystem of the lake Jipe in Northern Tanzania creating ecological-environmental and economic problems including shrinkage of the lake and reduction of fish yield. Two anaerobic digestion trial were carried out one based different parts and blends of cattail weed at 5, 15, 30 and 60% total solids (TS) in 0.5 L anaerobic batch bioreactors at ambient temperature of 33±1(deg)C. Gut contents from cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) was used as anaerobic inoculum (starter seed). The results showed that highest methane yields were obtained at 5% TS for both unmixed and mixed cattail weeds parts. In the first trial methane yield at 5% TS from five different cattail weed parts namely; spikes, leaves, stems rhizomes and roots ranged from 150-447 CH 4 mL /gVS added. The highest and the lowest methane yields were obtained from leaves and spikes, respectively. In the second trial, methane yields at 5% TS from three different blends of cattail weed viz; spikes, leaves and stems (33.3%:33.3%:33.3%), rhizomes and roots (50%:50%), and whole cattail (spikes, leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots each 20%) ranged between 246 to 288 CH 4 mL /gVS added. The highest and lowest methane yields were obtained from spikes, leaves, and stems and whole cattail blends, respectively. The overall average methane content in the biogas produced at 5 to 60% TS in two trials ranged from 68-83%. It was concluded, that anaerobic digestion of cattail weed is feasible and could serve the dual roles for producing biogas, a clean renewable energy and reducing the weed as part of its management as well as reduction of methane emission. (author)

  5. Accounting for the Impact of Management Scenarios on Typha Domingensis (Cattail) in an Everglades Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerwall, Gareth; Kiker, Gregory; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Wang, Naiming

    2017-01-01

    The coupled regional simulation model, and the transport and reaction simulation engine were recently adapted to simulate ecology, specifically Typha domingensis (Cattail) dynamics in the Everglades. While Cattail is a native Everglades species, it has become invasive over the years due to an altered habitat over the last few decades, taking over historically Cladium jamaicense (Sawgrass) areas. Two models of different levels of algorithmic complexity were developed in previous studies, and are used here to determine the impact of various management decisions on the average Cattail density within Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. A Global Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to test the importance of these management scenarios, as well as the effectiveness of using zonal statistics. Management scenarios included high, medium and low initial water depths, soil phosphorus concentrations, initial Cattail and Sawgrass densities, as well as annually alternating water depths and soil phosphorus concentrations, and a steadily decreasing soil phosphorus concentration. Analysis suggests that zonal statistics are good indicators of regional trends, and that high soil phosphorus concentration is a pre-requisite for expansive Cattail growth. It is a complex task to manage Cattail expansion in this region, requiring the close management and monitoring of water depth and soil phosphorus concentration, and possibly other factors not considered in the model complexities. However, this modeling framework with user-definable complexities and management scenarios, can be considered a useful tool in analyzing many more alternatives, which could be used to aid management decisions in the future.

  6. Litter drives ecosystem and plant community changes in cattail invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrer, Emily C; Goldberg, Deborah E

    2009-03-01

    Invaded systems are commonly associated with a change in ecosystem processes and a decline in native species diversity; however, many different causal pathways linking invasion, ecosystem change, and native species decline could produce this pattern. The initial driver of environmental change may be anthropogenic, or it may be the invader itself; and the mechanism behind native species decline may be the human-induced environmental change, competition from the invader, or invader-induced environmental change (non-trophic effects). We examined applicability of each of these alternate pathways in Great Lakes coastal marshes invaded by hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). In a survey including transects in three marshes, we found that T. x glauca was associated with locally high soil nutrients, low light, and large amounts of litter, and that native diversity was highest in areas of shallow litter depth. We tested whether live T. x glauca plants or their litter induced changes in the environment and in diversity with a live plant and litter transplant experiment. After one year, Typha litter increased soil NH4+ and N mineralization twofold, lowered light levels, and decreased the abundance and diversity of native plants, while live Typha plants had no effect on the environment or on native plants. This suggests that T. x glauca, through its litter production, can cause the changes in ecosystem processes that we commonly attribute to anthropogenic nutrient loading and that T. x glauca does not displace native species through competition for resources, but rather affects them non-trophically through its litter. Moreover, because T. x glauca plants were taller when grown with their own litter, we suggest that this invader may produce positive feedbacks and change the environment in ways that benefit itself and may promote its own invasion.

  7. Characterization of structural cell wall polysaccharides in cattail (Typha latifolia): Evaluation as potential biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaque, Diego; Martínez-Rubio, Romina; Fornalé, Silvia; García-Angulo, Penélope; Alonso-Simón, Ana; Álvarez, Jesús M; Caparros-Ruiz, David; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Second generation bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic biomass is attracting attention as an alternative energy source. In this study, a detailed knowledge of the composition and structure of common cattail (Typha latifolia L.) cell wall polysaccharides, obtained from stem or leaves, has been conducted using a wide set of techniques to evaluate this species as a potential bioethanol feedstock. Our results showed that common cattail cellulose content was high for plants in the order Poales and was accompanied by a small amount of cross-linked polysaccharides. A high degree of arabinose-substitution in xylans, a high syringyl/guaiacyl ratio in lignin and a low level of cell wall crystallinity could yield a good performance for lignocellulose saccharification. These results identify common cattail as a promising plant for use as potential bioethanol feedstock. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in-depth analysis to be conducted of lignocellulosic material from common cattail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) on Tolerance of Cattail to Cd Stress in Aquatic Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Peng-cheng; Li, Hang; Wang, Shu-guang

    2016-02-15

    Hygrophytes are planted more and more in landscaping and greening in many cities, but they often encounter threat from environmental pollution. Arbuscular mycorrhiza ( AM ) have been confirmed to enhance the tolerance of terrestrial plants to environmental pollution in many previous studies, but it is unclear how they affect hygrophytes. In the present study, a hydroponic culture experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) inoculation on the tolerance of cattail (Typha latifolia) to different concentrations Cd2+ (0, 2.5, 5.0 mg x L(-1)). The aim was to provide reference for evaluating whether mycorrhizal technology can be used to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution. The results showed that symbiotic association was well established between AM fungi and cattail roots, and the mycorrhizal colonization rates (MCR) were beyond 30%. However, MCR presented downward trend one month after mycorrhizal cattails were transported to solution, and the maximal decrease was 25.5% (P < 0.05). AM increased pigment concentrations and peroxidase (POD) activity in cattail leaves, and also increased roots radial oxygen loss. However, AM only produced significant effect on increase of fresh weight in 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ solution. Although plant growth was inhibited by 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ and MCR was lower, AM increased Cd uptake of cattail at the two Cd2+ levels, and the maximal increments were 40.24% and 56.52% in aboveground and underground parts, respectively. This study indicates that AM has potential to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution and might be used to remedy heavy metal pollution.

  9. Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail and Bamboo

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Nian; Yu, Zhenglei; Xu, Tianshuang; Zou, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of t...

  10. Cyclic filtration behavior of structured cattail fiber assembly for oils removal from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shengbin; Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei

    2017-06-28

    Structured cattail fiber assembly was reported as the filter for removing oils from runoff. The oil-wetted filter was recovered by rotational centrifugation and reused in the next filtration. The cyclic filtration behavior of the assembly was characterized by oil removal efficiency, oil sorption capacity, influence of packing density and number of filtration cycles. The efficiency of liquid removal and oil recovery from the centrifuged filter were also investigated. Cattail filters showed an excellent oil cyclic filtration performance which was found to have a close relationship with the inner structural characteristic of the fibers. The filters removed vegetable oil and diesel completely from runoff in the initial 40-90 min and 30-60 min in the first cycle, respectively, after which the oils broke through the filter's body and 29.4-71.4 L and 21.0-46.2 L of clean water were collected. The time of breakthrough was decreased with decreasing cattail's packing density. The wetted filters which absorbed up to 693.11 g (14.81 g/g) of vegetable oil and 497.02 g (10.62 g/g) of diesel took separately 7 min and 30 s to be recovered. Seventy-five to ninety percent of liquids were removed and 70-93% of oils were re-collected.

  11. Fish assemblages in stream stretches occupied by cattail (Typhaceae, Angiospermae stands in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Carla da Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a major component of lentic and lotic aquatic ecosystems. As consequences of environmental degradation, species of cattail (genus Typha may become dominant along streams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and feeding of fish assemblages in stream stretches under influence of Typha sp., also addressing the influences of temporal variation on composition, abundance, biomass, diversity, species richness, and feeding of fish. Six streams (labelled S1-S6 in the upper rio Turvo basin, southeast Brazil, with dense stands of Typha sp. in the instream and riparian habitat, were studied in six campaigns during three central months in both of the dry and wet periods, by using a standardized collection effort. Thirty-seven fish species were registered, totaling 4,228 individuals and 3.9 kg of biomass. Abundance, biomass, diversity, and species richness was higher in the wet period, but only the temporal variation in the species richness revealed to be statistically significant. Cluster analyses with composition and abundance showed little temporal similarity, but indicated two groups of streams (S1-S2-S5 and S3-S4-S6, that were corroborated along the axis 1 of the ordination analysis. Resident species was represented by six species, most of them considered tolerant and generalists. Chironomidae aquatic larvae and detritus were the most important items in the fish diet. These results suggest that the fish populations are opportunistic in exploring stream stretches occupied by cattail.

  12. The potential role of cattail-reinforced clay plaster in sustainable building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Georgiev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a key goal in town and country planning, as well as in the building industry. The main aims are to avoid inefficient land use, to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and, thus, to move towards meeting the challenges of climate change. In this article we consider how the use of a traditional low-energy building material, namely clay, might contribute. Recent research has identified a promising connection between the reinforcement of clay for internal wall plastering with fibres from the wetland plant Typha latifolia (cattail and the positive environmental effects of cultivating this species. If large quantities of Typha fibres were to be used in building, the need for cultivation of the plant would increase and create new possibilities for the renaturalisation of polluted or/and degraded peatlands. We explore the topic first on the basis of literature, considering the suitability of Typha for this application and possibilities for its sustainable cultivation, as well as implications for the life cycle analyses of buildings in which it is used. We then report (qualitatively the results of testing different combinations of clay with natural plant (straw and cattail fibres for their suitability as a universal plaster, which demonstrate clearly the superior properties of Typha fibres as a reinforcement material for clay plaster mortars.

  13. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fruet Andréa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.; an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was

  14. Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail and Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.

  15. Crashworthiness Design for Bionic Bumper Structures Inspired by Cattail and Bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Liu, Nian; Yu, Zhenglei; Xu, Tianshuang; Zou, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Many materials in nature exhibit excellent mechanical properties. In this study, we evaluated the bionic bumper structure models by using nonlinear finite element (FE) simulations for their crashworthiness under full-size impact loading. The structure contained the structural characteristics of cattail and bamboo. The results indicated that the bionic design enhances the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the bumper. The numerical results showed that the bionic cross-beam and bionic box of the bionic bumper have a significant effect on the crashworthiness of the structure. The crush deformation of bionic cross-beam and box bumper model was reduced by 33.33%, and the total weight was reduced by 44.44%. As the energy absorption capacity under lateral impact, the bionic design can be used in the future bumper body.

  16. Biomass, Nutrient, and Trace Element Accumulation and Partitioning in Cattail ( L.) during Wetland Phytoremediation of Municipal Biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeke, Nicholson N; Zvomuya, Francis; Cicek, Nazim; Ross, Lisette; Badiou, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    Biomass and contaminant accumulation and partitioning in plants determine the harvest stage for optimum contaminant uptake during phytoremediation of municipal biosolids. This wetland microcosm bioassay characterized accumulation and partitioning of biomass, nutrients (N and P), and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in cattail ( L.) in a growth room. Four cattail seedlings were transplanted into each 20-L plastic pail containing 3.9 kg (dry wt.) biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. A 10-cm-deep water column was maintained above the 12-cm-thick biosolids layer. Plants were harvested every 14 d over a period of 126 d for determination of aboveground biomass (AGB) and belowground biomass (BGB) yields, along with contaminant concentrations in these plant tissues. Logistic model fits to biomass yield data indicated no significant difference in asymptotic yield between AGB and BGB. Aboveground biomass accumulated significantly greater amounts of N and P and lower amounts of trace elements than BGB. Maximum N accumulation in AGB occurred 83 d after transplanting (DAT), and peak P uptake occurred at 86 DAT. Harvesting at maximum aboveground accumulation removed (percent of the initial element concentration in the biosolids) 4% N, 3% P, 0.05% Zn, 0.6% Cu, 0.1% Cd, and 0.2% Cr. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, phytoremediation would be most effective if cattail is harvested at 86 DAT. These results contribute toward the identification of the harvest stage that will optimize contaminant uptake and enhance in situ phytoremediation of biosolids using cattail. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Effectiveness of cattail ('Typha' spp. management techniques depends on exogenous nitrogen inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Elgersma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands occupy a position in the landscape that makes them vulnerable to the effects of current land use and the legacies of past land use. Many wetlands in agricultural regions like the North American Midwest are strongly affected by elevated nutrient inputs as well as high rates of invasion by the hybrid cattail 'Typha' x 'glauca'. These two stressors also exacerbate each other: increased nutrients increase invasion success, and invasions increase nutrient retention and nutrient loads in the wetland. This interaction could create a positive feedback that would inhibit efforts to manage and control invasions, but little is known about the effects of past or present nutrient inputs on wetland invasive plant management. We augmented a previously-published community-ecosystem model (MONDRIAN to simulate the most common invasive plant management tools: burning, mowing, and herbicide application. We then simulated different management strategies and 3 different durations in low and high nutrient input conditions, and found that the most effective management strategy and duration depends strongly on the amount of nutrients entering the wetland. In high-nutrient wetlands where invasions were most successful, a combination of herbicide and fire was most effective at reducing invasion. However, in low-nutrient wetlands this approach did little to reduce invasion. A longer treatment duration (6 years was generally better than a 1-year treatment in high-nutrient wetlands, but was generally worse than the 1-year treatment in low-nutrient wetlands. At the ecosystem level, we found that management effects were relatively modest: there was little effect of management on ecosystem C storage, and while some management strategies decreased wetland nitrogen retention, this effect was transient and disappeared shortly after management ceased. Our results suggest that considering nutrient inputs in invaded wetlands can inform and improve management, and reducing

  18. Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can differences in phosphorus uptake kinetics explain the distribution of cattail and sawgrass in the Florida Everglades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Karen L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattail (Typha domingensis has been spreading in phosphorus (P enriched areas of the oligotrophic Florida Everglades at the expense of sawgrass (Cladium mariscus spp. jamaicense. Abundant evidence in the literature explains how the opportunistic features of Typha might lead to a complete dominance in P-enriched areas. Less clear is how Typha can grow and acquire P at extremely low P levels, which prevail in the unimpacted areas of the Everglades. Results Apparent P uptake kinetics were measured for intact plants of Cladium and Typha acclimated to low and high P at two levels of oxygen in hydroponic culture. The saturated rate of P uptake was higher in Typha than in Cladium and higher in low-P acclimated plants than in high-P acclimated plants. The affinity for P uptake was two-fold higher in Typha than in Cladium, and two- to three-fold higher for low-P acclimated plants compared to high-P acclimated plants. As Cladium had a greater proportion of its biomass allocated to roots, the overall uptake capacity of the two species at high P did not differ. At low P availability, Typha increased biomass allocation to roots more than Cladium. Both species also adjusted their P uptake kinetics, but Typha more so than Cladium. The adjustment of the P uptake system and increased biomass allocation to roots resulted in a five-fold higher uptake per plant for Cladium and a ten-fold higher uptake for Typha. Conclusions Both Cladium and Typha adjust P uptake kinetics in relation to plant demand when P availability is high. When P concentrations are low, however, Typha adjusts P uptake kinetics and also increases allocation to roots more so than Cladium, thereby improving both efficiency and capacity of P uptake. Cladium has less need to adjust P uptake kinetics because it is already efficient at acquiring P from peat soils (e.g., through secretion of phosphatases, symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient conservation growth

  20. Wound healing activity of the inflorescence of Typha elephantina (Cattail).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Thakur, Tejas

    2014-03-01

    Methanolic extracts of Typha elephantina inflorescence (TE) and its bandage were screened for wound healing by incision and excision wound models in Wistar rats. In the incision wound model, incision wounds were topically treated with TE gel (2.0% [w/w], 3.0% [w/w], and 5.0% [w/w]), Typha elephantina inflorescence bandage, and the reference standard 5.0% w/w povidone iodine for a period of 10 days. When the wounds healed thoroughly, sutures were removed on the 8th postwounding day, and the tensile strength of the skin was measured on the 10th day. In the excision wound model, excision wounds were treated with TE gel (3.0% [w/w] and 5.0% [w/w]), inflorescence bandage, and 5.0% w/w povidone iodine till the wounds completely healed. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline and hexosamine content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in this model. In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the skin of the healed wound was observed in rats treated with the TE gels and the inflorescence bandage when compared with wounded control rats. The increase in tensile strength indicates a promotion of collagen fibers and a firm knitting of the disrupted wound surfaces by collagen. In the excision wound model, higher rate of wound contraction, decreased period of epithelization, elevated hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and ascorbic acid levels, and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content was observed in treated groups when compared with the wounded control animals. It may be concluded that the inflorescence of Typha elephantina possesses a potent wound healing activity, which may be due to an underlying antioxidant mechanism.

  1. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B.; Jager, de Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are

  2. Use of cattails in treating wastewater from a Pb/Zn mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chongyu; Chen, Guizhu; Li, Liuchun; Wong, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the use of a combined treatment system, which includes an aquatic treatment pond with Typha latifolia Linn. (Typhaceae) as the dominant species and a stabilization pond, to treat the wastewater from a Pn/Zn mine at Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, China. In 1983, it was noted that T. latifolia bloomed in areas affected by the wastewater emitted from the mine, hence a combined purification system was subsequently built. The influent contained high levels of total suspended solids (4635 mg/liter), chemical oxygen demand (14.5 mg/liter) as well as Pb (1.6 mg/liter) and Zn (1.9 mg/liter). The results of the effluent after treatment showed that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, Pb, and Zn had been reduced by 99%, 55%, 95%, and 80% respectively. The results of plant tissue analysis indicled that T. latifolia assimilated significant amounts of Pb and Zn, especially in the root portion. During 1986 several species of algae and fish were present in the pond, usually with a higher density in areas containing lower metal concentrations in the water.

  3. Does sulphate enrichment promote the expansion of Typha domingensis (cattail) in the Florida Everglades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Hao, Chen; Orem, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    1. The expansion of Typha domingensis into areas once dominated by Cladium jamaicense in the Florida Everglades has been attributed to altered hydrology and phosphorus enrichment, although increased concentrations of sulphate and phosphorus often coincide. The potential importance of hydrogen sulphide produced from sulphate in the expansion of Typha has received little attention. The present study aimed to quantify the comparative growth and photosynthetic responses of Cladium and Typha to sulphate/sulphide. 2. Laboratory experiments showed that Cladium is less tolerant of sulphide than Typha. Cladium was adversely affected at sulphide concentrations of approximately 0.22 mm, while Typha continued to grow well and appeared healthy up to 0.69 mm sulphide. 3. Experiments in field mesocosms provided strong support for species-specific differences in physiology and growth. Regardless of interstitial sulphide concentrations attained, Typha grew faster and had a higher photosynthetic capacity than Cladium. However, sulphide concentrations in the mesocosms reached only 0.18 mm which, based on the hydroponic study, was insufficient to affect the growth or photosynthetic responses of either species. Nevertheless, the upper range of sulphide (0.25-0.375 mm) in Everglades' soil is high enough, based on our results, to impact Cladium but not Typha. 4. This research supports the hypothesis that sulphide accumulation could affect plant species differentially and modify species composition. Consequently, the role of sulphate loading should be considered, in conjunction with hydroperiod, phosphorus availability and disturbances, in developing future management plans for the Everglades. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Growth of three cattail (Typha) taxa in response to elevated CO2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sullivan, L.; Wildová, Radka; Goldberg, D.; Vogel, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 1 (2010), s. 121-129 ISSN 1385-0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : global change * photosynthesis * wetlands * invasive species Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2010

  5. Species-specific SSR alleles for studies of hybrid cattails (Typha latifolia × T. angustifolia; Typhaceae) in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snow, A. A.; Travis, S. E.; Wildová, Radka; Fér, T.; Sweeney, P. M.; Marburger, J. E.; Windels, S.; Kubátová, B.; Goldberg, D. E.; Mutegi, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 12 (2010), s. 2061-2067 ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : gene flow * hybrid * introgression * invasive species * molecular markers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  6. Heat stability of proteins in desiccation tolerant cattail pollen (Typha latifolia): A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, W.F.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary structure and aggregation behavior of proteins, as determined in situ in Typha latifolia pollen, were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The amide-I band, arising from the peptide backbone, was recorded over a temperature range from -50 to 120°C at different

  7. Comparison of the diversity of root-associated bacteria in Phragmites australis and Typha angustifolia L. in artificial wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan Hong; Zhu, Jing Nan; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Liu, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Common reed (Phragmites australis) and narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) are two plant species used widely in artificial wetlands constructed to treat wastewater. In this study, the community structure and diversity of root-associated bacteria of common reed and narrow-leaved cattail growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, were investigated using 16S rDNA library and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. Root-associated bacterial diversity was higher in common reed than in narrow-leaved cattail. In both plant species, the dominant root-associated bacterial species were Alpha, Beta and Gamma Proteobacteria, including the genera Aeromonas, Hydrogenophaga, Ideonella, Uliginosibacterium and Vogesella. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Nitrospirae and Spirochaetes were only found in the roots of common reed. Comparing the root-associated bacterial communities of reed and cattail in our system, many more species of bacteria related involved in the total nitrogen cycle were observed in reed versus cattail, while species involved in total phosphorus and organic matter removal were mainly found in cattail. Although we cannot determine their nutrient removal capacity separately, differences in the root-associated bacterial communities may be an important factor contributing to the differing water purification effects mediated by T. angustifolia and P. australis wetlands. Thus, further work describing the ecosystem functions of these bacterial species is needed, in order to fully understand how effective common reed- and narrow-leaved cattail-dominated wetlands are for phytoremediation.

  8. Wild Plants Used by the Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nature Study, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes 10 wild plants used by Native Americans. They include: rose hips; the common milkweed; cattails; elderberries; cactus fruits; lamb's quarters pigweeds (Chenopodium sp.); persimmons; mints (Monardo sp.); the yucca; and the hawthorn. Illustrations of each plant are included. (JN)

  9. Nutrient composition of selected traditional native American plant foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten wild plants (cattail narrow leaf shoots, chokecherries, beaked hazelnuts, lambsquarters, plains pricklypear, prairie turnips, stinging nettles, wild plums, raspberries, rose hips) from three Native American reservations in North Dakota were analyzed to expand composition information of tradition...

  10. Ecological DYnamics Simulation Model - Light (EDYS-L): User’s Guide Version 4.6.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    tridentata Blue grama Bouteloua gracilis Cattail Typha latifolia Cottonwood Populus fremontii Coyote willow Salix exigua Creosotebush Larrea ... tridentata Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium Mesquite Prosopis glandulosa Ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia Russian

  11. Decomposition characteristics of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes and their potential application as carbon resource in constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suqing; He, Shengbing; Zhou, Weili; Gu, Jianya; Huang, Jungchen; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    Decomposition of aquatic macrophytes usually generates significant influence on aquatic environment. Study on the aquatic macrophytes decomposition may help reusing the aquatic macrophytes litters, as well as controlling the water pollution caused by the decomposition process. This study verified that the decomposition processes of three different kinds of aquatic macrophytes (water hyacinth, hydrilla and cattail) could exert significant influences on water quality of the receiving water, including the change extent of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the contents of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, etc. The influence of decomposition on water quality and the concentrations of the released chemical materials both followed the order of water hyacinth > hydrilla > cattail. Greater influence was obtained with higher dosage of plant litter addition. The influence also varied with sediment addition. Moreover, nitrogen released from the decomposition of water hyacinth and hydrilla were mainly NH 3 -N and organic nitrogen while those from cattail litter included organic nitrogen and NO 3 - -N. After the decomposition, the average carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) in the receiving water was about 2.6 (water hyacinth), 5.3 (hydrilla) and 20.3 (cattail). Therefore, cattail litter might be a potential plant carbon source for denitrification in ecological system of a constructed wetland. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, Margarete

    1984-12-01

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  13. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Caribbean Islands Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    trompetilla (Hymenachne amplexicaulis), redecilla de agua (Paspalum vaginatum), and knotgrass (Paspalum distichum). Southern cattail or yerba...is called muck if virtually all of the material has undergone sufficient decomposition to prevent the identification of plant parts. Hemic soil...Vepraskas 1992). Saturation. For wetland delineation purposes, a soil layer is saturated if virtually all pores between soil particles are filled with

  14. Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation w...

  16. Effect of Methylparathion on nitrous oxide production in Chinampa soil of Xochimilco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M.; Marquez, S.; Ruiz, U.; Cabirol, N.

    2009-07-01

    Contamination of soil from pesticides is result of their bulk handling at the farmyard or following application in the field. synthetic organophosphorus compounds like chlorpyrifos and methylparathion have been used in the particulate cultivated areas, the chosen chinampa ( from Nahuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydro-ponics cultivation) from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico (CICLOPLAFEST, 2006). (Author)

  17. Managing Vegetation on Peat-Sand Filter Beds for Wastewater Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur E. Elling

    1985-01-01

    Five species of grass, one sedge, and cattail were grown on a peat-sand filter bed irrigated with sewage effluent. Yields, uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus, and lodging problems were determined for all species when grown to various heights ranging from 5 to 75 cm.

  18. Bel Marin Keys Unit V Expansion of the Hamilton Wetland Restoration Project. General Reevaluation Report. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    cattail (Typha spp.), salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus maritimus), and curly dock ( Rumex crispus ). Seasonal wetlands commonly provide high tide refugia...dock ( Rumex crispus ). Additionally, non-native grasses such as Mediterranean barley (Hordeum marinum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) are

  19. Final Environmental Assessment: For Construction at the Colorado Army National Guard Army Aviation Support Facility Complex, Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    supports a small pocket of narrow-leafed cattail (Typha angustifolia) and scattered individuals of curly dock ( Rumex crispus ). Check holes dug in...Typha angustifolia) and scattered individuals of curly dock ( Rumex crispus ). Check holes dug in this area indicated reducing conditions and a hydric

  20. Maumee Bay State Park, Ohio. Shoreline Erosion Beach Restoration Study. Final Feasibility Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement. Interim to Western Lake Erie Shore Study. Volume 2. Appendices. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    sp.), clearweed (Pilea pumila), water-parsnip (Sium suave), smartweeds (Polygonum spp.), water- horehound (Lycopus sp.), and Joe-pye-weed (Eupatorium...Polygonum app.), cattail (Typha sp.), unidentified thistle (Cirsium sp?), avens (Geum sp.), swamp rose mallow (Hibiscus palustris), and water- horehound

  1. Potentiometric Demonstration of Metal Biosorption by Nonliving Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Torres-Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Garcia-de la Cruz, Ramon Fernando; Montes-Rojas, Antonio; Lopez-Arteaga, Rafael Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical experiment is presented to illustrate biosorption to second-year and upper-division undergraduate students. The extraction of Cd[superscript 2+], Pb[superscript 2+], and Cu[superscript 2+] by nonliving "Typha latifolia" (cattail) roots can be monitored in real time by potentiometry determinations. The open circuit potential…

  2. Living Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Merrily

    1994-01-01

    A documentary will detail the experiences of two Canadians surviving for a year in the wilderness of northern Ontario by using Native skills. For the past year, they have prepared jerky, studied and talked with Native elders, made flour out of cattails, and sewn protective clothing out of animal hides. (LP)

  3. Habitat Development at Eight Corps of Engineers Sites: Feasibility and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Lizard tail Saururus cernuus Loblolly pine Pinus taeda Marsh elder Iva frutescens Mockernut hickory Carya Lomentosa Mock orange Styrax americana Mule fat...favorable germination sites for the seeds of cattails, bulrushes, burreeds, sedges, and some grasses. Submergents will germinate and grow in shallow...drained areas of the island surface. Surface soil preparation will be made to encourage the germination of planted or volunteer seeds of native grasses

  4. An economic assessment of local farm multi-purpose surface water retention systems in a Canadian Prairie setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Pamela; Yassin, Fuad; Belcher, Kenneth; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich

    2017-12-01

    There is a need to explore more sustainable approaches to water management on the Canadian Prairies. Retention pond installation schemes designed to capture surface water may be a viable option that would reduce water stress during drought periods by providing water for irrigation. The retention systems would serve to capture excess spring runoff and extreme rainfall events, reducing flood potential downstream. Additionally, retention ponds may be used for biomass production and nutrient retention. The purpose of this research was to investigate the economic viability of adopting local farm surface water retention systems as a strategic water management strategy. A retention pond was analyzed using a dynamic simulation model to predict its storage capacity, installation and upkeep cost, and economic advantage to farmers when used for irrigation. While irrigation application increased crop revenue, the cost of irrigation and reservoir infrastructure and installation costs were too high for the farmer to experience a positive net revenue. Farmers who harvest cattails from retention systems for biomass and available carbon offset credits can gain 642.70/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. Cattail harvest also removes phosphorus and nitrogen, providing a monetized impact of 7014/hectare of harvestable cattail/year. The removal of phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, and avoided flooding damages of the retention basin itself provide an additional 17,730-18,470/hectare of retention system/year. The recommended use of retention systems is for avoided flood damages, nutrient retention, and biomass production. The revenue gained from these functions can support farmers wanting to invest in irrigation while providing economic and environmental benefits to the region.

  5. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    deep red to brown. The most prominent distinguishing characteristic of the two signatures is that cattail often grows clonally , whereas bur-reed... orchards . This general class typically consists of red or white pine (Pinus), but may include other coniferous or deciduous trees. Plantations are...cover >10% of the area 30 30a Cultivated areas (e.g., orchards or pine plantations) PN 30b Noncultivated areas 31 31a Populus or Salix >50% of the

  6. Thermal ecology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.C.; Esch, G.W.; Gentry, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas of research: effects of thermal effluents on body condition, species diversity, reproduction, growth, and parasitism of fish; fish diversity in post-thermal habitats; effects of thermal effluents on snails and aquatic insects; distribution of macrophyte communities along a shore-line temperature gradient; growth and genetic variation in cattail in thermally altered environments; and population dynamics of thermally resistant plants in a swamp receiving reactor effluent. (U.S.)

  7. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  8. USSR Report. Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. Volume 15, Number 4, July-August 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-28

    The antagonistic properties were tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella newcastle, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis . We calculated...regulating increased de- livery of blood to the cranial cavity is still unclear, although it is a hydrodynamic medium that occupies 10% of the entire...strains of lactobacilli, 199 from saliva and 394 from feces We used a modified cat-tail ["rogoz"?] acetate agar and MRS-4 nutrient medium con

  9. Wetland-based phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon: A microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarakoon, Inoka; Hassan, Adenike O; Zvomuya, Francis

    2018-01-28

    This study examined the effectiveness of a wetland system for phytoremediation of biosolids from an end-of-life municipal lagoon. The microcosm experiment tested the effects of one vs. two harvests of cattail per growth cycle in biosolids without (PB) or with (PBS) the addition of soil on phytoremediation. Cattail (Typha latifolia) seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 4.5 kg (dry wt.) of biosolids, above which a 10-cm deep water column was maintained. Results showed that two harvests per growth cycle significantly increased N and P phytoextraction relative to a single harvest. Overall, the three cycles of cattail removed ∼3.7% of N which was originally present in the biosolids and ∼2% of the total P content. Phytoextraction rates are expected to be higher under field conditions where biomass yields are much higher than those obtained under growth room conditions in this study. These results indicate that wetland-based phytoremediation can effectively clean up nutrients from biosolids, and therefore presents a potential alternative to the spreading of biosolids on agricultural land, which may not be readily available in some communities. Phytoextraction rates of trace elements, however, were much lower (0.02-0.17%). Nonetheless, trace element concentrations were not high enough to be of significant concern.

  10. The effect of heavy metals on nitrogen and oxygen demand removal in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P E; Tay, M G; Mak, K Y; Mohamed, N

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the respective effects of Zn, Pb and Cd as well as the combined effect of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu on the removal of nitrogen and oxygen demand in constructed wetlands. Four laboratory-scale gravel-filled subsurface-flow constructed wetland units planted with cattails (Typha latifolia) were operated outdoors and fed with primary-treated domestic wastewater at a constant flow rate of 25 ml/min. After 6 months, three of the wetland units were fed with the same type of wastewater spiked with Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II), respectively, at 20, 5 and 1 mg/l for a further 9 months. The remaining unit was fed with the same type of wastewater spiked with a combination of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) at concentrations of 10, 2.5, 0.5 and 5 mg/l, respectively, over the same period. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammoniacal nitrogen (AN) concentrations were monitored at the inlet, outlet and three additional locations along the length of the wetland units to assess the performance of the wetland units at various metal loadings. At the end of the study, all cattail plants were harvested for the determination of total Kjeldahl nitrogen and metal concentrations. The results showed that the COD removal efficiency was practically independent of increasing metal loading or a combination of metal loadings during the duration of the study. In contrast, the AN removal efficiency deteriorated progressively with increasing metal loading. The relative effect of the heavy metals was found to increase in the order: Znnitrogen uptake by cattail plants as indicated by lower nitrogen uptake rates in comparison to rates recorded in wetland systems treating domestic wastewater only. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Nutrients removal by Typha latifolia and Cynodon spp. grown in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Pimentel de Matos; Antonio Teixeira de Matos; Túlio Ferreira Lambert; Ronaldo Fia; Fátima Resende Luiz Fia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the extraction capacity of two species when grown in constructed wetlands with subsurface horizontal flow (SACs) for the treatment of swine wastewater (ARS). To this end, were built 8 SACs of 2.0 m x 0.5 m x 0.6 m, fiber glass, filled with 0.55 m of fine gravels. In SAC2; SAC4; SAC6 and SAC8 was cultivated cattail (Typha latifolia) and in SAC3; SAC5; SAC7 and SAC9 was cultivated tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.). The SAC2 and SAC3, SAC4 and SAC5...

  12. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R.; Ghatnekar, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    With 85% of the entire Indian population living in villages and 98% of the household energy requirement of the rural population demanded for cooking, research was undertaken on the supply of biomass for those Indians who do not have cattle. This research was carried out on the fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use in biogas generation. The plants utilized for biogas generation are: water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, water spinach, cattail ramban, ipil-ipil, morning glory, paragrass, purple nutsedge, and durva grass.

  13. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Ground cover was dominated by cinnamon fern and also included skunk cabbage , soft rush, false nettle, Japanese honeysuckle, fowl manna-grass, agrimony...foetida Skunk cabbage OBL Tussilazo farfara Coltsfoot FACU Tpha latifolia Broad-leaf cattail OBL TABLE 2.2-8 WILDLIFE PRESENCE OBSERVED AT THE REMEDIAL...401 330 326 Selenium ɘ.449 ɘ.449 ɘ.449. Silver 0.053 ɘ.0124 ɘ.0124 Sodium ព.7 ព.7 ព.7 Thallium ធ.3 ធ.3 ធ.3 Vanadium 14.0 12.6 9.38 Zinc

  14. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  15. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    1983-03-01

    Inactive uranium mill tailings were surveyed in the Province of Ontario to describe their surface characteristics, identify naturally invading biota, and determine essential chemical and physical parameters associated with the tailings. Inactive tailings sites can have wet areas, tailings completely covered with water, and dry areas. In the wet areas of most sites, wetland vegetation stands were found which were dominated by species of cattails (Typhaceae), along with some species of rushes (Juncaceae) and sedges (Cyperceae). Dry areas of the tailings exhibited a variety of surface features which are often a reflection of different amelioration efforts. Most of the indigenous species of vascular plants identified on dry areas of the tailings occurred only sporadically. Invading plants found on most sites were the tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Elemental concentration and some physical characteristics of the tailings collected from a depth of 0-20 cm were determined. Uptake of heavy metals and radionuclides were evaluated in trees found in the dry areas and in cattails (Typha latifolia) in the wetland areas. Water bodies on tailings and surface water leaving the tailings, before and after treatment, were characterized in this survey. Aquatic bryophytes have invaded some water bodies on the tailings, and acid tolerant algae were evident in most of the water associated with the tailings. Ecological processes occurring on inactive uranium mill tailings which were identified in this survey are essential in evaluating the long-term fate of these waste sites

  16. From Allergens to Battery Anodes: Nature-Inspired, Pollen Derived Carbon Architectures for Room- and Elevated-Temperature Li-ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jialiang; Pol, Vilas G

    2016-02-05

    The conversion of allergic pollen grains into carbon microstructures was carried out through a facile, one-step, solid-state pyrolysis process in an inert atmosphere. The as-prepared carbonaceous particles were further air activated at 300 °C and then evaluated as lithium ion battery anodes at room (25 °C) and elevated (50 °C) temperatures. The distinct morphologies of bee pollens and cattail pollens are resembled on the final architecture of produced carbons. Scanning Electron Microscopy images shows that activated bee pollen carbon (ABP) is comprised of spiky, brain-like, and tiny spheres; while activated cattail pollen carbon (ACP) resembles deflated spheres. Structural analysis through X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed their amorphous nature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ABP and ACP confirmed that both samples contain high levels of oxygen and small amount of nitrogen contents. At C/10 rate, ACP electrode delivered high specific lithium storage reversible capacities (590 mAh/g at 50 °C and 382 mAh/g at 25 °C) and also exhibited excellent high rate capabilities. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, improved performance of ACP is attributed to its lower charge transfer resistance than ABP. Current studies demonstrate that morphologically distinct renewable pollens could produce carbon architectures for anode applications in energy storage devices.

  17. Use of aquatic macrophytes in substrate composition to produce moringa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of aquatic macrophytes in substrate composition to produce seedlings of moringa is a sustainable alternative. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the development of moringa seedlings using substrates composed with aquatic macrophytes, and to determine concentrations of N, P and K in the seedlings. We used different combinations of weeds (M, manure (E and topsoil (TV to compose the substrates. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 4 factorial in randomized arrangement with four replications. We evaluated plant height, crown diameter and stem, relative growth rate in height, canopy diameter and in stem, dry matter of aerial part and of roots, root length and root/shoot ratio, besides the content of N, P and K in seedlings. Moringa seedlings showed reduced growth when produced in substrates composed only with cattail. Water lettuce and substrates composed of 60% M + 30%E + 10 % TV and 70% M + 30% E, promoted greater nutrition and growth of moringa seedlings. The substrate 60M +30E +10TV composed by water hyacinth and cattail resulted in greater amount of P in moringa seedlings.

  18. Ricoseius loxocheles (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is not a predator of false spider mite on coffee crops: What does it eat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacacela Ajila, Henry E; Ferreira, João A M; Colares, Felipe; Oliveira, Cleber M; Bernardo, Ana Maria G; Venzon, Madelaine; Pallini, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is often found in coffee crops and is known to feed on coffee leaf rust, Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). As the occurrence of coffee leaf rust is limited primarily to the rainy season, the mite may use other food sources to survive during the periods of low pathogen prevalence. It is well known that phytoseiid mites can survive on a variety of food sources, such as herbivorous mites, fungi and pollen. We evaluated the ability of R. loxocheles to survive and reproduce on a diet of Brevipalpus phoenicis Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), cattail pollen (Typha spp.), clover rust (Puccinia oxalidis), bee pollen (Santa Bárbara ® dehydrated pollen, Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil) and coffee leaf rust. Ricoseius loxocheles did not survive or reproduce on any B. phoenicis stages tested (egg, larva, adult). The survival and oviposition of R. loxocheles were directly affected by the presence of coffee rust urediniospores, but not by the presence of the prey. Survival and oviposition of the phytoseiid were similar when fed cattail pollen, clover rust and coffee leaf rust but was lower when fed bee pollen. Our results show that R. loxocheles is not a predator of B. phoenicis but it is able to utilize other resources besides coffee leaf rust.

  19. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  20. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  1. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  2. Contents of some heavy metals in plants from Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) and some small lakes in wilderness areas of Michigan's Upper Peninsula as analyzed by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.R.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jones, J.D.; Estabrook, G.F.; Ghosheh, N.S.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor; Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti

    1982-01-01

    The highest concentrations of heavy metals occured in plants collected near the mouth of the Saginaw River. The alga, Cladophora sp., and the flowering plant, Typha augustifolia (cat-tail), are notable for the high concentration of heavy metals. In addition, several other species that were sampled from small lakes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula contained higher concentrations of certain metals (Ba, Cr, Rb) than from any samples obtained from Saginaw Bay. Different organs of the same species, or of the same plant, such as cut-tail, vary widely in concentrations of the same element. A computer-derived analysis of our data is presented, and the implications of our results as they relate to pollution by heavy metals in fresh-water lakes is discussed. (author)

  3. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  4. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Onur Can [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Böcük, Harun, E-mail: hbocuk@anadolu.edu.tr [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey); Yakar, Anıl [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l{sup −1} to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg{sup −1} B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg{sup −1} B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg{sup −1} whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg{sup −1} B during the research period.

  5. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Chantel E; Chow-Fraser, Gillian; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water) and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  6. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L. uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  7. Using simulated wetlands to assess acid mine drainage treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karathanasis, A.D. (Kentucky University, Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Agronomy)

    1992-01-01

    The elevated acidity and increased solubility of toxic metals such as Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn associated with acid mine drainage (AMD) is causing increasing concern about possible toxic effects to plants, aquatic life, animals, and even humans in the coal regions of the Appalachian states. During the last few years, a new technology for treatment of acid mine discharges has emerged. The technology involves the construction of artificial wetlands with dominant vegetation [ital Typha] (cattails), [ital Sphagnum] (moss), certain algae, and other plant species which have the potential to treat small flows of acid mine water moving through them. Greenhouse experiments at the University of Kentucky involving AMD treatment by surface and subsurface flow simulated wetlands with [ital Typha] plants (cattails) grown in six different substrates showed significant differences among substrates in their ability to buffer mine drainage acidity and in metal removal efficiency. Of the six substrates tested, the pine-needle-and-hay mixtures were the most efficient over the peat, sphagnum moss and mine spoil mixtures in reducing acidity and Al, Cu and Zn concentrations in surface effluents. The majority of the substrates (except the mine spoil surface soil) showed similar efficiencies for Fe removal, but all substrates were a source rather than a sink for Mn in surface and subsurface flows. The results of this study suggest that short-term screenings of various substrate materials under greenhouse conditions such as those used in this investigation may provide useful information on the selection of the most efficient substrate for the metal(s) of interest and thus, help improve the performance of the wetland under construction. 2 figs.

  8. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Türker, Onur Can; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l −1 to 123 mg l −1 (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg −1 B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg −1 B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l −1 (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg −1 whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg −1 B during the research period

  9. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel E Markle

    Full Text Available Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015 and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework. Change-detection analyses were used to evaluate the relative importance of proportionate loss and fragmentation of 17 habitat types. Marsh habitat diversity and aquatic connectivity has declined since 1931. The marsh matrix transitioned from a graminoid and forb shallow marsh interspersed with water to a cattail dominated marsh, altering critical breeding, foraging, and overwintering habitat. Reduced diversity of marsh habitats appears to be linked to the expansion of invasive Phragmites australis, which invaded prior to 2000. Loss of open habitats such as savanna and meadow has reduced availability of high quality thermoregulation habitat for reptiles. Restoration of the northwestern region and tip of Point Pelee National Park to a mixed landscape of shallow wetlands (cattail, graminoid, forb, open water and eradication of dense Phragmites stands should improve habitat diversity. Our results suggest that long-term landscape changes resulting from habitat succession and invasive species can negatively affect habitat suitability for herpetofauna and protection of land alone does not necessarily equate to protection of sensitive herpetofauna.

  10. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallison da Silva Freitas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW. Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In the bed of CWS4 was planted at 1st third Alternanthera, cattail, in the 2nd third and tifton-85 grass and in the 3rd third of. The CWS5 was not planted and it was used as control. After passing through a filter filled with crushed bagasse of sugar cane, the HW was applied to the CWS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which corresponded to a hydraulic detention time of 4.8 days. According to the results it was shown that the five CWS(s had statistically nearly the same removal of pollutants, and the average removal efficiency of TSS, COD, BOD and Zn, were 91, 89, 86 and 94%, respectively. Also high removals were obtained concerning the ST, N-total, NH4+ and P-total, with average values of 62, 59, 52 and 50%, respectively. The plants in all planted CWS worked in a similar way maintaining the system efficiency and the non cultivated CWS presented analogous capacity of pollutants removal when compared to the cultivated CWS(s.

  11. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis

    2017-02-01

    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to $5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is $7958.86, cattail marshes $5250.33, and forested wetlands $8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from $6.73 to $20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from $12.20 to $32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from $7.15 to $20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  12. Influência da espécie vegetal cultivada nas condições redox de sistemas alagados construídos Influence of plant species cultivated on redox potential in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Em vista da escassez de informações sobre a influência de diferentes macrófitas nas condições ambientais de Sistemas Alagados Construídos (SACs, monitorou-se o potencial redox (Eh da água residuária da suinocultura (ARS em tratamento, em 5 SACs, com dimensões de 24,0 m x 1,1 m x 0,70 m. A ARS, previamente tratada em filtros, foi aplicada numa vazão de 0,8 m³ d-1, com tempo de residência aproximado de 4,8 d. Nos SAC1, SAC2 e SAC3 foram plantados, respectivamente, taboa (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb e capim tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers.; no SAC4 foi plantado, no primeiro terço do tanque, alternanthera, no segundo terço, taboa e no terceiro terço, capim tifton-85. No SAC5, nada foi plantado. Coletaram-se amostras do afluente luente dos filtros e nos pontos de coleta posicionados a 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 m (saída de cada SAC. Os valores de Eh nos afluentes dos SACs variaram entre -18 e -152 mV, entretanto, houve predomínio de condições anóxicas/aeróbias, geralmente a partir de 4 m nos sistemas. Os efluentes dos SACs apresentaram potencial redox que variou de 53 a 226 mV. Houve tendência de mais rápida oxigenação das águas residuárias no SAC1, cultivado com a taboa e, a partir de 12 m de percurso, a condição redox do meio foi semelhante em todos os SACs.Taking account to the scarcity of information about the influence of different macrophytes in environmental conditions of constructed wetlands (CWs, the redox potential (Eh of swine wastewater (SW was monitored under treatment in 5 CWs beds (24.0 x 1.0 x 0.7 m. After previous treatment in filters, SW was treated in CWs under a flow rate of 0.8 m³ d-1 with residence time of approximately 4.8 d. In CW#1, CW#2 and CW#3, were planted, respectively, cattail (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb and Tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. In CW#4 (multivegetated was planted

  13. EFICIÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES VEGETAIS NA PURIFICAÇÃO DE ESGOTO SANITÁRIO VEGETAL SPECIES EFFICIENCY ON WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais no tratamento de esgoto sanitário, num sistema do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, após decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio do brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente na remoção de poluentes do esgoto, atendendo aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira vigente, exceto para o nitrogênio amoniacal. A taboa e o lírio-do-brejo mostraram-se mais eficientes na redução da DBO, na oxigenação do substrato, na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e na remoção de coliformes. A taboa foi mais eficiente na remoção de fosfatos. A eficiência na remoção de coliformes atingiu níveis próximos à totalidade. Dentre os substratos avaliados, a casca de coco foi o menos eficiente na redução da DBO e da DQO e na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e dos coliformes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tratamento de esgotos; alagados.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and vegetal species to treat sanitary wastewater, in a subsurface downward flow root zone system, after previous decantation. The experiment was carried out at Samambaia Campus, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. The vegetal species were narrow-leaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L., white ginger (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L., and para grass (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. The system revealed to be efficient on wastewater

  14. Impacts of Vegetation Growth on Reach-scale Flood Hydraulics in a Sand-bed River and the Implications for Vegetation-morphology Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, S.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation alters flood hydraulics and geomorphic response, yet quantifying and predicting such responses across spatial and temporal scales remains challenging. Plant- and patch-scale studies consistently show that vegetation increases local hydraulic variability, yet reach-scale hydrodynamic models often assume vegetation has a spatially homogeneous effect on hydraulics. Using Nays2DH in iRIC (International River Interface Cooperative), we model the effect of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on a series of floods with varying antecedent vegetation conditions in a sand-bed river in western Arizona, taking advantage of over a decade of data on a system that experienced substantial geomorphic, hydrologic, and ecosystem changes. We show that pioneer woody seedlings (Tamarix, Populus, Salix) and cattail (Typha) increase local hydraulic variability, including velocity and bed shear stress, along individual cross sections, predominantly by decreasing velocity in zones of vegetation establishment and growth and increasing velocity in unvegetated areas, with analogous effects on shear stress. This was especially prominent in a study reach where vegetation growth contributed to thalweg incision relative to a vegetated bar. Evaluation of these results in the context of observed geomorphic response to floods elucidates mechanisms by which vegetation and channel morphology coevolve at a reach scale. By quantifying the influence of spatially heterogeneous vegetation on reach-scale hydraulics, we demonstrate that plant- and patch-scale research on vegetation hydraulics is applicable to ecogeomorphology at the reach scale.

  15. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.

    1982-11-01

    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  16. Living With Parasites in Palo Verde National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eben Kirksey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bruno Latour has tried to bring a parliamentary democracy to the domain of nature. Wading through the swamps of Palo Verde, a national park in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica, and wandering onto neighbouring agricultural lands, I failed to find a central place where people were speaking for nature. Departing from a failed attempt to speak for another species (the fringe-toed foam frog, this paper considers how diverging values and obligations shape relationships in multi-species worlds. As spokespersons articulated competing visions of nature on the borderlands of Palo Verde, multiple social and ecological worlds went to war. The haunting specter of capital joined the fray—animating the movements of cattle, grasses with animal rhizomes, rice seeds, and flighty ducks across national borders and through fragmented landscapes. Amidst this warfare, the fringe-toed foam frog was just one tenacious parasite, a noisy agent eating at the table of another, which began to flourish in worlds designed with the well-being of others in mind. Cattails, charismatic birds, and a multitude of insects began interrupting human dreams and schemes. Final solutions to the problem of living with parasites failed in Palo Verde. Humans and parasites, who became para-selves of one another, maintained an abiding presence in the landscape.

  17. EVALUACIÓN DE PANELES AISLANTES FABRICADOS EN FIBRAS DE TOTORA (TYPHA LATIFOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó la capacidad aislante de paneles elaborados a base de la Typha Latifolia en diferentes formas. Los resultados muestran una capacidad aislante relevante, catalogando la totora como un elemento de potencial aplicación como aislamiento en edificaciones. El desarrollo de aislantes térmicos basados en residuos de biomasa es una línea de investigación prometedora que permitirá la mejora sustancial de la eficiencia energética, así como el confort térmico del hábitat con soluciones sustentables de bajo coste. El desarrollo de elementos constructivos contemporáneos como paneles o mantas de totora, permitirá la mejora de la sustentabilidad de soluciones industriales, así como la reducción importante del coste de producción de estas. In this paper the insulating capacity of panels made of Typha latifolia in different forms was evaluated. The results show a significant insulating capacity, placing the cattail as a potential isolating element in buildings. The development of thermal insulation elements based on biomass residues is a promising line of research that will provide substantial improvement in energy efficiency and thermal comfort with sustainable habitat solutions at low cost. The development of contemporary construction elements such as panels or blankets of totora, will permit the improvement of industrial solutions sustainability and a significant reduction in the cost of its production.

  18. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A SURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM USED TO TREAT SECONDARY EFFLUENT AND FILTER BACKWASH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vidales-Contreras

    2011-05-01

    The performance of a surface flow wetland system used to treat activated sludge effluent and filter backwash water from a tertiary treatment facility was evaluated. Samples were collected before and after vegetation removal from the system which consists of two densely vegetated settling basins (0.35 ha, an artificial stream, and a 3-ha surface flow wetland. Bulrush (Scripus spp. and cattail (Typha domingensis were the dominant plant species. The average inflow of chlorinated secondary effluent during the first two months of the actual study was 1.9  m3 min-1 while the inflow for backwash water treatment ranged from 0.21 to 0.42 m3 min-1. The system was able to reduce TSS and BOD5 to tertiary effluent standards; however, monitoring of chloride concentrations revealed that wetland evapotranspiration is probably enriching pollutant concentrations in the wetland outflow. Coliphage removal from the filter backwash was 97 and 35% during 1999 and 2000, respectively. However, when secondary effluent entered the system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage density increased significantly (p

  20. Leopold’s Arboretum Needs Upstream Water Treatment to Restore Wetlands Downstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy B. Zedler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study has broad relevance for urban natural reserves. Aldo Leopold’s far-reaching vision to restore historical ecosystems at the UW-Madison Arboretum has been difficult to achieve despite ~80 years of restoration work. Wetlands (~1/4 of the 485-ha reserve resist restoration, given urban watersheds and inflows of low quality water. Current conditions favor aggressive invasive plants (cattails, reed canary grass, and buckthorn—species that do not fulfill the 1934 vision. Today, urban runoff flows into remnant natural wetlands, degraded wetlands, the iconic Curtis Prairie, and constructed wetlands. Regulations for total maximum daily loads (TMDLs have led local municipalities to expand pre-existing sediment- and nutrient-trapping ponds from 5.67 ha (14 ac of Arboretum land to 9.3 ha (23 ac to protect downstream lakes. Both the runoff and the treatment facilities (with invasive plants limit the Arboretum’s ability to achieve pre-settlement vegetation. Consistent with Leopold’s vision, we endorse Arboretum principles that urban runoff be restored to pre-settlement quality, and we recommend shifting efforts to reduce TMDLs to upstream lands in order to protect the Arboretum. Given that invasive species will persist, Leopold’s Arboretum should be rededicated to research, education, and restoration, plus sustainable management of its waters and wetlands.

  1. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Renovation of food-processing wastewater by a Riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Priscilla W.

    1995-01-01

    Treated wastewater from a food-processing plant, together with intermittent outflow from a hypereutrophic pond, were discharged over a 20-year period to a cattail-dominated wetland and hence to a small stream. Organics and nutriet levels in the effluent were comparable to levels in domestic wastewater. Fifteen variables were monitored upstream and downstream from the plant over 18 months. Means for most variables were slightly higher downstream, but differences between stations were not statistically significant. Wetland processing of nitrogen was markedly affected by a change from drought to flood conditions. After accounting for dilution, the overall effect of the wetland on the effluent was to reduce biological oxygen demand 43.7%, ammonia N 46.3%, nitrate/nitrite N 17.4%, and conductivity 15.6%. However, total suspended solids were increased 41.4%, total organic nitrogen 28.8%, and total phosphorus 24.7%. It was concluded that the wetland effectively renovated the effluent but the removal efficiency would be improved if the effluent were pretreated to reduce phosphorus and dispersed to increase residence time in the wetland.

  3. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- September survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the emergent shoreline aquatic plant communities began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level and continued with this mid-September survey. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established; especially, beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are now extensive and well established. Cattail occurrence continues to increase, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Future surveys during the late growing seasons of 1995, and throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  4. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned

  5. Impacts of the physiochemical properties of chlorinated solvents on the sorption of trichloroethylene to the roots of Typha latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xingmao; Wang Chen

    2009-01-01

    Sorption to plant roots is the first step for organic contaminants to enter plant tissues. Mounting evidence is showing that sorption to plant roots is nonlinear and competitive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of physiochemical properties of homologous chlorinated ethenes and ethanes on the competitive sorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) to the roots of Typha latifolia (cattail). The results showed that chlorinated ethenes exerted significantly stronger competition on the sorption of TCE than chlorinated ethanes. Individual physiochemical properties of organic compounds could be related to the competitive capacity of chlorinated ethenes, but the roles appeared secondary, with molecular structures showing primary effects. Based on these observations, a two-step sorption mechanism was proposed, consisting of the interactions between organic compounds and functional groups on the root surface and subsequent pore filling and absorption to the hydrophobic domains in the composition of roots. - Molecular structures and physiochemical properties of homologous chlorinated aliphatics are important factors affecting competitive sorption of TCE to plant roots

  6. Methane emissions from different coastal wetlands in New England, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Tang, J.; Kroeger, K. D.; Gonneea, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    According to the IPCC, methane have 25 times warming effect than CO2, and natural wetlands contribute 20-39 % to the global emission of methane. Although most of these methane was from inland wetlands, there was still large uncertain in the methane emissions in coastal wetlands. In the past three years, we have investigated methane emissions in coastal wetlands in MA, USA. Contrary to previous assumptions, we have observed relative larger methane flux in some salt marshes than freshwater wetlands. We further detect the methane source, and found that plant activities played an important role in methane flux, for example, the growth of S. aterniflora, the dominate plants in salt marsh, could enhance methane emission, while in an fresh water wetland that was dominated by cattail, plant activity oxided methane and reduced total flux. Phragmite, an invasive plant at brackish marsh, have the highest methane flux among all coastal wetland investigated. This study indicated that coastal wetland could still emit relatively high amount of methane even under high water salinity condiations, and plant activity played an important role in methane flux, and this role was highly species-specific.

  7. A 6000-year record of ecological and hydrological changes from Laguna de la Leche, north coastal Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, Matthew C.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Davis, Anthony M.

    2007-01-01

    Laguna de la Leche, north coastal Cuba, is a shallow (≤ 3 m), oligohaline (˜ 2.0-4.5‰) coastal lake surrounded by mangroves and cattail stands. A 227-cm core was studied using loss-on-ignition, pollen, calcareous microfossils, and plant macrofossils. From ˜6200 to ˜ 4800 cal yr BP, the area was an oligohaline lake. The period from ˜ 4800 to ˜ 4200 cal yr BP saw higher water levels and a freshened system; these changes are indicated by an increase in the regional pollen rain, as well as by the presence of charophyte oogonia and an increase in freshwater gastropods (Hydrobiidae). By ˜ 4000 cal yr BP, an open mesohaline lagoon had formed; an increase in salt-tolerant foraminifers suggests that water level increase was driven by relative sea level rise. The initiation of Laguna de la Leche correlates with a shift to wetter conditions as indicated in pollen records from the southeastern United States (e.g., Lake Tulane). This synchronicity suggests that sea level rise caused middle Holocene environmental change region-wide. Two other cores sampled from mangrove swamps in the vicinity of Laguna de la Leche indicate that a major expansion of mangroves was underway by ˜ 1700 cal yr BP.

  8. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p fungal community in these wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure.

  9. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Weimer, L.M.; Riegel, W.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Pollen assemblages as paleoenvironmental proxies in the Florida Everglades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D A.; Weimer, L M.; Riegel, W L.

    2001-04-01

    Analysis of 170 pollen assemblages from surface samples in eight vegetation types in the Florida Everglades indicates that these wetland sub-environments are distinguishable from the pollen record and that they are useful proxies for hydrologic and edaphic parameters. Vegetation types sampled include sawgrass marshes, cattail marshes, sloughs with floating aquatics, wet prairies, brackish marshes, tree islands, cypress swamps, and mangrove forests. The distribution of these vegetation types is controlled by specific environmental parameters, such as hydrologic regime, nutrient availability, disturbance level, substrate type, and salinity; ecotones between vegetation types may be sharp. Using R-mode cluster analysis of pollen data, we identified diagnostic species groupings; Q-mode cluster analysis was used to differentiate pollen signatures of each vegetation type. Cluster analysis and the modern analog technique were applied to interpret vegetational and environmental trends over the last two millennia at a site in Water Conservation Area 3A. The results show that close modern analogs exist for assemblages in the core and indicate past hydrologic changes at the site, correlated with both climatic and land-use changes. The ability to differentiate marshes with different hydrologic and edaphic requirements using the pollen record facilitates assessment of relative impacts of climatic and anthropogenic changes on this wetland ecosystem on smaller spatial and temporal scales than previously were possible.

  11. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.

    1996-05-01

    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  12. Remediating while preserving wetland habitat at an LLR waste site in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleb, H.R.; Zelmer, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Office was established in 1982 to carry out the federal government's responsibilities for low-level radioactive (LLR) waste management in Canada. The Office operates programs to characterize, delineate, decontaminate and consolidate historic LLR waste for interim and long-term storage. In this capacity, the Office is currently considering the remediation of 9,000 cubic metres of contaminated sediment in a coastal marsh in the context of a major remediation project involving multiple urban sites. The marsh is situated between the Lake Ontario shoreline and the urban fringe of the Town of Port Hope. The marsh is designated a Cattail Mineral Shallow Marsh under the Ecological Land Classification system for Southern Ontario and was recently named the A.K. Sculthorpe Marsh in memory of a local community member. The marsh remediation will therefore require trade off between the disruption of a sensitive wetland and the removal of contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the issues and trade-off relating to the waste characterization, environmental assessment and regulatory findings and thus the remediation objectives for the marsh. Considerations include the spatial distribution of contaminated sediment, the bioavailability of contaminants, the current condition of the wetland and the predicted effects of remediation. Also considered is the significance of the wetland from provincial and municipal regulatory perspectives and the resulting directives for marsh remediation. (authors)

  13. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  14. Interagency partnership to assess and restore a degraded urban riverine wetland: Dyke Marsh Wildlife Preserve, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steury, Brent W.; Litwin, Ronald J.; Oberg, Erik T.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Sanders, Geoffrey; Santucci, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    The narrow-leaved cattail wetland known as Dyke Marsh formally became a land holding of George Washington Memorial Parkway (GWMP, a unit of the national park system) in 1959, along with a congressional directive to honor a newly-let 30-year commercial sand and gravel dredge-mining lease at the site. Dredging continued until 1974 when Public Law 93-251 called for the National Park Service and the United States Army Corps of Engineers to “implement restoration of the historical and ecological values of Dyke Marsh.” By that time, about 83 acres of the marsh remained, and no congressional funding accompanied the passage of the law to effect any immediate conservation or restoration. Decades of dredge mining had severely altered the surface area of Dyke Marsh, the extent of its tidal creek system, and the shallow river bottom of the Potomac River abutting the marsh. Further, mining destabilized the marsh, causing persistent erosion, shoreline retreat, and tidal channel widening after mining ceased. Erosion has continued unchecked until the present; approximately 50 acres of the original marsh are now estimated to remain. The specific cause of persistent erosion had been unknown prior to this collaborative study but previously was assumed to be due to flooding by the Potomac River.

  15. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  16. Ecobiophysical Aspects on Nanosilver Biogenerated from Citrus reticulata Peels, as Potential Biopesticide for Controlling Pathogens and Wetland Plants in Aquatic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Elisabeta Barbinta-Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a considerable interest was paid to ecological strategies in management of plant diseases and plant growth. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs gained considerable interest as alternative to pesticides due to their interesting properties. Green synthesis of MNPs using plant extracts is very advantageous taking into account the fact that plants are easily available and eco-friendly and possess many phytocompounds that help in bioreduction of metal ions. In this research work, we phytosynthesized AgNPs from aqueous extract of Citrus reticulata peels, with high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potential. These “green” AgNPs were characterized by modern biophysical methods (absorption and FTIR spectroscopy, AFM, and zeta potential measurements. The nanobioimpact of Citrus-based AgNPs on four invasive wetland plants, Cattail (Typha latifolia, Flowering-rush (Butomus umbellatus, Duckweed (Lemna minor, and Water-pepper (Polygonum hydropiper, was studied by absorption spectroscopy, by monitoring the spectral signature of chlorophyll. The invasive plants exhibited different behavior under AgNP stress. Deep insights were obtained from experiments conducted on biomimetic membranes marked with chlorophyll a. Our results pointed out the potential use of Citrus-based AgNPs as alternative in controlling pathogens in aqueous media and in management of aquatic weeds growth.

  17. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  18. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. G. Moura e Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between near and distant sites, for both periods (dry and rainy seasons. The position of the samplers significantly affected the structure of macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta in the rainy season.

  19. Assessment of benthic macroinvertebrates at Nile tilapia production using artificial substrate samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura E Silva, M S G; Graciano, T S; Losekann, M E; Luiz, A J B

    2016-05-17

    Biomonitoring is a cheap and effective tool for evaluation of water quality, and infer on the balance of aquatic ecosystems. The benthic macroinvertebrates are bioindicators sensitive to environmental changes, and can assist in detecting and preventing impacts such as organic enrichment and imbalance in the food chain. We compared the structure of benthic communities on artificial substrate samplers located in places near and far from net cages for production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Samplers were manufactured with nylon net, using substrates such as crushed stone, gravel, loofah and cattail leaves. Samples were collected after 30 days of colonization, rinsed and then the specimens were identified and quantified. The following metrics were calculated: richness of Operational Taxonomic Units, Margalef richness, abundance of individuals, Shannon index and evenness index. The macrobenthic community structure was strongly modified according to the proximity of the net cages. Metrics showed significant differences (p macroinvertebrate community, as near sites showed higher values for the community metrics, such as richness and diversity. Near sites presented a larger number of individuals, observed both in the dry and rainy seasons, with a predominance of Chironomidae (Diptera) in the dry season and Tubificidae (Oligochaeta) in the rainy season.

  20. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Rashed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was set in order to estimate aquatic plants evapotranspiration, (ET in Edfina drain, Nile Delta, Egypt, which had an in-stream treatment wetland that was taken as a case study. A simple field scale approach is presented to measure drain water evaporation and water consumption of five aquatic plants, cultivated in floating tanks. Plants ET, (ETp values were obtained by measuring the daily quantity of water required to renovate the tank’s initial volume. Crop coefficients (Kc were obtained and water loss from the drain wetland was calculated due to evaporation and plants cells ETp. Results presented values of ETp and Kc which were controlled by plant leaf area and growing stage. The major ETp was for Hyacinth followed by Cattail, Reeds, Torpedo grass, and then duckweeds. All ETp values exceeded twice the adjacent non-vegetated water evaporation. The obtained Kc values referenced to the drain water evaporation were almost twice the Kc values of FAO Penman–Monteith ET, due to the landscape effects, as hot dry air can cause extra heat input and water loss. Total losses from in-stream treatment series of pond, 4 plants reaches and open disinfection zone did not exceed 0.55% of drain discharge.

  1. Wind Energy Conversion by Plant-Inspired Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael A; Mosher, Curtis L; Henderson, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    In 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy set a target of 20% wind energy by 2030. To date, induction-based turbines form the mainstay of this effort, but turbines are noisy, perceived as unattractive, a potential hazard to bats and birds, and their height hampers deployment in residential settings. Several groups have proposed that artificial plants containing piezoelectric elements may harvest wind energy sufficient to contribute to a carbon-neutral energy economy. Here we measured energy conversion by cottonwood-inspired piezoelectric leaves, and by a "vertical flapping stalk"-the most efficient piezo-leaf previously reported. We emulated cottonwood for its unusually ordered, periodic flutter, properties conducive to piezo excitation. Integrated over 0°-90° (azimuthal) of incident airflow, cottonwood mimics outperformed the vertical flapping stalk, but they produced < daW per conceptualized tree. In contrast, a modest-sized cottonwood tree may dissipate ~ 80 W via leaf motion alone. A major limitation of piezo-transduction is charge generation, which scales with capacitance (area). We thus tested a rudimentary, cattail-inspired leaf with stacked elements wired in parallel. Power increased systematically with capacitance as expected, but extrapolation to acre-sized assemblages predicts < daW. Although our results suggest that present piezoelectric materials will not harvest mid-range power from botanic mimics of convenient size, recent developments in electrostriction and triboelectric systems may offer more fertile ground to further explore this concept.

  2. THEORETICAL STUDIES FOR THE USE OF "BIOPLATEAU" FOR DEFFERIZATION OF WATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Yagodkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to determine the possibility of using bioplateau with higher aquatic vegetation in order to reduce the concentrations of iron in mine waters before releasing to the surface water body.Methods. The use of the results of theoretical and empirical studies determined during the analysis of literature data made it possible to evaluate the feasibility of using higher aquatic vegetation to accumulate iron ions depending on the water temperature, as well as the ability to form iron compounds in the aqueous system as well as their further precipitation.Results. The materials obtained during the research made it possible to determine the size and design of bioplate in order to purify the water from iron ions taking into account the use of higher aquatic vegetation and minimizing the area of land resources used for the device.Conclusions. A technological scheme for cleaning mine water from iron has been developed, including filters loaded with crushed stone for immobilization of iron bacteria and bioplateau. The bottom of the bioplateau is made of waterproof clay. At the bottom, hydrophytes are planted in the ground. According to the foregoing, it is advisable to plant narrowleaved cattail or reed. The facilities, on the basis of phytotechnology, work as a self-regulating system. 

  3. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. PENURUNAN COD, TSS DAN TOTAL FOSFAT PADA SEPTIC TANK LIMBAH MATARAM CITRA SEMBADA CATERING DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN WASTEWATER GARDEN (Degradation of COD, TSS and Total Phosphate in Septic Tank Wastewater of Mataram Citra Sembada Catering Using Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dradjat Suhardjo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Sumber limbah berasal dari septictank industri restauran (catering Citra Sembada Catering, termasuk dalam kategori limbah domestik. Limbah tersebut banyak mengandung komponen yang tidak diinginkan bila dibuang ke badan air. Konsentrasi limbah yang masih di atas baku mutu, di antaranya akan memunculkan masalah pencemaran. Reaktor Wastewater Garden yang menggunakan krikil (0,5Cm-1cm dan 6 jenis tanaman yaitu : melati air (Echinodoras paleafias, Cyperus (Cyperus, Futoi (Hippochaetes lymnenalis, Pisang air (Typhonodorum indleyanum, Pickerel rush (Pontedoria cordata, Cattail (Typha latifulia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat efektivitas reaktor Wastewater Garden, apabila digunakan untuk menurunkan konsentrasi Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS dan Fosfat Total sebagai faktor pencemar pada limbah industri restauran (Citra Sembada Catering yang tertampung pada septictank. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Wastewater Garden dengan sistem batch dan dimensi reaktor lm x 0.5m x lm. Zona air limbah 75 cm, dan zona substrat atau krikil 80 cm, akar tanaman ditanam sedalam l0-15 cm. Metode penelitian yang digunakan berdasarkan SNI, di mana COD mengacu pada SNI 06-6989.2-2004 metode refluks tertutup secara spektrofotometri, TSS mengacu pada SK SNI M-03-1990-F metode pengujian secara gravimetri dan Fosfat total mengacu pada SNI M-52-1990-03 metode asam askorbat dengan alat spektrofotometer. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama 12 hari di mana setiap 3 hari sampel diambil pada outlel kemudian dianalisis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, diperoleh bahwa penggunaan wastewater garden pada limbah cair Mataram Citra Sembada Catering dapat menurunkan COD dengan efektivitas optimum 40,81% pada hari ke-6, penurunan TSS 89,l2% pada efektifitas optirnum hari ke-12 dan penurunan fosfat total dengan efektivitas optimum pada hari ke-6 yaitu sebesar 99,73 %. Tanaman dapat hidup dengan subur.   ABSTRACT  Wastewater

  5. Controle químico de Typha subulata em dois estádios de desenvolvimento Chemical control of Typha subulata in two growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.V. Silva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle químico de plantas de taboa em dois estádios fenológicos de desenvolvimento, ou seja, no estádio de pleno desenvolvimento vegetativo de 0,50 a 0,70 m e no estádio de florescimento. Os herbicidas e as doses utilizadas foram: imazapyr a 250, 500 e 750 g ha-1 com 0,5% de Aterbane; imazapyr a 250, 500 e 750 g ha-1 com 0,01% de Silwet; glyphosate a 3.360 e 4.320 g ha-1 com 0,5% de Aterbane; glyphosate a 3.360 e 4.320 g ha-1 com 0,01% de Silwet, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. Os tratamentos foram instalados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados com um pulverizador costal, munido de barra com duas pontas de jato plano XR Teejet 8002 S, a pressão constante de CO2 a 220 KPa, com consumo de calda de 200 L ha-1. As plantas de taboa foram mais sensíveis aos herbicidas quando no estádio de pleno desenvolvimento vegetativo de crescimento que no estádio de pleno florescimento, observando controle aceitável tanto com imazapyr como com glyphosate, exceto a dose de 250 g ha-1 de imazapyr com 0,5% de Aterbane. Neste mesmo estádio foi observado que o surfatante Aterbane foi menos efetivo que o Silwet, quando adicionado à menor dose do herbicida imazapyr.The aim of this research was to evaluate cattail chemical control in two growth stages: full vegetative development (0.50-0.70 m and full flowering. The herbicide rates applied were: imazapyr at 250, 500 and 750 g ha-1 plus Aterbane at 0.5%; imazapyr at 250, 500 and 750 g ha-1 plus 0.01% of Silwet; glyphosate at 3,360 and 4,320 g ha-1 plus Aterbane at 0.5%; glyphosate at 3,360 and 4,320 g ha-1 plus 0.01% of Silwet, and a check without herbicide treatment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. Treatments were sprayed using a CO2 backpack sprayer at 220 Kpa, with two XR Teejet 8002S nozzle tips, with a spray volume

  6. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  7. Decision analysis of mitigation and remediation of sedimentation within large wetland systems: a case study using Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Eash, Josh D.; Knutsen, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation has been identified as an important stressor across a range of wetland systems. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has the responsibility of maintaining wetlands within its National Wildlife Refuge System for use by migratory waterbirds and other wildlife. Many of these wetlands could be negatively affected by accelerated rates of sedimentation, especially those located in agricultural parts of the landscape. In this report we document the results of a decision analysis project designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (herein referred to as the Refuge) determine a strategy for managing and mitigating the negative effects of sediment loading within Refuge wetlands. The Refuge’s largest wetland, Agassiz Pool, has accumulated so much sediment that it has become dominated by hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca), and the ability of the staff to control water levels in the Agassiz Pool has been substantially reduced. This project consisted of a workshop with Refuge staff, local and regional stakeholders, and several technical and scientific experts. At the workshop we established Refuge management and stakeholder objectives, a range of possible management strategies, and assessed the consequences of those strategies. After deliberating a range of actions, the staff chose to consider the following three strategies: (1) an inexpensive strategy, which largely focused on using outreach to reduce external sediment inputs to the Refuge; (2) the most expensive option, which built on the first option and relied on additional infrastructure changes to the Refuge to increase management capacity; and (3) a strategy that was less expensive than strategy 2 and relied mostly on existing infrastructure to improve management capacity. Despite the fact that our assessments were qualitative, Refuge staff decided they had enough information to select the third strategy. Following our qualitative assessment, we discussed

  8. Ability of four emergent macrophytes to remediate permethrin in mesocosm experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S

    2009-08-01

    Increased focus is being placed on the ability of native vegetation to mitigate potential harmful effects of agricultural runoff, especially pyrethroid insecticides. Replicate 379 L Rubbermaid tubs (1.25 m [l] x 0.6 m [w] x 0.8 m [h]) were planted with individual species of cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides), cattails (Typha latifolia), bur-reed (Sparganium americanum), and powdery alligator-flag (Thalia dealbata), all common wetland macrophytes found in the Mississippi Delta, USA, agricultural region. Permethrin-enriched water (target concentration, 5 microg L(-1)) was pumped in at a 4-h hydraulic retention time at one end of the tub and discharged at the far end. Water samples were collected from discharge at 1-h intervals for 12 h and analyzed for permethrin concentrations. Permethrin removal rates were compared for the four different plant treatments and nonvegetated sediment-water controls. Results indicated that no particular single plant species was more effective at removing permethrin in water relative to unplanted controls. Overall mass reductions (from inflow to outflow) for cis-permethrin ranged from 67% +/- 6% in T. latifolia to 71% +/- 2% in L. oryzoides. The trans-permethrin overall mass reductions ranged from 76% +/- 4% in S. americanum to 82% +/- 2% in the unplanted control. Sediment and plant samples collected at the study conclusion indicated that 77%-95% of measured permethrin mass was associated with sediment for mesocosms planted with L. oryzoides, T. latifolia, and T. dealbata. Conversely, mesocosms planted with S. americanum had 83% of measured mass associated with the plant material. Specific plant-pesticide retention studies can lead to improved planning for best management practices and remediation techniques such as constructed wetlands and vegetated agricultural drainage ditches.

  9. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  10. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  11. Magruder Park Swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  12. Marsh Sediment and Species Composition in Hudson River Tidal Marshes: Change over the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteet, D. M.; Pederson, D. C.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.; Kleinstein, D.; Higgiston, P.

    2004-05-01

    Understanding the signature of the Hudson River watershed to changes in the hydrological cycle is possible using marsh archives downriver. A suite of lower Hudson River tidal marshes is examined to identify changes in organic vs. inorganic content in the context of environmental change. Complex vegetational changes in the various marshes, identified by pollen and macrofossil studies, demonstrate the response to natural climate variability as well as human-induced changes of the last four centuries. While Piermont Marsh shows high inorganic content related to drought during the Medieval Warm Period, the subsequent Little Ice Age that followed shows a drop in this input. However, the nineteenth century of landscape disturbance reveals an increase again in upland watershed inorganics, followed by decline in the twentieth century. Jamaica Bay and Staten Island marshes to date show reduced inorganic input to these wetlands from the watershed up to the twentieth century. Jamaica Bay, NY marsh cores indicate increases in organic content in the twentieth century which may be related to dramatic land use changes in the surrounding New York area. An increase in the sand-sized fraction of organics may be attributed to the changes in local marsh plant production, but multiple hypotheses are being tested. Comparisons with adjacent Hackensack Meadowlands marshes demonstrate that local marsh plant production can dramatically alter the organic content and thus the carbon sequestration in the marshes. Species compositional changes in most of the marshes in the twentieth century resulted in a loss of biodiversity with the invasive increase of Typha (cattail) and Phragmites. This loss is linked to eutrophication of the estuary.

  13. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  14. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that São Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Rio, Glaucia; Rêgo, Marco Antonio; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest), Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy) of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis) densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems.

  15. A multiscale approach indicates a severe reduction in Atlantic Forest wetlands and highlights that São Paulo Marsh Antwren is on the brink of extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Del-Rio

    Full Text Available Over the last 200 years the wetlands of the Upper Tietê and Upper Paraíba do Sul basins, in the southeastern Atlantic Forest, Brazil, have been almost-completely transformed by urbanization, agriculture and mining. Endemic to these river basins, the São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola survived these impacts, but remained unknown to science until its discovery in 2005. Its population status was cause for immediate concern. In order to understand the factors imperiling the species, and provide guidelines for its conservation, we investigated both the species' distribution and the distribution of areas of suitable habitat using a multiscale approach encompassing species distribution modeling, fieldwork surveys and occupancy models. Of six species distribution models methods used (Generalized Linear Models, Generalized Additive Models, Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines, Classification Tree Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks and Random Forest, Random Forest showed the best fit and was utilized to guide field validation. After surveying 59 sites, our results indicated that Formicivora paludicola occurred in only 13 sites, having narrow habitat specificity, and restricted habitat availability. Additionally, historic maps, distribution models and satellite imagery showed that human occupation has resulted in a loss of more than 346 km2 of suitable habitat for this species since the early twentieth century, so that it now only occupies a severely fragmented area (area of occupancy of 1.42 km2, and it should be considered Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Furthermore, averaged occupancy models showed that marshes with lower cattail (Typha dominguensis densities have higher probabilities of being occupied. Thus, these areas should be prioritized in future conservation efforts to protect the species, and to restore a portion of Atlantic Forest wetlands, in times of unprecedented regional water supply problems.

  16. Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- June survey descriptive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the shoreline aquatic plant communities in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level, indicated that much of the original plant communities and the intermediate shoreline communities present on the exposed sediments have been lost. The extensive old-field and emergent marsh communities that were present on the exposed shoreline during the drawdown have been flooded and much of the pre-drawdown Par Pond aquatic plant communities have not had sufficient time for re-establishment. The shoreline does, however, have extensive beds of maidencane which extend from the shoreline margin to areas as deep as 2 and perhaps 3 meters. Scattered individual plants of lotus and watershield are common and may indicate likely directions of future wetland development in Par Pond. In addition, within isolated coves, which apparently received ground water seepage and/or stream surface flows during the period of the Par Pond draw down, extensive beds of waterlilies and spike rush are common. Invasion of willow and red maple occurred along the lake shoreline as well. Although not absent from this survey, evidence of the extensive redevelopment of the large cattail and eel grass beds was not observed in this first survey of Par Pond. Future surveys during the growing seasons of 1995, 1996, and 1997 along with the evaluation of satellite date to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond are planned

  17. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  18. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-10-13

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

  19. Effects of diquat, an aquatic herbicide, on the development of mallard embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalk, C.J.; Brewer, G.L.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bipyridylium herbicides produce embryotoxic and teratogenic effects in dipteran, amphibian, avian, and mammalian organisms. Diquat dibromide, a bipyridylium compound, is commonly used as an aquatic herbicide. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs were exposed to diquat by immersing the eggs for 10s in solutions of 0.88, 3.5, 7, 14, or 56 g/L on either the fourth or twenty-first day of incubation. Application of diquat on day 4 yielded an estimated LC50 of 19.5 g/L through 18 days of incubation, and 9.6 g/L through hatching. Body and organ weights, and bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups with the exception of a slight increase in brain weight in the 14 g/L group. Malformations in diquat-treated embryos included defects of the brain, eye, bill, limb, and pelvis; skeletal scoliosis; and incomplete ossification. Subcutaneous edema was also present. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress were apparent in hatchlings and included increased hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (lipid peroxidation) and decreased brain reduced glutathione (GSH). Brain protein-bound sulfhydryls (PBSH) increased. Diquat applied on day 21 of incubation yielded an estimated LC50 of 12.6 g/L through hatching. Exposure at this late stage of development did not produce deformities. Body and organ weights, and, bone lengths of hatchlings did not differ between control and treatment groups. Significant manifestations of oxidative stress in hatchlings included decreased brain GSH, increased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and ratio of GSSG:GSH. This study suggests that concentrations of diquat commonly used for aquatic weed control, when based upon the expected dilution effect of average water depth of the application area, would probably have little impact on mallard embryos. However, concentrations applied above ground to weeds and cattails along the edge of waters and ditches could adversely affect the survival and development of mallard

  20. Land use and climate affect Black Tern, Northern Harrier, and Marsh Wren abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by many environmental factors at both large and small scales. Our study evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Black Tern (Childonias niger), and Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) in the prairie potholes of the upper Midwest of the United States. These species were chosen because their diverse habitat preference represent the spectrum of habitat conditions present in the Prairie Potholes, ranging from open prairies to dense cattail marshes. We evaluated land-use covariates at three logarithmic spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations and climatic influences. The strongest influences on the abundance of each of the three species were the percentage of wetland area across all three spatial scales and precipitation in the year preceding that when bird surveys were conducted. Even among scales ranging over three orders of magnitude the influence of spatial scale was small, as models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. Examination of the effects of large-scale environmental variables on wetland birds elucidated relationships overlooked in many smaller-scale studies, such as the influences of climate and habitat variables at landscape scales. Given the spatial variation in the abundance of our focal species within the prairie potholes, our model predictions are especially useful for targeting locations, such as northeastern South Dakota and central North Dakota, where management and conservation efforts would be optimally beneficial. This modeling approach can also be applied to other species and geographic areas to focus landscape conservation efforts and subsequent small-scale studies, especially in constrained economic climates.

  1. The Role of Geology to Constrain Vegetation Patterns in Humid Wetland Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swensen, K.; Lowry, C.

    2016-12-01

    In humid climate wetlands, predictive ecohydrology models are founded on plant community responses to shifting water table and soil moisture regimes. While current models focus on these hydrologic drivers of plant distribution, they rarely incorporate the geologic heterogeneity that constrains hydrologic conditions. This research assesses the significance of these geologic constraints on vegetation patterns in a representative groundwater dependent wetland within the Great Lakes basin. To analyze this relationship, two variably saturated flow models, one with homogeneous geology and the other with heterogeneous geology, were developed and statistically compared for six distinct plant communities. Field data incorporated into the models was collected from a 200m2 plot at Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge in western New York, where glacial deposits are responsible for centimeter scale variations in grain size, soil layer thickness, and layer sequence. The six communities, ranging from grasslands to cattail marshes, were characterized by field measured root length density, soil moisture profiles, depth to groundwater, and geologic properties. While variations in geologic variables were incorporated into the heterogeneous model, the homogeneous model incorporated the average grain size found under each community. Solved with Richard's Equation, the model outputs of soil moisture under both homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios were statistically compared for each individual community. Heterogeneous models were additionally compared across the six plant communities. Significant differences between the modeled results indicate an important role of geology to facilitate plant community distribution. While these models were solved under current precipitation patterns at the project site, when run under forecasted climate conditions, the results have implications for improved restoration efforts that rely on forecasts of shifting habitats under future climates.

  2. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  3. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, S.

    1994-09-01

    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett's initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream

  4. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands of California: seasonal influences of vegetation on mercury methylation, storage, and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are a dominant biologic and physical component of many wetland capable of influencing the internal pools and fluxes of methylmercury (MeHg). To investigate their role with respect to the latter, we examined the changing seasonal roles of vegetation biomass and Hg, C and N composition from May 2007-February 2008 in 3 types of agricultural wetlands (domesticated or white rice, wild rice, and fallow fields), and in adjacent managed natural wetlands dominated by cattail and bulrush (tule). We also determined the impact of vegetation on seasonal microbial Hg methylation rates, and Hg and MeHg export via seasonal storage in vegetation, and biotic consumption of rice seed. Despite a compressed growing season of ~ 3 months, annual net primary productivity (NPP) was greatest in white rice fields and carbon more labile (leaf median C:N ratio = 27). Decay of senescent litter (residue) was correlated with microbial MeHg production in winter among all wetlands. As agricultural biomass accumulated from July to August, THg concentrations declined in leaves but MeHg concentrations remained consistent, such that MeHg pools generally increased with growth. Vegetation provided a small, temporary, but significant storage term for MeHg in agricultural fields when compared with hydrologic export. White rice and wild rice seeds reached mean MeHg concentrations of 4.1 and 6.2 ng gdw- 1, respectively. In white rice and wild rice fields, seed MeHg concentrations were correlated with root MeHg concentrations (r = 0.90, p forage heavily on rice seeds within the Central Valley of California, USA. Thus, while plant tissues and rhizosphere soils provide temporary storage for MeHg during the growing season, export of MeHg is enhanced post-harvest through increased hydrologic and biotic export.

  5. The Fate of Terrestrial Dissolved Organic Matter in Ocean Margins Investigated through Coupled Microbial-Photochemical Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creeley, D. R.; Kaiser, K.; Hernes, P.; Spencer, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    Biological productivity, air-sea CO2 exchange and nutrient cycling in ocean margins is strongly affected by mineralization of terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) delivered by rivers. The decomposition of tDOC was investigated with coupled photochemical-microbial incubations to assess the combined effects of microbial and photochemical processes on the structure and extent on removal of tDOM. For these incubations, vascular plant material leachates were prepared with five different materials from the Sacramento River Valley and estuarine wetlands: foothill pine, blue oak, mixed annual grasses, mixed Tule, and cattails. Incubations were done with controlled light exposure and known spectral irradiation. Samples collected along a continuum of degradation stages were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total hydrolysable enantiomeric amino acids (DLAA), total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS), total hydrolysable amino sugars (THAS), lignin phenols, and optical properties. The loss of vascular plant material was calculated at different stages of decomposition by comparison of measured C-normalized concentrations to C-normalized values in fresh leachates. This was matched with calculation of microbial contributions based on D-amino acids. As a result, calibrated biomarkers describing vascular plant decomposition and input of microbial DOC were developed for different stages of tDOC decomposition. Application of these calibrated biomarkers will be used to study riverine DOM in river plumes using transect samples from the San Francisco Bay Estuary during summer of 2014, and as well as a transect from the Brazos River mouth into the Gulf of Mexico collected during the 2015 summer flood events.

  6. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  7. Water reduction by constructed wetlands treating waste landfill leachate in a tropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuka; Ishigaki, Tomonori; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Sutthasil, Noppharit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Yamada, Masato

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges in landfill leachate management is the prevention of environmental pollution by the overflow of untreated leachate. To evaluate the feasibility of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of waste landfill leachate in tropical regions, water reduction and pollutant removal by a CW subjected to different flow patterns (i.e., horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) and free water surface (FWS)) were examined in both rainy and dry seasons in Thailand. A pilot-scale CW planted with cattail was installed at a landfill site in Thailand. With HSSF, the CW substantially removed pollutants from the landfill leachate without the need to harvest plants, whereas with FWS, it only slightly removed pollutants. Under both flow patterns, the CW significantly reduced the leachate volume to a greater extent than surface evaporation, which is regarded as an effect of the storage pond. Additionally, water reduction occurred regardless of season and precipitation, within the range 0-9 mm d(-1). In the case of low feeding frequency, water reduction by the CW with HSSF was lower than that with FWS. However, high feeding frequency improved water reduction by the CW with HSSF and resulted in a similar reduction to that observed with FWS, which exhibited maximum evapotranspiration. In terms of water reduction, with both HSSF in conjunction with high frequency feeding and FWS, the CW provided a high degree of evapotranspiration. However, pollutant removal efficiencies with HSSF were higher than for FWS. The present study suggested that CWs with HSSF and high frequency feeding could be useful for the prevention of uncontrollable dispersion of polluted leachate in the tropical climate zone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance and behaviour of planted and unplanted units of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system treating municipal effluent from a UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Jocilene Ferreira; de Paoli, André Cordeiro; Seidl, Martin; von Sperling, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    A system composed of two horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands operating in parallel was evaluated for the post-treatment of UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor effluent, for a population equivalent of 50 inhabitants per unit. One unit was planted with cattail (Typha latifolia) and the other was unplanted. The study was undertaken over a period of 4 years, comprising monitoring of influent and effluent constituents together with a full characterization of the behaviour of the units (tracer studies, mathematical modelling of chemical oxygen demand (COD) decay, characterization of solids in the filter medium). The mean value of the surface hydraulic load was 0.11 m(3)m(-2)d(-1), and the theoretical hydraulic retention time was 1.1 d in each unit. Using tracer tests with (82)Br, dispersion number (d) values of 0.084 and 0.079 for the planted and unplanted units were obtained, indicating low to moderate dispersion. The final effluent had excellent quality in terms of organic matter and suspended solids, but the system showed low capacity for nitrogen removal. Four-year mean effluent concentration values from the planted and unplanted units were, respectively: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)): 25 and 23 mg L(-1); COD: 50 and 55 mg L(-1); total suspended solids (TSS): 9 and 9 mg L(-1); N-ammonia: 27 and 28 mg L(-1). The COD decay coefficient K for the traditional plug-flow model was 0.81 and 0.84 d(-1) for the planted and unplanted units. Around 80% of the total solids present in the filter medium were inorganic, and most of them were present in the interstices rather than attached to the support medium. As an overall conclusion, horizontal subsurface flow wetlands can be a very suitable post-treatment method for municipal effluents from anaerobic reactors.

  9. Nitrogen Dynamics Along a Headwater Stream Draining a Fen, Swamp, and Marsh in a Fractured Dolomite Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Stream-wetland interaction has been shown to have a significant effect on nutrient cycling and downstream water quality. Additionally, connection to regional groundwater systems can dilute or enrich stream water with a number of dissolved constituents. This study demonstrates the resultant downstream change in dissolved nitrogen species as a hardwater stream emerges from a calcareous aquifer and traverses a calcareous fen, a cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh over two growing seasons, a very dry 2006 and a very wet 2007. Upon emergence at a number of groundwater seeps, the water contained appreciable nitrate levels averaging 2.72±0.42 mg NO3-N L-1, minimal organic nitrogen, and ammonium below detectable levels. Through the gently sloping calcareous fen, with a stream residence time of ~ 5 hours, NO3-N concentration decreases of 0.35 mg L-1 were observed. Concomitantly, stream recharge into the dolomite bedrock depressed stream discharge values significantly, further removing nitrate from the stream system. This resulted in the fen-bedrock system acting as an estimated net sink of 432 kg of NO3-N in the early summer of 2007, for example. In contrast, the hydrological-biogeochemical systems became decoupled through the swamp during the same period, where concentrations increased from 2.58±0.34 mg L-1 entering the swamp to 2.65±0.58 mg L-1 exiting, but streamflow decreased in general by 5 L s- 1. This resulted in the swamp, with its large depression storage, acting as a small net sink of nitrate (75 kg through the early summer), which would not be detected simply from concentration changes. The concentration-discharge relation realigned through the marsh, where significant groundwater entered the wetland, increasing both concentration and discharge, yielding a small export of 93 kg over the same time period. A series of tracer injections in each wetland type will be presented to compare the streamflow- concentration patterns with the measured nutrient spiralling

  10. Biogeochemical features of aquatic plants in the Selenga River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkareva, Galina; Lychagin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    The Selenga River system provides more than a half of the Lake Baikal total inflow. The river collects a significant amount of pollutants (e.g. heavy metals) from the whole basin. These substances are partially deposited within the Selenga delta, and partially are transported further to the lake. A generous amount of aquatic plants grow in the delta area according to its favorable conditions. This vegetation works as a specific biofilter. It accumulates suspended particles and sorbs some heavy metals from the water. The study aimed to reveal the species of macrophytes which could be mostly important for biomonitoring according to their chemical composition. The field campaign took place in the Selenga River delta in July-August of 2011 (high water period) and in June of 2012 (low water period). 14 species of aquatic plants were collected: water starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica, small yellow pond lily Nuphar pumila, pondweeds Potamogeton crispus, P. pectinatus, P. friesii, broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia, hornwort or coontail Ceratophyllum demersum, arrowhead Sagittaria natans, flowering rush (or grass rush) Butomus umbellatus, reed Phragmites australis, parrot's feather Myriophyllum spicatum, the common mare's tail Hippuris vulgaris, Batrachium trichophyllum, canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis. The samples were dried, grinded up and digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2. The chemical composition of the plant material was defined using ICP-MS and ICP-AES methods. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu, B, Zn, V, Co, As, Mo, Pb, and U were considered. The study revealed that Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum spicatum concentrate elements during both high and low water periods. Conversely the Butomus umbellatus and Phragmites australis contain small amount of heavy metals. The reed as true grasses usually accumulates fewer amounts of elements than other macrophytes. To compare biogeochemical specialization of different species we suggest to use

  11. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S

    2014-06-01

    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  12. Subsidence Reversal in a Re-established Wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Miller

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The stability of levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is threatened by continued subsidence of Delta peat islands. Up to 6 meters of land-surface elevation has been lost in the 150 years since Delta marshes were leveed and drained, primarily from oxidation of peat soils. Flooding subsided peat islands halts peat oxidation by creating anoxic soils, but net accumulation of new material in restored wetlands is required to recover land-surface elevations. We investigated the subsidence reversal potential of two 3 hectare, permanently flooded, impounded wetlands re-established on a deeply subsided field on Twitchell Island. The shallower wetland (design water depth 25 cm was almost completely colonized by dense emergent marsh vegetation within two years; whereas, the deeper wetland (design water depth 55 cm which developed spatially variable depths as a result of heterogeneous colonization by emergent vegetation, still had some areas remaining as open water after nine years. Changes in land-surface elevation were quantified using repeated sedimentation-erosion table measurements. New material accumulating in the wetlands was sampled by coring. Land-surface elevations increased by an average of 4 cm/yr in both wetlands from 1997 to 2006; however, the rates at different sites in the wetlands ranged from -0.5 to +9.2 cm/yr. Open water areas of the deeper wetland without emergent vegetation had the lowest rates of land-surface elevation gain. The greatest rates occurred in areas of the deeper wetland most isolated from the river water inlets, with dense stands of emergent marsh vegetation (tules and cattails. Vegetated areas of the deeper wetland in the transition zones between open water and mature emergent stands had intermediate rates of land-surface gain, as did the entire shallower wetland. These results suggest that the dominant component contributing to land-surface elevation gain in these wetlands was accumulation of organic matter, rather

  13. Improving Phytoremediation of Oil Spills through Organic Absorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.

    2017-12-01

    Every year, oil spills around the world contaminate the environment and cost billions of dollars to clean up. Phytoremediation is a current technology for recovering environments contaminated by harmful substances, such as oil, that utilizes plants' capabilities to concentrate and metabolize the contaminants. Ranunculus, or the buttercup, has raised interest in the field of phytoremediation, being reported to grow in waste environments including municipal waste disposals. My project confirmed Ranunculus to be a suitable plant for phytoremediation. However, the Ranunculus plants throughout experiments showed a limited tolerance for oil concentration, causing the plant to wilt, thus ending the phytoremediation process. To overcome this problem, my project explored the combination of organic oil absorbents and phytoremediation. Oil absorbents can quickly fix the spilled oil in place and prevent it from further migration. In addition, and most importantly, the initial free oil concentration in contact with the roots is thus effectively decreased, which is essential for the plants to survive. Typha(cattail) inflorescence, saw dust, cotton and a commercial polymer were tested for oil absorption and Typha was deemed superior, being highly oil absorbent, inexpensive, organic and hydrophobic. Further experiments were undertaken in a small outdoor space and in the UBC Horticulture greenhouse during the winter season over the course of one year. The experiments were set up to both determine the most suitable plant for phytoremediation and test the impact of using Typha inflorescence as an absorbent. For each plant, there were three pots with Typha inflorescence and oil, with oil but no Typha inflorescence and without either. In order to measure the benefit quantitatively, naturally occurring electrical currents of the metabolic process common in phytoremediation was used as an indicator for phytoremediative activity. The main findings of the experiments were: 1. Adding Typha

  14. Observations on nests of Crocodylus moreletii in San Luis Potosí, Mexico Observaciones sobre nidos de Crocodylus moreletii en San Luis Potosí, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando H. Escobedo-Galván

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nesting ecology of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii has been documented since 1940. However, only 2 nests constructed on floating vegetation have been recorded. Here, we presented additional information from a mainland population of C. moreletii in the Ciénega de Cabezas wetland, San Luis Potosí, describing 2 nests constructed on floating mats of cattails. The nests were constructed using Typha sp., close to the main channel. One nest was lost due to flooding, and contained 32 eggs. Seven eggs had a mean 72.6 ± 2.63 mm length (range = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm width (range = 41.0-48.0 mm, and 140.7 ± 2.98 mm diameter (range = 136.0-145.0 mm. We suggest that the use of floating vegetation for nesting by C. moreletii is related to the availability of aquatic vegetation, combined with the lack of adequate nesting sites on land.La ecología de anidación del cocodrilo de pantano (Crocodylus moreletii ha sido documentada desde 1940. Sin embargo, sólo existen 2 registros de nidos construidos sobre vegetación acuática. Presentamos información adicional de 2 nidos (N1 y N2 construidos en este tipo de hábitat en una población ubicada en la Ciénega de Cabezas en el estado de San Luis Potosí. Los nidos fueron construidos sobre Typha sp., cerca del cauce principal de la ciénega. El N2 se perdió por inundación, en su interior encontramos 32 huevos, los promedios (± SD del largo, ancho y diámetro de 7 huevos fueron 72.6 ± 2.63 mm (rango = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm (rango = 41.0-48.0 mm, 140.7 ± 2.98 mm (rango = 136.0-145.0 mm, respectivamente. Sugerimos que este tipo de sitios para anidar por parte de C. moreletii está relacionado con la disponibilidad de vegetación acuática, combinado con la ausencia de sitios adecuados en tierra firme.

  15. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    at depth for Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, and Zn. Radioisotope dating indicates that the elevated metal and trace element concentrations are associated with sediments deposited before 1963. Arsenic concentration was greater in cattail roots compared with surrounding sediment at Tavasci Marsh. Concentrations of As, Ni, and Se from yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) in Tavasci Marsh exceeded the 75th percentile of several other regional studies. Mercury concentration in dragonfly larvae and fish from Tavasci Marsh were similar to or greater than in Tavasci Marsh sediment. Future work includes a biologic risk assessment utilizing the data collected in this study to provide the monument management with additional information for their restoration plan.

  16. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Willis

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  17. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis E. O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  18. Current Performance of an Aerobic Passive Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage Flow From Underground Mine Seals at Moraine State Park, Butler County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.

    2008-12-01

    Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require

  19. Advanced remote sensing to quantify temperate peatland capacity for belowground carbon capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Blanchard, S.; Schile, L. M.; Kolding, S.; Kelly, M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Miller, R.

    2011-12-01

    Temperate peatlands typically dominated by grasses and sedges generate among the greatest annual rates of net primary productivity (NPP, up to 4 kg C m-2) and soil carbon storage (up to 1 kg C m-2) for natural ecosystems. Belowground tissues represent 20-80% of total NPP, thus understanding the controls on belowground NPP (BNPP) in these wetland ecosystems is particularly important to quantifying peatland carbon balances. In addition, there is a growing need to quantify large-scale belowground C sequestration rates in wetlands to better understand marsh resilience to sea level rise and to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits. Since plant productivity influences wetland C budgets, combining field and remote sensing techniques for estimating above and belowground productivity of wetland vegetation over a large spatial extent will help to address these needs. We are working in a USGS long-term experimental wetland restoration site on drained peatland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Using the spatial variability in water depth and residence time across the 7 ha wetland, our goal is to develop practical methods to quantify and map BNPP of emergent marsh vegetation from remotely sensed estimates of aboveground plant characteristics and aboveground NPP. Field data collected on wetland plants hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) were coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (range 350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summer of 2011. We are analyzing reflectance data to develop hyperspectral indices that predict the biophysical characteristics of wetland vegetation - biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - which may be used to infer belowground biomass and productivity. Soil cores and root in-growth bags were used to calculate root biomass and productivity rates. Existing allometric relationships were used to calculate

  20. Tifton grass yield on constructed wetland used for swine wastewater treatment Produtividade de capim Tifton em sistema alagado construído utilizado no tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the agronomic behavior and yield of the Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers, when used in the treatment of swine wastewater (SW with constructed wetland systems (CWs. For this purpose, five tanks were built measuring 24 x 1.1 x 0.7 m, damp-sealed with PVC canvas and filled with 0.4 m crushed stone. In two of these tanks, Tifton grass was cultivated: one of the tanks (CW 3 contained the grass, and in the other (CW4 the grass was only cultivated in the final third part of the tanks, being preceded by Alternanthera (Althernanthera philoxeroides and cattail (Thypha latifolia L.. The SW was previously treated by means of a filtration process that consists of 0.7 m - high organic filters; the filtering beds were made of chopped sugarcane bagasse. The filter effluents were applied to CWs at a 0.8 m³ d-1 flow rate, corresponding to a hydraulic detention time of about 4.8 days. During the experimental period, three cuttings were done in CWs plants in order to evaluate the dry matter yield and the nutrient extraction capacity. All plants showed satisfactory performance in dry mass yield (86.3 and 65.3 t ha-1, in CW3 and CW4 respectively and nutrient extraction, as well as in dry matter yield. Except for the case of Zn, the cultivation of other vegetable species in the same tank did not alter the capacity of the Tifton 85 grass extraction of the SW macro and micronutrients removal.Objetivou-se, com a realização deste trabalho, avaliar o comportamento e a produtividade do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers, quando utilizado no tratamento de água residuária da suinocultura (ARS. Para isto, foram construídos cinco tanques de 24,0 x 1,1 x 0,7 m, impermeabilizados com lona de PVC e preenchidos com uma camada de 0,4 m de brita zero (altura útil. Em dois tanques se cultivou o capim Titon 85; um (SAC 3 foi todo cultivado com o capim e o outro (SAC 4 o foi só no terço final, precedido pela Alternanthera e

  1. An introduction to constructed wetlands (reed beds) sustainable low cost wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    because it is essentially simple, cheap and sustainable. Because they achieve a natural balance, well designed reed bed systems will more or less look after themselves. They do not need much power, they do not need any chemicals, they need very little maintenance, and the water leaving such a system can be very clean - certainly clean enough to pass the National Water Quality Standards. A well designed reed bed system needs both aquatic plants and special water movement. The main plants used is still the Common reed (Pragmatism karaka - Nari), Cattail (Typha australis - Dab) and Vetiver grass (Khus). Almost all these aquatic plants are available in natural wetlands, along rivers, canals, water courses, and water logged areas in Pakistan. The constructed wetlands (Reed Beds) utilize horizontal flow system, vertical flow system or combination of both. The horizontal system includes 'free water surface (FWS)' wetlands and 'vegetated submerged bed (VSB)' wetlands. The vertical system invariably uses VSB system. The required land area depends on the wastewater flow. However, in the rural setting, the horizontal system requires about 1.0 square meter / person (or population equivalent in case of an industry) and the vertical system even less than that. A working reed bed system can be designed as a public area like a park with water cascades, bridges, shallow pools with fish, and small islands for birds. There is no smell. no flies. no noise, no chemicals. and no machines. The only regular maintenance work is harvesting the reeds once a year and occasional weeding (without poisons) There is potential for the combination of reed beds with a methane process in which the bulk of sludge is removed by settlement and fed to a methane digester to produce energy, and the supernatant is then cleaned with reed beds. This may becomes a practical solution for systems in urban areas. In flat areas like large towns can be split up into segments, each served by a separate reed bed system

  2. Avaliação operacional do controle mecânico de plantas aquáticas imersas no reservatório de Jupiá Operational evaluation of mechanical control of aquatic macrophytes submerged in the Jupia reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Velini

    2005-06-01

    an aquatic plant harvester, using GPS system with differential correction signal. The time spent to load and unload the harvester was determined by timing with a stop watch, and the distance between the collection final point to the discard point as well the displacement time were determined by timing and GPS. In some collections, polygons were marked to instruct the machine operator to work exclusively in the corresponding area. Data interpretation permitted to determine the collect time participation in relation to the operation total time, indicating a significant value from an operational point of view (>70. Considering discard in areas infested with cattail, the mean total displacement was only 383 m, with 200.96s of mean time spent. Values of the harvester operational capacity oscillated between 0.23 and 1.60 ha h-1, indicating a mean value of 4.48 ha h-1 per day. The main limitation to the operational capacity was associated with the mean displacement velocity, intensifying in deeper and more infested areas. As for harvester displacement, there was great difficulty in orientation under normal operational conditions, making it impractical to maintain uniform spacing between the collect tracks. It was concluded that the operational evaluation indicated the unfeasibility of operating the machine without a GPS system allowing to guide the harvester throughout the control areas.

  3. Paludiculture on marginal lands - sustainable use of wet peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmke, Claudia; Dahms, Tobias; Wichmann, Sabine; Wichtmann, Wendelin

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are marginal lands. If they are drained, they show a short initial productive period. Soil degradation due to peat oxidation leads to numerous problems which increasingly restrict agricultural use and cause significant environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions and eutrophication and thereby produce high external costs. Worldwide greenhouse gas emissions from drained peatlands have a significant share ( 10%) in the emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors (Smith et al. 2014). In Germany they contribute more than 35% to the total emissions from agriculture (agricultural sector and cropland and grassland management) (UBA 2016). Rewetting drained peatlands can significantly reduce environmental problems caused by peatland drainage. Continuation of agricultural use with adapted crops and machinery, so called paludiculture (Latin ‚palus' = swamp) stops further degradation, maintains the peat body, reduces climate change mitigation and produces renewable fuels and raw materials. Fen and bog soils are suitable for various different paludicultures. The biomass of Sphagnum (sphagnum farming) cultivated on cut-over bogs or degraded bog grasslands can be used as raw material for horticultural growing media. Flood-tolerant and productive plant species like Common Reed, Reed Canary Grass, Cattail, Black Alder and different Sedge species are suitable for paludiculture on fen soils. Biomass utilization ranges from traditional forms, like fodder production or the use of Common Reed as roof thatch, to new utilization options, that includes biomass use for heat generation, co-subtrates for biorefineries or construction and insulation products. The above-ground biomass of one hectare Common Reed (winter yield=8 t DM) equates to an energy content of 3,000 litre heating oil. A district heating plant (800 kW) in NE Germany demonstrates the feasibility of using biomass from wet fen meadows for local heat generation. Moreover, tests

  4. The Preliminary Study of Utilization of Water Chestnut as Supercapacitor Electrode Using Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Zulkifli

    2018-01-01

    Pengaktivan CO2 Terhadap Luas Permukaan Elektroda Karbon dan Sifat Kapasitan Sel Superkapasitor dari Kayu Karet. 2015. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Fisika Universitas Andalas (SNFUA. 96-100 Taer, E., Taslim, R., Aini, Z., Hartati, S.D., Mustika, W.S. 2017. Activated carbon electrode from banana-peel waste for supercapacitor applications. AIP Conference Proceedings. 1801:040004-1-040004-4. Taer, E., Zulkifli., Arif, E.N., Taslim, R. Analisa Kapasitansi Spesifik Elektroda Karbon Superkapasitor dari Kayu Karet Terhadap Laju Scan Berdasarkan Variasi Aktivasi HNO3. 2016. Spektra Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya. 1(1: 35-40. Yu, M., Han, Y., Li, J., Wang, L., 2016. CO2-activated porous carbon derived from cattail biomass for removal of malachite green dye and application as supercapacitors. Chemical Engineering Journal. 17:1-41.

  5. Efeito da taxa de carregamento sobre a remoção de poluentes de esgoto em sistemas alagados construídos Effect of loading rate on removal of pollutants from wastewater in constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2013-04-01

    removal rates of total COD, soluble COD and TSS and the LR V, within the application range, and no negative effects on this variable in removal efficiencies of these pollutants. The removal rate of total-N and total-P did not show, however, tendency to increase with the LR V applied in the CW-HSSF planted with cattail and used in treating sanitary sewage. The loads applied of these nutrients must be considered referential in sizing these systems, if desired to maximize the overall removal of wastewater pollutants.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    Land managers are often challenged with the mandate to control exotic and invasive plant species. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are 2 such species that are currently threatening natural areas in western United States. Reed canarygrass may be native to the inland northwest (Antieau 2000), but it has invaded many wetland areas as dense, monoculture stands. Spread of this plant species is largely attributed to human disturbances, e.g., draining, farming (Antieau 2000). Reed canarygrass often dominates other emergent vegetation such as cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus spp.) (Whitson et al. 1996, Apfelbaum and Sams 1987), and the resulting habitat is largely unsuitable for wetland birds. Himalayan blackberry was introduced to the United States as a garden shrub and was planted at wildlife-management areas for food and cover. It easily colonizes disturbed places, such as roadsides, ditches, and flood plains (Hoshovsky 2000). Once established, it forms a thick, impenetrable stand, which excludes native shrub species. Although Himalayan blackberry does provide food and cover for wildlife, particularly during fall and winter, it decreases habitat diversity, and therefore, may decrease wildlife diversity. Furthermore, patterns of avian nest predation may be altered in some exotic-shrub communities (Schmidt and Whelan 1999). For land managers to make sound decisions regarding invasive-plant control, it is useful to obtain information on current plant distributions in relation to targeted wildlife species, and then use models to predict how those species may respond to changes in vegetation. The Habitat Evaluations Program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate current and future habitat conditions for fish and wildlife (Stiehl 1994). The program is based on Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for specific wildlife species. Each model contains several variables that represent life

  7. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary

    2013-01-01

    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  8. Twenty-three years of vegetation change in a fly-ash leachate impacted meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Wilcox, Douglas; Hiebert, Ron; Murphy, Marilyn K.; Mason, Daniel; Frohnapple, Krystal

    2009-01-01

    1. Blag Slough, located in Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, has received leachates from nearby fly-ash ponds for 13 years (1967-1980). We have monitored vegetation and sediment of Blag Slough since 1982, two years after the sealing of the fly-ash ponds and one year after the substrate was first exposed. The pH of the soil has increased one order of magnitude from 3.0 to 4.0 over the 23 years (1982-2005). If the pH further increases the solubility of many heavy metals will decrease, except for arsenic. We provide evidence that boron and zinc were bioaccumulating in the leaves of woody plants in 1984. The ratio of leaf concentration and soil concentration of aluminum suggests this element was not bioaccumulating in woody plants in 1984. 2. Soil concentrations of iron, aluminum, arsenic, and strontium were higher nearest the fly-ash ponds in 2005. The southwest corner of Blag Slough and middle position of transect X had the highest elevated levels of these metals and correlated with the occurrence of mixed spikerush association (dominated by Eleocharis olivacea). 3. Only a few exotic species occurred in the Blag Slough. Common reed (Phragmites australis) was among such species that occurred in three large clones. Other exotic species included dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum thapsis), Jerusalem oak goosefoot (Chenopodium botrys), and sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). Ruderal species have occurred including thistle (Cirsium spp.), fire weed (Erechtites hieracifolium), and horseweed (Conyza canadensis). While occasional cattail (Typha) have been sampled and mapped in Blag Slough they have never persisted for very long. 4. Species richness leveled off between 1991 and 2005, except for Transect X that had a peak in 1986-7. After an extreme rainfall event in August 18, 1990, Transect V had an average water depth of 0.70 cm, W had 7.1 cm, and X had 26.90 cm. Richness in Transect X declined to a low level in 1990 and 1991 after the extreme flooding event

  9. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  10. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Water allocation in the Upper Klamath Basin has become difficult in recent years due to the increase in occurrence of drought coupled with continued high water demand. Upper Klamath Lake is a central component of water distribution, supplying water downstream to the Klamath River, supplying water for irrigation diversions, and providing habitat for various species within the lake and surrounding wetlands. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the hydrologic budget of the lake and wetlands, and yet estimates of ET have been elusive—quantified only as part of a lumped term including other substantial water-budget components. To improve understanding of ET losses from the lake and wetlands, measurements of ET were made from May 2008 through September 2010. The eddy-covariance method was used to monitor ET at two wetland sites continuously during this study period and the Bowen-ratio energy-balance method was used to monitor open-water lake evaporation at two sites during the warmer months of the 3 study years. Vegetation at one wetland site (the bulrush site) consists of a virtual monoculture of hardstem bulrush (formerly Scirpus acutus, now Schoenoplectus acutus), and at the other site (the mixed site) consists of a mix of about 70 percent bulrush, 15 percent cattail (Typha latifolia), and 15 percent wocus (Nuphar polysepalum). Measured ET at these two sites was very similar (means were ±2.5 percent) and mean wetland ET is computed as a 70 to 30 percent weighted average of the bulrush and mixed sites, respectively, based on community-type distribution estimated from satellite imagery. Biweekly means of wetland ET typically vary from maximum values of around 6 to 7 millimeters per day during midsummer, to minimum values of less than 1 mm/d during midwinter. This strong annual signal primarily reflects life-cycle changes in the wetland vegetation, and the annual variation of radiative input to the surface and resulting temperature. The perennial vegetation