Sample records for cattails

  1. Cattail-to-alcohol project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Harvesting, grinding, and fermentation of cattails and/or their rhizomes are described. The use of antibiotics to prevent massive contamination of microorganisms and cessation of fermentation is discussed.

  2. Study on structure and wetting characteristic of cattail fibers as natural materials for oil sorption. (United States)

    Cao, Shengbin; Dong, Ting; Xu, Guangbiao; Wang, Fumei


    Cattail fiber is considered as one of the biomasses for oil sorption purposes. In this work, the unique structure and wetting characteristic, as well as the basic mechanisms governing oil uptake of cattail fibers were investigated. Cattail fibers grow in tufts with down-like structure consisting of root, stem, seed and several fibers. A single cattail fiber was bamboo-shaped exhibiting 4-dimensional open spaces with fineness varying between 10 and 17.5 μm, average length at 7.9 ± 1.2 mm. The skeleton of the fiber consists of lignocellulose coated by a hydrophobic wax coating with 45.41% of crystallinity. The exceptional chemical, physical and microstructural properties enable the cattail fiber to be highly hydrophobic and oleophilic. The water droplets could stand on the fibers' surfaces with the contact angles more than 130°, while oil droplets disappear quickly from the fibers' surfaces within several seconds. When used as the sorbent for oil, cattail fibers were found to absorb about 12 g of oil per gram of fibers and retained over 88% of absorbed oil even after 24 h dripping. The unique structure of cattail fibers played an important role in oil sorption. The result proposed that cattail fibers are a promising natural source for the production of oil absorbents.

  3. Accounting for the Impact of Management Scenarios on Typha Domingensis (Cattail) in an Everglades Wetland (United States)

    Lagerwall, Gareth; Kiker, Gregory; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Wang, Naiming


    The coupled regional simulation model, and the transport and reaction simulation engine were recently adapted to simulate ecology, specifically Typha domingensis (Cattail) dynamics in the Everglades. While Cattail is a native Everglades species, it has become invasive over the years due to an altered habitat over the last few decades, taking over historically Cladium jamaicense (Sawgrass) areas. Two models of different levels of algorithmic complexity were developed in previous studies, and are used here to determine the impact of various management decisions on the average Cattail density within Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. A Global Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to test the importance of these management scenarios, as well as the effectiveness of using zonal statistics. Management scenarios included high, medium and low initial water depths, soil phosphorus concentrations, initial Cattail and Sawgrass densities, as well as annually alternating water depths and soil phosphorus concentrations, and a steadily decreasing soil phosphorus concentration. Analysis suggests that zonal statistics are good indicators of regional trends, and that high soil phosphorus concentration is a pre-requisite for expansive Cattail growth. It is a complex task to manage Cattail expansion in this region, requiring the close management and monitoring of water depth and soil phosphorus concentration, and possibly other factors not considered in the model complexities. However, this modeling framework with user-definable complexities and management scenarios, can be considered a useful tool in analyzing many more alternatives, which could be used to aid management decisions in the future.

  4. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Quality of Fresh-cut Cattail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesheng HUANG; Haiping WANG; PianPian ZHANG


    Fresh-cut cattail was extremely not resistant to store at room temperature. In the first day, it began to etiolate and rot, the fiber content increased, but the vi-tamin C content and reducing sugar content decreased. The aerobic bacterial count increased, the weight loss rate sharply increased, and the sensory quality and food value were gradual y lost. Low temperature storage could decrease the loss of vita-min C and reducing sugar of fresh-cut cattail, reduce the weight loss rate and delay the increase of fiber content, maintain the water and nutrient of fresh-cut cattail, and the storage effect of 0 ℃ was better than 4 ℃.

  5. [Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) on Tolerance of Cattail to Cd Stress in Aquatic Environment]. (United States)

    Luo, Peng-cheng; Li, Hang; Wang, Shu-guang


    Hygrophytes are planted more and more in landscaping and greening in many cities, but they often encounter threat from environmental pollution. Arbuscular mycorrhiza ( AM ) have been confirmed to enhance the tolerance of terrestrial plants to environmental pollution in many previous studies, but it is unclear how they affect hygrophytes. In the present study, a hydroponic culture experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) inoculation on the tolerance of cattail (Typha latifolia) to different concentrations Cd2+ (0, 2.5, 5.0 mg x L(-1)). The aim was to provide reference for evaluating whether mycorrhizal technology can be used to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution. The results showed that symbiotic association was well established between AM fungi and cattail roots, and the mycorrhizal colonization rates (MCR) were beyond 30%. However, MCR presented downward trend one month after mycorrhizal cattails were transported to solution, and the maximal decrease was 25.5% (P < 0.05). AM increased pigment concentrations and peroxidase (POD) activity in cattail leaves, and also increased roots radial oxygen loss. However, AM only produced significant effect on increase of fresh weight in 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ solution. Although plant growth was inhibited by 5 mg x L(-1) Cd2+ and MCR was lower, AM increased Cd uptake of cattail at the two Cd2+ levels, and the maximal increments were 40.24% and 56.52% in aboveground and underground parts, respectively. This study indicates that AM has potential to enhance the tolerance of hygrophytes to environmental pollution and might be used to remedy heavy metal pollution.

  6. Effects of a cattail marsh on sediment and water quality of the Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The drainage known as the Cayo Atascosa transports irrigation return flow water through a cattail marsh and into Laguna Atascosa (Lake) located in Laguna Atascosa...

  7. Methane emission to the atmosphere through emergent cattail (Typha latifolia L.) plants


    Yavitt, J. B.; A. K. Knapp


    Methane (CH4) produced microbially in sediments of marshes is emitted to the atmosphere primarily by flowing through and out of emergent aquatic plants. The magnitude of such emission rates and factors controlling those rates are not well understood. We evaluated CH4 emission from the widely distributed aquatic emergent plant cattail (Typha latifolia L.) in several wetlands in the United States using a field gas-exchange system that concurrently estimated stomatal aperture (i.e., conductance)...


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    Bo Zhang,


    Full Text Available The effects of different pretreatment technologies, including sulfuric acid, hot-water, NaOH, and MgCl2 pretreatments, on the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24858 and Escherichia coli KO11 were investigated. In this study, cattail was used as the feedstock. The use of aquatic plant cattails to produce biofuel will add value to land and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by replacing petroleum products. The pretreated biomass first was enzymatically hydrolyzed for 2 days, followed by a 2-day Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF using S. cerevisiae. The glucose to ethanol yields were approximately 85 to 91% of the theoretical yield for this S. cerevisiae strain. Glucose and xylose released from cattail cellulose and hemicellulose could be fermented to ethanol using E. coli KO11, resulting in approximately 85% of the theoretical ethanol yield using either a Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (SHF process or a SSF process. In order to improve the sugars to ethanol yields, a detoxification process is necessary to remove the inhibitory compounds produced during the acid pretreatment process. Among the four pretreatment methods, the dilute acid pretreatment was found to be superior, and additional research is required to optimize the economics of the overall biorefinery process.

  9. Fish assemblages in stream stretches occupied by cattail (Typhaceae, Angiospermae stands in Southeast Brazil

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    Fabíola Carla da Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a major component of lentic and lotic aquatic ecosystems. As consequences of environmental degradation, species of cattail (genus Typha may become dominant along streams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure and feeding of fish assemblages in stream stretches under influence of Typha sp., also addressing the influences of temporal variation on composition, abundance, biomass, diversity, species richness, and feeding of fish. Six streams (labelled S1-S6 in the upper rio Turvo basin, southeast Brazil, with dense stands of Typha sp. in the instream and riparian habitat, were studied in six campaigns during three central months in both of the dry and wet periods, by using a standardized collection effort. Thirty-seven fish species were registered, totaling 4,228 individuals and 3.9 kg of biomass. Abundance, biomass, diversity, and species richness was higher in the wet period, but only the temporal variation in the species richness revealed to be statistically significant. Cluster analyses with composition and abundance showed little temporal similarity, but indicated two groups of streams (S1-S2-S5 and S3-S4-S6, that were corroborated along the axis 1 of the ordination analysis. Resident species was represented by six species, most of them considered tolerant and generalists. Chironomidae aquatic larvae and detritus were the most important items in the fish diet. These results suggest that the fish populations are opportunistic in exploring stream stretches occupied by cattail.

  10. The potential role of cattail-reinforced clay plaster in sustainable building

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    G. Georgiev


    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a key goal in town and country planning, as well as in the building industry. The main aims are to avoid inefficient land use, to improve the energy efficiency of buildings and, thus, to move towards meeting the challenges of climate change. In this article we consider how the use of a traditional low-energy building material, namely clay, might contribute. Recent research has identified a promising connection between the reinforcement of clay for internal wall plastering with fibres from the wetland plant Typha latifolia (cattail and the positive environmental effects of cultivating this species. If large quantities of Typha fibres were to be used in building, the need for cultivation of the plant would increase and create new possibilities for the renaturalisation of polluted or/and degraded peatlands. We explore the topic first on the basis of literature, considering the suitability of Typha for this application and possibilities for its sustainable cultivation, as well as implications for the life cycle analyses of buildings in which it is used. We then report (qualitatively the results of testing different combinations of clay with natural plant (straw and cattail fibres for their suitability as a universal plaster, which demonstrate clearly the superior properties of Typha fibres as a reinforcement material for clay plaster mortars.

  11. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

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    Fruet Andréa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L. in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.; an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase (AP activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was

  12. Effects of a cattail wetland on water quality of Irondequoit Creek near Rochester, New York (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Bernard, John M.; Seischab, Franz K.


    A 6-year (1990-96) study of the Ellison Park wetland, a 423-acre, predominantly cattail (Typha glauca) marsh in Monroe County, N.Y., was conducted to document the effect that this wetland has on the water quality of Irondequoit Creek, which flows through it. Irondequoit Creek drains 151 square miles of mostly urban and suburban land and is the main tributary to Irondequoit Bay on Lake Ontario. The wetland was a sink for total phosphorus and total suspended solids (28 and 47 percent removal efficiencies, respectively, over the 6-year study period). Sedimentation and vegetative filtration appear to be the primary mechanisms for the decrease in loads of these constituents. Total nitrogen loads were decreased slightly by the wetland; removal efficiencies for ammonia-plusorganic nitrogen and nitrate-plus-nitrite were 6 and 3 percent, respectively. The proportions of total phosphorus and total nitrogen constituents were altered by the wetland. Orthophosphate and ammonia nitrogen were generated within the wetland and represented 12 percent of the total phosphorus output load and 1.8 percent of total nitrogen output load, respectively. Conservative chemicals, such as chloride and sulfate, were littleaffected by the wetland. Concentrations of zinc, lead, and cadmium showed statistically significant decreases, which are attributed to sedimentation and filtration of sediment and organic matter to which these elements adsorb. Sediment samples from open-water depositional areas in the wetland contained high concentrations of (1) trace metals, including barium, manganese, strontium, zinc (each of which exceeded 200 parts per million), as well as chromium, copper, lead, and vanadium, and (2) some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Persistent organochlorine pesticides, such as chlordane, dieldrin, DDT and its degradation products (DDD and DDE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB?s), also were detected, but concentrations of these compounds were within the ranges often found in

  13. A multi-refuge study to evaluate the effectiveness of growing-season and dormant-season burns to control cattail (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Lor, Socheata


    Proliferation of invasive cattails (for example, Typha x glauca, T. angustifolia) is a concern of wetland managers across the country, and numerous methods have been used to control the spatial extent and density of the plant. To date, however, no single method has proven widely or consistently effective at reducing the long-term growth and spread of these species. We performed a multi-refuge study to evaluate the relative effects of growing-season and dormant-season prescribed burns on cattail production and to gain insight on variables such as soil moisture, groundwater, and biomass that affect the efficacy of burning as a control method. Results indicate total cattail cover recovers to pre-burn levels within 1 year regardless of whether the controlled burn was implemented during the growing season or dormant season. Growing-season burns, however, did result in lower aboveground and belowground cattail biomass 1-year post-burn, whereas no significant change in biomass was detected for dormant-season burns. Study results support the premise that burns implemented during the growing season should have a greater effect on nutrient reserves and cattail re-growth. Results from this and other studies suggest long-term research that incorporates multiple management strategies will be required to evaluate the potential of prescribed burning as a method to control cattail.

  14. Biosorption of lead contaminated wastewater using cattails (Typha angustifolia leaves: kinetic studies

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    Full Text Available In this work, dried leaves of Typha angustifolia (TA, also known as the common cattail, were used as an adsorbent in kinetic studies of Pb(II adsorption from synthetic aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies with dried TA leaves were conducted and they were able to adsorb Pb(II from 100 mL of a 25 mg L-1 Pb(II solution effectively with the optimized dosage of 0.6 g. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 8 h with an effective removal of 86.04 %. Adsorption kinetics was further evaluated using four kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and Elovich model. Fitting of the data was performed based on linear regression analysis. The sorption kinetic data fitted best to the pseudo-second order model with an R2 of 0.9979, followed closely by the Elovich model with an R2 of 0.9952. The obtained results showed the adsorption of Pb(II by TA leaves, which is an abundant biological material, is feasible, cheap and environmentally friendly.

  15. Effects of cattail biomass on sulfate removal and carbon sources competition in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands treating secondary effluent. (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Junwei; Tang, Zhiru; Li, Ling; Zhou, Qi; Vymazal, Jan


    Sulfate is frequently found in the influent of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs) used as tertiary treatments. To reveal the effects of plants and litters on sulfate removal, as well as the competition for organic carbon among microorganisms in SSF CWs, five laboratory-scale SSF CW microcosms were set up and were operated as a batch system with HRT 5 d. The results showed that the presence of Typha latifolia had little effect on sulfate removal in CWs, with or without additional carbon sources. Cattail litter addition greatly improved sulfate removal in SSF CWs. This improvement was linked to the continuous input of labile organic carbon, which lowers the redox level and supplies a habitat for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The presence of SRB in cattail litter indicated the possibility of sulfate removal around the carbon supplier, but the quantity of microbes in cattail litter was much lower than that in gravel. Stoichiometry calculations showed that the contribution of SRB to COD removal (21-26%) was less than that of methane-producing bacteria (MPB) (47-61%) during the initial stage but dominated COD removal (42-65%) during the terminal stage. The contributions of aerobic bacteria (AB) and denitrification bacteria (DB) to COD removal were always lower than that of SRB. It was also observed that the variations in COD: S ratio had a great influence on the relative abundance of genes between SRB and MPB and both of them could be used as good predictors of carbon competition between SRB and MPB in CWs.

  16. 香蒲植物对重金属耐性的研究进展%Advance of Cattail Plant Tolerance to Heavy Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Based on the introduction of damage of heavy metal pollution to plants and tolerance of plants to heavy metal contamination, this paper reviews the accumulation and tolerance of heavy metals in cattail plants to explore the new environmental application of cattail plants and offer new material and scientific basis for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated water body and soil. Results indicate that several plants possess tolerance to heavy metal such as root accumulation, cell wall combination and vacuole compartment of heavy metals;cattail is a suitable plant for phytoremediation of environment contaminated by heavy metals due to its fast reproduction, big biomass, and strong tolerance to heavy metals.%在概述重金属污染对植物的影响与植物对重金属的耐性研究概况的基础上,综述香蒲植物对重金属的累积和耐性特征,旨在充分挖掘香蒲植物的环保新用途,为水土重金属污染的植物修复提供科学依据。研究结果表明,一些植物对重金属具有根系累积、细胞壁结合、液泡区隔化以及抗氧化等耐性机制;香蒲植物生长繁殖快,生物量大,对重金属耐性较强,根系累积重金属量较大,是重金属污染植物修复的适合物种。

  17. Can differences in phosphorus uptake kinetics explain the distribution of cattail and sawgrass in the Florida Everglades?

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    McKee Karen L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattail (Typha domingensis has been spreading in phosphorus (P enriched areas of the oligotrophic Florida Everglades at the expense of sawgrass (Cladium mariscus spp. jamaicense. Abundant evidence in the literature explains how the opportunistic features of Typha might lead to a complete dominance in P-enriched areas. Less clear is how Typha can grow and acquire P at extremely low P levels, which prevail in the unimpacted areas of the Everglades. Results Apparent P uptake kinetics were measured for intact plants of Cladium and Typha acclimated to low and high P at two levels of oxygen in hydroponic culture. The saturated rate of P uptake was higher in Typha than in Cladium and higher in low-P acclimated plants than in high-P acclimated plants. The affinity for P uptake was two-fold higher in Typha than in Cladium, and two- to three-fold higher for low-P acclimated plants compared to high-P acclimated plants. As Cladium had a greater proportion of its biomass allocated to roots, the overall uptake capacity of the two species at high P did not differ. At low P availability, Typha increased biomass allocation to roots more than Cladium. Both species also adjusted their P uptake kinetics, but Typha more so than Cladium. The adjustment of the P uptake system and increased biomass allocation to roots resulted in a five-fold higher uptake per plant for Cladium and a ten-fold higher uptake for Typha. Conclusions Both Cladium and Typha adjust P uptake kinetics in relation to plant demand when P availability is high. When P concentrations are low, however, Typha adjusts P uptake kinetics and also increases allocation to roots more so than Cladium, thereby improving both efficiency and capacity of P uptake. Cladium has less need to adjust P uptake kinetics because it is already efficient at acquiring P from peat soils (e.g., through secretion of phosphatases, symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient conservation growth

  18. Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus in a two-stage process for biohydrogen and biogas production using corn silage and cattail. (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Gilroyed, Brandon; Yanke, Jay; Gruninger, Robert; Vedres, Darrell; McAllister, Tim; Hao, Xiying


    Bioaugmentation with an anaerobic fungus, Piromyces rhizinflata YM600, was evaluated in an anaerobic two-stage system digesting corn silage and cattail. Comparable methane yields of 328.8±16.8mLg(-1)VS and 295.4±14.5mLg(-1)VS and hydrogen yields of 59.4±4.1mLg(-1)VS and 55.6±6.7mLg(-1)VS were obtained for unaugmented and bioaugmented corn silage, respectively. Similar CH4 yields of 101.0±4.8mLg(-1)VS and 104±19.1mLg(-1)VS and a low H2 yield (biohydrogen production.

  19. Effects of flow modification on a cattail wetland at the mouth of Irondequoit Creek near Rochester, New York: Water levels, wetland biota, sediment, and water quality (United States)

    Coon, William F.


    An 11-year (1990-2001) study of the Ellison Park wetland, a 423-acre, predominantly cattail (Typha glauca) wetland at the mouth of Irondequoit Creek, was conducted to document the effects that flow modifications, including installation of a flow-control structure (FCS) in 1997 and increased diversion of stormflows to the backwater areas of the wetland, would have on the wetland's ability to decrease chemical loads transported by Irondequoit Creek into Irondequoit Bay on Lake Ontario. The FCS was designed to raise the water-surface elevation and thereby increase the dispersal and detention of stormflows in the upstream half of the wetland; this was expected to promote sedimentation and microbial utilization of nutrients, and thereby decrease the loads of certain constituents, primarily phosphorus, that would otherwise be carried into Irondequoit Bay. An ecological monitoring program was established to document changes in the wetland's water levels, biota, sedimentation rates, and chemical quality of water and sediment that might be attributable to the flow modifications.Water-level increases during storms were mostly confined to the wetland area, within about 5,000 ft upstream from the FCS. Backwater at a point of local concern, about 13,000 ft upstream, was due to local debris jams or constriction of flow by bridges and was not attributable to the FCS.Plant surveys documented species richness, concentrations of nutrients and metals in cattail tissues, and cattail productivity. Results indicated that observed differences among survey periods and between the areas upstream and downstream from the FCS were due to seasonal changes in water levels—either during the current year or at the end of the previous year's growing season—that reflected the water-surface elevation of Lake Ontario, rather than water-level control by the FCS. Results showed no adverse effects from the naturally high water levels that prevail annually during the spring and summer in the wetland

  20. Application of reeds and cattails in constructed wetlands for treatment of municipal sludge%芦苇和香蒲在人工湿地城市污泥处理系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯; 裴丽蓉; 汪彩文; 汪爱河


    用有机玻璃材料做成模拟人工湿地,分别种植芦苇和香蒲考察2种模拟植物湿地对城市污泥干化和稳定化、污泥中营养元素和重金属去除效果,并和空白湿地对比.实验污泥取自当地污水厂二沉池,污水处理采用厌氧池加氧化沟工艺.模拟人工湿地进泥负荷为0.72 kg TS/(m2·d),进泥中TS平均含量为5.58 g/L,pH为6.80.实验期为1年,采用间歇式进泥,渗滤液月采集测样一次,湿地剩余污泥2月1次.实验结果受天气和气候影响较大,处理效果夏季好于冬季,出水水质和剩余污泥的干化及稳定效果芦苇湿地好于香蒲湿地.剩余污泥中各种重金属含量低于污泥农用标准中各重金属离子浓度要求.结果表明,人工湿地植物净化系统对城市污泥有较好的脱水和稳定化效果.%The constructed wetlands planted with reeds and cattails were constructed with plexiglass material to determine the sewage sludge drying and stabilization,the removal efficiency of nutrient elements and heavy metals.The experimental data were contrasted with those from the blank wetland.The sludge was from the secondary settling tank in the local wastewater treatment plant and oxidation ditch with anaerobic pond is used in that plant.The sludge input load was 0.72 kg TS/(m2 · d) and the average content of TS was 5.58 g/L and the average pH was 6.80.The experiment lasted one year and intermittent sludge input was adopted.The leachate was collected and tested monthly and the remaining sludge was sampled every two months.According to the experimental results,the treatment effect was influenced by weather and climate;the treatment effect in summer was better than that in winter and the wetland planted with reeds was better than that with cattails.The content of metals in the remaining sludge are lower than the heavy metal ion concentrations in the sludge for agricultural use standards.The results show that constructed wetlands system has good

  1. Wound healing activity of the inflorescence of Typha elephantina (Cattail). (United States)

    Panda, Vandana; Thakur, Tejas


    Methanolic extracts of Typha elephantina inflorescence (TE) and its bandage were screened for wound healing by incision and excision wound models in Wistar rats. In the incision wound model, incision wounds were topically treated with TE gel (2.0% [w/w], 3.0% [w/w], and 5.0% [w/w]), Typha elephantina inflorescence bandage, and the reference standard 5.0% w/w povidone iodine for a period of 10 days. When the wounds healed thoroughly, sutures were removed on the 8th postwounding day, and the tensile strength of the skin was measured on the 10th day. In the excision wound model, excision wounds were treated with TE gel (3.0% [w/w] and 5.0% [w/w]), inflorescence bandage, and 5.0% w/w povidone iodine till the wounds completely healed. Epithelization time, wound contraction, hydroxyproline and hexosamine content of the scab, and ascorbic acid and malondialdehyde content of the plasma were determined in this model. In the incision wound model, high tensile strength of the skin of the healed wound was observed in rats treated with the TE gels and the inflorescence bandage when compared with wounded control rats. The increase in tensile strength indicates a promotion of collagen fibers and a firm knitting of the disrupted wound surfaces by collagen. In the excision wound model, higher rate of wound contraction, decreased period of epithelization, elevated hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and ascorbic acid levels, and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde content was observed in treated groups when compared with the wounded control animals. It may be concluded that the inflorescence of Typha elephantina possesses a potent wound healing activity, which may be due to an underlying antioxidant mechanism.

  2. Cattail invasion of sedge/grass meadows in Lake Ontario: Photointerpretation analysis of sixteen wetlands over five decades (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.; Kowalski, K.P.; Hoare, H.L.; Carlson, M.L.; Morgan, H.N.


    Photointerpretation studies were conducted to evaluate vegetation changes in wetlands of Lake Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence River associated with regulation of water levels since about 1960. The studies used photographs from 16 sites (four each from drowned river mouth, barrier beach, open embayment, and protected embayment wetlands) and spanned a period from the 1950s to 2001 at roughly decadal intervals. Meadow marsh was the most prominent vegetation type in most wetlands in the late 1950s when water levels had declined following high lake levels in the early 1950s. Meadow marsh increased at some sites in the mid-1960s in response to low lake levels and decreased at all sites in the late 1970s following a period of high lake levels. Typha increased at nearly all sites, except wave-exposed open embayments, in the 1970s. Meadow marsh continued to decrease and Typha to increase at most sites during sustained higher lake levels through the 1980s, 1990s, and into 2001. Most vegetation changes could be correlated with lake-level changes and with life-history strategies and physiological tolerances to water depth of prominent taxa. Analyses of GIS coverages demonstrated that much of the Typha invasion was landward into meadow marsh, largely by Typha x glauca. Lesser expansion toward open water included both T. x glauca and T. angustifolia. Although many models focus on the seed bank as a key component of vegetative change in wetlands, our results suggest that canopy-dominating, moisture-requiring Typha was able to invade meadow marsh at higher elevations because sustained higher lake levels allowed it to survive and overtake sedges and grasses that can tolerate periods of drier soil conditions.

  3. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six. (United States)


    Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ). Shrubs surrounding the marsh include alder and buttonbush (Cephalanthus...dominated by cattails. Other important species found in the marsh areas were rushes F i(Juncareae) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ), sensitive fern, purple loosestrife...cordata) sedges ( Cyperaceae ) arrowhead (Sagittaria sp. cattail (Typha latifolia) duckweed (Lemna minor purple loosestrife (Lythru salicaria) sensitive

  4. Environmental Assessment Addressing Activities Associated with Development of a Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota (United States)


    deltoides), sandbar willow (Salix exigua), narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia), and sedges ( Carex spp.) (EAFB 2005b). Riparian trees surround...creeping spikerush (Eleocharis palustris), and wooly sedge ( Carex lanuginosa). Two impoundments on the golf course were created by diverting and

  5. Effectiveness of emergent and submergent aquatic plants in mitigating a nitrogen-permethrin mixture (United States)

    The current study assessed the effectiveness of varying combinations of two common aquatic vascular macrophytes, parrot feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) and cattail (Typha latifolia) for mitigating contamination from a mixture of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate) and permethrin. Hydraulically connected we...

  6. Test Area C-80 Complex Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1 (United States)


    Nymphaea Mexicana Raccoon Procyon lotor Saw grass Cladium jamaicensis Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridanus Cattail Typha domingensis... television , using a telephone, listening to the radio, and sleeping. This interference often contributes to individuals becoming annoyed. Whether or not an

  7. A report on the trace element concentrations in sediments, vegetation, and fishes from the Lake Thompson Wetland Complex, South Dakota (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The results of this study identify the contaminants present, if any, and their concentrations in fish, cattail roots, and sediments from areas of concern in the Lake...

  8. Foraging Experiences with Children (United States)

    Russell, Helen Ross


    Provided are foraging experiences and wild foods information for utilization in the urban school curriculum. Food uses are detailed for roses, dandelions, wild onions, acorns, cattails, violets and mints. (BT)

  9. Final Stormwater Control and Devices Environmental Assessment (United States)


    cathartica) and Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia ), common chokecherry (Promos virginiana), and wood rose (Rosa woodsii). Common forbs include...wetland areas include cattail (Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia ), water smartweed (Polygonum coccineum), spike rush (Eleocharis sp.), water dock

  10. Annual Water Management Program - 1991 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed water management program for 1991 focuses on managing unit water levels to maintain habitat on Big Stone NWR. During the winter of 1990/91, cattails...

  11. Final Environmental Impact Statement Second Main Operating Base KC-46A Beddown at Alternative Air National Guard Installations (United States)


    Carey’s sedge Carex careyana SE P Cattail sedge Carex typhina SE P Vasevine leather-flower Clematis viorna SE P Small yellow lady’s-slipper Cypripedium...Spreading rockcress Arabis patens SE P Northern water plantain Alisma triviale SE P Scarlet ammannia Ammannia coccinea SE P Carey’s sedge Carex careyana...SE P Cattail sedge Carex typhina SE P Vasevine leather-flower Clematis viorna SE P Small yellow lady’s-slipper Cypripedium parviflorum var

  12. General Design Memorandum Phase 1 Plan Formulation. Appendixes A-N (United States)


    sedges and rushes (Carex, scirpus, and other genera of the family Cyperaceae ), and cattail (Typha latifolia) border the pools and some stretches of...water’s ed^e, snartweed, sedges , and a few herbs are seen. Most of the gravel bars and tailings do not support enough vegetation to be considered throughout the drv season, cattail, sedges and rushes, willow, and cottonwood can be seen, along with other plant species more common to the

  13. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Long-Term Monitoring of Eleven Corps of Engineers Habitat Development Field Sites Built of Dredged Material, 1974-1987 (United States)


    Pteridiwn aqui ~inum Broadleaf arrowhead Saittaria latifolia Broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia Brome grass Bromus sp. Broom sedge Andropogon virginicus... grass Eremochloa ophiuroides Cheat grass Bromus tectorwn Chuf a Cyperus esculentus Chinese tallow Sapium sebiferwn Cinquefoil Potentilla spp. Clammy...Dallis grass Paspalum dilatatwn Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Dayf lower Commelina sp. Deer pea Vigna luteola Deertongue grass Panicwn clandestinwn

  14. A Bosque Riparian Community Index Model for the Middle Rio Grande, Albuquerque, New Mexico: Model Documentation (United States)


    Rhus sp sumac Lycium torii wolfberry Shepherdia argentea silver buffalo berry Graminoids Carex spp. sedge CAREX CAREX Cyperus spp...of the Rio Grande River that are vegetated with cattail, bullrush, sedges , watercress, and algae. Figure 17. Classic examples of Type IV (Dry...Vegetation (%) Canopy Cover of Sedge Species (%) Canopy Cover of Shrubs (%) Canopy Cover of Overstory Trees (%) Ground Cover Present

  15. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Great Plains Region (Version 2.0) (United States)


    Potamogeton, Brasenia, Nuphar) and sedges ( Carex , Cyperus, Rhynchospora), bulrushes (Scirpus, Schoenoplectus), spikerushes (Eleocharis), cattails (Typha...prairie pothole wetlands is dominated by sedges , bulrushes, grasses, and forbs, but the composition varies greatly depending upon the hydrologic regime...spikerushes, smartweeds, sedges , reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and foxtail barley in seasonally wet areas, and western wheatgrass, buffalo grass

  16. Sea Level Rise and Climate Change Effects on Marsh Plants Spartina Alterniflora and Typha Angustifolia Using Mesocosms (United States)

    A four month experiment using greenhouse mesocosms was conducted to analyze the effect of sea level rise and climate change on salt marsh plants Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail). Our goal was to examine the effects of three differen...

  17. Effect of Methylparathion on nitrous oxide production in Chinampa soil of Xochimilco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Oropeza, M.; Marquez, S.; Ruiz, U.; Cabirol, N.


    Contamination of soil from pesticides is result of their bulk handling at the farmyard or following application in the field. synthetic organophosphorus compounds like chlorpyrifos and methylparathion have been used in the particulate cultivated areas, the chosen chinampa ( from Nahuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydro-ponics cultivation) from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico (CICLOPLAFEST, 2006). (Author)


    This study is the first reported attempt to generate a growth curve from Typha latifolia L. (broadleaf cattail) callus cells in suspension culture. Several media and hormone combinations were tested for their capacity to induce callus cell formation from T. latifolia leaf section...

  19. Bureau of Reclamation-Lower Colorado River Management Plan for the Yuma Clapper Rail (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presently there are just over 4,200 acres of cattail/bulrush along the lower Colorado River (LCR) in the United States, most of which is managed by the U.S. Fish and...

  20. Archaeological Investigations at the North Cove, Site Harlan County Lake, Harlan County, Nebraska: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Phase 2 (United States)


    Grass Family) Panicum vircgatuiu switchgrass Bouteloua Qracilis blue grama Buchloe dactyloides buffalo grass Cyperaceae ( Sedge Family) Carex brev1ior...edge. Paleobotanical data (Fredlund, this volume) indicate the presence of wet-spot species such as alder, sedge , cattail, and arrowhead. Spruce...fescue sedge Eleocharis acicularis spike sedge Onacjraceae (Evening Primrose Family) Qenothera biennis evening primrose Rosaceae (Rose Family) Rosa

  1. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Wildlife Studies at Proposed Disposal Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington, (United States)


    Colorado blue spruce Picea sitchensis Sitka spruce Tsuga heterophylla western hemlock Typhac eae Tyhs latifolia cat-tail Cyperaceae Scirpus microcarpus...small-fruited bullrush Carex lynbyei Lyngby’s sedge C. obnuta slough sedge Araceae Lysichitum americanum skunk cabbage Lemriaceae Lenina minor lesser

  2. Evaluation of Physical Information Gathering Methods for the Upper Mississippi River. Stages I and II. (United States)


    emergent or floating vegetation types and are particularly effective in near monospecific stands such as cattail marshes, sedges , arrow head or water...October. 5 pp. Minor, J. 1980. Personal communication. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. St. Paul, Minnesota. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1960. The Cyperaceae

  3. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the North Atlantic United States. (United States)


    Spatterdock) e EIecicharis obtusa (Blunt Spikesedge) k Nyr?7phaea odorata (Waterlily) fTypha 3pp. (Cattails) Nf a* * Water levels within this wetland...include: Calamagros tie canadensis (Bluejoint reedgrass) Cyperus app. (Umbrella sedge) Eleocharis obtusa (Blunt spikesedge) Glhceria spp...Leatherleaf) Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) Fraxinus pennsylvanica (Green ash) Larix laricina (Tamarack) Osmunda spp. (Cinnamon fern

  4. Potentiometric Demonstration of Metal Biosorption by Nonliving Plants (United States)

    Velazquez-Jimenez, Litza Halla; Torres-Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Garcia-de la Cruz, Ramon Fernando; Montes-Rojas, Antonio; Lopez-Arteaga, Rafael Eduardo


    An electrochemical experiment is presented to illustrate biosorption to second-year and upper-division undergraduate students. The extraction of Cd[superscript 2+], Pb[superscript 2+], and Cu[superscript 2+] by nonliving "Typha latifolia" (cattail) roots can be monitored in real time by potentiometry determinations. The open circuit potential…

  5. Environmental Assessment for Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan Activities at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida (United States)


    Fusconaia escambia Narrow Pigtoe - PT Villosa choctawensis Choctaw Bean - PE Pleurobema strodeanum Fuzzy Pigtoe - PT Amphibians and Reptiles ...variegatus Wax myrtle Myrica certifera America alligator Alligator mississippiensis Yaupon holly Ilex vomitoria Great blue heron Ardea herodias Cattail...Amphibians and Reptiles Alligator mississippiensis American Alligator LS T (S/A) Ambystoma bishopi Reticulated Flatwoods Salamander LE LE Amphiuma

  6. Sequential Nitrification/Denitrification in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands. A Literature Review (United States)


    2/d3o e ia cordata 12.5 Common cattail 4.4 Common arrowhead 8.3 Canna flacida 7.9 .Si•l•us.ung•en 3.4 Scru validus 7.3 I Reed (1992) by doing an...Aeration And Preferential Flow Studied Using Bromide And Dye Tracers. Wat. Res. 21:591-599. Breen, P.F. 1990. A Mass Balance Method For Assessing The

  7. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 2. (United States)


    blackberries and dewnFFTis (Rubus spp.), sheep sorrFe(fumex acetosella), goldenroas (Solidago spp. , and various grasses ( Danthonia ii cata, Panicum spp...used for pasture. Major pasture and hay plants here are alfalfa, Ladino, clover, red clover, timothy, birdsfoot trefoil, orchard grass , and...cattails, marsh grasses , and other water-tolerant plants predominate. (2-214) Conneaut Creek, upstream from the proposed project site runs through hardwood

  8. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants]. (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang


    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  9. Environmental Inventory Report. East St. Louis and Vicinity, Cahokia Canal Drainage Area, Madison and St. Clair Counties, Illinois. Volume 3. (United States)


    11/22/78 Blue Green Algae Calothrix parientina 350 100 Coccochioris sp. 15 40 Oscillatoria submembranacea 155 1400 Spirulina subsalsa 45 140 Total...capitatum 20 Blue Green Algae Agmenellum quadriduplicatum 50-- Coccochioris sp. 160 2.5 Oscillatoria submembranacea 625 1.5 Spirulina subsalsa 55 0.5, fields on either side, width to 30’. Pool south of highway then cattails. Hard mud bottom, some algae and creeping water primrose along banks of

  10. Evaluation of Cumulative Ecosystem Response to Restoration Projects in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, 2010 (United States)


    other prevalent species at the site, slough sedge ( Carex obnupta), is not present in the field of view of this photo. Kandoll Farm Numerous photo...Oenanthe sarmentosa), cattail, and Lyngbye’s sedge ( Carex lyngbyei), were consistent between years and had little variation in cover. Likewise...bittercress FACW Herb yes CAPE Cardamine pensylvanica Pennsylvania bittercress FACW Herb no CAAP Carex aperta Columbia sedge FACW Sedge yes CAAT

  11. Pretreatment methods for aquatic plant biomass as carbon sources for potential use in treating eutrophic water in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Feng; Liu, Xin; Shang, Jia-Jia; Feng, Yi; Liu, Jia; Lu, Li-Jun


    Plant biomass is usually added to constructed wetlands (CW) to enhance denitrification. In this study, we investigated effects of different pretreatments on two common external plant carbon sources, cattail and reed litter. We determined the average ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN), designated as C/N, in water samples after addition of litter subjected to various pretreatments. The C/N in the water samples ranged from 4.8 to 6.4 after addition of NaOH-pretreated cattail litter, which was four to six times greater than that of water from the Yapu River and 3.84-39.15% higher than that of systems that received untreated cattail litter. The C/N of systems that received H(2)SO(4)-pretreated carbon sources varied from 1.7 to 3.6. These two methods resulted in TN and total phosphorus (TP) levels lower than those in river water. The C/N was 1.4-1.7 after addition of CH(3)COOH-pretreated reed litter, which was 34.87-53.83% higher than that of river water. The C/N was 2.5 in systems that received mild alkali/oxidation-pretreated reeds, which was 30.59% higher than that of systems that received non-pretreated reeds. The residue rates of cattail and reed litter subjected to various pretreatments were greater than 60%. Our results showed that NaOH, H(2)SO(4), and mild alkali/oxidation pretreatments were useful to rapidly improve the C/N of river water and enhance denitrification.

  12. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.


    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  13. Water treatment by aquatic ecosystem: Nutrient removal by reservoirs and flooded fields (United States)

    Reddy, K. R.; Sacco, P. D.; Graetz, D. A.; Campbell, K. L.; Sinclair, L. R.


    Potential use of reservoirs and flooded fields stocked with aquatic plants for reduction of the nutrient levels of organic soil drainage water was evaluated. The treatment systems include 1) a large single reservoir (R1) stocked with waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes), elodea ( Egeria densa), and cattails ( Typha sp.) in series; 2) three small reservoirs in series with waterhyacinth (R2), elodea (R3), and cattails (R4), grown in independent reservoirs; 3) a control reservoir (R5) with no cultivated plants; 4) a large single flooded field planted to cattails; 5) three small flooded fields in a series planted to cattails; and 6) a flooded field with no cultivated plants. Drainage water was pumped daily (6 hours a day, and 6 days a week) into these systems for a period of 27 months at predetermined constant flow rates. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of each treatment system and analyzed for N and P forms. The series of reservoirs stocked with aquatic plants functioned effectively in the removal of N and P from agricultural drainage water, compared to a single large reservoir. Allowing the water to flow through the reservoir stocked with waterhyacinth plants with a residence time of 3.6 days was adequate to remove about 50% of the incoming inorganic N. Allowing the water to flow through a series of two small reservoirs, R2 and R3, with a residence time of 7.3 days was necessary to remove about 60% of the incoming ortho-P. Flooded fields were effective in the removal of inorganic N, but showed poor efficiency in the removal of ortho-P.

  14. Physical and chemical properties of substrates produced using macrophytes aquatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias


    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes are widely used as bioindicators of water quality because their proliferation usually occurs in eutrophic water sources and has hit several parts of Brazil and the world, restricted the multiple uses of aquatic ecosystems. However, this group of plants is able to retain considerable amounts of nutrients, presenting high productivity and high growth rate, thus, a good source of biomass for use in the production of substrates. In order to evaluate the potential of aquatic macrophytes water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Solms., water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L. and cattail (Typha domingensis Pers. in the production of substrates was performed in this work, the physical and chemical characterization and evaluation of the degree of humification. The treatments were arranged in a 3 × 4 factorial, completely randomized design with three replications. All substrates produced with 100% macrophyte density present within the limits of 400 kg m-3, considered ideal. The composite substrates with water hyacinth and water lettuce are with the electrical conductivity of 0,79 a 2,49 dS m-1 within recommended. organic compounds produced are considered mature and have high levels of nitrogen phosphorus and potassium; The substrate produced with 70% water lettuce +30 % dung and 70% composed of cattail manure +20% +10% topsoil and 70 +30% cattail manure have C/N ratio within the considered ideal; the humification ratio and humification index, except for the four treatments (70 % water lettuce manure +30%, 5 (100% water hyacinth and 8 (70% water hyacinth manure +30% are within the considered ideal, the percentage of humic acids and polymerization rate, except for treatments 1 (100% water lettuce and 12 (100% cattail, are shown below the ideal.

  15. Archaeology in the Mississippi River Floodplain at Sand Run Slough, Iowa, (United States)


    canary-reed grasses, cattail, bulrushes, amaranths , goosefoots, willow trees, lotus, duck potato and marshelder as well as salamanders, frogs, turtles...evaluation of Pike and uaehr ceramics does not distincuish the two wares except in "extreme cases.’ Dubjectivelw, baehr apoears to be more refined than Hike...a Oistal two. an enc fragment of some sort, ano a medial fragment. oil or tnese artifacts are from Block 6 levels 8 and z3 and eatures .i, anc S

  16. The Influence of Different Processing Methods on Hemostatic Actions of Colla Corii Asini%胶艾汤中阿胶炮制对其止血作用影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺卫和; 蒋孟良; 曾婷; 蒋晓煌; 钟丹; 张伟娜; 王志琪


    目的:优选胶艾汤中阿胶的最佳炮制方法.方法:以小鼠出血时间与凝血时间为指标,比较生品、蛤粉炒、蒲黄炒、蒲黄烘、烘法、微波法、真空法所得炮制品的止血作用差异.结果:阿胶6种炮制品均有明显的止血作用,与空白组比较P0.05.结论:阿胶最佳炮制方法是蛤粉炒,其出血时间与凝血时间最短.%Objectives: To find the best processing methods of colla corii asini according to its hemostasis actions. Methods : Indexed by bleeding time( BT) and clotting time( CT) of mice, the hemostatic actions of crude colla corii asini and its processed products (stir -frying with clam meal, stir - frying with cattail pollen, baking with cattail pollen, baking, microwave method, vacuum process) were compared. Results-.The significant hemostatic actions of colla corii asini and its processed products were shown in following descending order; stir - frying with clam meal > vacuum process > baking with cattail pollen > microwave method > baking > stir - frying with cattail pollen > crude colla corii asini(P 0. 05). Conclusions; The best processing method of colla corii asini is stir - frying with clam meal, which can obtain the most powerful hemostatic actions with minimum BT and CT of mice.

  17. Archeological Data Recovery of the Camino Site (16JE223), A Spanish Colonial Period Site Near New Orleans, Louisiana (United States)


    appears to belong to the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ), closely resembling members of the genus Carer. The five seeds from the Camino site are faintly...Alternanthera philoxeroides), sedge (CCyperus odo- ratus), cat-tail (Typha spp.), water millet (Echinochloa walteri), water hyssop (Bacopa mon- nieri...season, they eat leaves, stems, flowers of grasses, herbs, and sedges . They are most active at night and during the early morning. Swamp. Aquatic animals

  18. Summary of Results, Chief Joseph Dam Cultural Resources Project, Washington. (United States)


    percentages of aquatic species are low at the "’- bottom of the core but Cyperaceae ( sedge ), Iyp latlifolla (cattail), and Potamogeton (pondweed) are all...Increase In Pjnus and a decrease In Chenopodiinae. Cyperaceae ( sedge ) also increase significantly. Gramlneae, Artemisia, and other Tubuliflorae remain in...overgrazing allowed the proliferation of Chenopodiinae. The rise in Cyperaceae ( sedge ) should also be noted. Although this increase could be due to a

  19. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool. (United States)


    CYPERACEAE Carex norma is Sedge Carex sartwelii Sartwell’s sedge Carex stipata Awl-fruited sedge Carex nbellata Sedge Carex vuipinoidea Fox sedge ...the time of sampling had cattails and sedges ; nearby, also were watercress and duckweed. Trees on the bluff slopes include ri.ver maple, cottonwood, ash...islandica Icelandic yellow cress IRorippa obtusa Obtuse yellow cress IUnidentified sp. P CUCURBITACEAE ISicyos angulatus Bur-cucumber P l CYPERACEAE Carex

  20. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River. Pool 3. (United States)


    Willow) Cyperaceas Typhaceae I( Sedges ) Eleocharis opp. Typha latifolia jScirpusi spp. (Cattail) Lemunaceae I(Duckweed) Lemna minor Wolf fti p2iinctzta AIM...acted as a substrate for the anchoring of riverine successional growth such as Willows, Grasses, Sedges , Poplars, and other biota which would be found on...than grasses and sedges and a few spike-rushes. The bank is actually a hand-constructed stone wall about fifteen feet high, with the Pool Three

  1. Vliv struktury biotopu na společenstva vodních brouků v jižních Čechách


    KOLÁŘ, Vojtěch


    I studied the influence of fishpond management and environmental characteristics on diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), which are important predators in aquatic systems. In 2014 I used live traps to study diving beetle communities in 117 ponds in South Bohemia. The ponds were divided in three categories: intensively managed, extensively managed, and without fish. In total 26 species of diving beetles were found (N=1346). Overall, the beetles prefered shallow litoral zones with cattail (T...

  2. Pilot-Scale Evaluation of the Nutrient Film Technique for Wastewater Treatment. (United States)


    such as cattails). ’the B0D reduction could be described using the plug-flow reactor model with first-order kinetics. NNI SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...time and if such a relationship is affected by the various root structures of different plant species, and 3) determine if the plug-flow reactor equally divided ( Levenspiel 1972). Table 1. Operating schedule. Flow Rate Dates ai gal ./day Schedule Remarks 2 March-23 March 0.35 500 Continuous

  3. Screening of Plants to Remedy Pb2+-Containing Sewage%修复含Pb2+污水的植物筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜虎生; 胡晓楠; 王宏燕


    With cattail,water celery,green leafy amaranth as the research "objects,their absorption and accumulation characters for Pb2+ were studied by water culture method under different Pb2+ initial concentrations. The results showed that;Pb2+ enrichment of roots was significantly higher than that of stems and leaves,Pb2+ accumulation of three kinds of plant was cattail> water celery > green leafy amaranth, Pb2+ removal rate o\\ three kinds of plant was cattail>water celery>green leafy amaranth also.%以香蒲、水芹菜、绿叶苋菜为研究对象,采用水培方法在不同pb2+初始浓度条件下,研究了它们对重金属pb2+的吸收和累积特性.结果表明,Pb2+在3种植物根系的富集明显高于茎叶;3种植物对pb2+的累积量大小依次为香蒲>水芹菜>绿叶苋菜;3种植物对Pb2+的去除率大小依次为香蒲>水芹菜>绿叶苋菜.

  4. Ecological studies on medaka in a remained habitat in Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo LI; Huiguang FU


    Ecological studies were carried out in the remaining habitat for medaka (Oryzias latipes), a marsh in the suburbs of Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China. Sewage released from villages increases the nutrient levels in open water areas of the marsh, while in cattail (Typha angustifolia) and reed {Phragmites communis) beds the nutrient levels are decreased. There are fewer zooplanktons in the cattail and reed beds than in the open water areas. Sampling fishes with trap nets showed that medaka lived in dense populations in the cattail and reed beds, while the other three fish species, wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), and mud loach (Misgurnus bipartitus), occupied the open water areas in the marsh. A little amount of paradise fish (Macropodus chinensis) was also found in the marsh. Japanese freshwater shrimps {Macrobrachium nipponense) were found only in the influx canal from waterworks. Indoor aquarium experiments showed that the wild medaka in this marsh was easily cultured with commercial feed similar to domesticated strains. Some ecological aspects of the medaka were discussed based on the observations of the fish in the marsh.

  5. Mineralization of Surfactants by Microbiota of Aquatic Plants (United States)

    Federle, Thomas W.; Schwab, Burney S.


    The biodegradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) by the microbiota associated with duckweed (Lemna minor) and the roots of cattail (Typha latifolia) was investigated. Plants were obtained from a pristine pond and a pond receiving wastewater from a rural laundromat. Cattail roots and duckweed plants were incubated in vessels containing sterile water amended with [14C]LAS, [14C]LAE, or 14C-labeled mixed amino acids (MAA). Evolution of 14CO2 was determined over time. The microbiota of cattail roots from both ponds mineralized LAS, LAE, and MAA without lag periods, and the rates and extents of mineralization were not significantly affected by the source of the plants. Mineralization of LAS and LAE was more rapid in the rhizosphere than in nearby root-free sediments, which exhibited differences as a function of pond. The microbiota of duckweed readily mineralized LAE and MAA but not LAS. The rate and extent of mineralization were not affected by the source of the duckweed. PMID:16347999

  6. Improvement of Groundwater Quality Using Constructed Wetland for Agricultural Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek


    Full Text Available This research was designed to evaluate the performance of Constructed Wetlands (CW for groundwater quality improvement. In the first phase of this study, performance of CW planted with cattails for Manganese (Mn and Iron (Fe reduction was evaluated at 12, 24 and 48 hours of Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT. Average efficiencies of all tested CW systems were higher than 90 and 75% for Mn and Fe concentration reduction. Subsequently, the efficiency of CW operated at 12 hours of HRT was investigated at different plant harvest intervals. In the second phase of study, Mn and Fe removal efficiencies were 75-100 and 48-99%, respectively. Both Mn and Fe removal efficiencies for the CW system were not different between 4, 6 and 8 weeks of harvest intervals. However, the efficiency obviously increased after the first plant harvest. Average Mn and Fe removal rates of the CWs operated at the tested harvest intervals were 0.068 to 0.092 and 0.383 to 0.432 g/m2/d, respectively. Fe removal rate was not significantly different under the various test conditions. However the highest Mn removal rate was obtained in CWs operated with a harvest interval of 4 weeks. Mn accumulation rates in cattail shoots and roots were 0.04-8.25 and 0.83-23.14 mg/m2/d, respectively. Fe accumulation rates in those were 0.04-164.27 and 249.62-1,701.54 mg/m2/d, respectively. Obviously, cattail underground tissues accumulated both Mn and Fe at higher concentrations than those of the above ground tissue. These results show that CW can improve the quality of groundwater before agricultural irrigation.

  7. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater


    Wallison da Silva Freitas; Paola Alfonsa Vieira Lo Monaco; Antonio Teixeira de Matos


    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS) for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW). Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L.), Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb....

  8. Replacement of cowdung by fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use as fuel, fertilizer and biogas plant feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, C.R.; Ghatnekar, S.D.


    With 85% of the entire Indian population living in villages and 98% of the household energy requirement of the rural population demanded for cooking, research was undertaken on the supply of biomass for those Indians who do not have cattle. This research was carried out on the fermentation of aquatic and terrestrial plants for use in biogas generation. The plants utilized for biogas generation are: water hyacinth, water lettuce, African payal, duck weed, water spinach, cattail ramban, ipil-ipil, morning glory, paragrass, purple nutsedge, and durva grass.

  9. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik


    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  10. From Allergens to Battery Anodes: Nature-Inspired, Pollen Derived Carbon Architectures for Room- and Elevated- Temperature Li-ion Storage



    The conversion of allergic pollen grains into carbon microstructures was carried out through a facile, one-step, solid-state pyrolysis process in an inert atmosphere. The as-prepared carbonaceous particles were further air activated at 300 °C and then evaluated as lithium ion battery anodes at room (25 °C) and elevated (50 °C) temperatures. The distinct morphologies of bee pollens and cattail pollens are resembled on the final architecture of produced carbons. Scanning Electron Microscopy ima...

  11. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae). (United States)

    Corrêa, F F; Pereira, M P; Madail, R H; Santos, B R; Barbosa, S; Castro, E M; Pereira, F J


    Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at parea. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  12. Use of aquatic macrophytes in substrate composition to produce moringa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walda Monteiro Farias


    Full Text Available The use of aquatic macrophytes in substrate composition to produce seedlings of moringa is a sustainable alternative. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the development of moringa seedlings using substrates composed with aquatic macrophytes, and to determine concentrations of N, P and K in the seedlings. We used different combinations of weeds (M, manure (E and topsoil (TV to compose the substrates. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 4 factorial in randomized arrangement with four replications. We evaluated plant height, crown diameter and stem, relative growth rate in height, canopy diameter and in stem, dry matter of aerial part and of roots, root length and root/shoot ratio, besides the content of N, P and K in seedlings. Moringa seedlings showed reduced growth when produced in substrates composed only with cattail. Water lettuce and substrates composed of 60% M + 30%E + 10 % TV and 70% M + 30% E, promoted greater nutrition and growth of moringa seedlings. The substrate 60M +30E +10TV composed by water hyacinth and cattail resulted in greater amount of P in moringa seedlings.

  13. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff. (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux


    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed.

  14. Wetland dicots and monocots differ in colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and dark septate endophytes. (United States)

    Weishampel, Peter A; Bedford, Barbara L


    As an initial step towards evaluating whether mycorrhizas influence composition and diversity in calcareous fen plant communities, we surveyed root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic fungi (DSE) in 67 plant species in three different fens in central New York State (USA). We found colonization by AMF and DSE in most plant species at all three sites, with the type and extent of colonization differing between monocots and dicots. On average, AMF colonization was higher in dicots (58+/-3%, mean+/-SE) than in monocots (13+/-4%) but DSE colonization followed the opposite trend (24+/-3% in monocots and 9+/-1% in dicots). In sedges and cattails, two monocot families that are often abundant in fens and other wetlands, AMF colonization was usually very low (<10%) in five species and completely absent in seven others. However, DSE colonization in these species was frequently observed. Responses of wetland plants to AMF and DSE are poorly understood, but in the fen communities surveyed, dicots appear to be in a better position to respond to AMF than many of these more abundant monocots (e.g., sedges and cattails). In contrast, these monocots may be more likely to respond to DSE. Future work directed towards understanding the response of these wetland plants to AMF and DSE should provide insight into the roles these fungal symbionts play in influencing diversity in fen plant communities.

  15. 水生植物对铜污染废水的净化能力%Purification Capacity of Aquatic Plants for Treatment of Wastewater with Copper Contaminated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈瑾; 王三反; 孙连鹏


    Canna (canna indiaca), arrowhead (saguttarua saguttefolia), calamus (acorns calamus linn), cattail (typhalatifolia), wild rice stem (zizania aquatica) were selected on the basis of their capacity of copper accumulation, to purify wastewater containing copper. The results show that more than 90 % of copper is removed in water; most of absorption of copper stores in plants' root, only a few is transported to stem and leaf; compared to copper purification capacity of cattail, copper purification capacity of arrowhead and wild rice stem are better. Arrowhead and wild rice stem can be integrated to purify wastewater containing copper.%该文选用了美人蕉、慈姑、菖蒲、香蒲和茭白五种对铜有一定富集能力的植物进行铜污染废水的净化效果研究,结果表明90%以上的铜得以从水中去除.植物吸收的铜大都贮存在根系中,只有极少一部分被传输转运到地上部分的茎、叶中.净化效果香蒲较差,以茭白和慈姑为好,可以将这2种水生植物综合用于植物修复.

  16. From Allergens to Battery Anodes: Nature-Inspired, Pollen Derived Carbon Architectures for Room- and Elevated- Temperature Li-ion Storage (United States)

    Tang, Jialiang; Pol, Vilas G.


    The conversion of allergic pollen grains into carbon microstructures was carried out through a facile, one-step, solid-state pyrolysis process in an inert atmosphere. The as-prepared carbonaceous particles were further air activated at 300 °C and then evaluated as lithium ion battery anodes at room (25 °C) and elevated (50 °C) temperatures. The distinct morphologies of bee pollens and cattail pollens are resembled on the final architecture of produced carbons. Scanning Electron Microscopy images shows that activated bee pollen carbon (ABP) is comprised of spiky, brain-like, and tiny spheres; while activated cattail pollen carbon (ACP) resembles deflated spheres. Structural analysis through X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed their amorphous nature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ABP and ACP confirmed that both samples contain high levels of oxygen and small amount of nitrogen contents. At C/10 rate, ACP electrode delivered high specific lithium storage reversible capacities (590 mAh/g at 50 °C and 382 mAh/g at 25 °C) and also exhibited excellent high rate capabilities. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, improved performance of ACP is attributed to its lower charge transfer resistance than ABP. Current studies demonstrate that morphologically distinct renewable pollens could produce carbon architectures for anode applications in energy storage devices.

  17. Molybdenum(VI) removal by using constructed wetlands with different filter media and plants. (United States)

    Lian, J J; Xu, S G; Zhang, Y M; Han, C W


    The efficacy and capacity of vertical-flow wetland filters on molybdenum (Mo) removal from wastewater was examined, employing reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha latifolia) as well as different adsorption granular media. Humus, cinder, modified cinder, as well as pyrite were used as filter media. A synthetic effluent with different concentrations of Mo(VI) at different hydraulic retention times was used for simulating Mo leached mine wastewater. Laboratory experiments showed that the equilibrium adsorption data were in agreement with the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum Mo(VI) adsorption capacities of modified cinder and pyrite were 10.01 and 6.25 mg/g, respectively. Mo(VI) removal in F5 (combination substrates of pyrite and cinder) was found to be more stable and effective than that of F1 (conventional gravel and soil filter media) during the 14-week experiment. Most of the Mo(VI) was retained in the 10-20 cm of the substrate, and adsorbed by the modified cinder and pyrite. The largest fraction of Mo(VI) retained was the water-soluble fraction on the surface of the pyrite. Cattail was more suitable for Mo(VI) absorption than reed, but the bioaccumulation accounted for a very small portion of the total removal.

  18. From Allergens to Battery Anodes: Nature-Inspired, Pollen Derived Carbon Architectures for Room- and Elevated-Temperature Li-ion Storage. (United States)

    Tang, Jialiang; Pol, Vilas G


    The conversion of allergic pollen grains into carbon microstructures was carried out through a facile, one-step, solid-state pyrolysis process in an inert atmosphere. The as-prepared carbonaceous particles were further air activated at 300 °C and then evaluated as lithium ion battery anodes at room (25 °C) and elevated (50 °C) temperatures. The distinct morphologies of bee pollens and cattail pollens are resembled on the final architecture of produced carbons. Scanning Electron Microscopy images shows that activated bee pollen carbon (ABP) is comprised of spiky, brain-like, and tiny spheres; while activated cattail pollen carbon (ACP) resembles deflated spheres. Structural analysis through X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed their amorphous nature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of ABP and ACP confirmed that both samples contain high levels of oxygen and small amount of nitrogen contents. At C/10 rate, ACP electrode delivered high specific lithium storage reversible capacities (590 mAh/g at 50 °C and 382 mAh/g at 25 °C) and also exhibited excellent high rate capabilities. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies, improved performance of ACP is attributed to its lower charge transfer resistance than ABP. Current studies demonstrate that morphologically distinct renewable pollens could produce carbon architectures for anode applications in energy storage devices.

  19. Water-Quality and Biological Assessment of the Iowa River and Tributaries Within and Contiguous to the Meskwaki Settlement of the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa, 2006-07 (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; McVay, Jason C.


    In cooperation with the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa (Meskwaki Nation), the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year baseline assessment of the chemical and biological quality of streams within the Meskwaki Settlement in central Iowa. The Meskwaki Nation is a federally recognized tribe that wishes to establish water-quality standards to safeguard the integrity of surface waters and aquatic biota within the settlement for the health and welfare of the tribal community. The settlement is drained by the Iowa River and four tributaries (Onion, Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks). Water-quality samples were collected at three sites on the Iowa River, two sites on Onion Creek, and one site each on Cattail, Raven, and Bennett Creeks from April 2006 through July 2007. Biological and habitat assessments were conducted at all three sites on the Iowa River and the downstream-most site on Onion Creek from June through August 2007. Analysis of physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace compounds, bacteria, and total suspended solids in water, and trace metals and organic compounds in streambed sediment provided information about the effects of anthropogenic (human related) activities on the water quality of settlement streams. Analysis of biological samples collected during the summer of 2007, including fish community, benthic macroinvertebrates, and periphyton samples, as well as physical habitat characteristics, provided information on the effects of water quality on the condition of the aquatic environment. The majority of surface water sampled within the settlement was predominately a calcium bicarbonate type. Nitrates (nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen) exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) primary drinking-water Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L in 19 of 36 samples from sites on the Iowa River and Raven and Bennett Creeks but not in samples from Onion and Cattail Creeks. None of the samples analyzed for pesticides, trace

  20. Performance of the Iron-Caron Coupling Constructed Wetland for Rural Sewage Treatment (United States)

    Xia, Ruize; Peng, Yutao; Zhong, Shan; Tu, Lijun; Xie, Yuanshan; Zhang, Lishan


    In recent years, rural decentralized sewage treatment have gained widespread attention. Although wastewater treatment facility has been developed for rural areas, most rural population are left without adequate wastewater treatment systems. In the present study, the performance of iron-carbon coupling constructed wetland system (ICCWS) and constructed wetland system (CWS) receiving synthetic domestic wastewater were compared in side-by-side trials. Studies have found that CWS filled with spherical iron-carbon packing showed better treatment efficiency than normal CWS. When the HRT is 3 days, the ICCWS have 95.8% COD and 96.6% PO4 3- removal rate, higher than 67.0% COD and 74.3% PO4 3- removal rate in CWS respectively. The use of ICCWS planted with canna and cattail proved to be efficient technology for the removal of rural wastewater pollutants.

  1. Hierarchical porous bioactive glasses/PLGA-magnetic SBA-15 for dual-drug release. (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Huiming; Li, Xiaofeng; Bian, Chunhui; Xiang, Di; Han, Xiao; Wu, Xiaodan; Qu, Fengyu


    The hierarchical porous bioglass combined with magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized. The bioactive glass materials possess a hierarchical porous structure with the macroporous (50μm) and the mesoporous (3.86nm) structures derived from the plant template (cattail stem) and triblock polyethylene oxide-propylene oxide block copolymer (P123), respectively. Magnetic SBA-15 was synthesized by adopting the post assembly method using Fe(NO3)3 as iron source and ethylene glycol as reduction. After coating PLGA, PLGA-IBU-magnetic SBA-15 also possessed super-paramagnetism and the corresponding saturation magnetizations (Ms) could reach 2.6emug(-1). Metformin HCl (MH) and ibuprofen (IBU) were used as model drugs, and the drug release kinetics was studied. MH and IBU could release 60% and 85% from the sample respectively. The system shows excellent dual-drug controlled delivery performance and good bioactivity in vitro that leads to good potential application on bone regeneration.

  2. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Frey


    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  3. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput


    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  4. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka; Nora Kovts; Katalin Hubai; Gbor Paulovits; rpd Ferincz; Eszter Horvth


    Objective:To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes:Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae),Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae),Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae), andOenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae). Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph ofUnio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel). In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results:All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions:The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins) indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  5. Uptake of Organic Contaminants by Plants from Oil Sands Fine Tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the performance of different plant species growing in different kinds of oil sands fine tailings,and to estimate the uptake of organic contaminants by plants from the oil sands fine tailings.In general,total hydrocarbon in the plant could be ranked(beginning with the highest)as:unweathered plant 4 tailings (UWT),Freeze-Thawtailings(FT),weathered plant 4 tailings(WT),and consolidated tailings(CT) for the willow,poplar and cattails.For grass,CT amended with tailings sand and muskeg had the highest hydrocarbon level in the field treatment,however,other three kinds of tailings(FT,WT and UWT) had lower but similar to each other hydrocarbon levels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martínez


    Full Text Available In this work, the kinetic modeling of adsorption of Zn 2+ and Cd2+ in roots of Typha latifolia (cattail and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth were evaluated. The study was done using solutions containing one or both ions. The experiments were performed using carbon paste electrodes modified with the roots. The model that best describes the kinetics of both ions in the two roots is the pseudo second order’s one. We also determined that both ions accumulate faster and in greater amounts on Eichhornia crassipes. Indeed, according to potentiometric titration and infrared spectra Fourier transformation, the number of adsorption sites is higher in this root. In the same manner, it was shown that both roots accumulate more Cd 2+ than Zn2+, and when the adsorption is made from a mixture, cadmium inhibits the accumulation of zinc.

  7. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  8. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control? (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J


    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  9. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallison da Silva Freitas


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW. Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In the bed of CWS4 was planted at 1st third Alternanthera, cattail, in the 2nd third and tifton-85 grass and in the 3rd third of. The CWS5 was not planted and it was used as control. After passing through a filter filled with crushed bagasse of sugar cane, the HW was applied to the CWS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which corresponded to a hydraulic detention time of 4.8 days. According to the results it was shown that the five CWS(s had statistically nearly the same removal of pollutants, and the average removal efficiency of TSS, COD, BOD and Zn, were 91, 89, 86 and 94%, respectively. Also high removals were obtained concerning the ST, N-total, NH4+ and P-total, with average values of 62, 59, 52 and 50%, respectively. The plants in all planted CWS worked in a similar way maintaining the system efficiency and the non cultivated CWS presented analogous capacity of pollutants removal when compared to the cultivated CWS(s.

  10. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L. uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  11. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis


    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to 5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is 7958.86, cattail marshes 5250.33, and forested wetlands 8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from 6.73 to 20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from 12.20 to 32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from 7.15 to 20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  12. Mangrove and Freshwater Wetland Conservation Through Carbon Offsets: A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Establishing Environmental Policies. (United States)

    Vázquez-González, César; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Hernández, María Elizabeth; Campos, Adolfo; Espejel, Ileana; Fermán-Almada, José Luis


    Mexico has extensive coastal wetlands (4,243,137 ha), and one of its most important sites is the Alvarado Lagoon System, located in the Papaloapan River Basin on the Gulf of Mexico. The land cover dedicated to livestock and sugarcane has increased: by 25 % in 2005 and 50 % in 2010, with a loss of wetland vegetation and the carbon that it stores. We found that the Net Present Value of mangrove carbon offsets profit is equal to $5822.71, that of broad-leaved marshes is $7958.86, cattail marshes $5250.33, and forested wetlands $8369.41 per hectare, during a 30-year-carbonoffset contract. However, the opportunity cost from conserving wetland instead of growing sugarcane is positive according to REDD+ methodology, e.g., broad-leaved marsh conservation ranged from $6.73 to $20 USD/t CO2e, that of cattail marshes from $12.20 to $32.65 USD/t CO2e, and forested wetlands from $7.15 to $20.60 USD/t CO2e, whereas the opportunity cost between conservation and livestock was negative, it means that conservation is more profitable. The cost-benefit analysis for assessing investment projects from a governmental perspective is useful to determine the viability of conserving coastal wetlands through carbon offset credits. It also shows why in some areas it is not possible to conserve ecosystems due to the opportunity cost of changing from one economic activity (livestock and sugarcane) to carbon offsets for protecting wetlands. Furthermore, it allows for a comparison of carbon markets and assessment in terms of REDD+ and its methods for determining the social cost per ton of carbon avoided.

  13. The phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland to treat boron from mine effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, Onur Can [Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, Aksaray University, Aksaray (Turkey); Böcük, Harun, E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey); Yakar, Anıl [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Anadolu University, Eskişehir (Turkey)


    Highlights: ► We assessed the phytoremediation ability of a polyculture constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) from mine effluent. ► B in mine effluent decreased from 187 mg l{sup −1} to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) through the PCW. ► Estimated methane production, energy yields and electrical energy yields of the PCW increased with biomass production. ► Cattails accumulated more than 250 mg kg{sup −1} B and common reed accumulated 38 mg kg{sup −1} B at the end of the experiment. -- Abstract: This study focuses on describing the ability of a small-scale, subsurface-flow-polyculture-constructed wetland (PCW) to treat boron (B) mine effluent from the world's largest borax mine (Kırka, Turkey) under field conditions. This application is among the first effluent treatment methods of this type in both Turkey and the world. This study represents an important resource on how subsurface-flow-constructed wetlands could be used to treat B mine effluents in the field conditions. To this end, an experimental wetland was vegetated with common reed (Phragmites australis) and cattails (Typha latifolia), and mine effluent was moved through the wetland. The results of the present study show that B concentrations of the mine effluent decreased from 187 to 123 mg l{sup −1} (32% removal rate) on average. The T. latifolia individuals absorbed a total of 250 mg kg{sup −1} whereas P. australis in the PCW absorbed a total of 38 mg kg{sup −1} B during the research period.

  14. Seasonal influence on sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration in subsurface treatment wetlands. (United States)

    Stein, Otto R; Borden-Stewart, Deborah J; Hook, Paul B; Jones, Warren L


    To characterize the effects of season, temperature, plant species, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading on sulfate reduction and metals removal in treatment wetlands we measured pore water redox potentials and concentrations of sulfate, sulfide, zinc and COD in subsurface wetland microcosms. Two batch incubations of 20 day duration were conducted in each of four seasons defined by temperature and daylight duration. Four treatments were compared: unplanted controls, Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail), and Schoenoplectus acutus (hardstem bulrush), all at low COD loading (267 mg/L), plus bulrush at high COD loading (534 mg/L). Initial SO4-S and zinc concentrations were 67 and 24 mg/L, respectively. For all treatments, sulfate removal was least in winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) greatest in summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and intermediate in spring and fall (14 degrees C), but seasonal variation was greater in cattail, and especially, bulrush treatments. Redox measurements indicated that, in winter, plant-mediated oxygen transfer inhibited activity of sulfate reducing bacteria, exacerbating the reduction in sulfate removal due to temperature. Doubling the COD load in bulrush treatments increased sulfate removal by only 20-30% when averaged over all seasons and did not alter the basic pattern of seasonal variation, despite tempering the wintertime increase in redox potential. Seasonal and treatment effects on zinc removal were broadly consistent with sulfate removal and presumably reflected zinc-sulfide precipitation. Results strongly suggest that interactive effects of COD loading rate, temperature, season, and plant species control not only sulfate reduction and zinc sequestration, but also the balance of competition between various microbial consortia responsible for water treatment in constructed wetlands.

  15. Constructed treatment wetland: a study of eight plant species under saline conditions. (United States)

    Klomjek, Pantip; Nitisoravut, Suwanchai


    A series of investigations was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed treatment wetlands to remove pollutants from saline wastewater. Eight emergent plants; cattail, sedge, water grass, Asia crabgrass, salt meadow cordgrass, kallar grass, vetiver grass and Amazon, were planted in experimental plots and fed with municipal wastewater that was spiked with sodium chloride (NaCl) to simulate a saline concentration of approximately 14-16 mScm-1. All macrophytes were found tolerant under the tested conditions except Amazon and vetiver grass. Nutrient assimilation of salt tolerant species was in the range of 0.006-0.061 and 0.0002-0.0024 gm-2d-1 for nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Treatment performances of planted units were found to be 72.4-78.9% for BOD5, 43.2-56.0% for SS, 67.4-76.5% for NH3-N and 28.9-44.9% for TP. The most satisfactory plant growth and nitrogen assimilation were found for cattail (Typha angustifolia) though the plant growth was limited, whereas Asia crabgrass (Digitaria bicornis) was superior for BOD5 removal. Both were evaluated again in a continuous flow constructed wetland system receiving saline feed processing wastewater. A high removal rate regularly occurred in long-term operating conditions. The reduction in BOD5, SS, NH3-N and TP was in the range of 44.4-67.9%, 41.4-70.4%, 18.0-65.3% and 12.2-40.5%, respectively. Asia crabgrass often provided higher removal especially for BOD5 and SS removal. Nutrient enriched wastewater promoted flourishing growth of algae and plankton in the surface flow system, which tended to reduce treatment performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho Oliveira


    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais no tratamento de esgoto sanitário, num sistema do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, após decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia, da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio do brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. O sistema mostrou-se eficiente na remoção de poluentes do esgoto, atendendo aos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira vigente, exceto para o nitrogênio amoniacal. A taboa e o lírio-do-brejo mostraram-se mais eficientes na redução da DBO, na oxigenação do substrato, na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e na remoção de coliformes. A taboa foi mais eficiente na remoção de fosfatos. A eficiência na remoção de coliformes atingiu níveis próximos à totalidade. Dentre os substratos avaliados, a casca de coco foi o menos eficiente na redução da DBO e da DQO e na remoção do nitrogênio amoniacal e dos coliformes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tratamento de esgotos; alagados.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of substrates and vegetal species to treat sanitary wastewater, in a subsurface downward flow root zone system, after previous decantation. The experiment was carried out at Samambaia Campus, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. The vegetal species were narrow-leaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L., white ginger (Hedychium coronarium J. König, Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi L., and para grass (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T.Q. Nguyen. The system revealed to be efficient on wastewater

  17. Influência da espécie vegetal cultivada nas condições redox de sistemas alagados construídos Influence of plant species cultivated on redox potential in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos


    Full Text Available Em vista da escassez de informações sobre a influência de diferentes macrófitas nas condições ambientais de Sistemas Alagados Construídos (SACs, monitorou-se o potencial redox (Eh da água residuária da suinocultura (ARS em tratamento, em 5 SACs, com dimensões de 24,0 m x 1,1 m x 0,70 m. A ARS, previamente tratada em filtros, foi aplicada numa vazão de 0,8 m³ d-1, com tempo de residência aproximado de 4,8 d. Nos SAC1, SAC2 e SAC3 foram plantados, respectivamente, taboa (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb e capim tifton-85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers.; no SAC4 foi plantado, no primeiro terço do tanque, alternanthera, no segundo terço, taboa e no terceiro terço, capim tifton-85. No SAC5, nada foi plantado. Coletaram-se amostras do afluente luente dos filtros e nos pontos de coleta posicionados a 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 m (saída de cada SAC. Os valores de Eh nos afluentes dos SACs variaram entre -18 e -152 mV, entretanto, houve predomínio de condições anóxicas/aeróbias, geralmente a partir de 4 m nos sistemas. Os efluentes dos SACs apresentaram potencial redox que variou de 53 a 226 mV. Houve tendência de mais rápida oxigenação das águas residuárias no SAC1, cultivado com a taboa e, a partir de 12 m de percurso, a condição redox do meio foi semelhante em todos os SACs.Taking account to the scarcity of information about the influence of different macrophytes in environmental conditions of constructed wetlands (CWs, the redox potential (Eh of swine wastewater (SW was monitored under treatment in 5 CWs beds (24.0 x 1.0 x 0.7 m. After previous treatment in filters, SW was treated in CWs under a flow rate of 0.8 m³ d-1 with residence time of approximately 4.8 d. In CW#1, CW#2 and CW#3, were planted, respectively, cattail (Typha latifolia L., alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb and Tifton-85 bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.. In CW#4 (multivegetated was planted

  18. Endophytic bacterial diversity in roots of Typha angustifolia L. in the constructed Beijing Cuihu Wetland (China). (United States)

    Li, Yan Hong; Liu, Qun Fang; Liu, Yin; Zhu, Jing Nan; Zhang, Qiang


    We investigated the community structure of endophytic bacteria in narrowleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) roots growing in the Beijing Cuihu Wetland, China, using the 16S rDNA library technique. In total, 184 individual sequences were used to assess the diversity of endophytic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 161 clones (87.5%) were affiliated with Proteobacteria, other clones grouped into Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroids (3.3%), Fusobacteria (3.8%), and nearly 5% were uncultured bacteria. In Proteobacteria, the beta and gamma subgroups were the most abundant, accounting for approximately 46% and 36.6% of all Proteobacteria, respectively. The dominant genera included Rhodoferax, Pelomonas, Uliginosibacterium, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Rhizobium, Sulfurospirillum, Ilyobacter and Bacteroides. While some of these endophytic bacteria are capable of fixing nitrogen and can therefore improve plant growth, other endophytes may play important biological roles by removing nitrogen, phosphorus and/or organic matter from the water body and thus have the potential to enhance the phytoremediation of eutrophic water bodies. These bacteria have the potential to degrade xenobiota such as methane, methanol, methylated amines, catechol, oxochlorate, urea, cyanide, and 2,4-dichlorophenol. Hence, the use of certain endophytic bacteria in the process of phytoremediation could be a powerful approach for the restoration of eutrophic systems.

  19. Wind Energy Conversion by Plant-Inspired Designs. (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael A; Mosher, Curtis L; Henderson, Eric R


    In 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy set a target of 20% wind energy by 2030. To date, induction-based turbines form the mainstay of this effort, but turbines are noisy, perceived as unattractive, a potential hazard to bats and birds, and their height hampers deployment in residential settings. Several groups have proposed that artificial plants containing piezoelectric elements may harvest wind energy sufficient to contribute to a carbon-neutral energy economy. Here we measured energy conversion by cottonwood-inspired piezoelectric leaves, and by a "vertical flapping stalk"-the most efficient piezo-leaf previously reported. We emulated cottonwood for its unusually ordered, periodic flutter, properties conducive to piezo excitation. Integrated over 0°-90° (azimuthal) of incident airflow, cottonwood mimics outperformed the vertical flapping stalk, but they produced < daW per conceptualized tree. In contrast, a modest-sized cottonwood tree may dissipate ~ 80 W via leaf motion alone. A major limitation of piezo-transduction is charge generation, which scales with capacitance (area). We thus tested a rudimentary, cattail-inspired leaf with stacked elements wired in parallel. Power increased systematically with capacitance as expected, but extrapolation to acre-sized assemblages predicts < daW. Although our results suggest that present piezoelectric materials will not harvest mid-range power from botanic mimics of convenient size, recent developments in electrostriction and triboelectric systems may offer more fertile ground to further explore this concept.

  20. Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Pedescoll, A; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Sánchez, J C; Carretero, J; Garfi, M; Bécares, E


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different horizontal constructed wetland (CW) design parameters on solids distribution, loss of hydraulic conductivity over time and hydraulic behaviour, in order to assess clogging processes in wetlands. For this purpose, an experimental plant with eight CWs was built at mesocosm scale. Each CW presented a different design characteristic, and the most common CW configurations were all represented: free water surface flow (FWS) with different effluent pipe locations, FWS with floating macrophytes and subsurface flow (SSF), and the presence of plants and specific species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) was also considered. The loss of the hydraulic conductivity of gravel was greatly influenced by the presence of plants and organic load (representing a loss of 20% and c.a. 10% in planted wetlands and an overloaded system, respectively). Cattail seems to have a greater effect on the development of clogging since its below-ground biomass weighed twice as much as that of common reed. Hydraulic behaviour was greatly influenced by the presence of a gravel matrix and the outlet pipe position. In strict SSF CW, the water was forced to cross the gravel and tended to flow diagonally from the top inlet to the bottom outlet (where the inlet and outlet pipes were located). However, when FWS was considered, water preferentially flowed above the gravel, thus losing half the effective volume of the system. Only the presence of plants seemed to help the water flow partially within the gravel matrix.

  1. Field comparison of Bermuda-hay infusion to infusions of emergent aquatic vegetation for collecting female mosquitoes. (United States)

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Mullen, Gary R


    Field experiments were conducted in east-central Alabama in 2003 and 2004 to compare the attractiveness of selected gravid-trap infusions to ovipositing female mosquitoes. Comparisons were made among infusions of the following plants: Bermuda hay, Cynodon dactylon, and 3 species of emergent aquatic plants typical of Culex larval habitats, i.e., soft rush, Juncus effusus; a common sedge, Rhynchospora corniculata; and broad-leaf cattail, Typha latifolia. Experiments were conducted at a site in Lee County, AL, with an abundance of common nuisance mosquitoes, including Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes albopictus. Carbon dioxide-baited miniature light traps were operated concurrently with gravid traps to provide an activity index of mosquito species at the site. Gravid traps with hay infusion collected the greatest numbers of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Culex restuans females (2003). The results indicate that hay infusion is highly attractive to Cx. quinquefasciatus and is the infusion of choice for collecting females of this species in gravid traps. In the case of Ae. albopictus, infusions were not determined to be significantly different from one another in their attractiveness to gravid females. In general, females of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. restuans demonstrated selectivity when choosing an oviposition site, whereas Ae. albopictus females did not. Factors associated with the oviposition biology of the latter species most likely account for their lack of preference for any single infusion type.

  2. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E


    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  3. Extractor capacity of different plant species cultivated in wetlands used to pig wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira de Matos


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the extracting capacity of different plant species when cultivated in constructed wetlands systems (CWS for the treatment of pig wastewaters (PW. For this, four CWS were constructed with 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with geomembrana of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of gravel “zero”. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 were planted cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and grass-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In CWS4 was planted Alternanthera on the 1st third, Typha in 2nd third and tifton-85 in the 3rd third of the bed. After passing through a organic filter filled with crushed sugar cane bagasse, the ARS was applied in SACS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which provided a detention time of 4.8 days. There was a trend to obtain higher extraction of pollutants by plants grown at the beginning of the CWS. The Alternanthera plant species that was presented greater capacity for nutrient extractor, extracting 9.5 and 23% of all total-N and K applied through ARS. Plants extracted small amounts of copper from the ARS. Because of the improved performance of plants, Alternanthera or Tifton-85 grass must be cultivated in CWS for the ARS treatment.

  4. Nesting ecology of Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian and palustrine wetlands of eastern Idaho (United States)

    McWethy, D.B.; Austin, J.E.


    Little information exists on breeding Greater Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) in riparian wetlands of the Intermountain West. We examined the nesting ecology of Sandhill Cranes associated with riparian and palustrine wetlands in the Henry's Fork Watershed in eastern Idaho in 2003. We located 36 active crane nests, 19 in riparian wetlands and 17 in palustrine wetlands. Nesting sites were dominated by rushes (Juncus spp.), sedges (Carex spp.), Broad-leaved Cattail (Typha latifolia) and willow (Salix spp.), and adjacent foraging areas were primarily composed of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), cinquefoil (Potentilla spp.),Rabbitbrush (Ericameria bloomeri) bunch grasses, upland forbs, Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and cottonwood (Populus spp.). Mean water depth surrounding nests was 23 cm (SD = 22). A majority of nests (61%) were surrounded by vegetation between 3060 cm, 23% by vegetation 60 cm in height. We were able to determine the fate of 29 nests, of which 20 were successful (69%). Daily nest survival was 0.986 (95% LCI 0.963, UCI 0.995), equivalent to a Mayfield nest success of 0.654 (95% LCI 0.324, UCI 0.853). Model selection favored models with the covariates vegetation type, vegetation height, and water depth. Nest survival increased with increasing water depth surrounding nest sites. Mean water depth was higher around successful nests (30 cm, SD = 21) than unsuccessful nests (15 cm, SD 22). Further research is needed to evaluate the relative contribution of cranes nesting in palustrine and riparian wetlands distributed widely across the Intermountain West.

  5. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul


    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  6. Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Harriss, R. C.; Bartlett, K. B.


    The movement of methane (CH4) from anaerobic sediments through the leaves, stems, and flowers of aquatic plants and into the atmosphere was found to provide a significant pathway for the emission of CH4 from the aquatic substrates of flooded wetlands. Methane concentrations well above the surrounding ambient air levels were found in the mesophyll of 16 varies of aquatic plants and are attributed to transpiration, diffusion, and pressure-induced flow of gaseous CH4 from the roots when they are embedded in CH4-saturated anaerobic sediments. Methane emissions from the emergent parts of aquatic plants were measured using floating chamber techniques and by enclosing the plants in polyethylene bags of known volume. Concentration changes were monitored in the trapped air using syringes and gas chromatographic techniques. Vertical profiles of dissolved CH4 in sediment pore water surrounding the aquatic plants' rhizomes were obtained using an interstitial sampling technique. Methane emissions from the aquatic plants studied varied from 14.8 mg CH4/d to levels too low to be detectable. Rooted and unrooted freshwater aquatic plants were studied as well as saltwater and brackish water plants. Included in the experiment is detailed set of measurements on CH4 emissions from the common cattail (Typha latifolia). This paper illustrates that aquatic plants play an important gas exchange role in the C cycle between wetlands and the atmosphere.

  7. Macroinvertebrate Community Responses to the Chemical Removal of Phragmites in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland (United States)

    Kulesza, A. E.; Holomuzki, J. R.; Klarer, D. M.


    The invasive giant reed, Phragmites australis, can quickly form near-monotypic stands in North American wetlands, and as a result, sometimes reduce system biodiversity. However, the effects of Phragmites, and of the glyphosate herbicides used to control it, on trophic structure in benthic communities in these systems are less well known. Our study compares macroinvertebrate, algal, and juvenile fish diversity in replicate 10 x 5 m stands of Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaf cattail), glyphosate-sprayed Phragmites, and unsprayed Phragmites in a Lake Erie coastal wetland in Huron, Ohio. Macroinvertebrate diversity and proportions of functional feeding groups did not differ among stand types. However, overall densities of macroinvertebrates did vary among stands. Snails and larval chironomids and odonates were typically higher in Phragmites than in Typha stands. Interactions between changing water levels, algal densities, and prevailing flow patterns partly explain these outcomes. Ovipositing adult odonates did not prefer a particular stand type. Similarly, captures of juvenile fish did not vary among stands. Our results suggest that Phragmites, at least in small to moderately sized-patches, and herbicide application to these patches, does not detrimentally affect diversity in wetland, benthic communities.

  8. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site. (United States)

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S


    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems.

  9. A 6000-year record of ecological and hydrological changes from Laguna de la Leche, north coastal Cuba (United States)

    Peros, Matthew C.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Davis, Anthony M.


    Laguna de la Leche, north coastal Cuba, is a shallow (≤ 3 m), oligohaline (˜ 2.0-4.5‰) coastal lake surrounded by mangroves and cattail stands. A 227-cm core was studied using loss-on-ignition, pollen, calcareous microfossils, and plant macrofossils. From ˜6200 to ˜ 4800 cal yr BP, the area was an oligohaline lake. The period from ˜ 4800 to ˜ 4200 cal yr BP saw higher water levels and a freshened system; these changes are indicated by an increase in the regional pollen rain, as well as by the presence of charophyte oogonia and an increase in freshwater gastropods (Hydrobiidae). By ˜ 4000 cal yr BP, an open mesohaline lagoon had formed; an increase in salt-tolerant foraminifers suggests that water level increase was driven by relative sea level rise. The initiation of Laguna de la Leche correlates with a shift to wetter conditions as indicated in pollen records from the southeastern United States (e.g., Lake Tulane). This synchronicity suggests that sea level rise caused middle Holocene environmental change region-wide. Two other cores sampled from mangrove swamps in the vicinity of Laguna de la Leche indicate that a major expansion of mangroves was underway by ˜ 1700 cal yr BP.

  10. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy. (United States)

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon


    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, L.


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó la capacidad aislante de paneles elaborados a base de la Typha Latifolia en diferentes formas. Los resultados muestran una capacidad aislante relevante, catalogando la totora como un elemento de potencial aplicación como aislamiento en edificaciones. El desarrollo de aislantes térmicos basados en residuos de biomasa es una línea de investigación prometedora que permitirá la mejora sustancial de la eficiencia energética, así como el confort térmico del hábitat con soluciones sustentables de bajo coste. El desarrollo de elementos constructivos contemporáneos como paneles o mantas de totora, permitirá la mejora de la sustentabilidad de soluciones industriales, así como la reducción importante del coste de producción de estas. In this paper the insulating capacity of panels made of Typha latifolia in different forms was evaluated. The results show a significant insulating capacity, placing the cattail as a potential isolating element in buildings. The development of thermal insulation elements based on biomass residues is a promising line of research that will provide substantial improvement in energy efficiency and thermal comfort with sustainable habitat solutions at low cost. The development of contemporary construction elements such as panels or blankets of totora, will permit the improvement of industrial solutions sustainability and a significant reduction in the cost of its production.

  12. Macrofossil Record of a Middle Holocene Drop in Relative Sea Level at the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec (United States)

    Bhiry, Najat; Garneau, Michelle; Filion, Louise


    Macrofossil analysis of a peat layer overlying shallow-water estuarine sediments allows the reconstruction of vegetation changes between 7000 and 6000 14C yr B.P. near Montmagny, Québec. About 7500-7000 14C yr B.P., the study site was brackish and intertidal. Next, a cattail marsh dominated by Typha changed into a terrestrial fire-prone environment that contained xero-mesophilous tree species (Pinus/Tsuga) and lasted a few hundred years, until about 6800 14C yr B.P. This rapid change may have resulted from land tilting associated with the northward migration of the postglacial forebulge. An abrupt change from a Pinus/Tsuga-dominated cover to shrubby vegetation was due to a fire that affected the site 6800 14C yr B.P. Fossil mosses at the site reflect local wetness likely produced by a rise in the water table starting about 6600 14C yr B.P. By 6500-6400 14C yr B.P., seawater returned and freshwater plants were replaced by semihalophilous and halophilous plants. Thinning of annual rings in fossil larch reflects this change from a terrestrial peatland to a treeless coast.

  13. Removal of nutrients and metals by constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. (United States)

    Adhikari, Achyut R; Acharya, Kumud; Shanahan, Seth A; Zhou, Xiaoping


    Increased water use associated with rapid growth in the Las Vegas Valley has inadvertently led to the creation of unique wetland systems in Southern Nevada with an abundance of biological diversity. Constructed and naturally created wetlands in the Las Vegas Valley watershed were studied to characterize and understand their potential role for improving ecosystem services (i.e., water purification). Nutrient and metal removal was assessed at four sites including a natural urban runoff wetland, a constructed urban runoff wetland, a constructed wastewater wetland, and a natural urban runoff/wastewater wetland. Plant nutrient uptake was dependent on ambient nutrient concentrations in water and sediments of specific wetlands, irrespective of the type of plants present. Phosphorus was mostly concentrated in below-ground plant parts whereas nitrogen was concentrated in above-ground parts. As for metalloids, bulrushes were more efficient than cattails at taking up arsenic and selenium. Averaging all the wetland sites and plant species, total nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and selenium removal was 924.2, 61.5, 0.30, and 0.38 kg/ha/year, respectively. Our findings suggest that natural and created wetland systems can improve water quality in the Las Vegas Valley watershed for some common pollutants, however, other measures are still needed to improve water quality below regulatory thresholds.

  14. Mapping Typha Domingensis in the Cienega de Santa Clara Using Satellite Images, Global Positioning System, and Spectrometry (United States)

    Sanchez, Richard D.; Burnett, Earl E.; Croxen, Fred


    The Cienega de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico, a brackish wetland area created near the delta of the Colorado River from drainage effluent flowing from the United States since 1977, may undergo changes owing to the operation of the Yuma Desalting Plant in the United States. This has become the largest wetland in the delta region containing rare and endangered species, yet little is known about the environmental impact of these changes. The water quality of the marsh is of growing concern to the Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) which operates the Desalting Plant. Consequently, the BOR solicited the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the limits and usefulness of satellite, global positioning system (GPS), and spectra data to map the Typha domingensis (cattail) of the Cienega de Santa Clara. Typha domingensis was selected by the BOR as the Cienega de Santa Clara indicator species to best predict the environmental effects of effl uent from the Yuma Desalting Plant. The successful base mapping of Typha domingensis will provide a viable tool for long-term monitoring and stress detection in the Cienega de Santa Clara.

  15. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.


    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  16. Emergent aquatics: stand establishment, management, and species screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Andrews, N.J.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Penko, M.; Read, P.E.; Zimmerman, E.S.


    Several emergent aquatic species have been identified as potential biomass crops, including Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus spp. (rush), Sparganium spp. (bur reed), and Phragmites (reed). This report discusses first year results from studies of stand establishment and management, Typha nutrient requirements, wetland species yield comparisons, and Typha micropropagation. In a comparison of the relative effectiveness of seed, seedlings, and rhizomes for stand establishment, rhizomes appeared to be more consistent and productive under a wire variety of conditions. Both rhizomes and seedling established plots grew successfully on excavated peatland sites. First season results from a multiyear fertilizer rate experiment indicate that fertilizer treatment resulted in significantly increased tissue nutrient concentrations which should carry over into subsequent growing seasons. Shoot density and belowground dry weight were also significantly increased by phosphorus + potassium and potassium applications, respectively. First season yields of selected wetland species from managed paddies generally were comparable to yields reported from natural stands. Several particularly productive clones of Typha spp. have been identified. A method of establishing Typha in tissue culture is described.

  17. Short term uptake and transport process for metformin in roots of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia. (United States)

    Cui, H; Hense, B A; Müller, J; Schröder, P


    Metformin (MET) as an emerging contaminant has been detected in surface water and wastewater in numerous countries, due to insufficient retention in classical waste water treatment plants. In order to characterize the uptake of the compound during phytotreatment of waste water, a short term Pitman chamber experiment was carried out to assess the characteristics of MET uptake and transport by roots. Three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mmol L(-)(1)) were applied to cattail (Typha latifolia) and reed (Phragmites australis) roots which were used to investigate the uptake mechanism because they are frequently utilized in phytoremediation. In addition, quinidine was used as an inhibitor to assess the role of organic cation transporters (OCTs) in the uptake of MET by T. latifolia. The transport process of MET is different from carbamazepine (CBZ) and caffeine (CFN). In both T. latifolia and P. australis, the uptake processes were independent of initial concentrations. Quinidine, a known inhibitor of organic cation transporters, can significantly affect MET uptake by T. latifolia roots with inhibition ratios of 70-74%. Uptake into the root could be characterized by a linear model with R(2) values in the range of 0.881-0.999. Overall, the present study provides evidence that MET is taken up by plant roots and has the potential for subsequent translocation. OCTs could be one of the important pathways for MET uptake into the plant.

  18. Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Degradation Modeled Through Microbial Incubations of Vascular Plant Leachates (United States)

    Harfmann, J.; Hernes, P.; Chuang, C. Y.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as is in the atmosphere, provides the main link between terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs, and fuels the microbial food web. The fate and removal of DOM is a result of several complex conditions and processes, including photodegradation, sorption/desorption, dominant vascular plant sources, and microbial abundance. In order to better constrain factors affecting microbial degradation, laboratory incubations were performed using Sacramento River water for microbial inoculums and vascular plant leachates. Four vascular plant sources were chosen based on their dominance in the Sacramento River Valley: gymnosperm needles from Pinus sabiniana (foothill pine), angiosperm dicot leaves from Quercus douglassi (blue oak), angiosperm monocot mixed annual grasses, and angiosperm monocot mixed Schoenoplectus acutus (tule) and Typha spp. (cattails). Three concentrations of microbial inoculum were used for each plant material, ranging from 0.2% to 10%. Degradation was monitored as a function of time using dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV-Vis absorbance, and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM), and was compared across vascular plant type and inoculum concentration.

  19. On fitting the k-C* first order model to batch loaded sub-surface treatment wetlands. (United States)

    Stein, O R; Towler, B W; Hook, P B; Biederman, J A


    The k-C* first order model was fit to time-series COD data collected from batch-loaded model wetlands. Four replicates of four plant species treatments; Carex utriculata (sedge), Schoenoplectus acutus (bulrush), Typha latifolia (cattail) and unplanted controls were compared. Temperature was varied by 4 degrees C from 24 degrees C to 4 degrees C to 24 degrees C over a year-long period. One mathematical fit was made for each wetland replicate at each temperature setting (192 fits). Temperature effects on both parameters were subsequently estimated by fitting the Arrhenius relationship to the estimated coefficients. Inherent interactions between k and C* make values dependent on sample timing and statistical technique for either time series (batch load) or distance profile (plug flow) data. Coefficients calibrated using the Levenberg-Marquardt method are compared to values previously reported using a nonlinear mixed effect regression technique. Overall conclusions are similar across approaches: (a) the magnitude of the coefficients varies strongly by species; (b) the rate constant k decreases with increasing temperature; and (c) temperature and species variation in the residual concentration C* is greater than the variation in k, such that variation in k alone is a poor predictor of performance. However, the magnitudes of the coefficients, especially the rate parameter k, vary between the statistical techniques, highlighting the need to better document the statistical routines used to calibrate the k-C* model.

  20. The Effects of Biodegradation and Photodegradation on DOM Optical Properties: Controlled Laboratory Study Using Plant, Soil and Algal Leachates (United States)

    Hansen, A. M.; Kraus, T. E. C.; Pellerin, B. A.; Fleck, J.


    Many studies use optical properties to infer dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition and origin; however, there are few controlled studies which examine the effects of environmental processing on different DOM sources. Our goal was to better understand the roles DOM plays in wetland environments of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Therefore, five endmember sources of DOM from this region were selected for use in this study: peat soil (euic, thermic Typic Medisaprists); three aquatic macrophytes (white rice (Oryza sativa); tule (Schoenoplectus acutus); cattail (Typha spp.)); and one diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii). We measured DOM concentrations (mg C/L) and optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of these sources following biological and photochemical degradation over a three month period. DOM concentration decreased by over 90% in plant and algal leachates following 3 months of biodegradation, while photoexposure had negligible effects. The fluorescence index (FI), humic index (HI), specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA), and carbon-normalized fluorescence of Peaks C and A increased with biodegradation, whereas Peak T decreased. Photoexposure resulted in a decrease of the FI, HI and SUVA values. Our results emphasize the need to better understand how environmental processing affects DOM properties in aquatic environments; the frequently opposing effects of biodegradation and photodegradation, which occur simultaneously in nature, make it challenging to decipher the original DOM source without considering multiple parameters. This dataset can help us better identify which optical properties, either individual or in combination, can provide insight into how biogeochemical processes affect DOM in aquatic environments.

  1. Chirality-dependent flutter of Typha blades in wind (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Long; Liu, Zong-Yuan; Feng, Xi-Qiao


    Cattail or Typha, an emergent aquatic macrophyte widely distributed in lakes and other shallow water areas, has slender blades with a chiral morphology. The wind-resilient Typha blades can produce distinct hydraulic resistance for ecosystem functions. However, their stem may rupture and dislodge in excessive wind drag. In this paper, we combine fluid dynamics simulations and experimental measurements to investigate the aeroelastic behavior of Typha blades in wind. It is found that the chirality-dependent flutter, including wind-induced rotation and torsion, is a crucial strategy for Typha blades to accommodate wind forces. Flow visualization demonstrates that the twisting morphology of blades provides advantages over the flat one in the context of two integrated functions: improving wind resistance and mitigating vortex-induced vibration. The unusual dynamic responses and superior mechanical properties of Typha blades are closely related to their biological/ecosystem functions and macro/micro structures. This work decodes the physical mechanisms of chirality-dependent flutter in Typha blades and holds potential applications in vortex-induced vibration suppression and the design of, e.g., bioinspired flight vehicles.

  2. Bending strength and fracture surface topography of natural fiber-reinforced shell for investment casting process

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    Kai Lu


    Full Text Available In order to improve the properties of silica sol shell for investment casting process, various contents of cattail fibers were added into the slurry to prepare a fiber-reinforced shell in the present study. The bending strength of fiber-reinforced shell was investigated and the fracture surfaces of shell specimens were observed using SEM. It is found that the bending strength increases with the increase of fiber content, and the bending strength of a green shell with 1.0 wt.% fiber addition increases by 44% compared to the fiber-free shell. The failure of specimens of the fiber-reinforced green shell results from fiber rupture and debonding between the interface of fibers and adhesive under the bending load. The micro-crack propagation in the matrix is inhibited by the micro-holes for ablation of fibers in specimens of the fiber-reinforced shell during the stage of being fired. As a result, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell had no significant drop. Particularly, the bending strength of specimens of the fired shell reinforced with 0.6wt.% fiber reached the maximum value of 4.6 MPa.

  3. Effects on the Underlying Water Column by Extensive Floating Treatment Wetlands. (United States)

    Strosnider, W H; Schultz, S E; Strosnider, K A Johnson; Nairn, R W


    Floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) are an emerging engineering option with promise for simultaneous water quality improvement and habitat creation. Relatively little research has been published regarding their construction or effects on the underlying water column. In this field-scale experiment, four different extensive FTW designs were constructed using minimal materials, including drainpipe, burlap, mulch, utility netting, and reused polyethylene bottles. The FTWs were then planted with spp. (cattail) and L. (common rush). Over 28 mo, the water column beneath FTWs in two test ponds was compared to that in an open water control pond. The ponds (190 ± 10 m) were fed with well water enriched with nitrate to emulate agricultural ponds. Although observed differences were relatively small, statistically significant differences were noted. With respect to the control, waters underneath FTWs had lower dissolved oxygen, sulfate, nitrate, and pH, dampened diurnal temperature fluctuations, and greater alkalinity. The FTWs created habitat and were colonized by species of insects, birds, amphibians, snails, and spiders. Results indicated that spp. is suitable for FTW creation. However, a more supportive planting matrix is suggested to encourage faster plant growth and protect against wind and wave action damage. Although plant growth was limited, results suggest that FTWs may be applied to encourage less aerobic and more organic rich and thermally insulated conditions for water quality improvement in agricultural ponds and other aquatic systems while also creating valuable habitat.

  4. Living With Parasites in Palo Verde National Park

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    Eben Kirksey


    Full Text Available Bruno Latour has tried to bring a parliamentary democracy to the domain of nature. Wading through the swamps of Palo Verde, a national park in the Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica, and wandering onto neighbouring agricultural lands, I failed to find a central place where people were speaking for nature. Departing from a failed attempt to speak for another species (the fringe-toed foam frog, this paper considers how diverging values and obligations shape relationships in multi-species worlds. As spokespersons articulated competing visions of nature on the borderlands of Palo Verde, multiple social and ecological worlds went to war. The haunting specter of capital joined the fray—animating the movements of cattle, grasses with animal rhizomes, rice seeds, and flighty ducks across national borders and through fragmented landscapes. Amidst this warfare, the fringe-toed foam frog was just one tenacious parasite, a noisy agent eating at the table of another, which began to flourish in worlds designed with the well-being of others in mind. Cattails, charismatic birds, and a multitude of insects began interrupting human dreams and schemes. Final solutions to the problem of living with parasites failed in Palo Verde. Humans and parasites, who became para-selves of one another, maintained an abiding presence in the landscape.

  5. Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Rashed


    Full Text Available This research was set in order to estimate aquatic plants evapotranspiration, (ET in Edfina drain, Nile Delta, Egypt, which had an in-stream treatment wetland that was taken as a case study. A simple field scale approach is presented to measure drain water evaporation and water consumption of five aquatic plants, cultivated in floating tanks. Plants ET, (ETp values were obtained by measuring the daily quantity of water required to renovate the tank’s initial volume. Crop coefficients (Kc were obtained and water loss from the drain wetland was calculated due to evaporation and plants cells ETp. Results presented values of ETp and Kc which were controlled by plant leaf area and growing stage. The major ETp was for Hyacinth followed by Cattail, Reeds, Torpedo grass, and then duckweeds. All ETp values exceeded twice the adjacent non-vegetated water evaporation. The obtained Kc values referenced to the drain water evaporation were almost twice the Kc values of FAO Penman–Monteith ET, due to the landscape effects, as hot dry air can cause extra heat input and water loss. Total losses from in-stream treatment series of pond, 4 plants reaches and open disinfection zone did not exceed 0.55% of drain discharge.

  6. Gallinules in the waters of KSC-Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (United States)


    A mother gallinule (right) calls her two chicks to enter the algae-covered water in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. Gallinules, called Moorhens in the Old World, are duck-like swimming birds that constantly bob their heads while moving. They are identified by the prominent red bill with yellow tip and red frontal shield as well as white feathers under the tail, as shown here on the mother. Gallinules range throughout the Americas, from southern Canada to southern South America, inhabiting freshwater marshes and ponds with cattails and other aquatic vegetation. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  7. Seasonal trends in growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and metals in six species of emergent aquatic macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrends, L.L.; Bailey, E.; Bulls, M.J.; Coonrod, H.S.; Sikora, F.J.


    Growth and biomass accumulation of selected nutrients and trace metals were monitored for six species of aquatic macrophytes during June, August and November, 1993. Plant species were cultivated in two polyculture treatments, each replicated three times. Polyculture I consisted of Scirpus acutus (hardstem bullrush), Phragmites communes (common reed), and Phalaris arundinacea (canary grass). Polyculture H consisted of Typha spp. (cattail), Scirpus atrovirens (green bullrush), and Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass). Each of the six cells (6 x 9 x 0.6 m), was operated as a gravel-substrate, subsurface-flow wetlands in a continuous recirculating mode. At six week intervals, macro, micro and trace elements were dissolved and added to the sump of the recirculating system. On each of three sampling dates, replicate shoot and root samples were collected, segregated by species and tissue type (roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves), and prepared for gravimetric biomass estimates and chemical analysis. Tissue specific concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, were determined on each date for each species and tissue type. Results will be discussed with respect to species specific growth rates, biomass accumulation, and seasonal uptake and translocation of plant nutrients.

  8. Wind Energy Conversion by Plant-Inspired Designs (United States)

    Mosher, Curtis L.; Henderson, Eric R.


    In 2008 the U.S. Department of Energy set a target of 20% wind energy by 2030. To date, induction-based turbines form the mainstay of this effort, but turbines are noisy, perceived as unattractive, a potential hazard to bats and birds, and their height hampers deployment in residential settings. Several groups have proposed that artificial plants containing piezoelectric elements may harvest wind energy sufficient to contribute to a carbon-neutral energy economy. Here we measured energy conversion by cottonwood-inspired piezoelectric leaves, and by a “vertical flapping stalk”—the most efficient piezo-leaf previously reported. We emulated cottonwood for its unusually ordered, periodic flutter, properties conducive to piezo excitation. Integrated over 0°–90° (azimuthal) of incident airflow, cottonwood mimics outperformed the vertical flapping stalk, but they produced piezo-transduction is charge generation, which scales with capacitance (area). We thus tested a rudimentary, cattail-inspired leaf with stacked elements wired in parallel. Power increased systematically with capacitance as expected, but extrapolation to acre-sized assemblages predicts << daW. Although our results suggest that present piezoelectric materials will not harvest mid-range power from botanic mimics of convenient size, recent developments in electrostriction and triboelectric systems may offer more fertile ground to further explore this concept. PMID:28085933

  9. Controle químico de Typha subulata em dois estádios de desenvolvimento Chemical control of Typha subulata in two growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.V. Silva


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle químico de plantas de taboa em dois estádios fenológicos de desenvolvimento, ou seja, no estádio de pleno desenvolvimento vegetativo de 0,50 a 0,70 m e no estádio de florescimento. Os herbicidas e as doses utilizadas foram: imazapyr a 250, 500 e 750 g ha-1 com 0,5% de Aterbane; imazapyr a 250, 500 e 750 g ha-1 com 0,01% de Silwet; glyphosate a 3.360 e 4.320 g ha-1 com 0,5% de Aterbane; glyphosate a 3.360 e 4.320 g ha-1 com 0,01% de Silwet, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. Os tratamentos foram instalados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os herbicidas foram aplicados com um pulverizador costal, munido de barra com duas pontas de jato plano XR Teejet 8002 S, a pressão constante de CO2 a 220 KPa, com consumo de calda de 200 L ha-1. As plantas de taboa foram mais sensíveis aos herbicidas quando no estádio de pleno desenvolvimento vegetativo de crescimento que no estádio de pleno florescimento, observando controle aceitável tanto com imazapyr como com glyphosate, exceto a dose de 250 g ha-1 de imazapyr com 0,5% de Aterbane. Neste mesmo estádio foi observado que o surfatante Aterbane foi menos efetivo que o Silwet, quando adicionado à menor dose do herbicida imazapyr.The aim of this research was to evaluate cattail chemical control in two growth stages: full vegetative development (0.50-0.70 m and full flowering. The herbicide rates applied were: imazapyr at 250, 500 and 750 g ha-1 plus Aterbane at 0.5%; imazapyr at 250, 500 and 750 g ha-1 plus 0.01% of Silwet; glyphosate at 3,360 and 4,320 g ha-1 plus Aterbane at 0.5%; glyphosate at 3,360 and 4,320 g ha-1 plus 0.01% of Silwet, and a check without herbicide treatment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replications. Treatments were sprayed using a CO2 backpack sprayer at 220 Kpa, with two XR Teejet 8002S nozzle tips, with a spray volume

  10. A hyperspectral approach to estimating biomass and plant production in a heterogeneous restored temperate peatland (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Schile, L. M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Kelly, M.; Hatala, J.; Baldocchi, D. D.


    Restoration of drained peatlands that are managed to reverse subsidence through organic accretion holds significant potential for large-scale carbon storage and sequestration. This potential has been demonstrated in an experimental wetland restoration site established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1997 on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, where soil carbon storage is up to 1 kg C m-2 and root and rhizome production can reach over 7 kg m-2 annually. Remote sensing-based estimation of biomass and productivity over a large spatial extent helps to monitor carbon storage potential of these restored peatlands. Extensive field measurements of plant biophysical characteristics such as biomass, leaf area index, and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) [an important variable in light-use efficiency (LUE) models] have been collected for agricultural systems and forests. However the small size and local spatial variability of U.S. Pacific Coast wetlands pose new challenges for measuring these variables in the field and generating estimates through remote sensing. In particular background effects of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), floating aquatic vegetation, and inundation of wetland vegetation influence the relationship between field measurements and multispectral or hyperspectral indices. Working at the USGS experimental wetland site, characterized by variable water depth and substantial NPV, or thatch, we collected field data on hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summers of 2011 and 2012. We calculated aboveground biomass with existing allometric relationships, and fAPAR was measured with line and point quantum sensors. We analyzed reflectance data to develop hyperspectral and multispectral indices that predict biomass and fAPAR and account for background effects of water

  11. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.


    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

  12. Microbiological determinations of some vegetables from the Xochimilco zone in Mexico City, Mexico. (United States)

    García-Gómez, Rolando; Chávez-Espinosa, José; Mejía-Chávez, Adriana; Duránde-Bazúa, Carmen


    Vegetables intake is widely recommended because of its high content of vitamins, minerals and fiber. However, the irrigation of these vegetables, using wastewaters that have received inadequate treatment often carries unseen microbial pollution that becomes a high risk potential for humans. In the present research, two of the most consumed fresh vegetables cultivated in Mexico City were analyzed, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Mexican coriander (Eryngium foetidum). These vegetables are commonly consumed raw. The vegetable choice and the disinfection's method were carried out by the application of two tests to two hundred people in an aleatory form. Similarly, vegetable sampling was carried out by means of a random sampling from the cultivated areas in a chosen "chinampa" (from Náhuatl or Aztec, chinamitl, bulrush or cattail stalks lattice for hydroponics cultivation). Vegetable samples were transferred, in dark plastic bags and in cool boxes at 4 +/- 1.5 degrees C, to the laboratory. Microbiological analysis for Salmonella typhi, mesophilic microorganisms, and fecal coliforms were done according to the "NOM-093SSA1-1994" (Mexico). Results obtained demonstrated that samples treated with the most preferred disinfectant, a colloidal silver based one, had a partial elimination of pathogenic microorganisms found in both vegetables lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and coriander (Eryngium foetidum) samples (mesophyllic microorganisms from 200,000 to 96,500 UFC/g and from 175,000 to 125,000 UFC/g and fecal coliforms from 75 to 0.43 NMP/g and from 150 to 2.10 NMP/g, respectively). Salmonella typhi for all samples gave a positive result. Therefore, it was recommended to the cultivators of the Xochimilco (Náhuatl or Aztec name that means "place where flowers bloom") zone, either stop using contaminated water for irrigation or to use more efficient methods in order to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, such as diluted chlorine solutions made with commercial cotton clothing bleachers.

  13. Hydrogen production from high-moisture content biomass in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, M.J. Jr.; Matsumura, Y.; Onuma, M.T. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)] [and others


    Wet biomass (water hyacinth, banana trees, cattails, green algae, kelp, etc.) grows rapidly and abundantly around the world. However, wet biomass is not regarded as a promising feedstock for conventional thermochemical conversion processes because the cost of drying the material is too high. Prior work has shown that low concentrations of glucose (a model compound for whole biomass) and various wet biomass species (water hyacinth, algae) can be completely gasified in supercritical water at 600{degrees}C and 34.5 MPa after a 30 s residence time. But higher concentrations of glucose evidenced incomplete conversion. For this reason, flow reactors were fabricated which could accommodate packed beds of catalyst, and studies were initiated of the steam reforming (gasification) reactions in the presence of various candidate heterogeneous catalysts. The goal is to identify active catalysts for steam reforming biomass slurries in supercritical water. Soon after tests began, a suitable class of carbon-based catalysts was discovered. These catalysts effect complete (>99%) conversion of high-concentration glucose (up to 22% by weight) to a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. High space velocities are realized [>20 (g/hr)/g], and the catalyst is stable over a period of several hours. The carbon catalyst is not expensive, and exists in a wide variety of forms and compositions. After this discovery, work has focused on four interrelated tasks: (1) tests to identify the most active form and composition of the catalyst; (2) tests employing the preferred catalyst to study the effect of feedstock composition on carbon conversion and gas composition; (3) studies of catalyst deactivation and subsequent reactivation, including the in-house synthesis of bifunctional catalysts which incorporate promoters and stabilizers; and (4) the design and fabrication of a larger, new reactor with a slurry feeder intended to handle high-concentration, wet biomass feeds.

  14. Triclosan removal in wetlands constructed with different aquatic plants. (United States)

    Liu, Jianing; Wang, Jingmin; Zhao, Congcong; Hay, Anthony G; Xie, Huijun; Zhan, Jian


    Triclosan (TCS) is widely used in consumer products as an antimicrobial agent. Constructed wetlands have the potential for TCS removal, but knowledge about the relative importance of sediment, plants, and microbes is limited. TCS removal performance was investigated in well-operated constructed wetlands planted with three different types of aquatic plants: emergent Cattail (C-T), submerged Hornwort (H-T), and floating Lemnaminor (L-T). Results showed that the TCS removal efficiencies from water were all greater than 97 %. Maximal TCS adsorption to sediment in the C-T wetland (13.8 ± 0.6 ng/g) was significantly lower than in the H-T wetland (21.0 ± 0.3 ng/g) or the L-T wetland (21.4 ± 0.6 ng/g). The maximal TCS concentrations in plants were 5.7 ± 0.2 and 7.2 ± 0.5 μg/g for H-T and L-T, respectively, and it was below the minimal detection limit (MDL) in C-T. Deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing results revealed that C-T wetland had the highest community richness and diversity. Some bacteria, like beta-Proteobacteria, gamma-Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were detected and might have significant correlations with TCS degradation. Overall, with regard to soils, plants, and microorganism, accumulation in sediment and plants in H-T and L-T was high, while in C-T biodegradation likely played an important role.

  15. Phytotoxicity and uptake of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) by two plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingmao, E-mail: [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Gurung, Arun [Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Deng, Yang [Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, NJ 07403 (United States)


    Use of nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) for the treatment of various environmental pollutants has been proven successful. However, large scale introduction of engineered nanomaterials such as nZVI into the environment has recently attracted serious concerns. There is an urgent need to investigate the environmental fate and impact of nZVI due to the scope of its application. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and accumulation of bare nZVI by two commonly encountered plant species: cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid poplars (Populous deltoids × Populous nigra). Plant seedlings were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse and dosed with different concentrations of nZVI (0–1000 mg/L) for four weeks. The nZVI exhibited strong toxic effect on Typha at higher concentrations (> 200 mg/L) but enhanced plant growth at lower concentrations. nZVI also significantly reduced the transpiration and growth of hybrid poplars at higher concentrations. Microscopic images indicated that large amount of nZVI coated on plant root surface as irregular aggregates and some nZVI penetrated into several layers of epidermal cells. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) confirmed the internalization of nZVI by poplar root cells but similar internalization was not observed for Typha root cells. The upward transport to shoots was minimal for both plant species. - Highlights: ► nZVI may exert phytotoxic effects on plants at concentrations (> 200 mg/L) often encountered in site remediation practices. ► nZVI deposits on plant root surface as aggregates and some could internalize in plant root cells. ► Plant uptake and accumulation of nZVI are plant species-dependent. ► Upward transport from roots to shoots was not observed.

  16. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  17. Experiences with Constructed Wetland Systems in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Youngchul; Hwang Gilson; Lee Jin-Woo; Park Je-Chul; Kim Dong-Sup; Kang Min-Gi; Chang In-Soung


    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance.Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands' safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  18. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio


    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  19. 花粉补充学龄前儿童微量元素的 ICP-MS分析%Analysis of Trace Elements in Preschool Children in Pollen by ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    回瑞华; 刁全平; 侯冬岩; 李铁纯; 李红


    In order to supplement the preschool children trace elements of calcium ,iron,zinc,different pollen samples are digested by microwave method .The trace elements of calcium ,iron,zinc in pollen samples are de-terminates by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( ICP-MS ) .Under the optimized experimental conditions,the detection limit is (0.20~17.1) μg/g,the relative standard deviation is 2.92%~5.46%,the rate of recovery is 90 .3%~98 .5 %.The results show that the contents of calcium and zinc are higher in the lotus pollen ,the content of iron is higher in cattail pollen .%为满足学龄前儿童对微量元素钙、铁、锌的需要,采用微波消解法处理不同花粉样品,运用电感耦合等离子体质谱法( ICP-MS)测定花粉中微量元素钙、铁、锌的含量.在优化实验条件下,方法的检出限为0.20~17.1μg/g,相对标准偏差为2.92%~5.46%,回收率为90.3%~98.5%.结果表明莲花粉中钙和锌的含量最高,蒲花粉中铁的含量最高.

  20. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section


    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  1. Magruder Park Swamp (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.


    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  2. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments - Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Posa, Eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, E.; Jurkovic, L.; Kordik, J.; Slaninka, I.; Jankular, M.; Majzlan, J.; Gottlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Geochemistry


    An impoundment located near the village of Posa, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ash. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As in the impoundment material and stream sediments were investigated using column leaching and batch extraction tests, and a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Moreover, to investigate the bioavailability of As, two native plant species (Typha latifolia, or cattail, and Phragmites australis, or common reed) growing at the site were collected and analyzed. The As concentrations in representative sediment and water samples ranged from 36.3 to 3210 mg/kg and from 4.05 to 613 {mu} g/L, respectively, both being many times above the background levels. Although a part of As was present in a readily soluble form (6.6%), the majority of As was mainly associated with Fe and Mn oxides (37%) and residual phases (51%). Combined results of the column leaching, batch extraction, and sequential extraction tests, as well as mineralogical analysis, indicated that As mobilisation potential from the sediments is likely controlled by Fe, Al and Mn oxides, and by pH. There was no influence of various anions (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) on As mobility when present in aqueous solution at concentrations analogous to those in the water of the Kyjov Brook. Plants growing in the impoundment had As concentrations 10-100 times greater than did the same plants growing in a relatively non-polluted area.

  3. Temperature and wetland plant species effects on wastewater treatment and root zone oxidation. (United States)

    Allen, Winthrop C; Hook, Paul B; Biederman, Joel A; Stein, Otto R


    Constructed wetlands are widely used for wastewater treatment, but there is little information on processes affecting their performance in cold climates, effects of plants on seasonal performance, or plant selection for cold regions. We evaluated the effects of three plant species on seasonal removal of dissolved organic matter (OM) (measured by chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon) and root zone oxidation status (measured by redox potential [Eh] and sulfate [SO4(2-)]) in subsurface-flow wetland (SSW) microcosms. A series of 20-d incubations of simulated wastewater was conducted during a 28-mo greenhouse study at temperatures from 4 to 24 degrees C. Presence and species of plants strongly affected seasonal differences in OM removal and root zone oxidation. All plants enhanced OM removal compared with unplanted controls, but plant effects and differences among species were much greater at 4 degrees C, during dormancy, than at 24 degrees C, during the growing season. Low temperatures were associated with decreased OM removal in unplanted controls and broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia L.) microcosms and with increased removal in beaked sedge (Carex rostrata Stokes) and hardstem bulrush [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. & D. Löve var. acutus] microcosms. Differences in OM removal corresponded to species' apparent abilities to increase root zone oxygen supply. Sedge and bulrush significantly raised Eh values and SO4(2-) concentrations, particularly at 4 degrees C. These results add to evidence that SSWs can be effective in cold climates and suggest that plant species selection may be especially important to optimizing SSW performance in cold climates.

  4. A high loading overland flow system: Impacts on soil characteristics, grass constituents, yields and nutrient removal. (United States)

    Wen, C G; Chen, T H; Hsu, F H; Lu, C H; Lin, J B; Chang, C H; Chang, S P; Lee, C S


    The objectives of this paper are to determine effects of different grass species and their harvests on pollutant removal, elucidate impacts on soil characteristics and grass constituents, observe grass yield and quantify nutrient uptake by vegetation in an overland flow system (OLFS). Polluted creek water was applied to eight channels in the OLFS, which were planted with Paragrass, Nilegrass, Cattail, and Vetiver, with each two channels being randomly planted with a given grass species. The grass in one channel was harvested while that in the other channel was not. At a high rate of 27.8 m d(-1) hydraulic loading, the removal efficiencies of conventional pollutants such as BOD, COD, suspended solids (SS), and total coliforms in wastewater are not affected by the type of the grasses species, but those of nitrogen and phosphorus are affected by different species. Overall average removal efficiencies of BOD, COD, SS, ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total coliforms through the OLFS are 42%, 48%, 78%, 47%, 40%, 33% and 89%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate, however, increases due to nitrification. Soil characteristics in OLFS have been changed significantly; specific conductivity, organic matter, exchangeable magnesium, extractable copper and zinc in soils all increase with time while pHs decrease. During the winter season, there is a significant accumulation of nitrate in grass with the subsequent reduction during the active growing season (Spring). The contents of nitrate and phosphorus in grass tissue are higher than those of grass in general pastureland, probably due to nutrient luxury uptake by grass. The overall grass yield, growth rate and nutrient uptake are quantified and implication of such high rate OLFS discussed.

  5. Cascade of ecological consequences for West Nile virus transmission when aquatic macrophytes invade stormwater habitats. (United States)

    Mackay, Andrew J; Muturi, Ephantus J; Ward, Michael P; Allan, Brian F


    Artificial aquatic habitats are ubiquitous in anthropogenic landscapes and highly susceptible to colonization by invasive plant species. Recent research into the ecology of infectious diseases indicates that the establishment of invasive plant species can trigger ecological cascades which alter the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens that imperil human health. Here, we examined whether the presence or management of two invasive, emergent plants, cattails (Typha spp.) and phragmites (Phragmites australis), in stormwater dry detention basins (DDBs) alter the local distribution of vectors, avian hosts, or West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk in an urban residential setting. Mosquitoes and birds were surveyed at 14 DDBs and paired adjacent residential sites. During the study period, emergent vegetation was mowed by site managers in three DDBs. In the absence of vegetation management, the overall abundance and species composition of both adult vectors and avian hosts differed between residential and DDB habitats; however, WNV entomological risk indices were equivalent. Communal bird roosts composed primarily of three species, European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), representing a broad range of WNV reservoir competence, were observed at half (three out of six) of the DDBs containing unmanaged stands of phragmites; however, their presence was associated with a lower seasonal increase in vector infection rate. Conversely, mowing of emergent vegetation resulted in a significant and sustained increase in the abundance of WNV-infected vectors in DDBs and the increase in risk extended to adjacent residential sites. These findings indicate that management of invasive plants in DDBs during the growing season can increase, while presence of communal bird roosts can decrease, WNV transmission risk.

  6. Ability of four emergent macrophytes to remediate permethrin in mesocosm experiments. (United States)

    Moore, M T; Kröger, R; Cooper, C M; Smith, S


    Increased focus is being placed on the ability of native vegetation to mitigate potential harmful effects of agricultural runoff, especially pyrethroid insecticides. Replicate 379 L Rubbermaid tubs (1.25 m [l] x 0.6 m [w] x 0.8 m [h]) were planted with individual species of cutgrass (Leersia oryzoides), cattails (Typha latifolia), bur-reed (Sparganium americanum), and powdery alligator-flag (Thalia dealbata), all common wetland macrophytes found in the Mississippi Delta, USA, agricultural region. Permethrin-enriched water (target concentration, 5 microg L(-1)) was pumped in at a 4-h hydraulic retention time at one end of the tub and discharged at the far end. Water samples were collected from discharge at 1-h intervals for 12 h and analyzed for permethrin concentrations. Permethrin removal rates were compared for the four different plant treatments and nonvegetated sediment-water controls. Results indicated that no particular single plant species was more effective at removing permethrin in water relative to unplanted controls. Overall mass reductions (from inflow to outflow) for cis-permethrin ranged from 67% +/- 6% in T. latifolia to 71% +/- 2% in L. oryzoides. The trans-permethrin overall mass reductions ranged from 76% +/- 4% in S. americanum to 82% +/- 2% in the unplanted control. Sediment and plant samples collected at the study conclusion indicated that 77%-95% of measured permethrin mass was associated with sediment for mesocosms planted with L. oryzoides, T. latifolia, and T. dealbata. Conversely, mesocosms planted with S. americanum had 83% of measured mass associated with the plant material. Specific plant-pesticide retention studies can lead to improved planning for best management practices and remediation techniques such as constructed wetlands and vegetated agricultural drainage ditches.

  7. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.; Nottelman, H.


    The Biology Team of ESH-20 (the Ecology Group) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since the summer of 1990. These field studies measure water quality parameters and collect aquatic macroinvertebrates from sampling sites within the upper canyon stream. Reports by Bennett and Cross discuss previous aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands the previous findings. The Biology Team collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates monthly at three sampling stations within Sandia Canyon in 1995. The two upstream stations occur near a cattail (Typha latifolia) dominated marsh downstream from outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent into the stream, thereby maintaining year-round flow. The third station is approximately 1.5 miles downstream from the outfalls within a mixed conifer forest. All water chemistry parameters measured in Sandia Canyon during 1995 fell within acceptable State limits and scored in the {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} ranges when compared to an Environmental Quality Index. However, aquatic macroinvertebrates habitats have been degraded by widespread erosion, channelization, loss of wetlands due to deposition and stream lowering, scour, limited acceptable substrates, LANL releases and spills, and other stressors. Macroinvertebrate communities at all the stations had low diversities, low densities, and erratic numbers of individuals. These results indicate that although the stream possesses acceptable water chemistry, it has reduced biotic potential. The best developed aquatic community occurs at the sampling station with the best habitat and whose downstream location partially mitigates the effects of upstream impairments.

  8. Aquatic macroinvertebrates and water quality of Sandia Canyon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, December 1992--October 1993. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S. [Ewing Technical Design, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    In the summer of 1990, an accidental spill from the TA-3 Power Plant Environment Tank released more than 3,785 liters of sulfuric acid into upper Sandia Canyon. The Biological Resource Evaluation Team (BRET) of EM-8 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has collected aquatic samples from the stream within Sandia Canyon since then. These field studies gather water quality measurements and collect macroinvertebrates from permanent sampling sites. An earlier report by Bennett (1994) discusses previous BRET aquatic studies in Sandia Canyon. This report updates and expands Bennett`s initial findings. During 1993, BRET collected water quality data and aquatic macroinvertebrates at five permanent stations within the canyon. The substrates of the upper three stations are largely sands and silts while the substrates of the two lower stations are largely rock and cobbles. The two upstream stations are located near outfalls that discharge industrial and sanitary waste effluent. The third station is within a natural cattail marsh, approximately 0.4 km (0.25 mi) downstream from Stations SC1 and SC2. Water quality parameters are slightly different at these first three stations from those expected of natural streams, suggesting slightly degraded water quality. Correspondingly, the macroinvertebrate communities at these stations are characterized by low diversities and poorly-developed community structures. The two downstream stations appear to be in a zone of recovery, where water quality parameters more closely resemble those found in natural streams of the area. Macroinvertebrate diversity increases and community structure becomes more complex at the two lower stations, which are further indications of improved water quality downstream.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秀玉; 王东


    Typha L. (Typhaceae), one of the most common aquatic plants found in marshes and shallow water, is almost cosmopolitan. However, the distribution of approximately 24 species has two main centers: Eurasia and North America. To date 12 species have been reported in China. Typha was described by Linnaeus in 1753, and its taxonomy remains confusing because of the variability in its reproductive and vegetative characteristics, and its frequent hybridization. Seven hybrids of Typha species were reported from North America and Europe but none of them has been recorded in China. We have discovered a hybrid cattail, Typha x glauca Godr. (T angustifolia L. x T latifolia L.), through extensive field collections and herbarium studies. That was a newly recorded taxon for China. We studied the hybrid T x glauca in the field and examined Typha collections from the following herbaria including PE, IBSC, CDBI, HIB, WU, SZ, and CCNU. Both vegetative and reproductive characteristics were measured for available specimens of the hybrid and parental species from China. Pollen grains of Typha species were collected from our field collections, and were examined under a light microscope at x 1000 magnification. Morphological features of the hybrid and parental species was illustrated and discussed, and an identification key for them was provided. The hybrid was morphologically variable and generally intermediate to the parental species. The most readily diagnostic features of the hybrid were: 1. leaves were glaucous; 2. pollen was typically a mixture of monads, dyads, triads, and tetrads (vs. tetrads in T latifolia and monads in T angustifolia), often abortive; 3. pistillate bracteoles were narrower than the stigma (vs. broader in T angustifolia and absent in T latifolia), and 4. the stigmas were liner-lanceolate (vs. linear in T angustifolia, and lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate in T. latifolia). Importantly, the presence /or absence of dyads and triads of pollen grains could be used to

  10. Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes (United States)

    Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.


    Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes

  11. Current Performance of an Aerobic Passive Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage Flow From Underground Mine Seals at Moraine State Park, Butler County, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Winter, J. A.; Fredrick, K.


    Coal mining was conducted in the area of Moraine State Park prior to the establishing the park and associated Lake Arthur. A total of 69 underground mine entries were sealed during the 1960's to the early 1970's along the proposed northern shore of Lake Arthur. Seals were constructed using a flyash/cement mixture that was pumped into boreholes to place bulkheads in the mine entries, then filling between the bulkheads, and injecting grout into the adjacent strata to form a grout curtain. During 1979 and 1980, a study was performed by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, to determine the long term effectiveness of the underground mine sealing and reclamation work. Not all seals were successful. One of these mine entry seals was leaking and depositing iron hydroxides on the shoreline. During 1995-96, a passive wetlands treatment system was designed and constructed to treat an acid mine drainage (amd) discharge emanating from one of these sealed mines. The system consists of a primary settling pond, a cattail vegetated pond, and a final polishing pond prior to discharge to Lake Arthur. The design life of the system was estimated at twelve years. After twelve years it was believed the precipitate in the ponds would need to be removed and the system rehabilitated to continue treating the amd discharge. A maintenance plan was considered, however only minimal maintaining of the area was implemented. Six sets of water quality samples were collected and analyzed for standard amd parameters of alkalinity, acidity, pH, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, and total suspended solids. Precipitation data and flow rates were collected and an analysis was done to determine if flow varied seasonally. The water quality data was compared to flow and precipitation amounts. Sludge precipitate samples were collected from the first settling pond to estimate the deposition rate and to determine how long the ponds can continue to function before they would require

  12. Macrophytes may not contribute significantly to removal of nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance in model surface constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Cardinal, Pascal; Anderson, Julie C; Carlson, Jules C; Low, Jennifer E; Challis, Jonathan K; Beattie, Sarah A; Bartel, Caitlin N; Elliott, Ashley D; Montero, Oscar F; Lokesh, Sheetal; Favreau, Alex; Kozlova, Tatiana A; Knapp, Charles W; Hanson, Mark L; Wong, Charles S


    Outdoor shallow wetland mesocosms, designed to simulate surface constructed wetlands to improve lagoon wastewater treatment, were used to assess the role of macrophytes in the dissipation of wastewater nutrients, selected pharmaceuticals, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Specifically, mesocosms were established with or without populations of Typha spp. (cattails), Myriophyllum sibiricum (northern water milfoil), and Utricularia vulgaris (bladderwort). Following macrophyte establishment, mesocosms were seeded with ARG-bearing organisms from a local wastewater lagoon, and treated with a single pulse of artificial municipal wastewater with or without carbamazepine, clofibric acid, fluoxetine, and naproxen (each at 7.6μg/L), as well as sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine (each at 150μg/L). Rates of pharmaceutical dissipation over 28d ranged from 0.073 to 3.0d(-1), corresponding to half-lives of 0.23 to 9.4d. Based on calculated rate constants, observed dissipation rates were consistent with photodegradation driving clofibric acid, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfapyridine removal, and with sorption also contributing to carbamazepine and fluoxetine loss. Of the seven gene determinants assayed, only two genes for both beta-lactam resistance (blaCTX and blaTEM) and sulfonamide resistance (sulI and sulII) were found in sufficient quantity for monitoring. Genes disappeared relatively rapidly from the water column, with half-lives ranging from 2.1 to 99d. In contrast, detected gene levels did not change in the sediment, with the exception of sulI, which increased after 28d in pharmaceutical-treated systems. These shallow wetland mesocosms were able to dissipate wastewater contaminants rapidly. However, no significant enhancement in removal of nutrients or pharmaceuticals was observed in mesocosms with extensive aquatic plant communities. This was likely due to three factors: first, use of naïve systems with an unchallenged capacity for nutrient assimilation and

  13. Analyzing of Matched Pair Drugs on the Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease Angina by Sun Jianzhi%孙建芝治疗冠心病心绞痛对药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧君; 金先红; 金瑾; 高洋


    孙建芝教授认为,胸痹之病,本虚标实。本虚为宗气亏虚,标实乃寒凝、气滞、血瘀、痰阻痹于血脉。胸痹虽为本虚之证,但绝非单纯的虚证,而总属本虚标实。在治法治则上,孙教授在多年的临床实践中,博采众长,在胸痹的辨证论治中选用有针对性的对药(包括:丹参,檀香,砂仁;丹参,川芎;黄芪,川芎;蒲黄,五灵脂;人参,五灵脂;瓜蒌,薤白;石菖蒲,远志;党参,麦冬,五味子;郁金,姜黄;乳香,没药)加减治疗,提高了胸痹治疗的临床疗效。%Professor Sun Jianzhi thinks the disease of obstruction of Qi in the chest is Ben deficiency Biao excess. Ben deficiency is Zongqi deficiency,and Biao excess is blocked blood vessel by congealing cold,Qi depression,blood stasis,blocked phlegm. Obstruction of Qi in the chest is not simple deficiency syndrome. On the role of treatment,Professor Sun in clinical practice for many years,learning from others,selection matched pair of medicine addition and subtraction in the syndrome differentiation and treatment of obstruction of Qi in the chest. Including:Danshen( Salvia Miltiorrhiza),Tanxiang( Sandalwood),Sharen( Fructus Amomi);Danshen( Salvia Miltiorrhi-za),Chuanxiong( Ligusticum Wallichii);Huangqi( Astragalus),Chuanxiong( Ligusticum Wallichii);Puhuang( Cattail Pollen),Wuling-zhi( Trogopterus Dung);Renshen( Ginseng),Wulingzhi( Trogopterus Dung);Gualou( Fructus Trichosanthis),Xiebai( Allium Macroste-mon);Shichangpu(Acorus Gramineus),Yuanzhi(Polygala Tenuifolia);Dangshen(Codonopsis Pilosula),Maidong(Radix Ophiopogo-nis),Wuweizi(Schisandra Chinensis);Yujin(Radix Curcumae),Jianghuang(Turmeric);Ruxiang(Frankincense),Moyao(Myrrh),so that improvement the clinical effect of obstruction of Qi in the chest.

  14. 内陆盐沼湿地植物多样性研究--以张掖市新墩镇流泉村为例%Study on the plant diversity in inland saline wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 鲁延芳


    Taking the two most widely distributed communities of Phragmites communis Trin and Typha angustata Bory et Chaub at Liuquan village, Xindun town, Zhangye city as the research objects, this paper studied the plant species and their composition. The results showed that in reed community Phragmites communis Trin was the dominant species and Leymus mollis Trin was the sub-dominant species. Their important values were 0.537 and 0.197 respectively. In cattail community typha angustata Bory et Chaub was the dominant species and the Phragmites communis Trin was the sub-dominant species. Their important values were 0.426 and 0.211 respectively. Diversity index and richness index trend of plant community is consistent with the ecological dominance degree showed the opposite trend. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the two communities.%以新墩镇流泉村内陆盐沼湿地内的芦苇群落和长苞香蒲群落为对象,研究2个群落的植物物种及其组成特征。结果表明:芦苇群落以芦苇为优势种,以滨麦为亚优势种,2者的重要值分别为0.537、0.197;长苞香蒲群落以长苞香蒲为优势种,以芦苇为亚优势种,二者的重要值分别为0.426、0.211;植物群落的多样性指数与丰富度指数的变化趋势基本一致,与生态优势度呈相反的趋势。2个群落间变化差异不显著。

  15. A Constructed Freshwater Wetland Shows Signs of Declining Net Ecosystem Exchange (United States)

    Anderson, F. E.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Windham-Myers, L.; Byrd, K. B.; Drexler, J. Z.; Fujii, R.


    The USGS constructed a freshwater-wetland complex on Twitchell Island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta), California, USA, in 1997 and maintained it until 2012 to investigate strategies for biomass accretion and reduction of oxidative soil loss. We studied an area of the wetland complex covered mainly by dense patches of hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattails (Typha spp.), with smaller areas of floating and submerged vegetation, that was maintained at an average depth of 55 cm. Using eddy covariance measurements of carbon and energy fluxes, we found that the combination of water management and the region's Mediterranean climate created conditions where peak growing season daily means of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) reached -45 gCO2 m-2 d-1 and averaged around -30 gCO2 m-2 d-1 between 2002 through 2004. However, when measurements resumed in 2010, NEE rates were a fraction of the rates previously measured, approximately -6 gCO2 m-2 d-1. Interestingly, NEE rates in 2011 doubled compared to 2010 (-13 gCO2 m-2 d-1). Methane fluxes, collected in 2010 to assess a complete atmospheric carbon budget, were positive throughout the year, with daily mean flux values ranging from 50 to 300 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. As a result, methane flux reduced NEE values by approximately one-third, and when the global warming potential was considered, the wetland became a net global warming potential source. We found that carbon cycling in a constructed wetland is complex and can change over annual and decadal timescales. We investigated possible reasons for differences between flux measurements from 2002 to 2004 and those from 2010 and 2011: (1) changes in methodology, (2) differences in weather conditions, (3) differences in gross primary productivity relative to respiration rates, and (4) the amount of living plant tissue relative to brown accumulations of senesced plant litter. We hypothesize that large mats of senesced material within the flux footprint could have

  16. Selenium removal and mass balance in a constructed flow-through wetland system. (United States)

    Gao, S; Tanji, K K; Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Peters, D W


    A field study on the removal of Se from agricultural subsurface drainage was conducted from May 1997 to February 2001 in the Tulare Lake Drainage District (TLDD) of San Joaquin Valley, California. A flow-through wetland system was constructed consisting of ten 15- x 76-m unlined cells that were continuously flooded and planted with either a monotype or combination of plants, including sturdy bulrush [Schoenoplectus robustus (Pursh) M.T. Strong], baltic rush (Juncus balticus Willd.), smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.), rabbitsfoot grass [Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.], salt-grass lDistichlis spicata (L.) Greene], cattail (Typha latifolia L.), tule [Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. Löve & D. Löve], and widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima L.). One cell had no vegetation planted. The objectives of this research were to evaluate Se removal efficiency of each wetland cell and to carry out a mass balance on Se. The inflow drainage water to the cells had average annual Se concentrations of 19 to 22 microg L(-1) dominated by selenate [Se(VI), 95%]. Average weekly water residence time varied from about 3 to 15 d for Cells 1 through 7 (target 7 d), 19 to 33 d for Cells 8 and 9 (target 21 d), and 13 to 18 d for Cell 10 (target 14 d). Average weekly Se concentration ratios of outflow to inflow ranged from 0.45 to 0.79 and mass ratio (concentration x water volume) from 0.24 to 0.52 for year 2000, that is, 21 to 55% reduction in Se concentration and 48 to 76% Se removal in mass by the wetland, respectively. The nonvegetated cell showed the least Se removal both in concentration and in mass. The global mass balance showed that on the average about 59% of the total inflow Se was retained within the cells and Se outputs were outflow (35%), seepage (4%), and volatilization (2%). Independent measurements of the Se retained in the cells totaled 53% of the total Se inflow: 33% in the surface (0-20 cm) sediment, 18% in the organic detrital layer above the

  17. Observations on nests of Crocodylus moreletii in San Luis Potosí, Mexico Observaciones sobre nidos de Crocodylus moreletii en San Luis Potosí, México

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    Armando H. Escobedo-Galván


    Full Text Available Nesting ecology of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii has been documented since 1940. However, only 2 nests constructed on floating vegetation have been recorded. Here, we presented additional information from a mainland population of C. moreletii in the Ciénega de Cabezas wetland, San Luis Potosí, describing 2 nests constructed on floating mats of cattails. The nests were constructed using Typha sp., close to the main channel. One nest was lost due to flooding, and contained 32 eggs. Seven eggs had a mean 72.6 ± 2.63 mm length (range = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm width (range = 41.0-48.0 mm, and 140.7 ± 2.98 mm diameter (range = 136.0-145.0 mm. We suggest that the use of floating vegetation for nesting by C. moreletii is related to the availability of aquatic vegetation, combined with the lack of adequate nesting sites on land.La ecología de anidación del cocodrilo de pantano (Crocodylus moreletii ha sido documentada desde 1940. Sin embargo, sólo existen 2 registros de nidos construidos sobre vegetación acuática. Presentamos información adicional de 2 nidos (N1 y N2 construidos en este tipo de hábitat en una población ubicada en la Ciénega de Cabezas en el estado de San Luis Potosí. Los nidos fueron construidos sobre Typha sp., cerca del cauce principal de la ciénega. El N2 se perdió por inundación, en su interior encontramos 32 huevos, los promedios (± SD del largo, ancho y diámetro de 7 huevos fueron 72.6 ± 2.63 mm (rango = 70.0 -75.0 mm, 45.0 ± 2.30 mm (rango = 41.0-48.0 mm, 140.7 ± 2.98 mm (rango = 136.0-145.0 mm, respectivamente. Sugerimos que este tipo de sitios para anidar por parte de C. moreletii está relacionado con la disponibilidad de vegetación acuática, combinado con la ausencia de sitios adecuados en tierra firme.

  18. Isotopic evidence for the source and fate of P in the Everglades wetlands (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, Y.


    High phosphorus (P) influx into wetland ecosystems in the Florida Everglades continues to be a problem. The increased P loading has been linked to changes in flora and fauna and the degradation of water quality in the wetlands. The number and species of animals have dramatically declined due to the agricultural and urban development since 1900. The plant community has also shifted from P-limited sawgrass (Cladium) to P-adapted cattail (Typha) in areas impacted by agricultural runoff. Although the effects of P loading on ecosystem have been recognized, little is known about how those changes affect the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability and cycling in freshwater ecosystems. The P-O bond in phosphate is resistant to hydrolysis in inorganic systems. However, the P-O bond can be easily broken in enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions, resulting in rapid oxygen isotope exchange with surrounding water within organisms. Thus, oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate should indicate the environment and processes of its formation. Oxygen isotopes in phosphate may provide a useful tool for tracing the source and recycling of phosphorus in aquatic systems. Here, I present the results of an oxygen isotopic study of phosphate in a constructed wetland (Storm water Treatment Area STA-1W) in northern Everglades as well as in a relatively pristine wetland in the Everglades National Park (ENP). Oxygen isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) in water and of total phosphate in sediment were determined using a High Temperature Conversion Elemental Analyzer (TC/EA) interfaced to a Finnigan MAT Delta Plus XP stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) at NHMFL. The data show: 1) there is no clear relationship between the d18O of DIP and P concentration in the water; 2) the d18O value of DIP is correlated with hydrological data (what kind?); 3) d18O value of DIP is not in equilibrium with water. The DIP samples collected in July are closer to isotopic

  19. Birds of a eucaliptos woodlot in interior São Paulo

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    E. O. Willis

    Full Text Available Some 255 birds were recorded between 1982-2001 in and near a 2314-ha "Horto" of old eucalyptus plantations with native understory and a lake, near Rio Claro, in central São Paulo, Brazil. This is close to the 263 recorded in and around a ten-times smaller nearby 230-ha woodlot of semideciduous forest. Different species were 44, for a total of 307 in both areas. One hundred and fifty nonvagrant forest and border species were recorded in 1982-86, a number close to the 152 in the small native woodlot. With dry years and logging of plots in 1985-93, 21 of the 150 species were lost, 42 species decreased in numbers, 49 were stable, 19 increased (15 being border species, and 5 entered (one of dry forest and 4 of borders, so 129 species remained in 1996-2001 compared to 133 in the native woodlot. Open-area birds were 33, versus 50 in better-checked grassy swales in sugar cane near the natural woodlot, for a total of 53. Several species, like some border ones, did not enter the open but isolated and mowed interior lake area, or took years to do so. Water and marsh birds were 46 versus 40 in smaller creeks and ponds near the natural woodlot (total, 55 but many were migrants or infrequent visitors using distant areas, and perhaps should be counted as 0.1-0.9 "local species" rather than "1" species. Use of this more accurate method would reduce waterbird totals by 14 "species" in the Horto and by 11 around the native woodlot. I also recommend longer censusing at the edges in large woodlots or many edge species will be recorded only in small fragments of habitat. Several species increased and others decreased with occasional cat-tail and water-lily cleanups at the lake. A forested corridor between the Horto and natural woodlot is recommended, with old eucalyptus left to provide flowers for hummingbirds.

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife I Project, Technical Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Darren


    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1992. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project provides a total of 936.76 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 71.92 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Shoreline and island habitat provide 12.77 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Cattail hemi-marsh provides 308.42 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Wet meadow provides 208.95 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 14.43 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 148.62 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 3.38 HUs for Canada goose. Conifer forest provides 160.44 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while

  1. Estudo cinético da remoção de matéria orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura em sistemas alagados construídos cultivados com diferentes espécies de vegetais Kinetic study of organic matter removal from swine wastewaters treated in constructed wetlands cultivated with different species of plants

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    Antonio T. de Matos


    Full Text Available Com a realização deste estudo, teve-se o objetivo de obter valores dos coeficientes de remoção da matéria orgânica de águas residuárias da suinocultura (ARS, quando em tratamento em sistemas alagados, construídos (SACs e cultivados com diferentes espécies vegetais e em condições climáticas tropicais. Em tanques de 24,0 x 1,1 x 0,7 m, impermeabilizados com lona de PVC e preenchidos com uma camada de 0,4 m de brita zero (altura útil, foram plantados taboa (SAC1, tripa-de-sapo (SAC2 e capim-tifton 85 (SAC3. No SAC4 (multivegetado, foi plantado, no primeiro terço, tripa-de-sapo; no segundo terço, taboa, e no último terço, capim-tifton 85. A ARS foi previamente tratada em filtros orgânicos constituídos por bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, sendo aplicada numa vazão de 0,8 m³ d-1, o que correspondeu a um tempo de retenção hidráulica (TRH aproximado de 6,4 dias. Coletaram-se amostras da água residuária nos pontos 0 (entrada, 4; 8; 12; 16; 20 e 24 m (saída de cada SAC. Nas amostras coletadas, foram analisadas as concentrações de DQO, sendo os valores utilizados para a obtenção dos parâmetros cinéticos aparentes. Não houve diferença (p>0,05 entre os SACs, na capacidade do sistema em remover DQO; entretanto, a época do ano teve influência na dinâmica da remoção de matéria orgânica nos sistemas. Os valores do coeficiente cinético aparente k v' ficaram entre 0,94 e 1,52 d-1 no cultivo, no período de verão. Já no período de outono/inverno, o coeficiente k v' apresentou valores menores, entre 0,88 e 1,07 d-1.The objective of this study was obtain the coefficients of organic matter removal in constructed wetlands (CWs cultivated with different plant species, in tropical climatic conditions, when used in swine wastewater treatment. In tanks of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m, sealed with PVC canvas, filled with a layer (0.4 m of depth of fine gravel were planted cattail (CW1, alligator weed (CW2 and tifton 85 bermudagrass (CW3

  2. Efeito da taxa de carregamento sobre a remoção de poluentes de esgoto em sistemas alagados construídos Effect of loading rate on removal of pollutants from wastewater in constructed wetlands

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    Antonio T. de Matos


    removal rates of total COD, soluble COD and TSS and the LR V, within the application range, and no negative effects on this variable in removal efficiencies of these pollutants. The removal rate of total-N and total-P did not show, however, tendency to increase with the LR V applied in the CW-HSSF planted with cattail and used in treating sanitary sewage. The loads applied of these nutrients must be considered referential in sizing these systems, if desired to maximize the overall removal of wastewater pollutants.

  3. Tifton grass yield on constructed wetland used for swine wastewater treatment Produtividade de capim Tifton em sistema alagado construído utilizado no tratamento de águas residuárias da suinocultura

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    Antonio T. Matos


    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this study to evaluate the agronomic behavior and yield of the Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers, when used in the treatment of swine wastewater (SW with constructed wetland systems (CWs. For this purpose, five tanks were built measuring 24 x 1.1 x 0.7 m, damp-sealed with PVC canvas and filled with 0.4 m crushed stone. In two of these tanks, Tifton grass was cultivated: one of the tanks (CW 3 contained the grass, and in the other (CW4 the grass was only cultivated in the final third part of the tanks, being preceded by Alternanthera (Althernanthera philoxeroides and cattail (Thypha latifolia L.. The SW was previously treated by means of a filtration process that consists of 0.7 m - high organic filters; the filtering beds were made of chopped sugarcane bagasse. The filter effluents were applied to CWs at a 0.8 m³ d-1 flow rate, corresponding to a hydraulic detention time of about 4.8 days. During the experimental period, three cuttings were done in CWs plants in order to evaluate the dry matter yield and the nutrient extraction capacity. All plants showed satisfactory performance in dry mass yield (86.3 and 65.3 t ha-1, in CW3 and CW4 respectively and nutrient extraction, as well as in dry matter yield. Except for the case of Zn, the cultivation of other vegetable species in the same tank did not alter the capacity of the Tifton 85 grass extraction of the SW macro and micronutrients removal.Objetivou-se, com a realização deste trabalho, avaliar o comportamento e a produtividade do capim Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers, quando utilizado no tratamento de água residuária da suinocultura (ARS. Para isto, foram construídos cinco tanques de 24,0 x 1,1 x 0,7 m, impermeabilizados com lona de PVC e preenchidos com uma camada de 0,4 m de brita zero (altura útil. Em dois tanques se cultivou o capim Titon 85; um (SAC 3 foi todo cultivado com o capim e o outro (SAC 4 o foi só no terço final, precedido pela Alternanthera e

  4. Effects of eutrophication and Typha domingensis Pers on methanogenesis in tropical constructed wetland Efeitos da eutrofização e da Macrófita Aquática Typha domingensis Pers sobre a metanogênese em alagados construídos tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Maria da Cunha de Oliveira Santos Neves


    Full Text Available AIM: Constructed wetlands (CWs have shown to be an efficient way for removing nutrients from wastewaters. However, a negative effect is the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Methane (CH4 is a GHG released from the organic matter degradation under anaerobic conditions by methanogenic bacteria. In CWs, the excessive nutrient inputs may stimulate both primary production and methanogenesis and then affect the overall cost-benefit balance of this system. Here, we assessed the role of cattail stands (Typha domingensis Pers on CH4 concentrations in eutrophic and mesotrophic constructed wetlands. METHODS: CWs were filled with water and sediment colonized by the aquatic macrophyte Typha domingensis Pers from two tropical freshwater lakes, one mesotrophic and another eutrophic. RESULTS: Our results showed consistently higher CH4 concentrations in waters and sediment in the eutrophic CWs than in the mesotrophic CWs (two times, indicating a positive influence of eutrophication on methanogenesis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CH4 emissions from tropical CWs demand to be considered or even mitigated in any use of this system.OBJETIVO: Os alagados contruídos (CWs tem sido evidenciados como uma maneira eficiente de remover nutrientes presentes em efluentes. No entanto, um efeito negativo desse processo é a emissão de gases de efeito estufa (GHGs. Metano (CH4 é um gás estufa liberado a partir da degradação da matéria orgânica sob condições anaeróbicas mediada por bactérias metanogênicas. Em alagados construídos, as entradas excedentes de nutrientes podem estimular a produção primária e a metanogênese então pode afetar todo o balanço entre custo-benefício do sistema. MÉTODOS: Nesse trabalho, foi investigado o papel dos bancos de macrófitas (Typha domingensis Pers sobre as concentrações de CH4 em alagados construídos eutróficos e mesotróficos. Os alagados construídos foram elaborados com água e sedimento colonizado por macrófitas aqu

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John


    Land managers are often challenged with the mandate to control exotic and invasive plant species. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are 2 such species that are currently threatening natural areas in western United States. Reed canarygrass may be native to the inland northwest (Antieau 2000), but it has invaded many wetland areas as dense, monoculture stands. Spread of this plant species is largely attributed to human disturbances, e.g., draining, farming (Antieau 2000). Reed canarygrass often dominates other emergent vegetation such as cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus spp.) (Whitson et al. 1996, Apfelbaum and Sams 1987), and the resulting habitat is largely unsuitable for wetland birds. Himalayan blackberry was introduced to the United States as a garden shrub and was planted at wildlife-management areas for food and cover. It easily colonizes disturbed places, such as roadsides, ditches, and flood plains (Hoshovsky 2000). Once established, it forms a thick, impenetrable stand, which excludes native shrub species. Although Himalayan blackberry does provide food and cover for wildlife, particularly during fall and winter, it decreases habitat diversity, and therefore, may decrease wildlife diversity. Furthermore, patterns of avian nest predation may be altered in some exotic-shrub communities (Schmidt and Whelan 1999). For land managers to make sound decisions regarding invasive-plant control, it is useful to obtain information on current plant distributions in relation to targeted wildlife species, and then use models to predict how those species may respond to changes in vegetation. The Habitat Evaluations Program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate current and future habitat conditions for fish and wildlife (Stiehl 1994). The program is based on Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for specific wildlife species. Each model contains several variables that represent life

  6. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp


    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (< 2% TC). Calcite dominated sediments are only present in the topmost 15 cm. Grasses and wormword are dominating throughout the sequence, probably reflecting the main constituents of the regional vegetation. Cattail (Typha/Sparganium) and especially milfoil (Myriophyllum) are recorded abundantly and continuously throughout the sequence. In combination with green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen

  7. Wetland Plant Physiology Exhibits Controls on Carbon Sequestration Processes in a Restored Temperate Peatland of California, USA (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Byrd, K. B.; Khanna, S.; Miller, R.; Anderson, F.


    Wetland soils, especially peatlands, serve as the leading long-term sink of carbon (C) in the terrestrial biosphere, representing ~5% of global terrestrial ecosystem acreage but ~25% of total stored terrestrial organic C. While inhibition of microbial respiration rates is a necessary component of peat formation, plant processes regulate gross and net organic matter production (GPP and NPP) and microbial respiration in the rhizosphere. Recent work in a 14-year-old, 6-ha experimental wetland complex in the California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta has documented that continuous flooding at 25 cm depth can generate peat growth averaging 1 kg C m-2 y-1, and elevation gains approaching 4 cm y-1, 40-fold greater than historic rates tied to mean sea level rise (1mm y-1). To determine macrophyte controls on organic matter production and respiration in emergent marsh habitats, plant physiological processes were examined for 3 dominant species: hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus), narrowleaf and broadleaf cattail (Typha angustifolia and T. latifolia). Leaf-level photosynthetic rates (GPP) were collected monthly with a LiCor 6400XT in May-September of 2010 and 2011 across a gradient of water residence time. GPP, stomatal conductance, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), relative humidity and leaf temperatures were assessed from pre-dawn to solar-noon to assess light-use (LUE) and water-use efficiency (WUE) for carbon assimilation (A). CO2 levels (Ci) were regulated to generate A-Ci curves, indicating leaf capacity to assimilate recycled CO2. Porewater acetate concentrations and live root concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were assayed seasonally in 2011 as relative indices of fermentative respiration. Plant species distribution, NPP and leaf-area indices (LAI) were calculated using allometric relationships, and used to scale-up leaf-level GPP estimates, as well as to ground-truth high-resolution CIR imagery, to compare NDVIs with recent hyperspectral data

  8. Avaliação operacional do controle mecânico de plantas aquáticas imersas no reservatório de Jupiá Operational evaluation of mechanical control of aquatic macrophytes submerged in the Jupia reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Velini


    an aquatic plant harvester, using GPS system with differential correction signal. The time spent to load and unload the harvester was determined by timing with a stop watch, and the distance between the collection final point to the discard point as well the displacement time were determined by timing and GPS. In some collections, polygons were marked to instruct the machine operator to work exclusively in the corresponding area. Data interpretation permitted to determine the collect time participation in relation to the operation total time, indicating a significant value from an operational point of view (>70. Considering discard in areas infested with cattail, the mean total displacement was only 383 m, with 200.96s of mean time spent. Values of the harvester operational capacity oscillated between 0.23 and 1.60 ha h-1, indicating a mean value of 4.48 ha h-1 per day. The main limitation to the operational capacity was associated with the mean displacement velocity, intensifying in deeper and more infested areas. As for harvester displacement, there was great difficulty in orientation under normal operational conditions, making it impractical to maintain uniform spacing between the collect tracks. It was concluded that the operational evaluation indicated the unfeasibility of operating the machine without a GPS system allowing to guide the harvester throughout the control areas.

  9. 人工湿地的构建与应用%Construction and Application of Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    论述了人工湿地污水处理技术的机制和优势,阐述了人工湿地的构建和污水处理研究进展,表明人工湿地的污水处理效率与污染物的种类和污染程度、人工湿地的类型、湿地植物种类、基质类型、水力停留时间和水力负荷等密切相关.在中国,典型人工湿地有3种类型,分别为垂直流人工湿地、潜流式人工湿地和表面流人工湿地,主要用于处理来自化粪池、养殖场、造纸厂、油田、煤矿、富营养湖泊以及城市生活等的污水.构建人工湿地常用的植物有芦苇(Phragmites austr alis)、香蒲(Typha orientalis)、美人蕉(Canna indica)、眼子菜(Potamogeton sp.)和金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)等,常见的基质成分为砾石、沸石、沙子、土壤或炉煤渣等.通过系统总结中国人工湿地在污水处理过程中的研究进展和应用实例,认为建立人工湿地去除污染物具有良好的应用前景,今后应该进一步加强人工湿地的基础理论研究,进一步推广人工湿地的应用.%This paper presents the mechanisms and advantages of the constructed wetlands and indicates the research situation of the wetland construction and disposition of sewage by the constructed wetlands. It shows that many factors such as the components and levels of pollutants, the types of constructed wetlands, the categories of its plants and fillers, the hydraulic retention time as well as the load of hydropower can influence the efficiency of the constructed wetland. In China, there are three major types of constructed wetlands: vertical flow constructed wetland, subsurface flow constructed wetland and surface flow constructed wetland. These constructed wetlands are mainly used for treating the sewage from cesspit, nursery, paper mill, oil and coal mine, eutrophic lake and city life. During the construction course of wetlands, reed, cattail, herb of distinct pondweed and ladder brake are chosen as the dominating plants

  10. Dissolved Carbon Flux and Mass Balance From a Wetland-Dominated Karstic Headwater Catchment (United States)

    Duval, T. P.; Waddington, J. M.; Branfireun, B. A.


    The stream-borne dissolved carbon efflux of peatland-draining catchments is dominated by organic carbon, whereas inorganic carbon dominates the flux from calcareous bedrock catchments. The export of dissolved carbon from calcareous bedrock catchments with significant wetland coverage has not previously been determined. This study documents the spatiotemporal variability of dissolved carbon (inorganic + organic) along a headwater stream in southern Ontario, Canada, as it drains three distinct wetland types: a calcareous fen, a riparian cedar swamp, and a cattail marsh. Upon emergence from the groundwater seeps, the spring water contained 28 times more CO2 than in equilibrium with the atmosphere. This supersaturation decreased to just 5 times equilbrium as the stream leaves the catchment through the marsh, representing a decrease in CO2 concentration of 11 mg L-1, lost to the atmosphere as exsolution. The groundwater seeps contained an average of 1.25±0.75 mg L-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from May to November 2007, one of the driest years on record in the region. At the catchment outlet through the marsh, DOC concentrations were slightly higher and more variable during the same period at 2.27±1.29 mg L-1, as a fall flushing event resulted in concentrations > 7 mg L-1. This DOC concentration is small compared to the 58.72±3.9 mg L-1 of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, as bicarbonate ion) contained within the water leaving the catchment. At 0.21 and 0.17 g m-2 d-1 from May-July and August-November 2007, respectively, the DIC dominated the carbon flux out of the watershed, compared with 0.007 and 0.008 g m- 2 d-1 DOC and 0.015 and 0.009 g m-2 d-1 CO2 exsolution during the same period. Results of the 2007 season will be contrasted to the 2008 season, one of the wettest on record. The watershed is underlain by Silurian dolomite that exhibits karst fractures, resulting in a complex subsurface hydrogeology that influences carbon transport and mass balances

  11. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995 (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William


    , and concentrations ranged from 11 to 16 micrograms per gram. Concentrations ofaluminum, beryllium, boron, copper, lead, and zinc were highest in samples from Main Drain at southerly international boundary near San Luis, Arizona. Selenium was detected in all bottom-sediment samples, and concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of cadmium, europium, homium, mercury, molybdenum, silver, tantalum, tin, and uranium were below analytical reporting limits in the bottom-sediment samples. Concentrations of trace elements in bottom-sediment samples were within the ranges found in a study of soils of the western United States and did not indicate a significant accumulation of these constituents. p,p'Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (commonly referred to as p,-p'-DDE) was detected in one bottom-sediment sample at a concentration of 1.4 micrograms per gram. No other organochlorine compounds were detected in the bottom-sediment samples. DDE was present in all fish and bird samples. Almost one-half of the fish samples contained DDE residues that were two times higher than the mean calculated for a national study in 1984-85. Twenty-tree percent of the fish contained more than three times the national mean. Fish from downstream parts of the Main Drain had the highest concentrations of DDE. Although concentrations of DDE in fish and in bird carcasses and eggs were above background levels, residues generally were below thresholds associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems in figh and wildlife. Concentrations of 18 trace elements were detected in cattail (Typha sp.) roots, freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), fish, and bird samples. Selenium in most fish and in livers of red-winged (Agelaius phoeniceus) and yellow-headed (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) blackbirds was above background concentrations but below toxic concentrations. In contrast, selenium was present in a killdeer (Charadrium vociferus) liver sample at potentially toxic con

  12. Advanced remote sensing to quantify temperate peatland capacity for belowground carbon capture (United States)

    Byrd, K. B.; Blanchard, S.; Schile, L. M.; Kolding, S.; Kelly, M.; Windham-Myers, L.; Miller, R.


    Temperate peatlands typically dominated by grasses and sedges generate among the greatest annual rates of net primary productivity (NPP, up to 4 kg C m-2) and soil carbon storage (up to 1 kg C m-2) for natural ecosystems. Belowground tissues represent 20-80% of total NPP, thus understanding the controls on belowground NPP (BNPP) in these wetland ecosystems is particularly important to quantifying peatland carbon balances. In addition, there is a growing need to quantify large-scale belowground C sequestration rates in wetlands to better understand marsh resilience to sea level rise and to help define eligibility for carbon offset credits. Since plant productivity influences wetland C budgets, combining field and remote sensing techniques for estimating above and belowground productivity of wetland vegetation over a large spatial extent will help to address these needs. We are working in a USGS long-term experimental wetland restoration site on drained peatland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Using the spatial variability in water depth and residence time across the 7 ha wetland, our goal is to develop practical methods to quantify and map BNPP of emergent marsh vegetation from remotely sensed estimates of aboveground plant characteristics and aboveground NPP. Field data collected on wetland plants hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus) and cattail (Typha spp.) were coupled with reflectance data from a field spectrometer (range 350-2500 nm) every two to three weeks during the summer of 2011. We are analyzing reflectance data to develop hyperspectral indices that predict the biophysical characteristics of wetland vegetation - biomass, leaf area index (LAI), and the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) - which may be used to infer belowground biomass and productivity. Soil cores and root in-growth bags were used to calculate root biomass and productivity rates. Existing allometric relationships were used to calculate

  13. Information to support to monitoring and habitat restoration on Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary


    The Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge staff focuses on improving habitat for the highest incidence of endemic species for an area of its size in the continental United States. Attempts are being made to restore habitat to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition, and to provide habitat conditions to which native plant and animal species have evolved. Unfortunately, restoring the Ash Meadows’ Oases to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition is almost impossible. First, there are constraints on water manipulation because there are private holdings within the refuge boundary; second, there has been at least one species extinction—the Ash Meadows pool fish (Empetrichthys merriami). It is also quite possible that thermal endemic invertebrate species were lost before ever being described. Perhaps the primary obstacle to restoring Ash Meadows to its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed conditions is the presence of invasive species. However, invasive species, such as red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarki) and western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), are a primary driving force in restoring Ash Meadows’ spring systems, because under certain habitat conditions they can all but replace native species. Returning Ash Meadows’ physical landscape to some semblance of its pre-anthropogenic undisturbed condition through natural processes may take decades. Meanwhile, the natural dissolution of concrete and earthen irrigation channels threatens to allow cattail marshes to flourish instead of spring-brooks immediately downstream of spring discharge. This successional stage favors non-native crayfish and mosquitofish over the native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis). Thus, restoration is needed to control non-natives and to promote native species, and without such intervention the probability of native fish reduction or loss, is anticipated. The four studies in this report are intended to provide information for restoring native fish habitat and

  14. Takarkori rock shelter (SW Libya): an archive of Holocene climate and environmental changes in the central Sahara (United States)

    Cremaschi, Mauro; Zerboni, Andrea; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Olmi, Linda; Biagetti, Stefano; di Lernia, Savino


    Rock shelters in the central Saharan massifs preserve anthropogenic stratigraphic sequences that represent both a precious archive for the prehistory of the region and a powerful proxy data for Holocene palaeoenvironments. The geoarchaeological (micromorphology) and archaeobotanical (pollen analysis) approaches were integrated to investigate the anthropogenic sedimentary sequence preserved within the Takarkori rock shelter, a Holocene archaeological site located in the Libyan central Sahara (southern Tadrart Acacus massif). The site was occupied throughout the Early and Middle Holocene (African Humid Period) by groups of hunter-gatherers before and by pastoral communities later. The investigation on the inner part of the sequence allows to recognize the anthropogenic contribution to sedimentation process, and to reconstruct the major changes in the Holocene climate. At the bottom of the stratigraphic sequence, evidence for the earliest frequentation of the site by hunters and gatherers has been recognized; it is dated to c. 10,170 cal yr BP and is characterized by high availability of water, freshwater habitats and sparsely wooded savannah vegetation. A second Early Holocene occupation ended at c. 8180 cal yr BP; this phase is marked by increased aridity: sediments progressively richer in organics, testifying to a more intense occupation of the site, and pollen spectra indicating a decrease of grassland and the spreading of cattails, which followed a general lowering of lake level or widening of shallow-water marginal habitats near the site. After this period, a new occupational phase is dated between c. 8180 and 5610 cal yr BP; this period saw the beginning of the frequentation of pastoral groups and is marked by an important change in the forming processes of the sequence. Sediments and pollen spectra confirm a new increase in water availability, which led to a change in the landscape surrounding the Takarkori rock shelter with the spreading of water bodies. The

  15. Interactions between surface water and ground water and effects on mercury transport in the north-central Everglades (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Krupa, Steven L.; Gefvert, Cynthia; Mooney, Robert H.; Choi, Jungyill; King, Susan A.; Giddings, Jefferson B.


    The hydrology of the north-central Everglades was altered substantially in the past century by canal dredging, land subsidence, ground-water pumping, and levee construction. Vast areas of seasonal and perennial wetlands were converted to uses for agriculture, light industry, and suburban development. As the catchment area for the Everglades decreased, so did the sources of water from local precipitation and runoff from surrounding uplands. Partly in response to those alterations, water-resources managers compartmentalized the remaining wetlands in the north-central Everglades into large retention basins, called Water Conservation Areas (WCAs). In spite of efforts to improve how water resources are managed, the result has been frequent periods of excessive drying out or flooding of the WCAs because the managed system does not have the same water-storage capacity as the pre-drainage Everglades. Linked to the hydrological modifications are ecological changes including large-scale invasions of cattail, loss of tree islands, and diminishing bird populations in the Everglades. Complex interactions among numerous physical, chemical, and biological factors are responsible for the long-term degradation of the ecological character of the Everglades.Over the past 15 years, a new set of smaller wetland basins, called Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs), have been designed and constructed by water-resources engineers on the former wetlands adjacent to WCAs. The purpose of STAs is to remove excess nutrients from agricultural drainage water prior to its input to WCAs. STAs tend to be about one-tenth the size of a WCA, and they are located on former wetlands on the northwestern side of WCAs on sites that were managed as farmland for much of the twentieth century in an area referred to as the Everglades Agricultural Area, or EAA. The objective of the present investigation was to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water in the Everglades Nutrient Removal Project

  16. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz


    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  17. Estimating Total Nitrogen Content in Wetland Vegetation Based on Measured Reflectance Spectra%基于地面实测光谱的湿地植物全氮含量估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘克; 赵文吉; 郭逍宇; 王翊虹; 孙永华; 苗茜


    More and more urban wetlands have been supplied with reclaimed water. And monitoring the growth condition of large-area wetland vegetation is playing a very important role in wetland restoration and reconstructioa Recently, remote sensing technology has become an important tool for vegetation growth monitoring. The South Wetland in the Olympic Park, a typical wetland using reused water, was selected as the research area. The leaf reflectance spectra and were acquired for the main wetland plants reed (Phragmites australis) and cattail (Typha angustifolia) with an ASD FieldSpec 3 spectrometer (350~ 2 500 nm). The total nitrogen (TN) content of leaf samples was determined by Kjeldahl method subsequently. The research established univariate models involving simple ratio spectral index (SR) model and normalized difference spectral index (ND) model, as well as multivariate models including stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) model and partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Moreover, the accuracy of all the models was tested through cross-validated coefficient of determination (Rcv) and cross-validated root mean square error (RMSEcv). The results showed that (1) comparing different types of wetland plants, the accuracy of all established prediction models using Phragmites australis reflectance spectra was higher than that u-sing Typha angustifolia reflectance spectra. (2) compared with univariate techniques, multivariate regressions improved the estimation of TN concentration in leaves. (3) among the various investigated models, the accuracy of PLSR model was the highest (Rcv = 0. 80, RMSEcv = 0. 24). PLSR provided the most useful explorative tool for unraveling the relationship between spectral reflectance and TN consistence of leaves. The result would not only provide a scientific basis for remote sensing retrieval of biochemical variables of wetland vegetation, but also provide a strong scientific basis for the monitoring and management of urban wetlands

  18. 中西医结合治疗产后发热临床研究%Combination of Chinese and Western Medicine in the Treatment of Postpartum Fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓彩云; 张龙月; 陈莹


    ,Suye(perilla leaf) 10 g,Dangshen(Angelica) 10 g,Baishao(Radix Paeoniae Alba)10 g,Chuanxiong (Rhizoma ligustici wallichii)5 g,Shengdihuang (Raw Radix Rehmanniae)10 g.Poor treatment,can add almond,Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae;toxin-evil hot syndrome:Hongteng (Red Cane) 15 g,Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae) 15 g,Huanglian(Coptis)5 g,Huangqin(Skullcap) 10 g,Huangbai (Phellodendron Bark) 10 g,Lianqiao(Frnctus Forsythiae) 10g,Jinyinhua(Honeysuckle) 10g,Zihuadiding(Viola yedoensis) 10 g,Chishao(Radix Paeoniae Rubra)10 g,Mudanpi (Cortex Moutan) 10 g,Yiyiren (Semen Coicis)20 g,Shenggancao (Licorice) 5 g.Symptoms do not ease and rhubarb,cattail pollen,trogopterus dung;blood stasis syndrome of fever:Danggui (Angelica) 10 g,Chuanxiong (Ligusticum wallichii) 8 g,Taoren (Peach Kernel) 5 g,Honghua(Carthamus) 6 g,Chaihu(Radix Bupleurum) 6 g,Danshen(Salvia miltiorrhiza) 8 g,Digupi(Cortex Lycii Radicis)10 g,Zhigancao(Baked Licorice) 5 g.If the effect of treatment in patients with poor,Rhizoma Corydalis,cannabis fruit;Yin deficiency syndrome of fever:Qinghao(Artemisia Annua) 10 g,Huangqin(Skullcap) 10 g,Digupi(Cortex Lycii Radicis) 10 g,Mudanpi(Cortex Moutan) 10 g,Danggui (Angelica) 10 g,Baishao(White Peony Root) 10 g,Chuanxiong(Ligusticum Wallichii) 5 g,Shengdihuang(Raw radix rehmanniae) 15 g,Baiwei(Blackend Swallowwort Root) 10 g,Yinchaihu(Silver Bupleurum) 10 g,Nuodaogen(Glutinous Rice Root) 30 g,Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis)10 g treatment.If after taking decoct with water,daily 1 agent,3 times orally administration.The symptoms do not ease with Astragalus,Radix Ophiopogonis,Radix Glehniae.Results:The effective rate of observation group was 95.9%,the control group was 73.5%,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05);comparison the patients in the two groups of white cell content showed that the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05);after treatment,WBC content compared to the treatment group closer to the normal range,the difference was statistically significant

  19. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010 (United States)

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark


    Water allocation in the Upper Klamath Basin has become difficult in recent years due to the increase in occurrence of drought coupled with continued high water demand. Upper Klamath Lake is a central component of water distribution, supplying water downstream to the Klamath River, supplying water for irrigation diversions, and providing habitat for various species within the lake and surrounding wetlands. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of the hydrologic budget of the lake and wetlands, and yet estimates of ET have been elusive—quantified only as part of a lumped term including other substantial water-budget components. To improve understanding of ET losses from the lake and wetlands, measurements of ET were made from May 2008 through September 2010. The eddy-covariance method was used to monitor ET at two wetland sites continuously during this study period and the Bowen-ratio energy-balance method was used to monitor open-water lake evaporation at two sites during the warmer months of the 3 study years. Vegetation at one wetland site (the bulrush site) consists of a virtual monoculture of hardstem bulrush (formerly Scirpus acutus, now Schoenoplectus acutus), and at the other site (the mixed site) consists of a mix of about 70 percent bulrush, 15 percent cattail (Typha latifolia), and 15 percent wocus (Nuphar polysepalum). Measured ET at these two sites was very similar (means were ±2.5 percent) and mean wetland ET is computed as a 70 to 30 percent weighted average of the bulrush and mixed sites, respectively, based on community-type distribution estimated from satellite imagery. Biweekly means of wetland ET typically vary from maximum values of around 6 to 7 millimeters per day during midsummer, to minimum values of less than 1 mm/d during midwinter. This strong annual signal primarily reflects life-cycle changes in the wetland vegetation, and the annual variation of radiative input to the surface and resulting temperature. The perennial vegetation